Citation
A Museum project proposed for the Stearns County Historical Society, located in the state of Minnesota

Material Information

Title:
A Museum project proposed for the Stearns County Historical Society, located in the state of Minnesota
Creator:
Booker, Darryl, W
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
1 volume (approximately 150 leaves) : illustrations (some color), maps ; 28 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Museum architecture -- Minnesota -- Stearns County ( lcsh )
Museums -- Designs and plans -- Minnesota -- Stearns County ( lcsh )
Museum architecture ( fast )
Museums ( fast )
Minnesota -- Stearns County ( fast )
Genre:
Designs and plans. ( fast )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Designs and plans ( fast )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
Darryl W. Booker.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
09473386 ( OCLC )
ocm09473386
Classification:
LD1190.A72 1979 .B66 ( lcc )

Full Text


THESIS;
SUBMITTED TO:
SUBMITTED BY:
A museum project proposed for the Stearns County Historical Society, located in the state of Minnesota.
The College of Environmental Design, University of Colorado, at Denver as a final design requirement for the Master of Archiecture.
Darryl W. Booker
THIS DATE:
July 10, 1979
APPROVED BY:
C. G.
I c ng
PRESENTED ON:
December 10, 1979


FOREWORD


"To learn is to survive."
Peter T. Smith
This thesis marks the conclusion of my formal studies at the University at Colorado, hut not the end of my learning and understanding.
The project that I have chosen as my thesis is a heritage museum located in St. Cloud, Minnesota.
The problem interested me because of its scale, the challenging issues in museum design, the site with its three part function and the opportunity to integrate landscape, and heritage center into one whole.
The solution to the problem should represent a synthesis of all my learning at this point.
The thesis itself should be that interfacing element between the world of formal education to become an architect and the real world of an architect.
Respectfully submitted,
Darryl W. Booker
"The world is full of knowledge but lacking in understanding."
L. Sullivan


CONTENTS
a


CONTENTS:
COVER SHEET
FOREWORD
CONTENTS
acknowledgments
THE PROPOSAL
problem statement state map county map city map
historic sites map
concise history of the county
what is a museum anyway?
issues.addressed
information index
premise/purpose
personal goals
the product of this project
thesis advisory board
thesis time schedule
THE PROBLEM
owner program climate summary solar data site analysis topography soils hydrology vegetation auto circulation views context
key to site slides site slides code investigation zoning investigation issues addressed-eiaborared human factors in design
THE SOLUTION: concept site plan floorplans elevations sections hvac schematic structural schematic models
BIBLIOGRAPHY
APPENDIX


AGK
NGWLEOGE
MEIMTS
3


THANKS:
Miller Dunwiddie Architects Minneapolis, Minnesota
Stearns County Historical Society St. Cloud, Minnesota
Faculty, Staff and Friends University of Colorado Denver College of Environmental Design
SPECIAL THANKS:
Linda My Wife
Ruth M.




The county of Stearns, located in the central portion of the State of Minnesota, would like to build a county heritage center of approximately 30,000 ft^ to hold the collections of the Historical Society and serve as a resource to the community and others.
The site itself is 97 acres and is located within the city of St. Cloud, the county's largest city. The development of the site itself is going to be a joint venture between the county, state and the city of St. Cloud. The state needs to create water retention ponds, the city wants to create a park and add to their park system. The county wants a Heritage Center that will integrate into its site, be forceful yet inviting.
The major physiographic features of the site are field, marsh, pond, and woods. Access to the site is excellent with the north and east boundaries defined by improved arterial streets. The west boundary will be a new trunk highway.
The climate of this region is cold winters and a pleasant spring, summer, fall (see climate summary sheet).


The program for "building was developed jointly between the Historical Society and the architecture firm of Miller Dunwiddie, Architects of Minneapolis.
Energy: Gas and electricity are
available as an energy source. However,'all attempts will be made to achieve an energy efficient building through the use of natural systems when appropriate and in compliance with the state energy code.


A BRIEF EARLY HISTORY OF STEARNS COUNTY
1853 1930
Reprinted through the courtesy of the Stearns County Historical Society
**-K-**-X **-K-*# *-K--it* -* -B--*-K-* -*** *-K- -B- #-B -B-B-B -B-B-B-B-BBB *-B-B-B
Stearns County is in the central part of Minnesota. It is bounded on the north by Todd and Morrison Counties, on the east by the Missippi River, which separates it from Benton and Sherburne Counties, on the south by Wright, and Meeker and Kandiyohi Counties, and on the west by Douglas and Pope Counties. It is the largest county in the southern half of the State, containing full congressional townships and several fractional ones. The area is 1,393 square miles.
The surface is divided between prairie, rolling land, and hills.
The soil is generally from one to two feet deep. Fully half of the prairie land was originally covered with heavy timber, much of which still remains. Lakes are plentiful and there are numerous water powers in the Mississippi and its tributaries.
Numerous artificial mounds, varying in size and shape, give evidence of the prehistoric occupancy of Stearns County by a primitive people, Indian-like, and perhaps the ancestors of the Indians found here by the whites. Mounds have been examined along the north fork of the Crow River, on the banks of Sauk Lake, Lake Koronis and Clearwater Lake, along the Ashley Creek Valley near Pope County, and also near Paynesville and at isolated spots.
When the first explorers came to the upper Mississippi region, the present area of Stearns County was ranged by the Dakota or Sioux Indians, whose headquarters were northwest of Mille Lacs not far away. About the middle of the eighteenth century the Chippewa drove them to the country west of the Mississippi and south of Crow Wing Rivers. Long and bitter warfare continued for nearly a century, even though in 1825, the two nations agreed to a boundary line between their hunting grounds.
A part of the Chippewa country between the Watab and Crow Rivers and westward, embracing some of the future Stearns County, was designated in I8L7 as a reservation for the Winnebago Indians. They landed at Watab late in the summer of 18L8 and located near their agency at Long Prairie. For several years thereafter they occasionally camped and hunted in Stearns County. They were removed in 1855* The Sioux relinquished their portion of the county by the treaties of Traverse Des Sioux and Mendota, signed in 1851 and approved in 1853 They continued, however, to visit Stearns County from the reservation along the Minnesota River until the end of the Uprising of 1862. Bloody encounters between Sioux and Chippewa bands took place in Maine Prairie in 1858, 1359, and i860.
EARLY EXPLORERS Lieutenant Zebulon M. Pike ascended the upper Mississippi River on an exploring trip for the United States Government in the fall of 1305, and spent winter in a stockade which he built on the west bank of the Mississippi River about four miles below Little Falls. Other early explorers who passed the present Stearns County were Lewis Cass and Henry Rowe Schoolcraft in 1320, Giacomo C. Beltrami in 1823, Schoolcraft again in I832, and Joseph N. Nicollet in_1986. All these explorers were searching for the sources of the Mississippi River.


FUR TRADING POSTS Three early fur trading posts were established across the Mississippi River from what is now Stearns County. One was operated at Sauk Rapids as early as 1789* Jean Baptiste Perrault called the location "Grand Rapids" and passed part of that year there at the home of one Giasson. A post of Robert Dickson was just below Sauk Rapids during the winter of 1805-06. Watab appears to have been a flourishing trading post from 184-4- to 1855* One of the agents was Sylvanus B. Lowry. He established a subagency on the west bank of the river in 184-9, and erected a log cabin which was used as a storehouse and bachelor dwelling. The building was located in what is now Brockway Township, Stearns County. Ashley C. Riggs, who had a post at Big Lake, Sherburne County, opened a subagency in Wakefield Township in the present Stearns County in 1852. Traders were also active in the present LeSauk Township in the early fifties.
EARLY SETTLEMENT The real settlement of the county dates from 1853. following a proclamation of the Sioux Treaties. Modern St. Cloud had its beginning with the purchase by John L. Wilson of the squatter rights of Ole Bergeson. David Keough came over from Sauk Rapids in 1853 and built a house on Sauk River in the present township of St. Cloud. This was probably the first farm house in the county. A few farmers took claims near the mouth of the Watab in LeSauk Township, and a settlement was started in Lynden Township. All the Mississippi River towns and St. Joseph, just west of St. Cloud, had settlers in 1854-. The settlement then spread westward, the heavier trends being up the Sauk Valley.
A census of I856 showed a population of 2,84-0. By i860 the county had a population of 4-, 505* Settlement in the extreme western and southwestern portions was slower. Isolated settlers drifted in about i860, but after the Indian uprising that region was deserted, and settlement was not resumed until the close of the Civil War. A stretch of territory along the northern boundary between Melrose and Bockwas was not settled until still later.
THE GERMAN INFLUX The German immigration into Stearns County began in 1854-. It grew to large proportions in 1855 and I856 and then continued as a steady influx until about the close of the first decade of the nineteenth century. The early arrivals came from the older States as well as directly from Germany. Some located in St. Cloud and the immediate vicinity, while others pushed on to St. Wendel, St. Joseph, St. Augusta, and Wakefield, and later to Collegeville and other towns. Some were craftsmen who pursued their former occupation, but the majority were farmers.
COUNTY ORGANIZATION The present area of Stearns County was included in Wahnahta and Dakotah Counties, two of the nine original counties created by the first Territorial Legislature in 134-9. Both Counties extended from the Mississippi River to the Missouri River. The boundary between them was a line drawn due west from the mouth of the Clearwater River. These two counties were created only for the appointment of justices and constables and such other judicial or administrative officers as might be specifically provided for. In 1851 the present Stearns County was included in Cass County, created that year. If the "Source of the Crow River" is taken to mean the source of the north fork, a small portion of the present county still remained in Dakota County.
Stearns County was established and organized by the Legislature in 4855 The act as passed by both houses gave the county the name of Stevens in honor of General Isaac I. Stevens, who conducted an expedition through the county in 1853* When the act was approved, however, the name was changed to honor Charles Thomas Stearns, then serving his second yeai as a member of the Territorial Council from the precinct of


St. Anthony Falls. He soon afterward moved to St. Cloud and built a large hotel which was given his name. The hotel became the original building of the State Teachers College.
The boundaries of Stearns County were again defined by acts of i860, 1861, and 1870.
The act organizing the county directed the Governor to appoint three county commissioners and designated St. Cloud as the county seat.
A board of supervisors with a representative from each township functioned as the county board of Stearns County from August 3. 1858 to June ^, i860. On the latter date a newly elected board of five county commissioners perfected its organization and divided the county into five commissioner districts, but their boundaries have been changed with shifts in population.
St. Cloud has remained the county seat since it was first elected in 1855 An attempt to remove the seat of county government to Albany in 1913 was unsuccessful. Contracts for erecting the first courthouse was let on July 7. I856, and bonds were issued at the same time. However, there was some delay in getting a building erected, and eight years passed before the board finally accepted the building on July 12, 186^. During this time the board rented rooms for offices and for holding court. Additions were made to the building from tine to time by adding rooms and vaults. Finally in 1922 a new courthouse was erected. The county had no jail for a few years after its organization, and in 1861 the county board purchased a leg structure and fixed up for use as a jail. On January 3. 1865. the grand jury pronounced it a "perfect nuisance." It was not until 1899 that a new jail was built. It is not connected with the courthouse but it is on the same property.
TOWNSHIPS Eleven townships were created by the board of county commissioners on May 19, 1858. These eleven original townships were from time to time divided and subdivided until their number has increased to 37* The youngest township is Collegeviule, organized early in 1880. Of the first eleven, only St. Cloud, St. Joseph, Lake Henry, and Sauk Centre have retained their original names. The other seven names were changed or were ignored when modifications were made in township boundaries.
EDUCATION The first free day school in Stearns County was taught in a donated room in the home of Joseph Edelbrock at St. Cloud in 1356 by Reverend Father Cornelius Wittman, later first president of St. John's Seminary. There were ten pupils, seven boys and three girls. A short time afterwards a schoolhouse was built in "Lower Town" by popular subscription and named in honor of Edward Everett, Massachusetts statesman, educator, and author, who gave substantial aid. The teacher's pay was a small monthly tuition fee. The first public school was opened in the same building in 1858. Ten public schools were operating in the county in i860. The school in St. Cloud, one on che St.Cloud-St. Joseph road near the Sauk River bridge, the Clearwater school, the Perry school in Rockway Township, the school in the village of St. Joseph, the one at Richmond, the Paynesville school, the Fair Haven school, and the schools in the present districts numbered 28 and 29 in Maine Prairie Township. The year 1869-70 was one of considerable activities in the public school affairs of the county. Fifteen new school houses were erected as compared to none the previous year. In 1870-71 four more were built. There were then 37 log schoolhcuses still standing. An equal number were of frame structure, four of brick, and one of stone.


RELIGIOUS TRENDS The oldest church of Stearns County is the church of St. Joseph in St. Joseph Township. The Reverend Father Francis X. Pierz, for many years an Indian Missionary at Crow Wing, ministered to the whites at various points on the east bank of the Mississippi, and, after persuading a number of German Catholics to settle along the Sauk River in Stearns County, started saying Mass in private homes on St. Joseph prairie as early as 185^- From the days of the beginnings of the German settlement in 185^-56 the Catholic influence in Stearns County has been strong. The first Protestant organization in Stearns County was the Baptist Society of St. Cloud in 1855- Services were first held in a private residence and at the Everett schoolhouse. Protestant Episcopal, Methodist Episcopal, Presbyterian, Congregational, and Universalist denominations also held early services in St. Cloud and perfected organizations. Evangelical, Lutheran, Swedish Baptist, Unity, Church of God, Adventist, Christian Science, and other organizations followed.
INDUSTRIAL ACTIVITIES There were 116 manufacturing establishments in Stearns County in 1929- They employed 2,587 persons and the year's output was $19,113821.
The principal nonagricultural industry is quarrying and fabricating granite, S-fc. Cloud being one of the largest granite producing centers in the world. The first quarry in Minnesota was opened on the present site of the Minnesota State Reformatory in East St. Cloud in the spring of 1868. The first granite company to operate on the west side of the river was incorporated in 1875* It was not, however, until 1895-96 that the granite business in St. Cloud and vicinity became well established and since then the production of monuments has vied in importance with the cutting and dressing of building stone.
AGRICULTURE Agriculture is the principal industry of Stearns County. Nineteen-twentieths of the county is suitable for cultivation. Of the remainder the sloughs furnish good hay, and the river bluffs and the knolly, hilly, and stony land give valuable pasturage. The first farm house was built in 1853* Farming began more extensively with the growth of settlement the following year.
POPULATION TRENDS The population of Stearns County increased from ^,505 in i860 to 62,121 in 1930, the largest in Minnesota outside of the metrooolitan areas. The growth has been rapid; I870, 1^,206;
1830, 21,956; 1890, 3^,8^; 1900, ^+,^64; 1910, ^7,733; 1920, 55,7^1.
More than 91 percent are native-born white. The dominant elements of recent European origin are German, Scandinavian, Slavic and British.
Taken from Inventory of the County Archives of Minnesota.


6WE Of:
MIK1KJE &OTA




-<£F
___________£2?22C*A*
i
;< 0* S
!3(-te Ji 2
4th
*N
'-*----- ^-r-ZW^ZTTrfJKl'i '

5EVV1PIF.4
TOT 1
a..
^ *
jyao#on ;
15m
^aN^OfeiPL
4 Junior
3 /j.w fSjr.rtqft
C*ntr*l *4n^oti Mrvji >
]4TV ST
IT* ST
PL
VrtoranS
f MmlnlstrctJon I A^cito
>w,, ^s'-
**.*'* |
:.r _ i sr
n Hrth Cmtr >#0/0
5jS>£-^^sJ_ c VJ ^ vr.'wrv.
: 5 : : ;i i
!(
: ____r.i *
; % \r.tex*- S^'&a S-
~ t i. S S : 5S!J.|t zi z sr X *I* H zt ;
§ 1L i rl u lL
- T

a*.ft-fe-
L*Li f V^orj'
____5!
d WAITE S t'f r jton
2! >*srthtfn Ck Shota
THto smrr
r-r
'mt *
^; s; icr^r"!"
1 5 5* i&tl V\ i s
* ** *i v
< .-gfT' >
| I ^'-'
-Lf' Hn 5
;glS!? -!r | a if
!|ii-til l £ti
^T5r*
UNO'At TTR
tssoUiwv^
TStjV* 1 HIGH***
: fias:
s x; i r. : K1*,|5!.!~, * m* If - - S '{^>C 5K ^_'r ,-r ,l .Li.
: | Ml iT i T'i.d .- *; *wl
me gmtTQKt^Cr^-^4;
limits /
;H'7]
X\ r&r> If ( 1
* -V 7;7'7'hjn s? <5 t* ,-'i ./}
^TrrtT

Cthafr
C*mHrr>
Y^Tt?rst*5 -VTa
m T/7 ;9
W P ^3
-fc- fey i! \


TheStCloudDailyTjmes*centennialyear HISTORY MAP of Stearns. Benton, and Sherburne counties 194*9
COMPILED BY HELEN IY1 LATTERELL (BENTON) ENOCH E. BJU£E (SHE* BURNE) and GLANVILLE SMITH OF STEARNS Drjion b^ G tanville Smith forth* Stearns County HistoricaI Society.
Rads shoton, vxCcyd tlu>-, iuitti Her Benton county, are clurlej from the Survey of 1856-1857 I8S8
Roj4s Hius = still in us*?.
I options ilius ** **now closed BENTON Gxinlk), on4 tK* onjtiiul counties in MiiMitsold'lirritotM.uus ciljUibliul in H149 and tinned for ftionustiirl Denton, dumpion oi |he Hflinesltadliius. 11 exlcndcd luthose da4* from Anoka's futuie site fo Milk l-^cs STEARNS uias established in
1855 and uias named bi| mistake (or a StCloud Iwltlkifir ClusTSlucns l llt inltndtxi name 10.1s Steven*, Uil a clerk copied it uron<>).SHERBURNE oiaseslaWishid in 1850 and named foi Moses Slier borne of the Territorial Supreme Court; be compiled the I't Minnesota statutes,died in ElKRwcr.
IbKOOTIN / |Sond..svtao Soo____
Line,toon of lbC
umAM
c^3L*J| cwi\ (
CrowloNf UtoftUiv.. !**. \
I c \ v
I Umii jcK UKe
KEY TO SITtS OF HISTOUICAI. IN I I KI
I.Pioneer limrt inteai hmj}donestk sen m e ami ,Oi uatOr mas done in Biblksctool t So in I>12 Uj llan ti l Win orld-famou. as M-iiniWeel lathpteceof Nobrl
pcutuuintfSmdairl iniis 1885;its ccwnlqUi Lite hi-kto Union Fair tield m 1875.Stale Hun* Sdwolopened I9il Din m<< IHe$ioox Outbreak of 186/ Hk |o.oi. iuuSgarrisoned l>i| U$ liuo^j 4in lb* itnoi a strain loo t Ime ran belcueen SaukCentrC and Little Sauk B mik, north. b Mtlro.se mas end of the railroad to- CucaiS Vo.,y a Cblorful'iailiuad toion'andiMi it-^lac*
920 | Hie firal non stop iDun.i -the -toor/4 fb*r, Capt. Jun tj adapter. Hijjh* dale: 1949.
I RanJ^lpk Holding IwmcstiaikJ at Hrj acvttjTix-Rivei IdCd'.ber.rc tluLin-^ lord T Dcfnamik U>mI i-urled al uupon o| a fanner named Wotnc 1911 caused sensation niOpalc.
8.*No4h Prairie* sett ted 1815 btlhc AY Neal andPtniirnH families.
9 Horses from M.P Clarkes farm Clc^dtMams coon 0rand prize atCbicapo WarMsfair UVJy tO pupils at Srhowl 5f ic-cariq times carried Hifirdnir baidtiom xhoulee-q .kq.
H in me tornado of 1877 a t>oq nauiM SwiHi mas blown 800 ft but lit $o| t L| In a nursh.
12 Upon h-inniiij} H.e state butter Jianpiunliip in 1708, Mein* c* we, prettiest village m ftie counted, exploded ini* ah,je lirft Suuk Centre at 4- am., changed Viorss i times.readied Si c.inud in the atteremoa HAvoti mas first setlkd h(Ntck fceprci* titei Bank rollers Item Hie fnent rff She lari in 1500 fur a Haul of^l /%hj. Ndlnnditluui during ttie.P.'cLilition iSXj's asrented* of~ moonstunr product* or*,' Minnesota 13'b4i4-ditioo made In circus texets hid in tee moods.
15. Meadow Lawn Farm pioneered purebred entile under N P.Ctarfce, then Leslie Smith.
16. WinotL^*A^tntq; Indian reservation headquarters 1848-1855.Thcrou.ite^s first School u*3s iaujjtit intfie blacksmith simp.
17. Joseph BSaiteil Set up J SSuniilljl the ih*uH, of Hie VYatal river in 1854-.
10 Bcauprt:\ 4 Ho les s terries to baukRapids, Arn-ilds prkl mill at ttu n.-uth ot Sauk rivet; made tins a lively sp^l pioneer times.
9 Bdovtd Noiiutjiian Lutheran chunk .center of pioneer Me of Hu 1 c dion, founded 1869.
20.One of ttir vanktied coa.ii stops on I In. Old Coach Read uui Pillsluriqs' tenuebu' RO.
71 Sole lake in the c ounti| to be praised Dqlte 1058 survftjws mas tinij Clear Lake.
22. After bemd a maudcrna institution lei II nears, St Johns mas built fmre I be. 7 Asa prio'9 Hails founded in StCloud 1856 !., Fr. Pemcti'ius.Counl Ji Ma-o^u; pjt of silve^igraduated ihfsotelass in 1870. J ^ears behe tt* sialeilniuersttv|. Made Center of iir ll S Lihirdir.^l novf ment ll bt.Joscpbois and John Linn*man mio built a UuhJsk|le uiiivtmill to^rind flour Important asa centercit Catlushc jclivitq in these curlcj times, the br^innmds here of Stfeentdirfs mere in 18C3, tt>c sciioul educating Indian apart of itvim^siouji-^uaork. 24 Site of Hie tounltes ft il bixu>ci|(Bi ink's. 26. Waite Park, first settled 1851, came tutu kei'ijl milti theG-N.ear simps,1892.
Tli A eovered Li ljlt here in pion.er times. 27 Explorer2bulonPih,SCtitbqJefferson 1805 K> explore just-fuixliased*Louismi.r named beaver Islands and Susapyed Soti^s and i^arns milh British fur traders here. 28. A Colouif of German I uthcran* settled here in 1884 first Salem church bmll 187/ 29 Richmond, lormo l>)*lorahmis local* J uifieix the Red Rivel'ra 11 crossed Hie 6auk to reach flic easternmost hpof Ihe plains.
3U Publk School 15. tarw-.landen-JoujcJ as a private school in 1859 bn Frank Kuhn. ha> never used the services of a moman tca.W*
)t An Indian fra Jm£ post flourished beet 1852 During I lie Grass hopper Plague oi tfe l67o's jliillluptl.jptlcii4sbu.lt ineuhicVl 15 Cjolr vuu*j of public luorship uieie* full i lied, tfie rlijpel Hu u l>ein^ puiictujll(| uiltisked auUq biq Ihe turnudo ot 189*1.
JlTmo Vetera us ot Hie Napol*?cNiU Wai s ar buiied at JacobsPiairt;parisMouudoi IflSte
33. Rail mad collision burnt 18 cars of ^Idin plus tfie Rockville elevator 1901.
34 Lakeside Club urns rendezvous for 5t Cloud Sucicti| in Hit (iJij SO*s.
35.Halfu.-ati House tavern,- stagecoach stop o\ road to Maine fYaii'ie,Kunbail.( Fan Haven.
36 Pacfnesville mas a center of excitement durind the Sioux Outbreak of 1862 The village mas burnt including its stockade, and outrjjks mere committed ( cabins inflames all the 10.14 to Richmond
37 BloodiqSioux-CfnppGou conflicts 1859-ta
38 During a district dispute, KiniballiVes Stole rural school 80 and draped if to tou.ui on skids during the ni^ht. 1890.
V). Maine Prairie Corners, dating h> 1856, toas the coun h|s liveliest settlement; a lo^ (or l housed the settlers during the Sioux Outbreak. But mhen Hie rai Iroad missed It it slomlit vanished Icxlye tulls,|if.tum( all.
40 First *Watkins Products'*mere made on the Watkins farm near Pearl Lake. c l87a
41.Fair Haven mas a U1S4 place in pre- railroad daiis, mill a 2 milelon^^of Ju|i| ^aiodc in 1874. burial place of James Uf
Gannon, horsrbav k utail earner, udm mas murdered 18fcl 89Chief l ifthCrocu Ihe l/risiinill o( pioneer times slill exists. 42.6ct)uqkr tlliit (.urn settled I85C; a pre.
railroad village I Lurched here, Pla lie River 43. A 600 )b bear shot in this region 1870. 44 Brcnmivilte mjs named tor its hot pastoc Fr Rster Bcnnt| iuIks tounded ttiC parish 1924 45.Sacomiti lUBU. Tlkc proprietor, CliarlesA Gilman,had been Lieut Governor HJ80 lo >887; Gihnan coas named in hjs tumor 46>.Ttis region uus part of River
Pineries* a lumberjacks' dream.
47-Old Watab liadind post: most impsort-dnt business and hotel center in Minnt iota north of St.Raul in 18SO.Nothing left-48.Peace Rocks-so named 84 ScLookrafF on his trip of discoverq to lake Itasca 1832 The official boundai 4 betiueen the hunfind-drounds ofduppetuas ^ Sioux crassed fre Mississippi here (followed Ihe Watab River into Stearns Courtti|).
a cyan
I856,nian4 line pionccda4housesshll exist.
56.5GteRc'torniato4lrst occupied 1889 an site is Minnesotas p!^rjnitc yuami,t0t>O.
57. Hattisc* steamboat laivhi.a cstablislicd tbVu
SB.Jbstpli Jeromes Red River inn 1846..
59. First R-F D. ixxiteoutdf St. Cloud driven bq Mis Leslie Alim t9^)2, also Hie dale of Elk River's Is* route. Before this cvcr4 little crossroads had itsoum post office.
OO. Joshua Bn^ds,an English seacapfa4 seiLLIcd on tte shores ot Bri^s lake 1853.
Ll lioo lads and their uncle shot to bears in this redion in one da4s hunting 1880
62.firs* settled bs Homer Hulett 1854 C.H Oiadbourne's palatial boose 1856 still stands
63 Isaac Marks £ Whitt's trading post 1848. A ioeJd-n^ partly landuG here 1855 utaS given a gunfire salute uiriich natural^xus mistaken for a raid t4 Hie Redskins.
64. Bold attempt at tram robhei'4 1895.
65. C(earmater ter 1*4 c. 1856. still m operation.
66 Atnond Hie vanished "river"touxns cuds
citle-
Marseilles, first settled 1856.
49.Thls 1857 trail socalltd because |o^t 67 "E(ni8rantHouse*built IBte^udierehome
anqu'hcre o it. 4on had to rise carlo.
50 Named for its settler of 1854 a veteran of the Mexican War, George Manbeiu
51 Medora. an ambitious settlement of 18&7, has Brushvilte for its successor.
52- R>le4 uas ori^inaltq a camp set up i88i bi (0I04 Brothers when building the raiF road.The countuseat roovext tv Hi*s more central location from Sauk Rapids 2901.
5i.Dam built 1907; 7 lives lodtintbepioceu.
steadccsukiId sta4 udiile looking for land. 68 Eagle Shot 1880,7'ift.u/inghp tou/ingtip. 69.Scandinavian families bcttled herein ftie l06Os AodersonS, Jensens, birds. 7O. Robert Orrock,Scotch,settled here 1856. H.EaHq SettlerS' J H Feldi.J.F. Ban 1856. 72 Ldkt Fremont iGirnd for explorer John Charles Fremont. Asa 40ong man he aided Nicollet 1838-43 in mapping Minnesota.
73. Houghton brothers settled here T8d8;
one buried here uias killed in Hie Sioux Outbreak at NuilNoi.
74. Putnani?- Iavcn> ot Red River*
Trail Jj4> (built 1856) still in existence at Lace. Indai^s
ot this l>* uii) Hie COUUI4 seat H*crc ujasa court case in cuhich Hie defendant ua3 "fiacd 4 4 5o for shouting a SuiedeT
75. Bailees stagecoach station 1852.
76. Pierre Bottineau's trading post, 1848. Upper tounchere- torm^rl4"0^ono,, Is the oldest part of Elk River: stores, hotel, and mill built U|I8jI First Sherbu rne Co. church, Episcopalian,organized ioOiunu !856.Count4 Seat moved to Elk River 1867
77. Tu>o major bathes behueen Qiippeu>as $ Sioux foudtit on Battle Point c.l //i.,1773
78 Oliver Hudson iCelli^ farm: he was founder of the facmersNationolGrange 1867.
73.STCLOU0, wlucJi straddles into all 3 counties,CUU1H4 seal ot 6>cants bom Hie start, u>as first settled c. 1851 and platted 1854 64 John (..Wilson. Wilson's bee diftsof land to Hie Efelkuckijenvoordu, Kus
usenbe ijJcS ete. lucre decisive in nukii^/ I Cloud Ike mart for the Gentian-Speakin'* hinterlands. Burbank ^ Co's vast trafl
via coach and u>adon used this turning (Mint in Hk Red River Trail for its hcad-^ydrlers; it became the center of a major U.5. granite producing area.ud ttiesifre of aTtactic*sLol|ede 1869. a. dreatCaHioh'c diocese IB89, Reiorma-forq 1889, ^Veterans' hospital I924i



WHAT IS A MUSEUM ANYWAY?
"An organized and permanent nonprofit institution, essentially educational or aesthetic in purpose, with professional staff which owns utilizes tangible objects."
American Association of Museums
"An institution for the preservation of those objects which best illustrate the phenomena of nature and the works of man, and the utilization of these for the increase of knowledge and for the culture and enlightenment of the people."
George Brown 1895
"The museum is the medium of communication. "
Michael Brawne
"A house of marvels, or a house of keeping."
From two terms in the Gaelic language meaning Museum
"A building to house collections of objeers for inspection, study, enjoyment ."
D. A. Allen


ISSUES ADDRESSED
1. Site constraints
2. Forces of climate sun, wind, temperature/moistur
3. Energy
4. Natural amenities
5- V iews
6. Expansion
7. Noise
8. Circulation A. Pedestrian B. Automobile C. Other
9. Lighting natural vs. artificial
10. Environmental control systems
11. Human factors
12. Form
H Function, expansion, flexibility
-uh H Program
15- Structure
16. Budget
17. Entry
18. Handicapped visitors/workers
19. Maintanance
20 . Exhibits
21. Problem solving


Information Index
Goals Facts
Function Statistical data
Mission
People Maximum number Area parameters
Individual identity Manpower/workloads
Interaction,'privacy User characteristics
Hierarchy of values Community characteristics
Activities Security Value of loss
Progression Time-motion study
Segregation Traffic analysis
Encounters Behavioral patterns
Relationships Efficiency Space adequacy
Form
Site elements Site analysis
Site (trees, water, open Climate analysis
space, existing Code survey
facilities, utilities) Soil analysis
Efficient land use F.A.R. and G.A.C.
Environment Neighbors Surroundings
Individuality Psychological
Direction Entry Projected image implications
Quality Level of quality Cost'sq. ft. Building efficiency Functional support
Economy Extent of funds Cost parameters
Initial Budget Cost effectiveness Maximum budget
Maximum return Time-use factors
Return on investment Market analysis
Operating Costs Minimize oper. costs Energy source-costs
Maintenance and Activities and
operating costs climate factors
Life Cycle Costs Reduce life cycle costs Economic data
Time Significance
Historic preservation
Past Static dynam'C Space parameters
Present Change Activities
Growth Projections
Future Occupancy date Linear schedule
35


Concepts Needs Problem
Space requirements Unique and important
Service grouping Parking requirements performance requirements
Outdoor space which will shape building
People grouping Activity grouping Priority Security controls Sequential flow Separated flow Mixed flow Relationships requirements Building efficiency Functional alternatives design
Enhancement Quality (costs/sq. ft.) Major form considerations
Climate control Environmental and which will affect
Safety Special foundations Density Interdependence Home base Orientation Accessibility Character Quality control site influences on cost building design
Cost control Cost estimate analysis Attitude towards the
Efficient allocation Entry budget (if req.) initial budget and
Multi-function Operating costs its influence on
Merchandising (if required) the fabric and
Energy conservation Life cycle costs geometry of the
Cost control Cost control (if required) building
Adaptability Phasing Implications of
Tailored,loose fit Convertibility Expansibility Concurrent scheduling Escalation change growth on long-range performance
37

PUBIS


..................................


PREMISE/PURPOSE
"To house the artifacts of Stearns County,, to engender the appreciation and dissemination of culture and history, and provide a resource facility."
Stearns County
Historical Society
"In organic architecture the ground itself predetermines all features, the climate modifies them, available means limit them, functions shapes them."
Frank LL. Wright


PERSONAL GOALS
To see architecture as a challenge and not he intimidated by its complexities. Accept its important role in the evolution of human and other natural systems.
"Like agriculture, architecture is a modification of the natural order."
F
LL. Wright


WHAT WILL BE THE PRODUCT OF PROJECT?
1. 8^ x 11" thesis manuscript
2. Site analysis
3. Area map
4. Site plan
5. 'Floor plans
6. Elevations
7. Sections and Details
8. Structural Schematic
9. HVAC Schematic
10. Site Model
11.
Building Model


THESIS ADVISORY BOARD:
G. K. Vetter Faculty
R. Kindig Faculty
G. Long Faculty
C. Nagel Faculty
D. Decker Decker
Associates
Architects


THESIS TIME SCHEDULE FALL '?9
Month Task Action Comments
May "The idea" Thesis proposal Thesis approval 1 week
June Research & information gathering Bound thesis manuscript to Theseis Committee first week of September +10 weeks
August 1 week in Minnesota for research
September Analysis/ideation schematic design A sense of direction "A pile of bomwad"
October Larger pile of bomwad Baby Booker due sometime
November Design development
December Presentation requirements Put the pieces together for presentation
December 10 Final presentation "Dog & Pony Show" Free again


THE
PROBLEM
5


THE PROGRAM
STEARNS COUNTY HISTORICAL MUSEUM for the
STEARNS COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY
ST. CLOUD, MINNESOTA


"To house the artifacts of Stearns County, to engender the appreciation and dissemination of culture and history, and provide a resource facility.
Stearns County Historical Society
The primary intent of this program is to develop and respond to the needs of the Stearns County Historical Society. It is the result of a review by the Architect and the Historical Society Building Committee of the program information form. That information has been expanded by defining in greater detail the character, size, and relationship of the space required.


SPACIAL NEEDS/ACTIVITIES AND OBJECTIVES Site Development
Provide outdoor space for interaction, reception, exhibition and meeting in good weather.
A. Exterior Space
1. Used for circulation, to separate and integrate activities It may be used as an extension of the meeting or exhibit spaces for outdoor activities. Provision should be made for future building expansion.
2. The exterior space should contain the following items:
a. Exterior space
Benches for sitting, outdoor display areas, meeting space for 18-32 people, night lighting.
B. Parking
1. A parking facility should be provided for both public and staff use. It should relate to the building entrance and/ or contain an entry dropoff point. It should be designed such that future expansion can occur.
2. The parking area should contain the following items:
a. Public parking space
Space for 50 cars, 3 busses, parking lot lighting, easy access to and from major vehicular traffic route(s) .
b. Handicapped parking
Space for k cars, easy access to building entrance with curb ramps provided.
c. Staff parking Space for 8 cars.
Administration/Reception
Primarily a space involved in museum direction and coordination, it is the information/entry block of the facility. It is a place for patrons to meet and be introduced into the museum complex.
Also it is a control point at which people enter and leave the museum.
A. Entrance Lobby
1. The lobby area must relate both to the street and/or parking lot. It should be designed such that it is visible from the reception/control desk.
2. The lobby should contain space for the following items:
a. Entrance Lobby 350 s.f.
Chairs/benches, seating for 8-12 people, bulletin board, public telephone, map of county.
b. Display Space 50 s.f.
Artifact display


B. Office/Reception Area
1. The office/reception area must relate to the lobby area.
It should be designed such that it is the control point thru which people enter and leave the museum.
2. The office/reception area should contain the following spaces/items:
a. Director's Office 150 s.f.
Desk, credenza, 3 chairs, typewriter, 4 drawer letter file, book shelving, telephone.
b. Curator's Office 150 s.f.
Desk, credenza, 3 chairs, typewriter, 4 drawer letter file, book shelving, telephone.
c. Reception/Secretarial Office 180 s.f.
Desk, 4 chairs, card catalog, accession file (4 drawer letter file), typewriter, telephone, public address system, etc.
d. Gift Shop 150 s.f.
Display counter for selling souvenirs, gifts, books, craft items, etc.
e. Workroom 120 s.f.
Work counter, mimeograph machine, storage shelving.
f. Conference Room 180 s.f.
Table (4' x 8'), 8 chairs, tackboard, book shelving.
g. Staff Lounge 120 s.f.
Kitchenette, lounge furniture, cot, coat hanging space.
h. Coat Hanging Facilities 50 s.f.
120 coats @ 5 coats/lin. ft. =24 lin. feet Movable coat racks should be considered or a combination of movable and fixed coat hanging. Coat hanging facilities should be accessible to entrance lobby but concealed from view.
Administration/Reception Library/Archives
A place for individual pursuit of study, information and experience exchange. Materials from the historical society's collection would be available for public use and a separate room for archival material provided. Library/archives area should be accessible when museum proper is closed.
A. Library Area
1. The library/archives area, although individual spaces,
should work together. The reception desk should be located such that it is the control point at which people enter and leave the library. Space should be planned so that future expansion can occur.


Administration/Reception (continued)
2. The library area should contain the following items:
a. Library 1800 s.f.
1000 lin. feet book shelving, 2 work/study tables (93' x 8'), 8 chairs, card catalog (4-0" x 17") ,
^ k drawer letter files, study carrel for cassette, reel or tape use (controlled from desk) reception desk.
B. Archives Space
1. An administration and research area, it should relate directly to the library but should be in itself operational. Space should be planned to permit future expansion.
2. The archives space should contain the following items:
a. Archivist/'Librarian Office 200 s.f.
2 desks, credenza, k chairs, 80 lin. feet shelving, telephone, typewriter, 4 drawer letter file.
b. Workroom 300 s.f.
2 tables (3' x 8'), 4 chairs, audio visual cabinet (2L" x 33"). copy machine, 30 lin. feet shelving, sink.
c. Archives Storage 200 s.f.
100 lin. feet shelving, k2" x 30" module (manuscripts, ledgers, record books, iO newspaper volumes, biographical files, geneologies), work table (3' x 8'), 2 chairs, 10-4 drawer genealogy files, microfilm files (1,000)
Meeting Room
People have an innate need to gather in order that specific questions can be answered or a general discussion can occur. Orientatior of tour groups, craft demonstrations, lectures, meetings, exc., will take place in this area.
A. Meeting Area
1. The meeting room should be readily available for use when the museum proper is closed. The space should be a flexible one, able to be used for varied activities such as: lectures, seminars, audiovisual presentations, group discussions, dining, dancing and special artifact display. The space should be subdivisible into two smaller spaces.
2. The meeting area should contain the following items:
a. Meeting Room 2,000 s.f.
Seating capacity for 200in stacking chairs,^ tables(3x8') chalk board, bulletin board, projection screen
b. Chair/table storage 200 s.f.
Storage for k tables, 200 stacking chairs, audiovisual equipment
c. Kitchenette 20 s.f.
Facility for serving coffee and light refreshments w/ sink, refrigerator, stove. No cooking of meals is contemplated. Society dinners would be catered.


Exhibit Area
Objects need space in which to be viewed. Primarily an educational space, it should afford the majority of its floor area to that of object display and the circulation required for proper viewing.
A. Permanent Collection/Exhibit Space
1. The space should be an operational one, fixing attention on the artifacts. Flexibility is required so that the space can be used for varied and mixed display items focusing on Stearns County history.
2. The permanent collect ion/exhibit space should contain the following items:
a. Permanent Collection/Exhibit Space 1,500 s.f.
Occasional seating for ^-8 people, display systems, artifacts, 2 natural history dioramas, geological display
B. Rotating Display/Exhibit Space
1. Similar to the Permanent Collection Exhibit Space, it should provide optimum flexibility such that a variety of display systems/techniques can be used. It should relate both to the workshop and exhibit storage areas for optimum operational performance.
2. The rotating display/exhibit space should contain the following items:
a. Rotating Display/Exhibit Space 3.000 s.f.
Occasional seating k-8 people, display systems, artifacts.
b. Circulation Exhibit Space
Corridors and halls should be designed so that rotating displays of graphic materials can be accommodated;
i.e., painting, photographs, etc.
c. Vehicular Display 1,500 s.f.
Space for 6 vehicles (oxcart, Pan motor car, carriages, etc.)
d. Touch and Feel Room 300 s.f.
A separate space for use by school children. Locate near meeting room.
Workshop
A space is needed for artifact cleaning and repair, fabrication of various displays, graphic media and exhibit organization. Primarily a manufacturing area, the space should be well lit and ventilated with easy access from the exterior.
A. Workshop
1. Adequate space for various power tools and their use should be provided along with ample storage for all display related supplies and materials. An adequate cleanup/work sink should also be provided. Provide easy access to the exhibit area ana exhibit storage.


Exhibit Area (Continued)
2. The workshop should contain the following items:
a. Production Area 400 s.f.
Table saw, work bench, hand tools, drill press, planer, band saw, work sink, telephone
b. Storage Area 200 s.f.
Wood, paint storage
Exhibit Storage
Artifacts not on display need to be stored in a controlled environment to minimize deterioration.
A. Artifact Storage Area
1. The space should relate both to the workroom and the exhibit display areas. Exterior access to the space should be provided for ease of movement of display items and artifacts.
2. The storage area should contain the following items:
a. Artifact Storage 4,000 s.f.
Storage of varied historical objects, 4 wardrobe cabinets, 4,300 lin. feet steel shelving units,
Kewaunee storage files, telephone
3- Storage off the site is to be provided for the following items:
a. Historical Vehicle Storage 4,000 s.f.
2 fire trucks, stage coach, horse carts, hearse, various antique cars. This storage will be provided in a separate remote location.
Ancillary Areas
In any building complex, space is required for the general maintenance of the project. Primarily service areas, the spaces should relate well to the major public areas within the building.
A. Toilet/Restrooms
1. Toilet rooms should relate to the meeting and lobby areas. They should be designed such that periodic maintenance can occur. Toilet rooms should be accessible when museum proper is closed.
2. The toilet/restroom area should contain the following items
a. Men's Room 120 s.f.
3 lavatories, mirrors, 2 urinals, 2 water closets
b. Women's Room 120 s.f.
3 lavatories, mirrors, 3 water closets
B. Janitors Closet/Storage
1. For storage and preparation of maintenance products. The space should be located such that all program areas are easily accessible.


Ancillary Areas (continued)
2. The janitors closet/storage area should contain the following items:
a. Storage Room 100 s.f.
Storage for various maintenance materials, steel shelvin
b. Janitor's Closet 20 s.f.
Service sink, shelving
C. Outdoor Storage
1. For storage of maintenance equipment related to maintenance of exterior space5 i.e., lawn mowers, snow blowers, hose, lawn sprinklers, etc.
2. Outdoor storage should contain the following items:
a. Outdoor Storage 50 s.f.
Storage for various pieces of maintenance equipment, ramp at door.
Mechanical
Mechanical systems should be centrally located, designed such that periodic maintenance can occur, and developed as to the specific needs of each area. Spaces should have control of their individual heating/cocling needs.
A. Mechanical/Electrical
1. Space for heating, ventilating and air conditioning units together with various electrical systems. Access from the exterior should be provided. Security system should be monitored by St. Cloud police dispatcher. Fire alarm system should be monitored by St. Cloud fire dispatcher.
2. The mechanical/electrical areas should contain the following items:
a. Mechanical Room 800 s.f.
Heating, ventilating, air conditioning and humidificatio units, telephone
b. Electrical Room ^00 s.f.
Security system, fire alarm system, electrical panel, telephone panel


1.
Administration/Reception
1,500 s.f
4.
5-
6.
A. Entrance Lobby 400 s.f.
a. Entrance Lobby 350 s.f.
b. Display Space 50 s.f.
B. Office/Reception 1,100 s.f.
a. Director's Office 150 s.f.
b. Curators Office 150 s.f.
c. Reception/Secretarial 180 s.f.
d. Gift Shop 150 s.f.
e. Workroom 120 s.f.
f. Conference Room 180 s.f.
g. Staff Lounge 120 s.f.
h. Cloak Room 50 s.f.
Library/Archies
A. Library Area 1,800 s.f.
a. Library 1,800 s.f.
B. Archives Space o o IN- s.f.
a. Archivist/Librarian Office 200 s.f.
b. Workroom 300 s.f.
c. Archives Storage 200 s.f.
Meeting Room
A. Meeting Area 2,220 s.f.
a. Meeting Room 2,000 s.f.
b. Chair/Table Storage 200 s.f.
c. Kitchenette 20 s.f.
Exhibit Area
A. Permanent Collection/Exhibit Space 1,500 s.f.
a. Exhibit Space 1,500 s.f.
B. Rotating Display/Exhibit Space 4,800 s.f.
a. Exhibit Space b. Circulation 3,000 s.f.
c. Vehicular Display 1,500 s.f.
d. Touch and Feel 300 s.f.
Workshop
A. Workshop 400 600 s.f.
a. Production Area s.f.
b. Storage Area 200 s.f.
Exhibit Storage
A. Artifact Storage 4,000 s.f.
a. Artifact Storage 4,000 s.f.
2,500 s.f
2,220 s.f
6,300 s.f
6oo s.f
4,000 s..
b. Historical Vehicle Storage (Off site)


7*
Ancillary Area
410 s.f
8.
A. Toilet/Restrooms a. Men's b. Women's 120 120 s.f. s.f. 240
B. Janitor's Closet/Storage a. Storage Room b. Janitor's Closet 100 20 s.f. s.f. 120
C . Outdoor Storage a. Outdoor Storage 50 s.f. 50
Mechanical
A. Mechanical/Electrical a. Mechanical Room 800 1, s.f. ,200
b. Electrical Room
1,200 s.f
Total
18,730 s.f


M |* t U
\£&OE\ - ! 7 AT I CM AL / £DM£err
!


19 October 1978
GUIDELINES PERTAINING TO ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN OF MUSEUM COMPLEX General Directives:
- design and materials of utmost importance
- outlay (available funds in vicinity of 1.2 million)
Museum Design:
- building should be masculine in character, vigorous and forceful in appearance, while remaining warm and inviting.
- materials should include the prominent use of granite, field stone and wood natural earth tone colors should be incorporated.
- building should be part of the landscape with the design directly relating to the setting.
- multi-level building design. (energy saving potential should be utilized to full extent storage areas may be unheated or solar assisted if feasible)
- flexible design (future expansion to be included in the plans)




DF't 50l£> TEAWARjft
o
u_
\%
no
[CD
%
to
nr,
/V
DC
^ *
iru j s'*
C
flD
m^x- *ne/np.j Vntn hcXTiidU
f £CT v.s- ^0-
\ (nn.lsmp. # rrw* hcnidq /
-itcoinq line O" c_ >
~L
0 10 rtC 33 *P 53> ec4 v SC %£EUT1VE HUAMDY
4 0''!
n >
&!06L!fArTl6- Of
Denver- COLG1S*PO
BL bfliO PT. /BAB ^£A IBB', MEAM rfeClPlTATIOM A\EAN ^TKlOVFAUL ' &.Q*
£K~EA\£ fflfaDP (2550 3
EXTfBAE COOL, PD BP MO. or 6L5*P- >-v£ £OOA!NO EBTUJEBW eef'/Af-O 02-


b!0CLA'ATI6 DATA Cf
-S" CLOUD 4\| kNSUDTA
6k 102b a m U'vfU
MEAN FrbOPlTATiOM IbSb11
MEAL AkClVFbLu tbb"
ecTfEAe H7 cKTfC/AS \C Cf CUEff DAYD CWJh\Nb
P-P^ yjp CU ^=p-/V)M I V^t ; Au- U-1 ^ Cwl, / | t 5U


SUN ANGLES
FOR:
46 N. Latitude St. Cloud, MN 45 33' N
June 22 (Solstice)
Alt. Bearing
5 am 7 pm 6.97 116.78
6 6 16.63 106.77
7 5 26.82 96.80
8 4 37.22 86.15
9 3 47-47 73-66
10 2 56.95 57.25
11 1 64.40 33.33
12 67.45
March 21, September 24 (Equinox)
6 am 6 pm 0.00 90.00
7 5 IO.36 79.09
8 4 20.32 67.45
9 3 29-42 54.27
10 2 36.98 38.75
11 1 42.14 20.43
12 44.00 0.00
December 22 (Solstice)
8 am 4 pm 1.86 52.65
9 3 9.46 41.12
10 2 _ 15.41 28.41
11 1 19.23 14.56
12 20.55 0.00










NorfH-





UNDEVELOPED

- ih ie>2_
z UNDEVELOPED




BUILDING CODE CHECK LIST
PROJECT NAME & NUMBER , *
QyjhJry 'afyVfiC/*-
LOCATION
44Clew
USE N\\ftO^A -f^X'PO^ PREPARED BY,
DZCOfBh
BUILDING CODE
BUILDING OFFICIAL CONSULTED
Sheet 1
DATE ^cty £f
PHONE FIRE ZONE PHONE
Total Floor Area Estimated Actual Floor Areas
Single Floor Area Estimated
CHAPTER 5 GENEf^L-RFQUIRFMFNTS___
fcb A=Fbe^e?iy
Orri innnrv Tvrv> ------TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION
L L LL ,1 .WrW Basic Allowable Area (Table 5-C) i i i LT^Limi e.d ITFP- 22/5£C Z IrtF- IC..ICO Hi Hft 10,100 31 t+T 10,££> S tW-7ACC
Increase for Fire Zone 3 0 1 % ' k? 30^
Increase for Separations ( 7,3 or all sides
Increase for Fire Extinguisher System
Total Allowable Area (One Floor)
Total Allowable i
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE Stories BUILDING HEIGHT Feet Increase for Fire Sprinklers TYPES OF C ONSTRUCTICN
<0. 1 rL
UaO r C- / £- 50
r


BUILDING CODE CHECK LIST
Sheet 2
SEPARATIONS BETWEEN OCCUPANCIES
fey* FIRE RESISTANCE OF EXTERIOR WALLS (TYPE IV & V CONSTRUCTION)
I Ur-
' UBC
OPENINGS IN EXTERIOR WALLS (TYPE IV & V CONSTRUCTION)
^CG{eOT£cl 'iCrt
CHAPTERS 6-15 REQURIEMENTS FOR OCCUPANCIES
SANITATION BOILER; ROOMS
CHAPTER 16 RESTRICTIONS IN FIRE ZONES


BUILDING CODE CHECK LIST
S H e e t 3
CHAPTER 17-22 REQUIREMENTS FOR CONSTRUCTION Fire Resistive Requirements---I/O
1-ffL £-fP- HI \V Errl-
EXTERIOR BEARING WALLS 4-rp 4-3> 4-<£
INTERIOR BEARING WALLS £ 7 i 1
EXTERIOR NON BEARING WALLS *~a> + $
STRUCTURAL FRAME a ! ' ( or brTT
PERMANENT PARTITIONS 1 1 1 lor rr-r
VERTICAL OPENINGS /O t- 1 I 1
FLOORS *2 a 1 1
ROOFS | \\r
EXTERIOR DOORS & WINDOWS . (3
PARAPETS REQUIRED
PROJECTIONS FROM BUILDING
(fc)
0 <£c. tfc* GO -2IC3? (V^N
($<= itCQp
Q \tc>z b 5- . ^0$ b
2.1S o '<5


BUILDING CODE CHECK LIST
Sheet 4
Floor Area Sq. Ft. Sq. Ft./ Person No. Persons Additional Loads Total Load / Floor Exits Req /Floor * Width of Exits Floor Width 0 : Stairs
%






TOTAL NO. PERSONS
*** Occupant Load
53
Main Exit Size (if required)
No. exits Required Total Bldg. £ > ZC
Per Floor £ 7C£? ?£Cf^ Arrangement of Exits jf 2 CMC
(?-pxrr 1b iMfT i^ TUtfiX
Distance to Exits Uj/fc
10/ Ui$.
CO#
^bLu
6htf.ll uVh ['X. Q6££d
-heU-r+a£ (iVSTW
Exit Doors
Width and Height Min.
Width
Height la-t>
' 6&Xb yvjj*} T 0}{X WS*
Max.
ik Sreoru^v% a- e^ci'r' +rabt\


BUILDING CODE CHECK LIST
Sheet 5
CHAPTER 33 (Cont'd)
CORRIDORS Width 4V
Dead End Corridor Limit *XG'
Fire Resistance OCCUfdr,T I'Vtf 30 l V\1Z
Openings *20 muv\ G&rg.YT'bk-j UH'Ho OCCf' CiC^iJf'^p
STAIRS
Rise & Run "1^2 Of
(O'er
Distance Between Landings I 4
Stairway to Roof Fire Resistance
Smoke Proof Enclosure Required
UidiHo <30 4^"
5C<
iO-C bOn SPECIAL CONDITIONS


ZONING ORDINANCE CHECK LIST
Sheet I
PROJECT NAME LOCATION
'-VPe
USE
PREPARED =>Y
y.&r Sterol?
)NSULTED PHONE
^euj^iu-Eos^iDg^ v&mct
ZONING ORDINANCE ZONING OFFICIAL CONSULTED
ZONE CLASSIFICATION
YARD REQUIREMENTS Front fJ.^Or Side Rear Side
ALLOWABLE PROJECTIONS INTO SETBACK
BULK OF STRUCTURES


ZONING ORDINANCE CHECK LIST
Sheet 2
MAX. ALLOWABLE HEIGHT Stories }Z
Feet
ALLOWABLE FLOOR AREA
OPEN SPACE REQUIRED
OFF-STREET PARKING REQUIRED
1 / zec>ck
=r_[^2
OFF STREET LOADING REQUIRED fyjQp"
SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS or CONSIDERATIONS


1976 ST. CLOUD ZONING ORDINANCE
ARTICLE XXI C-A- FRINGE CENTRAL BUSINESS DISTRICT
SECTION 1 PURPOSE
This District is designed to provide for certain types of commercial activities which have functional and economic relationship to the Central Business District. Such activities should he related to a peripheral manner to those in the Central Business District. The customer may come to a particular establishment either by automobile or as an extension of his Central Business District pedestrian shopping activity. Each establishment will have its own parking facility. Good traffic accessibility is essential to the district because of their required contact with automobile and truck traffic, incompatible with the Central Business District. There should be considerable advertising advantage through visual exposure tc highway traffic. Establishments can be dispersed over a considerable area with each establishment having its own automobile parking lot. Establishments in this district require considerable land and good access to major thoroughfares.


Section 2 PERMITTED USES
In the C-4 Fringe Central Business District, no building or land shall he used, and no building shall be hereafter erected, converted, or structurally altered, unless otherwise provided in this Ordinance.
SECTION 3 PRINCIPAL USES
3-1 Any principal use permitted in the C-3 Central Business District Such use shall comply with the standards of the use district in which it is specifically listed.
3.2 Amusement and recreation establishments such as commercial bowling alleys, pool halls, swimming pools, and skating rinks.
3.3 Antique shops.
3.^ Art galleries and art studios.
3.5 Automotive accessory stores.
3.6 Bicycle stores including rental, repair and sales.
3-7 Financial institution including accessory "drive-in" facilities.
3.8 Blue printing and photostating establishments.
3.9 Business machine sales and service shops.
3.10 Catering establishments.
3.11 Club and lodge halls which are chartered and operated wholly as a non-profit organization.
3.12 Clothing stores.
3.13 Electrical and household appliance stores, including radio and television sales and service.
3.14 Exterminating offices.
3.15 Frozen food stores, including the rental of lockers in conjunction therewith.
3.16 Furniture stores, including upholstering when conducted as an incidental part of the principal use.
3.17 Fraternal, philanthropic and charitable institution offices and assembly halls.
3-18 Furrier shops, including the storage and conditioning of furs when conducted as an incidental part of the princial use.
3.19 Garages, for the storage, repair and servicing of motor
vehicles of not more than two (2) ton capacity, excluding body repairs or painting except when in conjunction with automotive dealerships displaying and selling new and used vehicles.



3.20 Home repair, maintenance and remodeling stores and shops.
3.21 Household furnishings, fixtures and accessory stores and to include lumber and hardware stores.
3.22 Hotels and motels.
3.23 Interior decorating stores and shops.
3.2^ Laboratories, medical and dental.
3.25 Liquor stores.
3.26 Locksmith shops.
3.27 Office supply stores.
3.28 Orthopedic and medical appliance stores excluding the manufacturing or assembly of appliances or goods.
3.29 Parking lots and garages other than those accessory to a principal use for the parking and storage of private passenger automobiles only.
3.30 Pawn shops.
3.31 Pet shops.
3.32 Photography studios.
3.33 Physical culture and health services, reducing salons and masseurs.
.3^ Public buildings.
3.35 Rental agencies for the rental only of clothing, appliances, automobiles, cartage trailers, and household fixtures, furnishings and accessories.
3.36 Schools for teaching music, dance and business vocations.
3.37 Second hand stores and rummage shops, temporary use only, viz: such use to be made for not more than thirty (30) days in any period of twelve (12) consecutive months.
3.38 Sign shops.
3.39 Sporting and camping goods stores.
3.^0 Taverns.
3.^1 Taxidermist shops.


3.42 Trading stamp redemption stores.
3.^3 Wholesale or warehousing if contained within an enclosed building.
3.44 Automobile service stations.
3.43 Commercial printing print shops with printing press with plate widths not to exceed 252". Said shop shall be limited to two 25-2" presses.
SECTION 4 ACCESSORY USE
4.1 Signs in accordance with Article VIII of this Ordinance.
4.2 Off-street parking and loading in accordance with Article VII of this Ordinance.
4.3 Storage of merchandise, solely intended to be retailed by a related and established principal use.
4.4 Telephone booths.
4.5 Bus or taxi loading and unloading facilities.
SECTION 5 CONDITIONAL USE
5.1 Any business activity of the same general character as listed in Section 3 of this Article and planned unit development.
5.2 Small animal hospital and kennels excluding outside runs.
5.3 Churches, chapels, temples, and synagogues.
5.4 Publicly owned buildings or structures, utility buildings, telephone exchange transformer stations and electrical substations, but not to include maintenance yards or facilities.
5.5 Bakeries having room or rooms containing the preparation and baking process of more than 2,400 square feet.
SECTION 6 LIMITATION AND CONDITIONS ON USES
All uses permitted in the C-4 Commercial District shall be subject to special limitations andcconditions with respect to each as follows:
6.1 Dwelling units and rooming units cxher than those located in transient motel as motel shall not be permitted below the second floor and principal uses shall not be permitted on any floor above the ground floor, except in those buildings or structures where dwelling is not established.


SECTION 7 HEIGHT, YARD AND LOT COVERAGE REGULATIONS
7.1 Height Regulations; Structure heights in the C-4 District shall be governed by the floor area ratio (F.A.R.) as established in Section 7-^ of this Article.
7.2 Front Yard, Exterior Side Yard and Rear Yard Regulations: There shall be no front yard, exterior side yard or rear yard requirements within the C-4- District, except that there shall be a required set-back from the C-4 District boundaries when such District boundaries are adjacent to a residential zone. Such set-back shall be the same as required on the residential lot line.
7.3 Interior Side Yard Regulations: There shall be no interior side yard required in the C-A District, except when C-4 District boundaries are adjacent to a residential zone, such setback shall be the same as required on the residential lot line. In such case where a side yard is not required but provided, there shall be a minimum interior side yard of five (5) feet, provided that the structure contains a solid, fireproof, wall; in such case where the structure contains windows and/or doors on the interior building side yard, a setback equal to one-half (1/2) the height of the structure shall be required.
7.4 Building bulk on floor area ratio (F.A.R.) shall not be greater than 2.0 in the C-4 District.
SECTION 8 REQUIREMENTS FOR VEHICULAR AND PEDESTRIAN CIRCULATION
8.1 Traffic and Circulation: All commercial buildings or structures and their accessory uses shall be accessible to and from nearby public streets and sidewalks by driveways and walkways surfaced with a hard, all-weather, durable, dust-free material and properly drained.
Vehicular traffic generated by a commercial use shall be channeled and controlled in a manner that will avoid congestion on the public streets, traffic hazards, and excessive traffic through residential areas, particularly truck traffic. The adequacy of any proposed traffic circulation system to accomplish these objectives shall be determined by the City Engineer who may require such additional measure for traffic control as he may deem necessary, including but not limited to the following: signalization, channelization, standby turn lanes, illumination, and storage area and distribution facilitie within the commercial site to prevent back-up of vehicles on public streets.
8.2 No area used by motor vehicles other than driveways serving as ingress and egress to the commercial site shall be located within the public street right-of-way.
8.3 All driveways to and from public streets shall be subject to written approval from the City Engineer or his authorized designee. Decision of the City Engineer may be appealed to the Planning Commission.


8.3-1 Minimum Distance of Driveway from Street Intersections: Measured along street curb line between ends of returns.
If the driveway enters a street classified as a
and the intersecting and driveway enters street is classified lane approaching or
as a________________ leaving intersection
Approacning Leaving-*
Minor Street Minor Street, Collector Street or Minor Arterial VO 11 ft. 15 ft.
Major Arterial 20 ft. 20 ft.
Collector Street Minor Street 20 ft. 15 ft.
or Minor Arterial Collector, Minor Arterial 25 ft. 15 ft.
Major Arterial 35 ft. 20 ft.
Major Arterial Minor Street 20 ft. 15 ft.
Collector, Minor Arterial 25 ft. 15 ft.
Major Arterial ^0 ft. 20 ft.
Express Ramp 200 ft. 100 ft.
*Note: Minimum distance to be the same as that specified for approaching lane if left turns are permitted into or out of driveway.
SECTION 9 OFF-STREET PARKING AND LOADING FACILITIES
Off-street parking facilities, accessory to uses allowed in the C-4 District shall be provided in accordance with Article VII Off-Street Parking and Loading Regulations.
SECTION 10 REGULATIONS ON SCREENING. LANDSCAPING, LIGHTING,
STORAGE AND OUTDOOR DISPLAYS
10.1 Screening: All principal and accessory uses, except business
signs, which are situated within fifty (50) feet of a Residentis District, shall be screened from such district by a wail or fence of not less than ninety (90) per cent opacity and not less than five (5) nor more than seven (7) feet in height above the level of the Residential District property at the district boundary. Walls or fences of lesser heights or planting screens may be permitted if there is a finding by the City Planning Commission that the nature or extent of the use being screened is such that a lesser degree of screening will as adequately promote and protect the use and enjoyment of the properties wixhin the adjacent Residential District, or there is a finding that a screening of the type required by this Ordinance would interfere with the provision of adequate amounts of light and air to same said properties. Loading docks in the C-4 COMMERCIAL DISTRICT shall be screened so as not to be visible from any public street right-of-way within a Residential District. All required screening devices shall be designed so that they are architecturally harmonious with the principal structure on the site and they shall be properly maintained


so as not to become unsightly, hazardous, or less opaque than when originally constructed.
10.2 Landscaping; All exposed ground areas surrounding or within a principal or accessory use including street boulevards, which are not devoted to drives, sidewalks, patios, and parking lots or other uses shall be landscaped with grass, shrubs, trees, or other ornamental landscape materials. All landscaped areas shall be kept neat, clean and uncluttered. No landscaped area shall be used for the parking of vehicles or the storage or display of materials, supplies or merchandise.
10.3 Lighting; All sources of artificial light, including signs situated on a C-4 COMMERCIAL DISTRICT site shall be so fixed, directed, designed or sized that the sum total of their illumination will not increase the level of illumination on any nearby Residential property by more than 0.1 foot candle on or within twenty-five (25) feet of a dwelling nor more than 0.5 foot candle on any other part of the property. "Glare", whether direct or reflected, as differentiated from general illumination, shall not be visible from beyond the limits
of the immediate site from which it originates.
10.4 Storage-Displays; All materials, supplies, merchandise or other similar matter not on display for direct sale, rental or lease to the ultimate consumer or user shall be stored within a completely enclosed building within the C-4 DISTRICT, and within the confines of a one hundred (100) per cent opaque wall or fence not less than five (5) feet high. Merchandise which is offered for sale as described heretofore may be displayed beyond the confines of a building in the
C-4 COMMERCIAL DISTRICT. No storage will be permitted within the setback requirements.
10.5 Performance Standards; All business operations and activities including but not limited to, the production, processing, cleaning, servicing, testing or repair of materials, goods,
or products shall conform to the performance standards established for the PLANNED INDUSTRIAL DISTRICT, provided that performance standards shall, in each case, be applied at the boundaries of the lot on which such business or activities take place.


ISSUES ADDRESSED ELABORATED
1. Site Constraints;
Circulation, soils, multiple use Seasonal use
2. Forces of Climate;
Maximize use of available sun Minimize effect of harsh winter winds Stabilize temperature and moisture for human comfort and protection of exhibits
3. Energy:
Minimize fossil fuel use
^. Natural Amenities:
Identify and integrate into design concept
5. Views:
Identify and maximize
6. Expansion:
Internal museum growth Future site development
7. Noise:
Control external site noise Zone internal noise
8. Circulation:
Auto: Minimize vehicle impact,
processional movement, focal point, landscape is the strong feature
Pedestrian: Clarity, control point
processional movement, comfort
9. Lighting:
Natural light reduces energy load Natural light provides more comfort to human physiology Natural light causes chemical changes within most artifacts, organic are the most sensitive; i.e., fading Beth wave lengths and the amount of light influence the process


9. Lighting: (continued)
The short wave length in the U.V. range possess the greatest photo-chem activity the visible spectrum also causes deterioration Use filters to screen out the U.V.
'i components of sunlight or fluorescent light
Limit illumination levels to 15 fc (150 lvs) or less
10. Environmental Control Systems:
Humidity
Too much causes bacteria and fungus growth
Too little causes some materials to check and crack; i.e., wood paper products Optimum Design:
55%
Temperature:
Optimum 60 75f (l6c 24-c)
11. Human Factors
See Dreyfuss
12. Form:
A response to climate, landscape (prairie), appropriateness for museum functions Strength in the past Integrate all elements Metaphor vertabrae animals
13. Function, Expansion, Flexibility
The best of both worlds. A neutral setting for exhibits, a strength all of its own Metabolism/growth and change
1^. Program:
Definitive/functional
15 Structure:
Vertabrae, organic, rural barn timber, granite, expressive
16. Budget:
$1,080,000 Building 120,000 Site work


17-
Entry:
Visually strong, orientation to parking, welcome statement
18. Handicapped:
Access and interpretations for all
19 Maintenance:
Durable materials
20. Exhibits:
Indoors, outdoors, natural
history, artifacts, the site, the people (see concise history)


H
X
m


e
NOiiniOS
3H1


CONCEPT:
The conceptual statement is a result of analysis synthesis based on identifiable issues; in this case, the client program museum principles and practice and the designers understanding of the above plus a philosophy which he or she brings to each project, the conceptual statement that is an image function, objective of what the project is trying to be in three dimensions.
The overall design concept is that form, function and material not overpower the landscape that it sits upon.
The organization of site and building is based on the metaphor of the vertebrae animal -that is, a major spine of which other parts are connected and respond to.
IN RESPONSE TO THE SITE:
Entry onto, circulation and approach within will be so as to maximize views within and beyond its boundaries. The land is the reason for all growth and evolution. Interpretation and recreation can both mutually benefit the site.
IN RESPONSE TO MUSEUMS:
To protect, preserve, educate and enjoy."


IN RESPONSE TO FORM;
A direct response to climate, landscape, history, energy and function. Agriculture was responsible for the major forms upon the landscape. The museum form, therefore, is a response to that architecture.
IN RESPONSE TO MATERIAL;
Astrong precedent has been established with various ties to rural, prairie, agriculture heritage. It then seems appropriate to respond in material selection, with granite, wood, stone, prairie grasses, metal and concrete materials in use throughout the historic development .
IN RESPONSE TO LIGHT;
That vital ingredient to life itself, an issue that allows museum goers to comfortably examine the exhibits while acting as a determining agent to the exhibit itself the solution is dealing with the harmful agents without sacrificing comfort levels.
IN RESPONSE TO ENERGY:
Energy will make its impact on design mass, forms orientation aperature, storage and conservation. This will be an energy appropriate building.




O^TlIKO!
i/'/'


gyiw^iro
W&l WW-^HOP


M IMLIl^^TFOEDIRO
SOlLdllliStMSIWSSrOSM
POLt CCN&TKCTtCN
eowswNt?
'HCcd naz-/c*o\,H(=> tusvi u foor

CPfL^Rfl
0'
/[LatRO
P'l --------1 ,t ,t.
WJ @L@mTOR3


eeu*f.
r*zO v#iuu-
O
letpW


METAU KiOP HWO INS*UU* (wow prNeu L>*VVvCOO &A.
&UN CONTKX.
IN4AJU fc*U*e4>
*54. WDW. CatwaiB ?we>.
t -* i l
1 J] E ft 3 a... ... r
I J
cm II ! I-

^M&Q=[L
e*?LAs 5>ts7Te\ XN Etvoe (eiecO
MEW. VeKT(BJ&Cfi UtrLSOTIVE bUI'-ff'CC
'M^rw- w*u. <=w pueNO*
F*N DrtsWBOfCN *TU*N
tN*JU.TED <%>rWDe
P^S@GV!S c=av^@

4*h>*seb C>f<3Nv;iC 4CHU *414* (P*%tfND*fc***/eL- WO 4* WCCD DC4- (&W*eO) (Jf fcWD !NUL COVN 4'
U**Mh*TED aeAT4
ypw- ^ccpfiro (FCCf/NO V*U4/> pew. czi'CK.m 4*u_
wcce e>ux*- rusciSNfa
C?MM TtUS
ssmoiy
# 4 4 A
inr
IT
GS^S (EEE] u I_u u
[K3o^oz^[l

^(oj^ndTV


Ifeo-C*
co **>r*> to-o*
-4
-uMe or /exz.


.1 I
%
Tiara?]
(oU) t aa56i?ac
U6 gT' WCNi lO&r
&K
M*
/-afCWN. K CONG-. ox..
oi
It
-V
rr
^_

----L_i-
T
CONO COL.
n=nr
'A'

g@ SIO^TIJIIS} ^
iSORfl'uV C^DgjTOKBta&L @(5)(S0I3t?V




BIBLIOGRAPHY
William Pena
Problem Seeking
An architectural programming
primer
Henry Sanoff
Methods of Architectural Programming
Theodore C. Blegen
Minnesota, a History of the State
Ralph H. Lewis
Manual for Museums
Arminta Neal
Help l For the Small Museum Handbook of exhibit ideas and methods
William J. McGuinness & Benjamin Stein
Mechanical and Electrical Equipment for Buildings
G. Ellis Burcaw
Introduction to Museum Work
Carl E. Guthe
So You Want a Good Museum
Michael Brawne
The New Museum Architecture and Display
Belmont Report on Museums
Joseph De Chiara & John Hancock Callender
Time Saver Standards for Euilding Times
Uniform Building Code 1976 Minnesota Energy Code
Arminta Neal
Exhibits for the Small Museum
Underground Space Cenper Earth Sheltered Housing Design University of Minnesota Guidelines, Examples and
References


APPENDIX
e



HELP!
for the SMALL MUSEUM
A Handbook of Exhibit Ideas and Methods
by
Arminta Neal, Curator
Department of Graphic Design Denver Museum of Natural History
Pruett Publishing Boulder. Colorado


THE MUSEUM "AUDIENCE"
The museum audience is neither specialized nor captive but consists of such extremes as school children and scholars, Sunday strollers and tourists. Even if the designer considers every behaviour rule he has ever learned some atypical visitors will confound traffic patterns, ignoring in their own observation of the displays every attempt by the designer to direct and guide their attention
32


The designer's basic planning should include a recognition of some physical facts about people. If visitors have headaches, bloodshot eyes, tired backs, sagging arches and burning feet after they have seen the Museum's exhibits, the designer has forgotton to consider how people are built.
The man on the left is having trouble because detailed things more than three feet below his eye level are difficult to see. The man on the right is having equal difficulty with a label that is more than one foot above his eye level. If either man is wearing bifocals he probably will abandon any effort to see the exhibit rather than acquire an uncomfortable crick in his neck.
With little eye movement, people usually see and recognize with ease things that are within an approximately
33


- -v..v -> : " :.V
jfc .^L-ater ijyga^t:
i A
V
elliptical cone of vision (illustrated here) with the apex of the cone at eye-revel height. Limits of comfortable head movements are shown below.
COMFORTABLE head movements
from SIDE to SIDE
Arranging objects and labels beyond these visual and physical limitations will place a strain on seldom-used muscles and produce a severe case of museum fatigue.
34


Approximate CORRIOOR requirements
35





1 1 11 I
Scale
Some quite large objects, such as murals, heroic statues, Greek friezes, totem poles or dinosaurs, will inevitably soar above these viewing limits and in this event, the visitor must be permitted space to back far*enough away from the object to comprehend it without becoming a case for an orthopedic specialist.
Average body and eye-level heights for American men and women and six-year-old children are shown on the preceding page and are measurements the designer should consider in basic exhibit planning.
One of the main things to remember about the visitor is the short time-span he will devote to each exhibit. Therefore, plan displays to emphasize those maint basic, elemental facts you wish him to carry away. It is equally important to remember that museum fatigue is an ever-present problem, and places for the visitor to sit down to rest must be planned as a part of the regular traffic flow.
36