Citation
A hotel on the lake

Material Information

Title:
A hotel on the lake Michigan City, Indiana
Creator:
Bartholomew, Brian David
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
98 unnumbered pages : illustrations, charts, forms, maps, plans ; 22 x 28 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Hotels -- Designs and plans -- Indiana -- Michigan City ( lcsh )
Hotels ( fast )
Indiana -- Michigan City ( fast )
Genre:
Designs and plans. ( fast )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Designs and plans ( fast )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (pages 94-96).
General Note:
Cover title.
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
Brian David Bartholomew.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
12381088 ( OCLC )
ocm12381088
Classification:
LD1190.A72 1985 .B385 ( lcc )

Full Text
environment M. OES**
A HOTEL ON THE LAKE
MICHIGAN CITY, INDIANA


AN ARCHITECTURAL THESIS
submitted to the Col in partial fulfi1
lege of Design and Planning of lment of the reguirements for
the University of Colorado at Denver the degree of Master in Architecture.
Brian David Bartholomew


Toast's
]A LP
1190
This thesis was written with the aid of Peachtext Word Processing software on an IBM Personal Computer. It was printed by a Diablo 1620 printer with the same software.
Five copies of this thesis document exist: two are on reserve at the Design and Planning Library,
CU-Denver (one of which contains the original color study samples); one is in the Michigan City Public Library, Michigan City, Indiana; one is in the possession of Lucille Hintz, Grand Junction, Colorado; and one is in the possession of the author.



The Thesis of Brian David Bartholomew is approved.
Advi sor


Acknow!edgements
With apologies to Donne, "No thesis is an island, entire of itself." Many persons have contributed to my well-being during this recently completed stage of my life. In addition to the persons named below, my thanks and appreciation to the many others who have made my life fuller since my arrival in Denver.
While there have been times when I thought differently, hindsight reveals that I have learned much
in my four years at the College of Design and Planning, CU-Denver. I am grateful to Herb Smith,
Ginny Dubrucq, and Gene Benda for support in times of frustration and to Gary Long for his
enthusiasm and patience. Special thanks to David Frieder for making me aware of the designer that I can be.
My thanks to Amy and Herschel Cannon of Custom Digital Service, Inc. for allowing me the most
flexible job I could ever hope to have had while in school.
My thanks to Hampton Islan for patience, understanding, and the use of his blue '6* Dodge Dart
station wagon.
And finally, none of this would have been possible without the love and support of my family: Mom and Ed, Gary and Debbie, Alan, Bob and Gayle, Dale, and Steve and Nita.



Table of Contents
Dedication
IV
Acknowledgements V
List of F igures ix
1. Introduction
Project Summary 100
Thesis Statement 102
II. Site Analysis
Hi story 200
Site Selection 205
Assumpt i ons Environmental Setting: 208
Natural 209
Human 219
Color Analysis 225
III. Climat ic Analys i s 300
IV. Zoning 1*00
V. Codes 500
VI . Program: Area Summaries 600
VII
Process
700


\/lll. Design Solution 800
IX. Cost Estimate 900
X. Conclusions 1000
XI . References
Footnotes B ib1iography Resources 1100 1103 1106
\


101
103
10<*
201
203
20**
206
207
211
211
211
212
212
212
213
213
213
226
227
228
301
302
303
305
<*01
<*03
L i st
Location of Michigan City, Indiana
Bird's Eye View of Michigan City, Indiana, 1869
Aerial Photograph of Michigan City Harbor and Vicinity
Vicinity Map of Michigan City Harbor Michigan City Harbor Development to 1869 Michigan City Harbor Development to present Potential Sites I, II, and III Site Plan of Selected Site
Soils: Windbreaks and Environmental Plantings
Soils: Recreational Development
Soils: Building Site Development
Soils: Sanitary Facilities
Soils: Construction Materials
Soils: Water Management
Soils: Engineering Index Properties
Soils: Physical and Chemical Properties
Soils: Soil and Water Features
Color Chart I
Color Chart I I
Color Program
Temperature and Precipitation Freeze Dates in Spring and Fall Growing Season Length Solar Angles and Altitudes
Zoning Map of Michigan City, Indiana
Procedures, Policies, and Fees for Handling of Petitions


501
502
506
508
701
702
703
801
802
803
801
805
806
807
808
809
1001
Indiana Construction Rules: Additions, Exceptions, and Ammendments to the UBC Application for Construction Document Review
Application for Building Permit for the City of Michigan City, Indiana Effective Use of the UBC
Mid-term Model
Mid-term Conceptual Section
Mid-term Conceptual Plan
Area Plan Ground Floor Plan First Floor Plan
Second through Mechanical Mezzanine Floor Plans Fourth through Tenth Floor Plans Sect i ons E1evat ions
Model (Southeast view)
Model (Northwest view)
Michigan City News-Di spatch, 13 May 1985* p. 1.


r
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Project Summary
This thesis proposes a resort hotel located on the shores of Lake Michigan about an hour's drive east from the Loop in Chicago in the town of Michigan City, Indiana. (Figure 1.1) The hotel comprises 16A guest units and is ten stories in height. Square footage of the project is 220,000 with an additional 160,000 of parking garage. Hotel amenities include a rooftop swimming pool, seven tennis courts, conference and banquet facilities, restaurant and bar, and retail space. The Port Authority of Michigan City is developing plans for the expansion of the Michigan City Yacht Basin as suggested by the Michigan City Development Plan of 1980. This expansion will double the number of boat slips in the harbor and will require the construction of a new pier in Lake Michigan adjacent to the existing lighthouse pier. The thesis sites the hotel complex along with the required parking on the new pier.(1)


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Figure 1.1 Location of Michigan City, Indiana.


A HOTEL 0N THE LAKE
.................102
Thesis Statement
"A community need not undergo a complete architectural transformation. A single building, imaginatively designed and serving major community needs, can also make the difference between a distinctive community and just another town."(2)
An aspiring author is advised to write about places, events, and experiences known and familiar. The same idea might apply to an aspiring architect as well. This thesis primarily deals with the built form in the landscape a landscape very familiar to the author as he grew up there. One can either design the built form as a backdrop to the grandeur of nature or one can design the built form to compete with and enhance the landscape. The latter direction was taken for this thesis.
A resort hotel will succeed because of its image. Americans take vacations to be "entertained, amused, instructed and enlightened."(3) The site for this thesis provides for numerous water recreation activities. The built form shoud create an image that the vacationer can associate with his or her memory of experiences while there. In short, the built form must create an enhanced sense of place.
The adjective "enhanced" is used here because the site already possesses a sense of place in the minds of those familiar with the Michigan City Harbor. The built form must also respect the existing sense of place while adding its own. Present circulation and use patterns must be considered.
A hotel has two major areas: the public areas and the support facilities for them. A well designed hotel has public spaces that receive no indication (e.g. the noise from a kitchen) of the activities of the support facilities. This public/private separation is important to the livelihood of the hotel.(i*) There exists an additional consideration for this thesis; the priviledges for hotel guests must be separated to a certain degree from the adjacent general public areas. Sited between a marina and a public beach, the hotel must allow its guests visual and physical access to all areas while reciprocally keeping control of the general public's access of hotel amenities (e.g. tennis courts).


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Figure 1.2
Bird's Eye View of Michigan City, 1869.


A HOTEL ON THE LAKE
TO?
Figure 1.3
Aerial Photograph of Michigan City Harbor and Vicinity



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I I Si te Analys i s
H i story
"The history of the Michigan City Harbor (Figure 2.1) is an account of the development of the city itself. The record of Congressional appropriations for the harbor reflect the commercial development of the area and of the country as a whole. Beginning in 1833 and extending through the Mid-Fifties, farm products (principally wheat) were the chief export. Imports were salt, furniture, and other manufactured goods destined for pioneer communities in Indiana and neighboring states. Harbor commerce declined during the late Fifties and through the Civil War period. That decline was a result of the growth of railroads in the area, decreased appropriations for harbor improvements and of the war itself. After the war. Congress again turned its attention to harbor appropriations, and the greatest period of lake shipping followed. Over 90 percent of that commerce consisted in the receipt of forest products from the north. Lake transportation declined after the first decade of the twentieth century and, by the close of the second decade, almost no cargoes were entering the harbor. Fishing boats and pleasure craft were practically the only vessels coming in Trail Creek."(1)
"The shoreline at Michigan City remained unaltered by man until 1836 when the outlet to Trail Creek was modified by a pier system constructed on its eastern and western sides. (Figure 2.2) The east pier immediately began to alter the physical characteristics and configuration of the adjacent


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Figure 2.1 Vicinity Map of Michigan City Harbor.


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shoreline. The impact of this construction on coastal morphology became increasingly apparent over the years. These original piers were extended periodically from 1836 through 1869* Between 1873 and 1885 an outer harbor was constructed east of the original entrance. In 1889 a detached breakwater was constructed offshore and to the west of the entrance. This detached breakwater was removed when the existing breakwater was constructed in 1903-190**. The harbor was complete in 1910. (Figure 2.3)
"The effect of the harbor on the coast has been dramatic in both the downdrift (west) and updrift (east) directions. Since construction of the east pier wall of what is now the parking lot at Washington Park, the updrift (east) shore has been dominated by an accumulation of sand. From 189** to 1923 the updrift shore accreted at a rate of approximately 10 ft/yr in the direction of the lake for a distance of over one mile to the east. In 1930 however, this accumulation appeared to stabilize and the beach front was extended to its present position by artificial placement of sand on the beach. This artificial fill extended the beach far enough to reach the lakeward side of the present harbor basin.
"Sediment transport along the shore continued to carry sand toward the east harbor pier. Some sand material is transported beyond the east pier at the lighthouse, but it guickly settles to the bottom in the harbor entrance. The detached breakwater intercepts the wave energy that would normally transport this sand downdrift to the west. Dredging has been reguired in the harbor entrance channel to maintain the 18 foot depth required for navigation. From 1920 until 1978, the dredging records show that a total of 1.6 million cubic yards of sand have been removed from this area west of the 1ighthouse.
"Another aspect of the effect of placing an obstruction in the nearshore zone is the resulting erosion on the downdrift side of the structure. After the Trail Creek piers were constructed, the adjacent shoreline to the west receded an average of 170 feet shorward in **1 years from 1896 to 1937* This loss extended for a distance of well over one mile to the west. The dramatic degree to which erosion can extend beyond the immediate vicinity of a man-made shoreline obstacle is exemplified by the loss of the Indiana State Prison pumping station. This pump house was located
0.9 miles west of the west pier at Trail Creek. Between 1907 and 19*6 the shoreline receded 375 feet, stranding the station on a small point of land protected by rock. This station was finally removed when it was practically isolated by erosion. This erosion in this area averaged approximately 9.6 ft/yr during that time."(2)


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Figure 2.2
Michigan City Harbor Development to 1869.
LAKE MICHIGAN
PIER PLACEMENT 1836 PRESENT CONDITION
SEPTEMBER 1839
MICHIGAN CITY
HARBOR
O too' SOO I OOP'
SCALE IN FEET
ORIGINAL HARBOR STRUCTURE


ft HOTEL ON THE LAKE 20**
Figure 2.3 Michigan City Harbor Development to Present.
i oo o__________________________________________oo' iq oo '300'
SCALE IN FEET
1939
1036
ie34------
1836 .....
1934------
'939 -----
CURRENT HARBOR STRUCTURE


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Site Selection
The Michigan City Development Plan of 1980 states that its emphasis "has been to concentrate development energy toward the highly visible, high impact, feasible-at-an-ear1y stage type development. This requires dealing with the most significant opportunity issues."(3)
the
of
With the above quote in mind, the author considered three sites for the thesis project. Figure 2A shows the general location of each of the three sites. The first site, known as the Marina Village, follows the suggestions of the Michigan City Development Plan. Its close proximity to the existing harbor and the protection from lake storms provided by the harbor are advantageous. However, the view to the west of the NIPSCO electric generating station, the context and height limit established by the adjacent Light House Museum, the divided ownership of the land, and a visual presence not directly tied to Lake Michigan are detrimental and consequently, potential site I was never given serious consideration.
The second potential site considered is located directly north of the amusement park area. The disadvantages of the first site are mitigated here. Upon discussions with the Committee Chairman and the Outside Advisor, the author considered a third potential site located on the new pier of the proposed harbor expansion. This last site maximizes the visual presence on the lake of the thesis project creating a "highly visible, high impact, feasib1e-at-an-ear1y stage type of development" suggested by the Development Plan. Hence, site III was selected.
Figure 2.5 shows the site plan and harbor and pier of the selected site, indicate the locations of a new yacht club and the hotel respectively.
The numerals 1 and 2


I
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Figure 7.U
Potential Sites I,
I I, and III.


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Figure 2.5 Site Plan of Selected Site.


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Assumpt ions
The site plan illustrated in Figure 2.5 is based on several necessary assumptions. While much thought was given to the circulation created by the design of the new harbor, the author is by no
means a marine engineer and additional studies would be imperative if realization of this thesis project were ever considered. For the purposes of this thesis, it is assumed that the proposed site plan will minimize beach erosion and the harbor layout for boat cirulation is sound.


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The following information on the existing natural and human environments is excerpted from Chapter Two of Michigan City Harbor, Indiana: Section 107. Small Boat Harbor prepared by the US Army Corps of Engineers, Chicago District in September of 1982.(1*) This author has edited and updated the information where noted.
Environmental Setting: Natural
Topography
The Michigan City region lies in the Calumet Lacustrine section classification of the physiography of Indiana. Probably the most well known topographic features of this section, which follows the southern end of Lake Michigan, are the sand dunes and beaches. Maximum relief in the immediate Michigan City area is restricted to about 50 feet. The region's topography is a direct result of
glacial action during the Pleistocene "Ice Ages" and sedimentation of Lake Michigan. To the south of the immediate vicinity of Michigan City lies a major topographical feature of northern Indiana, the Valparaiso Moraine, created when the Wisconsin ice sheet, last of the Pleistocene glaciers, released a massive unsorted mixture of sand, gravel and boulders to form a prominent row of hills. This moraine impounded the meltwater of the retreating Wisconsin Glacier creating the ancient Lake Chicago. Since the Wisconson Ice Age, Lake Chicago receded from the edge of the moraine to the present boundary of what is now called Lake Michigan. The sandy soil and topographical features of the Michigan City region are thus a complex mixture of the results of an Ice Age, an ancient lake which receded leaving the remnants of former beaches and the present effects of Lake Michigan.
Geology
Paleozoic bedrocks unconformab1e underlying the Michigan City region are of Devonian and Mississippian age and consist of shale underlain by dolomite and dolomitic limestone. This bedrock is overlain by 150 to 250 feet of three Quarternary unconsolidated rock groups originating from silt or clay. The middle unconsolidated unit is chiefly a silt till with discontinuous zones of sand and
gravel. The lowermost unconsolidated unit is in direct contact with the region's shale bedrock and
consists of a clay till with discontinuous zones of sand and gravel. The three unconsolidated rock units above the bedrock were laid down during periods of repeated glacial ice covering of the Michigan City region during the Pleistocene glaciation. In fact, the Great Lakes and the topography of the shoreline owe their origin to physiographic changes induced by the Pleistocene glaciation of which the Wisconson glacier was the most recent. Lake Michigan is the remnant of a much larger ancient glacial lake which covered the present site of Michigan City. Michigan City Harbor is
within the Lake Michigan drainage basin which is a region of relatively quiet seismic activity.


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However, on 12 February 1938, an earthquake centered near Michigan City occurred with a maximum intensity of IV on the modified Mercalli intensity scale of 1931- This was not a severe earthquake but it did disturb dishes, windows and doors and walls made creaking sounds. Reoccurrence of an earthquake of this intensity is unpredictable but the chance of a major earthquake at Michigan City Harbor is remote.
Soi 1 s
According to the Soil Survey of La Porte County, Indiana, the soils adjacent to the site consist of Oakville fine sands (OaC: Oakville fine sands four to 12 per cent slopes, and OaE: Oakville fine sands 12 to 25 per cent slopes). These soils are "deep, well drained, and located on outwash plains, low sand dunes, and beach ridges." Individual areas are irregular in shape. They range from five to 150 acres but dominantly about 40 acres. They are classified as mixed, mesic Typic Udipsamments. Figures 2.6 through 2.14 give various characteristics of the Oakville fine sands.(5)
Hydrology
Trail Creek, in which Michigan City Harbor is located, drains approximatly 57 square miles directly to Lake Michigan. The main tributary streams to Trail Creek are West Branch Creek and East Branch Creek. The United States Geologic Survey (USGS) maintains a gage and recorder in Michigan City to monitor Trail Creek. This gage is loctaed one mile upstream from Otter Creek (a minor tributary)
and 4.2 miles upstream from the harbor entrance. Stage and discharge levels for 54.1 square miles
of Trail Creek's drainage are recorded. The mean flow rate for the USGS water year, October 197^ to
September 1975. was 73.8 cubic feet per second (cfs), with a maximum of 606 cfs and a minimum of 31
cfs. The average flow for the six years of record is 692 cfs with a maximum discharge of 1,110 cfs
on 22 April 1973 and a minimum daily discharge of 21 cfs on 20 July 1971-
The water levels in the Michigan City Harbor are normally equivalent to and dependent on the water levels of Lake Michigan. Since 1900, the highest one month average lake level of 581.04 ft IGL0 (International Great Lakes Datum, 1955) occured in July 19 7^* and lowest of 575 35 ft IGLD in March 196^- The 1976 Lake Michigan daily levels (as published in the "Monthly Bulletin of Lake Levels for the Great Lakes," US Army Corps of Engineers, Detroit District) ranged from a low of 578.3 ft IGLD
in December to a high of 580.5 ft IGLD in July. Michigan City obtains drinking water directly from
Lake Michigan. The city owns three water intakes located to the east of the entrance to the Michigan City Harbor and range from 2,200 to 2,400 feet offshore. These intakes connect to the
water infiltration plant south of Park Road and adjacent to Trail Creek. In addition, the ground water system underlying Michigan City has a potential yield of 900 million gallons per day. The


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Fiqure 2.6 Windbreaks and Environmental Plantings.
Trees having predicted 20-year average heights. In feet, of
Soil name and i 1 1 ~n
map symbol <8 I 8-15 1 1 16-25 1 1 26-35 1 1 >35
OaC, OaE 1 Siberian peashrub J 1 Eastern redoedar. 1 1 1 iRed pine, Austrian I Eastern white pine I
Oakville 1 1 lilac, radiant 1 pine, Jack pine. 1 1
1 1 crabapple, 1 1 1
1 1 autumn-olive, 1 1 1
1 1 Washington 1 I 1
1 1 hawthorn, Amur 1 1 1
1 1 honeysuckle. 1 1 1
1 1 Tatarlan 1 1 1
1 1 honeysuckle. 1 1 1 l 1
Figure 2.7 Recreational Development.
Soil name and I 1 Camp areas I 1 Picnic areas 1 Playgrounds I Paths and trails 1 Golf fairways
map symbol 1 1 1 1 1 1 i I
1 1 1
OaC 1 Severe: 1 Severe: 1 Severe: Moderate:
Oakville 1 too sandy. 1 too sandy. 1 slope. I too sandy. 1 slope.
1 | 1 | I too eandy. 1 1 | droughty. 1
OaE I Severe: 1 Severe: I Severe: 1 Severe:
Oakville 1 too sandy, 1 too sandy, 1 slope, i too sandy. 1 slope.
1 slope. 1 slope. 1 too sandy. 1
Figure 2.8 BuiIding Si te Development.
Soli name and map symbol n 1 Shallow 1 excavations 1 1 1 Dwellings 1 without 1 basements ~f 1 Dwellings with I basements ~T~ 1 Small 1 commercial 1 buildings 1 1 Local roads 1 and streets 1 T 1 Lawns and 1 landscaping
OaC 1 -1 Severe: T 1 Moderate: i 1 Moderate: 1 Severe: 1 1 Moderate: 1 Moderate:
Oakvllle 1 cutbanks cave. 1 1 1 3lope. 1 | 1 slope. 1 1 1 slope. 1 | 1 slope. 1 1 1 slope, 1 droughty. 1
OaE -1 Severe: 1 Severe: 1 Severe: 1 Severe: 1 Severe: 1 Severe:
Oakvllle 1 cutbanks cave, 1 slope. 1 slope. 1 1 slope. 1 1 slope. 1 1 slope. ! 1 slope. 1


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Figure 2.9 Sanitary Facilities.
Soil name and 1 1 Septic tank ~1 1 Sewage lagoon ~l Trench i 1 Area 1 1 Daily cover
map symbol 1 absorption 1 areas I sanitary 1 sanitary 1 for landfill
1 fields i landfill 1 landfill 1
OaC "1 1 1 Severe: i i 1 Severe: ~1 1 1 Severe: ~f 1 1 Severe: 1 1 1 Poor:
Oakville 1 poor filter. I seepage, I seepage, 1 seepage. 1 too sandy,
1 I 1 slope. 1 1 too sandy. 1 1 j I seepage. 1
OaE 1 Severe: 1 Severe: 1 Severe: 1 Severe: 1 Poor:
Oakville 1 slope, 1 seepage, I seepage, 1 seepage, 1 too sandy,
1 poor filter. 1 slope. 1 too sandy, I slope. 1 slope,
| J 1 slope. 1 1 1 seepage. i
Figure 2.10 Construction Materials.
Soil name and 1 1 Roadfill 1 1 1 Sand 1 Gravel T | Topsoil
map symbol 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
! 1 ! r 1 Poor:

Oakville 1 1 1 too 1 sandy. I too sandy. 1
1 1 1 Poor:

Oakville 1 slope. 1 1 too sandy. 1 too 3andy,
1 1 1 1 slope.
Figure 2.11 Water Management.
Limitations for T Features affecting
Soil name and map symbol 1 Pon<} 1 reservoir areas 1 Embankments, 1 dikes, and levee3 n 1 Drainage 1 n 1 Irrigation 1 1 Terraces and 1 diversions 1 I Gra3aed I waterways
1 ~i 1 Severe: 1 piping, 1 seepage. ~1 iDeep to water 1 1 ~T iFast Intake, 1 droughty, 1 soil blowing. 1 1 Slope, I too sandy, 1 soil blowing. 1 Slope, 1 droughty. 1
Oakville 1 seepage, 1 slope.
i.i i i
/


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Figure 2.12
Soil name and map symbol
OaCj OaE Oakville
Engineering Index Properties.
1 1 iDepthl USDA texture 1 Classification 1 Frag- Percentage passing 1 T
1 1 Unified r Iments sieve number 1 Liquid 1 Plas-
1 1 1 AASHTO 1 > 3 ~1 1 T 1 limit 1 tlcity
1 1 1 1 Inches *4 1 10 | 440 | 200 1 1 index
1 Tn | T- 1 1 Pet 1 1 1 1 Pet 1
i 0 *4 iPine sand -isM, SP, 1 A-2, A-3 i 0 100 i 100 i50-85 i 0-35 1 i NP
1 1 1 4(_6o iFine sand 1 SP-SM -ISM, SP, 1 1 A-2, A-3 1 1 0 100 1 1 1 195-100165-95 1 0-25 1 1 1 NP
1 1 1 SP-SM 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Figure 2.13
Physical and Chemical Properties of Soils.
TF osionI Wind I factors Ierodl-1 Organic 1 Ibllltyi matter K | T group I
-----------------1------1-----1----------1-------------1---------1 I
Soil name and I Depth I Clay I Moist |Permeability I Available I Soil I Shrink-swell
map symbol | I I bulk I I water |reaction I potential
J______I density I_____________|capacity I _____L
OaC, OaE------
Oakville
Tn rTcTH------G/cm3 '[---IH7h?
i i i ------ i --------
-I 0-iJ I 0-1011.27-1.561 >20
I *4-60 I 0-10 11.26-1.67 I >20
n/ln T
pH
4 - ,
10.07-0.0915-6-7.3 10.06-0.0815.6-7.3
i
iLow-I Low-
0.151 5 i 0.151 I
I Pet
i '
I l-*l
Figure 2.1* Soil and Water Features.
1 Flooding High water table ' oedrock r- 1 Hisk of corrosion
Soil name and map symbol 1Hydro-1 logic 1 group ' Frequency 1 1 1 Duration 1 Months 1 1 Depth I 1 Kind 1 1 Months 1 1 1 Depth 1 T 1 Hardness 1 Potential frost action 1 1 Uncoated 1 steel 1 1 Concrete 1
n 1 i-Ftr 1 1 In I- i
OaC, OaE Oakville -1 A 1 None i >6.0 i 1 1 i >6o 1 1 Low ILow 1 1 Moderate. 1


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sources of groundwater in the Michigan City region are the unconsolidated rocks of Quaternary age near the surface which form a single but complex hydrologic system of four units. The deeper bedrock is only a minor source.
Water Quality
In general, the State of Indiana requires that Trail Creek be suitable for partial body-contact recreation (i.e. boating) and warm-water fish populations, and that Lake Michigan be suitable for total body-contact recreation (i.e. swimming), warm water fish population, and public and industrial water supplies.
The principal sources of water pollution in the project area are industrial wastes, municipal sewage and combined sanitary and storm sewer overflow into Trail Creek. Most sewered municipalitites, not just Michigan City, have some combined sanitary and storm sewers which contribute to water pollution during periods of storms with high runoff rates. Combined sewer overflow bypass the Michigan City sewage treatment plant, which is unable to adequately treat such large volumes, and contribute gross bacterial pollution, high suspended solids concentrations, and heavy BOD (biochemical oxygen demand) loadings to the local surface waters. Industrial wastes that are intercepted by combined sewer systems also contribute to the pollution problem. Water quality in Trail Creek is generally poor due to high bacterial counts resulting from combined standards. The inshore waters in the vicinity of the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, located west of Michigan City, is fit for general recreational uses. There are, of course, localized areas in the "in-shore" water which have poor water quality.
Lake Michigan water quality in the project area varies somewhat, depending upon the site and time of year being considered. Overall water quality meets applicable state standards. Total dissolved solid values around 150mg/1 and conductivity of aout 260 micrombs are commonly recorded. Total alkalinity usually measures about 108 mg/1 with pH ranges from 1 .U to 8.6. Potassium averages around 1 mg/1. Total phosphorus concentrations are generally low. DO levels are usually above 90 percent of saturation at all lake depths. In general, the inshore zone of Lake Michigan in the vicinity of Michigan City Harbor is of high quality.
Flora
The orginal presettlement vegetation pattern of the Michigan City region was a complex mixture of primarily, three competing vegetational types: lakeshore dune, prairie/sedge meadow and southern xeric oak-hickory forest. The oak-hickory forest was the invader to both the lakeshore dune and


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prairie plant communities. Wind and water erosion with continuous dune movement kept the forest from occupying the lakeshore and periodic prairies fires kept the forest from replacing the prair ies.
Today, it is still possible to observe portions of the original lakeshore dune plant communities to the west and east of Michigan City. A few isolated patches of the oak-hickory forest are still present in a few natural areas but this forest has mostly been replaced by man's land use or shrubby woody growth. Prairies and sedge meadow habitats for native plants have also mostly been replaced by man's land use, lost to woody growth due to lack of fire, or have been invaded by more aggressive old world plants.
Fauna
Because the terrestrial aspect of the maintenance proposal at Michigan City Harbor is limited to the riparian habitats adjacent to the Federal waterway and open water areas utilized by terrestrial wildlife, this discussion will be limited to a representative vertebrate fauna of the project area which are important from an economic, ecological, aesthetic, commercial or recreational viewpoint. However, it should be mentioned that the abundance and diversity of invertebrate species within the project area are of great importance to the total Michigan City Harbor natural energy cycle.
Due to the lack of a great deal of natural vegetation adjacent to the Federal waterway, the natural food, cover and nesting habitat for many mammalian species is poor. Only species adaptable to minimal amounts of natural nesting, resting, escape or communication cover, small territories and lack of natural food can be found near the Federal waterway. Opportunistic species like the house mouse (Mus musculus) and Norway rat (Ratus norvegicus) live very well in man's communities and are present in abandoned houses and warehouses along the water's edge. Other small native mammals such as mice and voles (Crecet idae), shrews (Sor ic idae) and some weasels (Mustelidae) may utilize riparian habitats alon the Federal waterway. Eastern cottontail rabbit (Sylbilagus floridanus), eastern gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis), and eastern fox squirrel (Sciurus niger) are found to a limited extent in the more wooded park-like areas along the waterway. Such mammals as the striped skunk (Meph i t i s meph i t i s), opossum (Didelphis marsupialis) and raccoon (Procyon lotor) are the largest mammalian wildlife species that may occasionally make use of the riparian areas of the Federal waterway.
The lack of natural vegetation along the Federal waterway also limits the reproductive, sheltering and feeding areas of birds in the Michigan City Harbor area. Normally, terrestrial birds such as the Starling (Stumus vulgaris), house sparrow (Passer domesticus), rock dove (Columba 1ivia),


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chimney swift (Chaetura pelagica), barn swallow (H? rundo rust ica), grackle (Quiscalus quiscula) and red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus) can be seen ut i1i zing the banks of the waterway, but not utilizing the water directly. By far the most populous vertebrate faunal element of the Michigan City Harbor, harbor structures, and both alternate open water disposal sites are the water associated birds. Three species of gulls (Larus argentatus, L. delawarens?s, L. Philadelphia), four species of terns (Sterna hirundo, S. forsteri, Hydroprogue caspea, Chlidonias niger), and about 20 other species of shore and wading birds including sand pipers (Scolopac idae), plovers (Charadr i us ssp.), and rails (Ral1idae) utilize the Federal waterway and Michigan City area beaches to rest, preen and feed.
Most of the Indiana shore of Lake Michigan including Michigan City Harbor, is within the Mississippi flyway for waterfowl. Approximately 31,000-100,000 dabbling ducks, 26,000-75000 diving ducks, 1,000-5,000 Canada geese and a few blue and snow geese migrate through the Mississippi flyway each fall. These total numbers represent 17 species of waterfowl which includes snow and blue goose (Anser C. caerulescens), Canada goose (Branta canadensis interior), wood duck (Aix sponsa), American wigeon (Anas amer icana), American green-winged teal (Anas rubripes), blue-winged teal (Anas discors), redhead (Aythya americana), greater scaup (Aythya mar?1 a mariloides), lesser scaup (Aythya affi n i s), old squaw~Tciangula huemalis winter resident), bufflehead (Bucephala albeola), common goldeneye (Bucephala clangula americana occasional breeder), red-breasted merganser (Mergus merganser americanus winter resident), and ruddy duck (Oxyura jamaicensis rubida). These birds utilize the Michigan City Harbor during migration as a stopover to rest and feed. The majority of the waterfowl remain in the open water of Lake Michigan or utilize nearby beaches and only move into the harbor itself during storms. Mallards, however, freely enter the harbor regardless of weather, and along with the old squaw, redbreasted and common mergansers, will remain at Michigan City through the winter as long as open water is available.
Some raptors are present in the Michigan City region, particularly at Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore but are not commonly seen along the Federal waterway. Songbirds, such as the American robin (Turdus migratorius), are common in Michigan City but do not utilize the Federal waterway to a great extent.
Some reptiles and amphibians are provided a limited amount of riparian habitat along the Federal waterway. Typical amphibians include Fowler's toad (Bufo woodhousei fowleri) and common reptiles inlude snakes like the garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis).


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F i sher ies
Up until a few decades ago. Lake Michigan supported an abundance of desirable food and sport fisheries. This balance of Nektonic life was devastated by the movement of the sea lamprey (Petromyson marinus) and the alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) into the Great Lakes from the Atlantic Ocean through the St. Lawrence Seaway. Today, the balance is being restored by a combination of natural phenomena, such as the massive die-off of alewives in 1967 and man's management such as chemical control of the sea lamprey, and an ongoing comprehensive stocking program of coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and Chinook salmon (0. tschawytsha) and lake (Salvelinus namaycush), rainbow (steel head) (Salmo gairdneri), and brown trout (S a1 mo ~~tr ut1 a) Part of this stocking program includes a new Indiana Department of Natural Resources (DNS) cold water fish hatchery on the Kingsbury Game Preserve south of Michigan City near La Porte. This hatchery produces a total of 500,000 salmon and trout each year for release at sites along the Indiana shoreline including Trail Creek and Michigan City. This hatchery stocks primarily in the spring in Trail Creek which is also a stream supporting a fall spawning run of salmonids.
Lake Michigan fish resources in the vicinity of Michigan City were sampled by a research team from Ball State University between 1971 and 197** Dominant species collected by trawling at depths of 5 and 15 meters were adult alewife and yellow perch (Perea flavescens). Other species collected were: lake whitefish (Coregonus siupeaformis), cisco (C. arted i i), rainbow trout (steelhead) (Salmo ga? rdner i), smelt (Osmerus mordax), nothern pike (esox 1uc i us), carp (Cyprinus carpio), spottail shiner (Notropis hudsonius), longnose sucker (Catostomus omiscomaycus), burbot (Lota lota), slimy sculpin (Cottus congnatus), bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), Johnny darter (Ethiostoma nigrum) and bloater (Cpregonua hoyi). In addition to this previous list, the Indiana DNR has indicated that the following species have also appeared in the catch data of the research program conducted by the DNR: brown, lake and rainbow (steelhead) trout, Chinook and coho salmon, channel catfich ( Ictal urus punctatus), gizzard shad (Darosoma cepedianum), lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens), and small mouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui). Abundance of all these fishes in the shallow and deep water areas of the lake varies greatly with species and season. The species of most concern in the immediate Michigan City lake area are the alewife and the salmonids. In the spring, the yellow perch concentrate in shallow water, but spawning adults move to deeper waters of the lake when young appear. They return to shallow water later in the summer and remain there through the fall until winter when they move to deeper waters. Salmonids move as water temperatures change, preferring 1*2 to 55 degrees F. for trout and 50 to 55 degrees F. for salmon. Salmonids are therefore found both in shallow and deep water areas of the lake as the seasons change.


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Threatened and Endangered Flora and Fauna
According to the most recent US Fish and Wildlife Sevice's publication of "Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants," and the Indiana Department of Natural Resources' most current list of endangered and threatened species, the only threatened floral and faunal species whose ranges encompass the Michigan City Harbor project area are the Indiana Myotis (Myot i s sodalis), the Artie Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus tundrius) and the Southern Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus leuocephalus). However, the lack of suitable habitat will preclude their presence from the immediate project area.


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Environmental Setting* Human Demography
Michigan City, the largest city in La Porte County, had a 1970 population of 39*273- This was a 7-** percent increase over the 1960 population. About 3** percentiof this 1970 population was under 18 years of age. The median age in 1970 was 28.8. The population density of Michigan City in 1970 was 1,911 persons per square mile. Michigan City had a median educational level in 1979 of 11.1* years of school for all persons 25 years old and over.
There were 12,180 housing units in Michigan City in 1970 showing an 11 percent increase over 1960. Occupied housing units totaled 11,687 units in 1970 and averaged 3-1* persons per unit. The median value of an owner occupied single family dwelling in Michigan City during 1970 was $15,113-
Harbor Navigation
Deep-draft waterborne commerce at Michigan City Harbor virtually ceased in 1971- Only commercial fishing continues. Presently, yellow perch comprise 85~90 percent of the total tonnage of the commercial fish harvest. The remainder is composed of Chinook and coho salmon. In 1970, the State of Indiana began licensing commercial fishing vessels. In that year 36 boats were licensed. In 1971* the number increased to 1*6 and subsequently steadily declined to only 33 in 1976. Until recently, lake trout was a commercially important fish. With the awareness of problems of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) accumulation of fishes, the Indiana Department of Natural Resources and the Indiana State Board of Health began a program of fall and spring sampling of Lake Michigan fish. From the early 1970s, the PCB levels in lake trout showed a gradual decrease from 30 parts per million (ppm) to 5 ppm. the Federal standard for interstate shipment of fish. In 1976, PCB
levels of lake trout again increased to the mid-30 ppm range. Due to this increase the Indiana DNR
and the State Board of Health issued notices recommending against human consumption of lake trout and the Indiana DNR stopped issuing tags for the commercial catch of these fish. PCB levels for yellow perch are trace, and Chinook and coho salmon are below 1 ppm.
Recreational boating is now the dominant use of Michigan City Harbor. Local officials have recently
proposed substantial expansion of small-craft facilities. Commercial navigation is expected to remain at several hundred tons of fresh fish per year. None of these activities require the authorized 18 foot project depth for the harbor. Therefore, the channels will now be maintained at depths ranging from 6 to 11* feet. The potential growth of recreational boating from the harbor may be significant if the proposed additional facilities are provided by the city. Based on demand


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projections made in 1973 for all Lake Michigan recreational boating in the Chicago District, activity at Michigan City could increase 1*0 percent above present levels by 1990 if more permanent berthing facilities and launch lanes are added.
Recreation
Michigan City Harbor is one of the principal recreational boat harbors on Lake Michigan. It is the only major public recreational harbor along the Lake Michigan shore of Indiana. The nearest harbors are New Buffalo Harbor, Michigan, 10 miles northeast, and Burns Waterway Harbor, 15 miles west. New Buffalo Harbor is a new Federal recreational boat harbor. Burns Waterway Harbor is a Federal deep-draft harbor serving the Port of Indiana and the Bethlehem Steel and Midwest Steel Companies.
Michigan City Harbor is a place of refuge for recreational craft at the south end of Lake Michigan during periods of storms and high winds and times of emergency. A wide variety of both publicly and privately operated boating facilities are available at this harbor. These facilities include about 635 berths and mooring for permanently based boats, eight slips for transient boats, nine launching lanes, several boat hoists, and full supporting marina facilities such as marine fuel and oil, ice, potable water, marine supplies, repairs, and boat sales. In addition, two to three privately owned charter sport fishing vessels operate out of Michigan City Harbor on a regular basis.
The Michigan City Harbor structures provide the only major public fishing structures along the Indiana shoreline. Fishing activity at the harbor has increased significantly over the past four years due to the introduction of the coho salmon and other sport fisheries into Lake Michigan. It is estimated that the Michigan City Harbor structures presently support 30,000 fishermen-days annually. The types of fish caught from these structures include coho slamon, Chinook salmon, rainbow (steel head) and lake trout.
Washington Park is located immediately east of Michigan City Harbor and covers an area of 37 acres. It is owned and operated by Michigan City. Facilities provided at the park include a zoo, an extensive swimming beach, a museum housed in the old Lighthouse, tennis courts, a band shell, and a large parking area. The existing beach was formed thourgh the interruption of the littoral drift by the Michigan City Harbor structures. As the littoral drift, which moves in a predominately east to west direction in this immediate area, was interr.uypted by the harbor structures, a gently sloping sand beach was formed. There are three parking lots available at the park totaling facilities for about 1,000 cars. The beach supports about 350,000 to 1*00,000 visitors per year. The zoo has approximatley 125,000 visitors yearly. Additional public recreation lands include the old Michigan Light and Lifeboat Station parcel conveyed to Michigan City by the US Government on 31 July 1963.


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Land and Water Uses Adjacent to the Harbor
Most of the lands immediately bordering the waterways of Michigan City Harbor are occupied by industry and boat marinas. Northern Indiana Public Service Co. occupies the western side of the harbor from the lake to turning basin No. 1. Cargill Grain Co., Georg Boats & Motors and Michigan Central Railroad switchyards occupy the western bank from turning basin No. 1 to the Franklin Street bridge. Industry, such as Tonn 6 Blank and Blocksom & Company, and boat docks, such as the Dive Pro
Shop and Georg Boat Dock, share portions of the western bank of the six foot project in Trail Creek.
The eastern side of the entrance channel is shared by several recreational establishments* a small boat harbor, a city wharf, the Michigan City Yacht Club and a city dock immediately adjacent to the Franklin Street bridge. The US Coast Guard maintains a station directly south of the small boat
harbor. The eastern bank from Franklin Street bridge up to the project limit at E Street Bridge is
shared by the Michigan City water filtration plant, B&E Marina, railroad rights-of-way. Great Lakes Marine small boat dock and Hanson Park.
Public Services and Facilities
Residents and users of the Michigan City Harbor area are provided with a number of Federal, state and local public services and facilities. On the Federal level, the US Army Corps of Engineers, Chicago District, maintains the harbor channels and structures; the US Coast Guard Station maintains the harbor lights. The USEPA conducts periodic checks of sediment, surface and ground water quality levels. The Indiana Stream Pollution Control Board also monitors the harbor's waters. The Indiana DNR stocks and maintains the sport fishery in the harbor. Trail Creek and Lake Michigan. Health, education, fire, police, sewer and recreation services and facilities are provided by Michigan City.
Sewage from Michigan City is collected at the sewage treatment plant, located on Eighth Street adjacent to Trail Creek immediately upstream from the proposed contained disposal facility The treatment plant discharges its treated wastewater into Trail Creek at this loacation.
The Michigan City water filtration plant has two active public water supply intakes on Lake Michigan directly to the east of the harbor entrance channel. These intakes are in approximately 25 to 30 feet of water about 2,200 to 2,^00 feet offshore and convey lake water to the water filtration plant located between Park Road and Trail Creek


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Industry, Employment and Income
Although recreational facilities and related services are the major industry of the Michigan City Harbor project area, the City of Michigan City has been able to attract a number of large industrial companies. The major industry of the harbor area itself is represented by the large fossil fuel power plant of Northern Indiana Public Service Co. This plant occupies much of the harbor and lake frontage of Michigan City. Examples of nationally known firms in Michigan City include: American Cyanimid, United States Steel, Raytheon, Pullman and Scholl Manufacturing Co. The City of Michigan City contains approximately 80 manufacturing establishments of which two-thirds have 20 or more employees. There are almost 1*00 retail establishments including Marquette Mall, a large shopping mall located at the intersection of Franklin Street and US Route 20.
Michigan City has an estimated 16,000 persons in its labor force of which approximately 1*0 percent are female. A breakdown of the leading types of employment by occupation and industry includes:
By occupation:
(1) Clerical and kindred workers 25 percent of labor force
(2) Professional, technical and kindred workers 18 percent of labor force
(3) Craftsmen, foremen and kindred workers 15 percent of labor force (1*) Other occuptations 12 percent of labor force
By industry:
(1) Manufacturing kk percent of labor force
(2) Wholesale and retail trade 19 percent of labor force
(3) Government 10 percent of labor force (*) Services 5 percent of labor force
(5) Educational ** percent of labor force
(6) Construction k percent of labor force
(7) Other 1l* percent of labor force
Income characteristics for Michigan City in 1969 show a median family income of $10,1*05 with greater than 50 percent of the city's families earning between $7,000 and $15,000 per year.


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Transportation
The Michigan City Harbor area is served by US Routes 12, 20, 35 and 421. Interstates 94 and 80-90 are also easily accessible to the south of the city. The major local streets in the harbor area are Michigan Boulevard (US 12 and 35). Washington, Pine and Franklin Streets (US 421) on the west side of Trail Creek and Second Street (US 12) on the east side of Trail Creek. There are four road bridges and one railroad bridge crossing the Michigan City Harbor project areas Franklin Street
bridge. Second Street bridge, Sixth-Miller Street bridge, E Street bridge, and the Michigan Central Railroad bridge.
Additional transportation facilities serving the Michigan City Harbor vicinity includes Michigan City Railroad; Monon Railroad; Penn Central Railroad; Norfolk and Western Railroad; New York, Chicago and St. Louis Railroad; Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad; Chicago, South Shore and South Bend Railroad; and New York Central Railroad; a municipal airport and various bus and taxi systems. Although no deep-draft vessels have used Michigan City Harbor since 1971. the harbor is a major recreational harbor and harbor-of-refuge for much of southern Lake Michigan and experiences large amounts of recreational traffic.
The dunelands surrounding Michigan City have become a maze of highways and railways. This was a natural consequence of its geographic position along the southern shore of Lake Michigan. Trails and roads have crisscrossed the area since early times. An important trail used by the Indians in their travels from the Green Bay area to Detroit-Lake St. Clair area ran along the shore of the lake. A second, the north branch of the Sauk trail, connected the Mississippi River with Lake Michigan. A third trail, still in evidence today, winding through the dunes, was used by Indians traveling north to Mackinac, Michigan. A fourth route was the Chicago-Detroit road, constructed along high ground in the 1830s. This today is essentially the route followed by US Highway 12.
Indians, missionaries, trappers, traders and settlers moved into the region over these trails and roads. Joseph Bailie, a French-Canadian, was the first settler in northwestern Indiana. He built a trading post along the Little Calumet River in 1822. A few of these structures remain, but are somewhat altered. The homestead is within the boundary of Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore to the west of Michigan City. A small fort was erected by the French in the Early 1750s at the mouth of Dunes Creek. This lies within the Indiana Dunes State Park. A plaque marks the probable site of the fort, which was abandoned in 1780.
Division of the Northwest Territory by the Ordinance of 1787* provided that the Indiana boundary line extend eastward from the southernmost point of Lake Michigan. However, the Indiana Enabling


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Act of 1816, placed the line at 10 miles further north into what was then part of the Michigan Teritory. Although the old Ordinance Line, passing though the National Lakeshore area, was disputed for 20 years, it was not changed. Too wet for successful farming, the land's future commercial value could not be envisioned. It remained largely unsettled until the early 1900s when land unsuited for farming suddenly became ideal for the needs of an emerging industrial America. Today, the Calumet Region which includes Michigan City is one of the great industrial regions of the world.
Cultural Resources
The Indiana State Historic Preservation Officer (SHPO) in a letter dated 23 August 1976 indicated that no known historical or archeological sites exist which will be affected by the project.
Future Environmental Setting
The potential growth of recreational boating at Michigan City Harbor may be significant if additional facilities are provided at the harbor. Based on demand projections made in 1973 for all Lake Michigan, recreational boating in the Chicago District (US Army Corps of Engineers, Chicago District 197^ "Lake Michigan Recreational Boating Survey and Analysis) activity at Michigan City could increase 1*0 percent above 1973 levels by 1990 if more permanent berthing facilities and launch lanes are added. Recreational fishing is also expected to rise in the Michigan City area due to the fisheries program of the Indiana DNR and expected Lake Michigan water quality improvement.


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Color Analysis
Figures 2.15 and 2.16 contain colors matched at the site during the week of 12 November 198*4. The color values shown are Cibachrome prints of paint samples for Sears and Dutchboy .
In no way are these colors meant to be a comprehensive sample of the daily and seasonal variations in color at the site. The bright chromas of spring and summer are not reflected here. However, the process of matching colors allowed the author to observe the interplay of light and the various environmental elements present at the site, giving better understanding of how color perception is affected by the elements of the site area.
The number of values and chroma of the waters of Lake Michigan is copious. Several factors are involved including the sky conditions, the time of day and the surface conditions of the lake itself. Sand, as a collective whole (i.e. a sand dune) has a much diffenet character than that of the individual grains that form the whole.
While a suggestions for color programming is provided here (Figure 2.17). particular care should be taken in final color selection. "Color selections should always be made or tested under light sources similiar to those specified for the final scheme." Spectral properties of the building materials should also be considered in addition to their color. The manner in which light is reflected from a surface affects color percept ion.(6)



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III. Climat ic Analys i s
"The region surrounding Michigan City possesses a humid continental climate which is considerably modified by the presence of Lake Michigan. The
lake provides for warmer winter and cooler summer weather that is found farther inland. Precipitation, totaling about 36 inches annually, is evenly distributed throughout the year as rain and snow. Snowfall, which may occur in measureable amounts from October to April, totals about *7 inches. The frost-free growing season is generally from 20 April to 20 October at the Lake Michigan Shore. The historical temperature range for the Michigan City region is 103 degrees F to -15 degrees F but average temperatures are more moderate. Prevailing winds are generally from the south in summer and from the west in winter. In early spring and fall, these winds are strong enough to cause the flooding and eroding of some 1akeshore."(1)
Figures 3.1 through 3.3 list respectively monthly averages for temperature and precipitation, freeze dates in spring and fall, and growing season lengths.(2) The given data were recorded approximately 15 miles south southeast of Michigan City in the town of La Porte, Indianathe nearest station. Despite the short distance from Michigan City, this data is not directly transferable due to an occurrence known as "lake effect" which influences weather in the Great Lakes area. Temperature, precipitation, wind and sky conditions are all affected due to the "physical processes occurring within the boundary layer of the atmosphere (the lowest air zone in contact with the lake surface)." The contrasting physical


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Figure 3.1 Temperature and Precipitation.
[Recorded in the period 1951-74 at La Porte, Indiana]
Month Temperature Precipitation -
1 Average 1 1 dally I Imaxlmuml Average 1 dally 1 minimum I r i 2 years In 10 will have 1 1 Average Average 2 years In 101 will have 1 Average umber of ays with .10 Inch or more Average snowfall
Average I dally 1 Maximum 1 temperature 1 higher 1 than Inumber of 1 Minimum I growing 1 temperature I degree 1 lower 1 dayal 1 than 1 Less than In More id than i 0 1 1
1 UF 1 up UP up UP 1 Units In In In In
January 1 31.6 1 15.5 1 23.6 1 j 57 1 -14 1 9 i 2.42 1.34 3.29 1 6 17.4
February 1 35.7 1 19.1 1 27.4 1 59 -10 1 11 2.31 1.05 3.32 1 6 16.1
March **5.3 1 27.1 1 36.2 | j 77 6 1 7b 3.09 2.14 3-95 1 7 10.8
April 1 60.1 1 38.1 1 49.1 I 1 84 1 21 1 280 4.52 2.47 6.19 1 8 2.0
May 1 71.6 1 47-5 1 59.6 1 91 29 608 j 3.41 2.30 4.42 1 7 .1
June 1 81.6 1 57-3 1 69-5 1 97 40 1 885 | 4.17 2.58 5-59 1 7 .0
July 1 84.7 1 61.7 1 73.2 1 98 1 47 1 1,029 4.89 3.02 6.56 1 8 .0
August 1 83-1 1 60.1 1 71.6 1 97 I 44 1 980 | 3.71 1.69 5.34 1 5 .0
September 1 76.9 1 53.3 1 65.1 1 95 1 34 753 4.05 1.74 5.91 1 6 .0
October 1 65.4 1 42.8 1 54.1 1 1 87 24 1 442 j 4.01 1.47 6.05 1 7 .1
November 1 48.6 1 31.6 1 40.1 | 74 1 10 1 98 2.85 1.84 3.76 1 7 7.2
December 1 36.1 1 21.5 1 28.9 1 1 62 -9 1 27 1 3.23 1.94 4.37 1 1 7 18.1
Year 1 60.1 1 39-6 1 1 49-9 1 1 100 -16 1 1 5,200 1 42.66 34.72 1 50.17 1 1 81 71.8
growing degree day la a unit of heat available for plant growth. It can be calculated by adding the maximum and minimum dally temperatures, dividing the sum by 2, and subtracting the temperature below which growth Is minimal for the principal crops In the area (40 P).


I
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F i gure 3.2
Freeze Dates
i n Spr ing and Fal1 .
[Recorded In the period 1951-7** at La Porte,
Indiana]
Temperature
Probability 5W f ~T or lower T or lower 1 32 F or lower
Last freezing temperature In spring: r i i i i
1 year In 10 later than April 18 1 i May 1 | | May 16
2 years In 10 later than April 12 1 1 April 26 I 1 May 11
5 years In 10 later than April 2 1 1 April 17 1 April 30
First freezing temperature In fall:
1 year In 10 earlier than-
2 years In 10 earlier than-
5 years In 10 earlier than-
October 28 November 1 November 7
October 12 October 17 October 27
September 30 October 5 October 15


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Figure 3-3 Growing Season Lengths.
[.Recorded In the period 1951-71* at La Porte, Indiana]
Dally minimum temperature during growing season
Probability I 1 1 Higher than 2*t F 1 Higher 1 than 1 28 F Higher 1 than 1 32 F
| Days 1 Days 1 5ays
9 years In 10 1 1 198 175 1 145
b years in 10 1 205 1 181 153
5 years in 10 I 1 218 192 j 1 167 I
2 years in 10 I 1 231 203 lbl
1 year in 10 1 1 238 1 209 1 1 188 1


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properties between land and water the surrounding land." In general while the land is warming; in fall warm.(3)
"result in differences in the temperature of the and early winter when the
the surface temperature of the lake and lake is cold in spring and early summer land is cooling, the lake is still
Michigan City is located at Latitude **1 degrees *31 N and Longitude 86 degrees 5^' W.(l) Figure 3i* gives the solar angles and altitudes for Latitude *0 degrees N.(5)


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Figure 3.^ Solar Angles and Altitudes.


I

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IV. Zoning
All of Washington Park is zoned B-5 Marina-Recreation by the "Comprehensive Zoning Ordinance of Michigan City." (Figure *.1) It is assumed that the lands created by the enlargement of the Michigan City Yacht Basin (i.e. the site) is also included in the B-5 district. The intention of the B-5 district as stated in the Preamble of Business Districts Chapter 1107 is "to encourage the development of the facilities which would encompass specifically those recreation uses associated with waterways and open spaces of national prominence."(1)


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Figure *4.1
Michigan City,
Indiana Zoning Map
MICHIGAN CITY
ZONING MAP
A AGRICULTURAL NR NATIONAL PARK*
PO PLANNED DEVELOPMENT R l SINGLE FAMILY DETACHED RESIDENCE
I RETAIL SHOPPING Gf GENERAL SERVICE
9 GENERAL COMMERCIAL B4 PARA-MEDICAL
R2 SINGLE FAMILY DETACHED RESIDENCE RZ SINGLE FAMILY ATTACHED AND MULTIPLE FAMILY RESIDENCE
B 5 MARINA RECREATION Ml LIMITED MANUFACTURING
INDIANA


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Figure 4.2 lists the procedures, policies, and fees exemptions, special uses, and variances required by the Board of Appeals.
for handling of petitions for rezoning, Michigan City Plan Commission and Zoning
Summary of Ordinance Sections Affecting the Project
Section 1104.05 Control over aceessory structures and uses. Contains storm drainage provisions for the site.
Section 1104.10 Sewerage and water systems.
Section 1104.11 Flood plain area. All buildings and structures must have a ground floor
elevation three feet or more above the flood crest elevation. Also requires topographic information, engineering data or other studies to determine the effects of flooding on a proposed structure if the Plan Director deems it necessary.
Section 1104.12 Exemptions. Public utility installations are permitted if they conform with
Federal, State, County, and City laws.
Section 1107.02 Business district provisions. Trucks with a license classification other than A are limited to pick up or delivery services during normal business hours.
Section 1107.03 Permitted uses and special uses, business districts. The yacht club is a
special use. All other program elements are permitted.
Section 1107-05 Bulk and development standards in business districts. For the B-5 districts Minimum lot area is 20,000 square feet, minimum lot width is 200 feet, maximum floor area ratio is 4.0, no maximum hieght restrictions, minimum yard dimensions (front and side on a street 50 feet, interior side 20 feet, rear 30 feet, front and side adjoining a waterway 50 feet), and minimum off-street parking and loading in accordance with Chapter 1110 except parking may not be located in any front or side yard adjoining a street or waterway.
Section 1110.02 Existing parking facilities. Cannot be reduced below existing requirements.


PROCEDURES, POLICIES, AND FEES FOR HANDLING OF PETITIONS FOR REZONING, EXEMPTIONS,
SPECIAL USES, AND VARIANCES c
1
CD

1. a. Nine (9) copies of the petition and plat must be submitted at least 45 calendar f
days prior to the next regular meeting of the Zoning Board of Appeals. The Zoning Board of Appeals meets on the second Tuesday of the month.
b. Thirteen (13) copies of the petition and plat must be submitted at least 45 calendar days prior to the next regular meeting of the Plan Commission. The Plan Commission meets on the fourth Tuesday of the month.
2. If the petition is appealing a decision, requirement, or determination made by the Plan Director, the petition must be filed within 30 days of the Plan Director's decision.
3. a. Zoning petitions must be accompanied by nine (9) copies of an acceptable
plat of the property.
b. Plan Commission petitions must be accompanied by thirteen (13) copies of an acceptable plat of the property.
4. Petition must be accompanied by a non-refundable $20.00 filing fee.
5. Petition must include:
a. Subject of the petition
b. Name and address of the Petitioner
c. Name and address of the property owner
d. A legal description of the property and a common description
e. Present zoning of the property
f. Covenants running with the property relative to the petition
g. Reason for petitioning
6. Once the petition has been set for public hearing, all property owners abutting the petitioned site or across the right-of-way shall be notified of the time and place of the public hearing. This shall be done by certified letter at the expense of the petitioner. The petitioner will provide proof that he has conformed to the above at the public hearing.
7. The petitioner shall allow a sign to be placed in a prominent position on the petitioned site by the Planning Department to inform the public of the zoning request.
8. In all cases of rezoning, the ordinance will be drawn up by the Plan Commission attorney and forwarded with four (4) plats supplied by the petitioner to the City Clerk's Office. Copies of the ordinance and cover letter will be delivered to each council member.
9. The petitioner shall provide a preliminary finding and order for consideration for review by the Board of Zoning Appeals in all cases of variance and special exception.
10. No exceptions to the above.
* In the presentation of a case, the burden shall be upon the petitioner to supply all information including charts, plats, diagrams, architectural and/or engineering drawings, and other exhibits necessary for a greater understanding of the problem. The Board may continue the hearing when in its judgment the petitioner has not provided sufficient evidence and information in which to make determination.
o
o
z
Procedures, Policies, and Fees for Handling of Petitions.


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Section 1110.06 Off-street parking. Hotels: one parking space for each room or suite plus one parking space for each 100 square feet of retail sales and dining areas. Private clubs: one parking space for each five seats in accordance with design seating capacity of the main meeting room. Restaurants: one parking space for each 100 square feet of floor area in the building. Retail (unified ownership): 55 spaces per 1,000 square feet of gross leasable area.
Section 1110.07
Section 1111.02
Section 1111.03
Section 1111.01*
Section 1111.05
Section 1113
Off-street loading. Gives space requirements, access. Applicability of sign regulations to specific uses and General provisions for signage.
Area, display, illumination and content of signs.
Administration. Requires licensing of signage.
Administration and enforcement. All sections should be reviewed.
size, location, etc. d i str icts.


HOTEL ON THE LAKE


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A HOTEL ON THE LAKE 500
V. Codes
The City of Michigan City abides by the Indiana Construction Rules, 1980 Edition which is base on the Uniform Building Code, 1979 Edition, and the Uniform Building Code Standards, 1979 Edition with exceptions, additions and ammendments. (Figure 5.1) The Michigan City Building Inspection office requires approval of construction documents by the State Building Commissioner (Figure 5.2) before local consideration (Figure 5-3).


INDIANA CONSTRUCTION RULES 1980 EDITION
(Second Printing)
The Uniform Building Code, 1979 Edition, and the Uniform Building Code Standards, 1979 Edition, both as published by the International Conference of Building Officials are hereby adopted, with exceptions as noted below, as the Construction Rules 1980 Edition of the State of Indiana.
>
All remaining Chapters and provisions of the Uniform Building Code, 1979 Edition, are applicable in the State of Indiana with amendments and additions as further specified in this booklet.
3
Specifically excepted from the Uniform Building Code as published are the following chapters:
Chapters 1, 2 & 3 Deleted as published, (See Indiana Administrative Rules, 1983 Edition)
Chapter 31 Part of Fire Regulation No. 7 under jurisdiction of State Fire Marshal
Chapter 33 Part of Fire Regulation No. 7 under jurisdiction of State Fire Marshal
Chapter 35 Not applicable
Chapter 38 Part of Fire Regulation No. 7 under jurisdiction of State Fire Marshal
Chapter 40 Part of Fire Regulation No. 7 under jurisdiction of State Fire Marshal
Chapter 41 Does not exist
Chapter 42 Part of Fire Regulation No. 7 under jurisdiction of State Fire Marshal
Chapters 44 & 45 Move to Appendix
Chapter 46 Does not exist
Chapter 48 Not applicable
Chapter 49 Does not exist
Chapter 53 Does not exist
Chapters 55-59 Do not exist
Appendix Not applicable
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Indiana Construction Rules: Additions, Exceptions, and Ammendments to the UBC.


APPLICATION FOR CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENT REVIEW Filing Instructions
State Form 37318R5
ADMINISTRATIVE BUILDING COUNCIL OFFICE OF THE STATE BUILDING COMMISSIONER 429 NORTH PENNSYLVANIA STREET INDIANAPOLIS, IN 46204
Phone No. 317-232 1437
FILING REQUIREMENTS
Under the provisions of Indiana Code 22-11-1, any plans, specifications, or changes to them, for all buildings and structures to be built, added to, altered, moved into or within, or for which a change in use is planned in the State of Indiana, including factory built structures and site improvements as such affect access for the physically handicapped, must be submitted to the state and building commissioner for statewide building codes compliance reviews before construction begins. THIS DOES NOT apply to one and two family dwellings, with their appurtenant structures, nor to buildings located on farms which are intended to serve farming functions (not including retail sales). Consult local authorities on such structures. This Application for Construction Document Review must accompany the submission and must be completely and legibly filled out. Consult council staff for procedures on remodel projects, code variance requests, partial submissions, master plan approvals, and manufactured buildings.
DOCUMENTS REQUIRED FOR FILING
1. Application for Construction Document Review, together with
correct filing fees. See Schedule below. 9.
2. Three (3) complete sets of plans and specifications includes automatic distribution to Fire Marshal and Board of Health 10. Additional sets required if return is desired for files or local
use. 11.
3. Plot plan, showing dimensioned location of building to all property lines, and to all existing buildings on the property, 12. as well as width of any streets or easements bordering the property.
4. Foundation and basement plans and details. 13.
5. Dimensioned floor plans for all floors.
6. Wall elevations of all exterior walls. 14.
7. Sections and details of walls, floors and roof, showing dimensions, materials and heat transfer factors.
Structural plans and elevations showing size and location of all members, truss designs showing all connection details, and all stress calculations if specifically requested.
Room Finish Schedule showing finishes for walls, ceilings and floors in all rooms, stairways and corridors.
Door Schedule showing material size thickness, and fire rating for all doors.
Construction Specifications (May be on plans for small projects.)
Electrical Plans, diagrams, details of entrance service and power or lighting information required for energy conservation.
Plumbing Plans showing location fixtures, risers, drains, and piping isometrics.
Mechanical Plans showing location and size of duct work, equipment locations, and equipment schedules showing capacity and energy efficiency of each appliance.
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FILING FEE SCHEDULE (Payable at time of filing)
ALL PROJECTS AMOUNT
Basic Filing Fee $30.00
plus
Processing Fee ($50.00 minimum) See category
below
SPECIAL AMOUNT
Additional Submissions (to partial filings), each $50.00
Late Filing Modification $60.00
Foundation release $50.00
Code variance request (each item) $150.00
Addenda and revisions (each item) $20.00
(Not including compliance corrections) /
CATEGORY A (Normal Occupancy)
All buildings and structures not specifically listed in Categories B, C, D and E.
Fee: $0.02 per square foot of floor area.
CATEGORY B (Moderate OccupancyArea Related)
Generating plants, live stock sales barns, hangars, open parking structures, truck freight terminals, warehouses, refrigerated storage.
Fee: $0,015 per square foot of floor area.
CATEGORY C (Cost and Area Related)
Remodeling and renovation (no additions)
Fee: $1.50 per $1000 construction cost or fraction thereof. Not to exceed tees as specified for Categoiies A and B. for the entire building.
CATEGORY D (Minimal OccupancyCost Related)
Control toweis, monuments, signs, private dams, dust collectors, smoke stacks, towers, mausoleums, memorials. Fee: $1.50 per $1000 construction cost or fraction thereof.
CATEGORY E (Minimal OccupancyVolume Related)
Grain elevators, petroleum tanks, storage bins, storage tanks, vats, water tanks, swimming pools, other high volume low area structures.
Fee: $1.50 per 1000 cubic feet.
LATE FILING MODIFICATION
When construction work has been started prior to filing or release, and a Report of Investigation has been issued, an additional fee shall be assessed to pay the additional discovery and administrative costs.
PARTIAL FILING (WheryAuthorized)
Full fee shall be paid at the time of filing. Each following submission shall include an additional submission fee.
PROTOTYPE MASTER PLANS
Inquire at Administrative Building Council.
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An Equal Opportunity Employer A non tax supported State Agency
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A HOTEL ON THE LAKE


APPLICATION FOR CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENT REVIEW Certificates of Compliance
State Form 37318R5
/ FOR OFFICE USE ONLY \
ABC Project No.
ABC Master No.
ABC Modular No.
Filing Date
'Name ol Project Location (City & County ot permit jurisdiction) ^
Street Address ^ ZJ
CERTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS
i The owners certificate herewith must be executed for all submissions. For all new buildings or additions to existing buildings exceeding 30,000 cubic feet, or for any alterations to public buildings which may affect their structural safety, the architect/engineer certificate : herewith must also be executed. Such architect/engineer must be legally registered to practice such profession in the State of Indiana j and must be demonstrably competent in the design of such structures as the one submitted with this certificate.
For all structures that require the services of a design architect/engineer, his seal shall appear on each page of the drawings (tracings),
| on the title page of the specifications; on all design revisions and addenda; and on the certificate below.
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OWNERS CERTIFICATE
jName ot F irm
Street Address
City, State, Zip
Authorized Signature Phone No.
Name (typed^ Title
DESIGN ARCHITECT (Check appropriate box) | (ENGINEER Indiana Reg. No.
Name Phone No.
Street Address
City, State, Zip
Periodic inspection by: j j ARCHITECT (Check appropriate box) | (ENGINEER Indiana Reg No
Name Phone No.
Street Address
City, State, Zip
As owner of the project for which this application is being filed, I hereby certify, in accordance with the certification requirements above, that I have contracted the services of the registered architect (engineer) named below to prepare the plans and specifications for it so as to make the same safe, sanitary, and prudent in the use of energy, and accessible to the physically handicapped, in accordance with all rules and regulations of the administrative building council. I further certify that the description of use is correct.
I also certify that this project, when released by the state building commissioner, shall be constructed in compliance with al! applicable building rules and regulations of the State of Indiana, local ordinances and such other provisions pertaining to this type of work; and, that I have contracted the services of the registered architect (engineer) named below to perform periodic inspections of the project throughout its construction to assure that any construction changes from the plans and specifications, insofar as they may create non-compliance with such rules and regulations, shall be brought to my attention; and, after review and release by the state building commissioner shall be corrected.
I further agree that the project will not be occupied until such time as any known code violations are corrected; and agree that I will cause to be submitted another application at such time as the described use of the project may change to another use.
DESIGN ARCHITECT/ENGINEER CERTIFICATE
. Signature 1 hereby certify to the best of my knowledge j and belief that these plans and specifications for this project are in compliance with the : state building rules and regulations, local ordinances and such other provisions per- i taining to this class of work. 1 further certify that the calculations, designs.
. (SEAL) Name (typed)
Check appropriate box 1 (Architect [ (Engineer reproducible drawings, masters and original ideas reproduced in these plans and
l Indiana Registration No. control and that they were created by me and my employees. J
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HOTEL ON THE LAKE


eg& APPLICATION FOR CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENT REVIEW Project Data
*$*) State Form 37318R5
f FOR OFFICE USE ONLY N
ABC Project No.
ABC Master No.
ABC Modular No.
Filing Date J
LOCATION (Must be complete and accurate)__________________________ N
Street Address County City
Closest Intersecting Street or Road Direction FROM Intersection TO Project 3 North 1 J South [~^East | J West
Building Permit to be Issued by V 1 [County 1 | Town | | None Sprinkling System in Building I [Fully [ | Partial [""[None Sewer ~| Public | | Private Located in F lood Plain (Check County Plan Commission) D Yes Dno J
f PROJECT DESCRIPTION ESTIMATED COSTS FLOOR AREAS \
Building Type and Occupancy No. of Stories No. of Buildings (Describe if necessary) Existing (total) Sq. Ft. Total Project $ New Project Total Sq. Ft.
1 1 New Building [_J Remodeling V [ I Additions Total Volume-All Structuras (Category E only) Cu. Ft. Remodeled Portion Only S Addition (if any) Sq. FtJ
GENERAL INFORMATION \
Name of Project (Same as Page 2) Old File No.
| Yes Has other work at this location ever been filed before? p=d Not 1 | 1 1 Known Master No.
PI Ys Does project include use of a separately filed master plan? J No Modular No
1 Yes Does project include use of a separately filed modular plan? bb J No No. Persons Employed
Describe use of facility in detail, types of materials stored or handled, if any. (Flammability? Activities pursued7) No. Persons (Public)
Probable Start Date For Construction
General Comments

f ENERGY DESIGN DATA ^
Building Type | | Residential | | Non-Residential [""I Over 3 Stories CALCULATED U0 VALUES BTU/HR/SF/Deq. F No. of Tenants
Walls (Adjusted for Openings) Uo No. of Electric Meters
Roof/Ceillng Assembly Uo No. of Gas Meters
Floors (Unheated Below) Uo Potable Hot Water Provided? | | Ves [ | No Is it Recirculated? | | Yes 1 | No
Code Section Used [~~| Section 4 f~~] Section 5 [ ] Section 6 Indiana Climate Zone ^ North ^ Central f~l South Slab at Grade R
Crawl Space Walls R Air Infiltration Table 5-3 y.s 1 1 No Total Non-Residential Lighting Power Budget K.W.
Opaque Wall Area S.F.
Type of Heating Fuel THERMOSTAT RANGE
General Comments \ Heating Cooling )
HANDICAPPED ACCESSIBILITY
Have state accessibility standards and rules been considered? Have curb cuts and ramps been provided for building access? Have parking spaces been provided? Does building comply with Table 5E requirements? Are toilet room space and equipment requirements met? v Ves EH Ves Ves Ves o o o o o Z Z Z Z Z T| LQ
Genaral Comments V J c fD
f SEISMIC DESIGN U)
Is this project classified as an ESSENTIAL F ACILITY, GROUP E1 or HIGH RISE? (See ICRR Sect. 2312) ves No
Have Seismic design procedures been followed per code requirements? Yes No J %
An Equal Opportunity Employer A non tax supported State Agency
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HOTEL ON THE LAKE


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APPLICATION FOR CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENT REVIEW Processing Data
State Form 37318R5
Project No.
*>\ T ype
CLASSIFICATION X
(Office Use Only)
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TO BE FILLED OUT BY APPLICANT
Name of Project (Same as Pape 2) Street Address of Project
AMOUNT
County & City
Name of Owner and Firm
Street Address of Owner
City, State, Zip
Name of Design Architect or Engineer
Street Address of Design Architect or Engineer
City, State, Zip
Name of Inspecting Architect or Engineer Street Address of Inspecting Architect or Engineer
-
City, State, Zip

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Number of Sets Returned To j Architect | [Owner n Pick-Up Contractor No. Filed: Plans | Spec's
Release Letter Sent To | Architect [ |Owner Pick-Up Contractor Date
PLAN REVIEW USE ONLY
F ire Marshal
Board of Health _
General Comments Reviewed By
Date
CHECKLIST FOR DOCUMENT SUBMISSION
Certification | Fire Zone | Site Plan
Area | Height | Roof Loads
Plumbing Diagrams | Glazing ~~| Foundations
Electric Diagrams Fire Stops | Toilets
U. Values | Lighting | Partial Request
Review- Log
Release Stamp
PARTIAL RELEASE DATES
Footings
Structural
Mechanical
Electrical
Other
CONSTRUCTION REVIEW ONLY
ABC District Official
Name and Title of Local Official
Local Official Address
ACTIVITIES RECORD
(List site visit days, purpose and actions)
Construction Start Date
Issuing Jurisdiction
Actual Occupancy Date
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HOTEL ON THE LAKE


PERMIT
ISSUED
#
JOB ADDRESS ____
JOB NAME ____
TOWNSHIP ____
DATE ____
APPLICATION FOR BUILDING PERMIT
DESCRIPTION OF CONSTRUCTION
LOCATION AND LEGAL DESCRIPTION
OUTSIDE DIMENSIONS OF PROPOSED BUILDING (W) (L) (H)
SETBACKS a) Front c) Side Yards and
b) Rear d) Lot Size X
ESTIMATED VALUATION _________________
CONTRACTOR'S NAME ___________________
CONTRACTOR'S ADDRESS ________________
CONTRACTOR'S PHONE # ________________
OWNERS NAME ________________________
OWNER'S ADDRESS _____________________
OWNER'S PHONE # _____________________
SEWER FACILITIES none _______ City
WATER FACILITIES none _______ City
ESTIMATED TIME OF COMPLETION ________
DEPARTMENTAL CIRCULATION (please attach comments)
A) PLANNING DEPARTMENT B) ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
Zoning District C) SANITATION DEPARTMENT
Flood Plain: YES
NO
The applicant further affirms that the said building when construction completed will be as herein described:
And further, tliat construction has/has not comnenced this date:
SIGNED: ____________________________
(Applicant)
APPROVED: __________________________
(Plan Director)
BUILDING PERMIT FEE ______ Cash _____________ Check #__________
Septic _____ Other
Well Other
STATE APPROVAL #
Figure 5*3 Application for Building Permit.


A HOTEL ON THE LAKE
507
Summary of Codes Affecting the Project
Figure 5-** is excerpted from the 1979 Edition of the U.B.C. and lists six steps for the effective use ofthe codebook. This summary concerns itself only with items one, two, and four? the others will be reviewed for Systems Synthesis (ARCH 750). It is assumed that the three uses of the project (i.e. hotel with support facilities, retail, and yacht club) each constitute a separate building.
I. Classification
A. Occupancy group
Hotel
Restaurant/Bar/Conference Retai1
Open Parking Garage
R-1 (Chapter 12) A3 (Chapter 6) B-2 (Chapter 7) B-3 (Chapter 7)
2. Retail
B-2 (Chapter 6)
3. Yacht Club
A3 (Chapter 6)
Section 503 Explains mixed occupancy specifications for the hotel, restaurant and
retail combination.
B. Type of constructions Type I (Chapter 18) for all three buildings
Section 1807 Gives special provisions for B-2 and R-1 occupancy groups
C. Location on property: The three buildings will be located on the same site? Section 50Mc) appl ies.


EFFECTIVE USE OF THE UNIFORM BUILDING CODE
The following procedure may be helpful in using the Uniform Building Code:
1. Classify the building:
A. OCCUPANCY GROUP: Determine the occupancy group which the use of the building most nearly resembles. See the 01 sections of Chapters 6 through 12. See Section 503 for buildings with mixed occupancies.
B. TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION: Determine the type of construction of the building by the building materials used and the fire resistance of the parts of the building. See Chapters 17 through 22.
C. LOCATION ON PROPERTY: Determine the location of the building on the site and clearances to property lines and other buildings from the plot plan. See Table No. 5-A and '03 sections of Chapters 18 through 22 for exterior wall and wail opening requirements based on proximity to property lines. See Section 504 for buildings located on the same site.
D. FLOOR AREA: Compute the floor area of the building. See Table No. 5-C for basic allowable floor area based on occupancy group and type of construction. See Section 506 for allowable increases based on location on property and installation of an approved automatic fire-extinguishing system. See Section 505 (b) for allowable floor area of multistory buildings.
E. HEIGHT AND NUMBER OF STORIES: Compute the height of the building, Section 409, from grade, Section 408, and for the number of stories, Section 420. See Table No. 5-D for the allowable height and number of stories based on occupancy group and type of construction. See Section 507 for allowable story increase based on the installation of an approved automatic fire-extinguishing system.
F. OCCUPANT LOAD: Compute the occupant load of the building. See Section 3301 (c) and (d) and Table No. 33-A.
2. Verify compliance of the building with detailed occupancy requirements. See Chapters 6 through 12.
3. Verify compliance of the building with detailed type of construction requirements. See Chapters 17 through 22.
4. Verify compliance of the building with exit requirements. See Chapter 33.
5. Verify compliance of the building with detailed code regulations. See Chapters 29 through 43, Chapters 47 through 54, and Appendix.
6. Verify compliance of building with engineering regulations and requirements for materials of construction. See Chapters 23 through 29.
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A HOTEL ON THE LAKE
509
For Type I constructions
Occupancy Group
A-3 B-2 B-3 R1 Floor area
For Type I construct ion:
A-3 Uhlimited
B-2 Uniimited
B-3 Uniimited
R-1 Uniimited
Exterior Wal1s 2 hours less than 5'
1 hour less than 20'
1 hour less than 20'
1 hour 1 ess than 51
E. Height and number of stories permitted
For Type I constructions
A-3 B2
B-3 R1
Uniim ited Uniimited Uniimited Uniimited
height and height and height and height and
number of stories, number of stories, number of stories, number of stories.
Sect ion A09 expla Section A08 expla
ns how to compute ns how to compute
building height, bui1ding grade.
Openings in Exterior Walls Not permitted less than S' Protected less than 10'
Not permitted less than 5' Protected less than 10'
Not permitted less than 5' Protected less than 10'
Not permitted less than 5'
F. Occupant load.
Section 3301 Mixed occupancies determined by adding the number of occupancies of the various group portions.


A HOTEL ON THE LAKE
510
)

Use Square feet per occupant Handicap egress
Conference rooms 15 yes
Dining rooms 15 yes
Drinking establishments 15 yes
Lounges 15 yes
Garages, parking 200 yes
Hotels 200 yes
Ki tchens-commerc i al 200 no
Mechanical rooms 300 no
Offices Stores-retai1 100 yes
Ground floor 30 yes
Upper floors 50 yes
All others 100
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Detailed Occupancy Requirements
A. Chapter 12 (R1 ).
Section 1202(b) One hour fire resistive throughout if over 3.000 square feet of
two stories or more.
Section 1213 Twenty-six or more units require one handicap unit plus one for
each 25 or fraction thereof.
B. Chapter 6 (A3)-
Section 602(b) Above one story requires one hour fire resistive construction.
Section 603 Group A occupancies must front directly upon or have access to a
public street not less than 20 feet in width.
C. Chapter j (B-2.B-3).
Section 709(b) Definition of an open parking garage.


A HOTEL ON THE LAKE
511
IV. Exit
Requirements, Chapter 33
Section 3302(a) Every story or portion thereof having an occupant load of 500 to 999
shall have not less than three exit stairs, 1,000 or more shall have not less than four exits. The number of exits required from any story shall be determined by the occupancy load of that story plus 50 per cent of the the occupancy load of the first adjacent story above plus 25 per cent of the occupant load immediately beyond the first adjacent story.
Section 3302(b) Exit width equals total occupant load served divided by 50. This width shall be divided equally between all exits.
Section 3302(c) Maximum horizontal distance of 200 feet to an exit when building is equipped with an automatic fire extinguishing system.
Section 330Me)
Section 3305(b) of kh inches wide.
Section 3305(c)
Section 3305(p)
Section 3306(c)
Section 3306(d)
Section 3316
Dead-end corridors may not exceed 20 feet in length.
Stairways serving an occupant load greater than 50 must be a minimum
For stairs: Rise not greater than 7 1/2" and run not less than 10". Minimum headroom on stairs is 6'-6".
Ramp slope for handicap is a maximum of 1:8.
On ramps, landing is required for every 5 feet of rise.
Special exit requirements for group A-3.


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A HOTEL ON THE LAKE
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V I Program
The following area summary is derived from the information contained in the hotel section of Time-Saver Standards for Building Types. The square footages are based on the total number of guest rooms of the hotel, 16^-(1 )


A HOTEL ON THE LAKE 601
Area Summary
Space Number Square Footage Parking Load
Lobby 1 2,400 - 100
Management 1 1,800 3 100
Housekeepi ng 1 800 8 300
Receiving 1 400 - o o ro
Kitchen 1 8,000 20 200
Bar 1 1,500 15 15
Restaurant 1 6,000 30 15
Private Dining * 1,200 6 15
Banquet/Conference 1 3,300 11 15
Standard Guest Room 11* ** ***8 52,000 148 200
Guest Suite 16 8,000 16 200
Guest Room Services ** 14,000 - 300
Retai1 *** 12,000 80 50
Parking Garage 1 70,000 - 200
* Provide movable wall partitions to create one to four rooms.
** One per guest room floor.
*** Provide unfinished space.



A HOTEL ON THE LAKE
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VII. Process
Since the thesis emphasizes the built form in the landscape, the focus of the mid-term presentation was a model. The concept for the form is a bar sitting atop a rotated cube with the hotel guest rooms in the former and the hotel services in the latter. The hotel approach is by a ramp which orients the hotel guest with the site.


A HOTEL ON THE LAKE
701
Figure 7-1 Mid-term Model.


(?E5TUAKANT .
KJSSTUARANlT ? RlTCHEN
ROOM'S
ROOMS
ROOMS
ROOMS
PANQUET CONFERENCE ODOBX j PAR
SERVICE ___


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A HOTEL ON THE LAKE
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Figure 7.2 Mid-term Conceptual Section.


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A HOTEL ON THE LAKE
703


A HOTEL ON THE LAKE
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VIII.
Design Solution


AREA PLAN
10' CONTOUR INTERVALS
APPROXIMATE MEAN LAKE ELEVATION SSO


GROUND FLOOR PLAN


FIRST FLOOR PLAN
B


32
J 3rd floor



8th floor
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02 8 16 32
legend
1 MAID SERVICE
2 TYPICAL GUEST ROOM
3 GUEST SUITE I
4 GUEST SUITE II 6 MECHANICAL
6 STORAGE
7 POOL STRUCTURE
8 KITCHEN
9 OPEN
10 MEN
1 1 WOMEN 1 2 RESTAURANT
13 POOL DECK
14 BAR
15 SERVICE
16 EXERCISE
17 SAUNA
1 8 HOT TUBS
9th floor
10th floor


section A

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02 8 16 32
legend
1 MECHANICAL
2 HOT TUBS
3 EXERCISE
4 BAR
5 RESTAURANT
6 KITCHEN
7 MEN
8 GUEST ROOM
9 GUEST SUITE
10 SERVICE
11 PRIVATE DINING
12 PROMENADE
13 LOUNGE
14 OFFICE
15 COAT CHECK
16 RETAIL
17 MAINTENANCE
18 STORAGE
19 LOBBY
20 BANQUET
21 PARKING
section B


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IX. Cost Estimate
A cost estimate was computed for the thesis project for Systems Synthesis (ARCH 750). Using a rating of good, a cost of $23,200,000 was estimated, however, this estimate does not include costs for foundation structure (no suitable soils analysis was available), the marina expansion, the parking garage with rooftop tennis courts, or landscaping. Cost per square foot is
approximately $115 for the estimate given.


A HOTEL ON THE LAKE
1000
X. Cone 1 us ion
The author chose this thesis problem with two goals in mind: one deals with form and the other concerns the future of the Michigan City Harbor. The manipulation of space is no simple task. One must be aware of and develop a relation between the requirements imposed by the existing surroundings and the precedents of architecture. Study and reflection of the works Le Corbusier, Sert, and Kahn have had influence on the final design for this thesis. While three months of effort have been fruitful, more study is needed to be certain that the simplicity and beauty of the initial concept has not been lost in design development,
The Michigan City Harbor is a valuable asset of the local residents. No doubt there are those who would object to the placement of a ten story building directly on the lakeshore. (Figure 10.1) This thesis is hypothetical and serves mainly for advancing the author's knowledge of architecture. If in addition, others are made more aware of the potential for a recreational tourist industry by the harbor, then the second goal of this thesis has been reali zed.


A HOTEL ON THE LAKE
1001
F igure 10.1
Michigan City News-D i spatch, 13 May 1985. p.1
Lighthouse Point project scaled down
By RICK RICHARDS
News-Dispatch business editor
Four years ago, a proposal for Lighthouse Point, a 27 story hotel and condominium project on the citys lakefront, was unveiled.
Today, even though that project has been scaled back to side-by-side buildings of about seven and 10 stones, it is a step closer to becoming reality.
Thai is the announcement made this morning by Robert W. Leiby, owner of Leiby Real Estate, who sold the lakefront property to developers Friday for $250,000. The land, site of the former South Brop.v
factory at the base of the Franklin Street bridge, has 360 feet of frontage along the harbor. It was previously owned by the Marine Building Corp.
Leiby would not reveal any details concerning the project or its cost, saying only that a special press conference about the project will be held at City Hall within the next two weeks. Heading the project is Albert Francik of A. Francik and Associates Inc., a Chicago architectural firm.
The project has been changed Bince it was first announced, Leiby said. It has been scaled back.
Originally* the project called for a
single, 27'btory tower, with a hotel on the lower levels and condominiums on the upper floors.
Today, the project includes a seven-story hotel and a 10- to 12-story condoiuiiniun tower. The two buildings would be connected by a two- to three-story building that would house a theater and convention center, Leiby said.
"When we announced this project in 1981, we said then it would be on about a four year time table before we could make an announcement, he said. The developers have had to complete market studies and revamp their plans.
When Francik unveiled his qr-
iginal drawing to Mayor Clifford Arnold on May 20, 1981, the project had a price tag of $40 million.
I We are sure we have a project that is the most attractive and beneficial to the community,
Leiby noted that the sale of the land coincided with the announcement that Michigan City was in the running to host the sailing and yachting events lor the 19S7 Pan Am guinea.
The Pan Am announcement is very timely as far as were concerned," Leiby said. Certainly it would be nice if it (the hotel) could be dune by the time of the Pan Am-games.
One of the concerns of Pan-Am officials is whether Michigan City has enough support facilities, such as hotel rooms, to host the sailing and yachting events.


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XI. References
Footnotes
I . Introduction
(1 )Recreation and Planning Associates et al., Michigan City Development Plan, Report to the State Planning Services Agency and the City oT~Michigan City, Indiana, December 1980 (Michigan City IN: Planning Office, I98O), p. 1.
(2) John E. Rosenow and Gerreld L. Pulsipher, Tour i sm (Lincoln NE: Century Three Press,
1979), P. 60.
(3) Donald E. Lundberg, The Tourist Business (Institutions/Volume Feeding Management Magazine, 1973). p. *1.
(MJoseph De Chiara and John Callender, eds, Time-Saver Standards for Building Types, 2nd ed. (New Yorks McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1980), p. 870.
II. Site Analysi s
(1)Gladys Bull Nicewarner, Michigan City, Indiana: The Life of a Town (Indianapolis: Whipporwill Publications, 1980), p. 23-
(2) Stephen E. Davis, William L. Wood, and Lee L. Weishar, Shoreline Situation Report: La Porte County, Indiana (West Lafayette IN: Great Lakes Coastal Reserch Laboratory, 1981), pp. 17~20. (*)
(3) Recreation and Planning Associates et aj_., Michigan City Development Plan, Report to the State Planning Services Agency and the City of Michigan City, Indiana, December 1980 (Michigan City IN: Planning Office, 1980), p. 1.
(*) , Michigan City Harbor: Section 107 (Chicago: Us Army Corps of Engineers,
1982), pp. 2-1 - 2-17.


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TTOl
(5) _______. Soil Survey of La Porte County, Indiana (Washington D.C,: National
Cooperative So 11 Survey, 1982), pp. 34-35, 125-162.
(6) Tom Porter, Architectural Color: A Design Guide to Using Color on Buildings (New Yorks Whitney Library of Design^ 1982), pp. 77~78.
III. Climatic Analysis
(1) , Michigan City Harbor: Section 107 (Chicago: US Army Corps of Engineers,
1982), p. 2-2.
(2) _______, Soil Survey of La Porte County, Indiana (Washington D.C.: National
Cooperative Soil Survey, 1982 ), pp. 16316A.
(3) Val L. Eichenlaub, Weather and Climate of the Great Lakes Region (Notre Dame IN: The University of Notre Dame Press, 1979), PP* 81-82.
(4) , The New International Atlas (Chicago: Rand McNally 6 Company, 1980), p.
1-142. (5 )Edward Mazaria, The Passive Solar Energy Handbook (Emmaus PA: Rodale Press, 1979), P*
15*.
IV. Zoni ng (1) , The Comprehensive Zoning Ordinance of Michigan City (Michigan City IN, 1976.
Codes
(1)________, The Indiana Construction Rules (Indianapolis, 1980), pp. 1-3.
V.


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V I. Program
(1 )Joseph De Chiara and John Callender, eds, Time-Saver Standards for Building 2nd ed (New Yorks McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1980), p. 870-926.
X. Conclusion
(1 )Willy Boesiger, ed., Le Corbusiers Last Works (New Yorks Praeger Publishers,
p. 168.
1
Types,
1970),


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BIb1iography
Albers, Josef. Interaction of Color. New Haven, CNs Yale University Press, 1975.
Aloi, Giampiero. Hotel Motel. Milan: Hoepli, 1970.
Bacon, Edmond N. Design of Cities. New York: The Viking Press, 1967*
Bartholomew, Wayne, Paul Joray, and Paul Kochanswski. An Analysis of the Economic Impact of the Marinas and Launching Facilities in Michigan City on the Michigan City Economy: A Summary. Report to the Michigan City Chamber of Commerce, Michigan City TFT^ Apr i 1 1982. Michigan City IN: Chamber of Commerce, 1982. (Mimeographed.)
Bastlund, Knud. Jose Lusis Sert. Zurich: Artemis, 1967.
Boesinger, Willy, ed. Le Corbusier. New York: Praeger Publishers* 1970.
Boniface, Priscilla. Hotels & Restaurants. London: Balding and Mansell, Wisbech, 1981.
Davis, Stephen E., Lee L. Weishar, and William L. Wood. Shoreline Situation Report, La Porte County, Indiana. Report to the Great Lakes Coastal Research Laboratory. West Lafayette, IN: Dept, of Geosciences, Purdue University, 1981.
De Chiara, Joseph and John Callender, eds. Time-Saver Standards for Building Types. 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1980.
Fantus Company, The. Michigan City Assets and Liability Analysis. Report to the Michigan City Area Chamber of Commerce, Michigan City IN, October 1982. Michigan City IN: Chamber of
Commerce, 1982.
Gorman, Michael, Frank Height, Mary B. Mull in, and W. H. Walsh, eds. Design for Tourism. Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1972.


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TfoiT
Head, Derek. Mar i nas, Volumes 1-3. London: Viewpoint Publications, 197^*
Lundberg, Donald E. The Tourist Business. Chicago: Institutions/Volume Feeding Management
Magazine, 1973.
Mazaria, Edward. The Passive Solar Energy Book. Emmaus, PA: Rodale Press, 1979*
Moleski, Walter, "Environmental Programming for Human Needs." Facility Programming. Wolfgang Preiser, ed. Stroudsberg PA: Hutchinson Ross Inc., 1978.
Nicewarner, Gladys Bull. Michigan City, Indiana: The Life of a Town. Indianapolis: Whipporwill Publications, 1980.
Palmer, Mickey. The Architects Guide to Facility Programming. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1981.
Pena, William. Problem Seeking. Boston: Cahners Book International, 1977*
Pevsner, Nikolaus. A History of Building Types. Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press, 1978*
Porter Tom. Architectural Color: A Design Guide to Using Color on Buildings. New York: Whitney Library of Design, 1982.
Recreation Planning Associates, Ltd.; Wurster, Bernardi 6 Emmons, Inc.? Economic Research
Associates; and Environmental Planning Institute. Problem Analysis. Report to the State Planning Services Agency and The City of Michigan City, Indiana, June 1980. Michigan City IN: Planning Office, 1980.
________. Conceptual Plan Formaulation and Evaluation. Report to the State Planning Services
Agency and The City of Michigan City, Indiana, October 1980. Michigan City IN: Planning
Office, 1980.
________. Michigan City Development Plan. Report to the State Planning Services Agency and The
City of Michigan City, Indiana, December 1980. Michigan City IN: Planning Office, 1980.


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Rosenow, Turab ian.
John E. and Gerreld L Pulsipher. Tour i sm. Lincoln NEs Century Three Press, 1979*
Kate L. A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations. 3rd ed. Chicago* The University of Chicago Press, 1967.
Louis I. Kahn. Tokyo: Architecture and Urbanism Pub 1ishing Co., Ltd., 1975 -
The New International Atlas. Chicago: Rand McNally 6 Company, 1980.
revised.


Art Yagodnick
Park Board Superintendent
Washington Park Offices
Michigan City, IN **6360
219/873-1506
Mike Burgerson, Att.
Sheridan Beach Homeowners Association 2222 East Michigan Boulevard Michigan City, IN **6360
219/87**-**2 76
Lou Brunanski Lands Office
Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore U.S. Highway 12 and Kemil Road Porter County, IN **630**
219/926-7561
Melvin Womack
Soil Conservation Service
La Porte County
97 West 18th Avenue
La Porte, IN **6350
219/362-6633
A HOTEL ON THE LAKE
ffoS'
Resources
Joseph Krueger
M.C. Port Authority Board Member Heismann Road Michigan City, IN **6360 219/872-7672
Charles Oberle
Michigan City Chamber of Commerce 711 Frank!in Square Michigan City, IN **6360 2 19/87**-6221
Mary Pittman Science Office
Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore U.S. Highway 12 and Kemil Road Porter County, IN **630** 219/926-7561
G. M. Fedorchak and Associates Architect/Construction Manager Dunescapes On Lake Michigan 8585 Broadway, Suite 680 Merrillville, IN *6**10 219/7698**22


A HOTEL ON THE LAKE
1107
Carol Calsa
Department of the Army
Chicago District, Corps of Engineers
219 South Dearborn Street, Suite 680
Chicago, IL 60604
312/353-6412
Mar i1yn Love
Dept, of Fire Prevention and Building Saftey 1099 North Meridian, Suite 900 Indianapolis, IN 46204 317/232-1437
Jim Peters
Department of Water Resources 6023 Guion Road, Suite 201 Indianapolis, IN 46254 317/927-8640
Paul Mohrhardt
Department of the Army
Chicago District, Corps of Engineers
219 South Dearborn Street, Suite 640
Chicago, IL 60604
312/353-6506
Elaine, Larry, Virginia and Stan Michigan City Planning Department 100 East Michigan Boulevard Michigan City, IN 46360 219/873-1415
Mary Ellen, Margaret, and Cookie La Porte County Courthouse Michigan and Lincolnway Sts.
La Porte, IN 46350 219/326-6808