Motor hotel

Material Information

Motor hotel
Brown, Alan, 1941-
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
125 unnumbered leaves : charts, maps, plans ; 28 cm


Subjects / Keywords:
Hotels -- Designs and plans -- Colorado -- Boulder ( lcsh )
Hotels ( fast )
Colorado -- Boulder ( fast )
Designs and plans. ( fast )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Designs and plans ( fast )


Includes bibliographical references (leaf 125).
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
Alan Brown.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
09428922 ( OCLC )
LD1190.A72 1979 .B75 ( lcc )

Full Text
auraria library
motor hotel
masters thesis
Date Due
'JUN 0 8 1989 -**
rJUN 12 1989


1) Problem Statement-
Mv proposed project has to do with hotel/ recreational design in one complex located in Boulder, Colorado. This project is real and has a capability of Implementation. All tentative information is through the office of William Heinzman and Associates. Upon consultation with Bill Heinzman, it was revealed that .'an economic feasibilty study and site analysis land
a tentative program are being done. The program consist of;
200 room hotel and services parking for 550 automobiles 3000 seat championship tennis facility 4 playing outdoor tennis courts raquetball/ handball courts resteraunt/ bar related office building retail/ pro-shops *-estimated budget of 6,000,000$
2) Issues Addressed-
In this project I will be involved with refinement
of the program stated above. I will also be dealing with site and urban analysis with specific regards

to those conditions inherent in Boulder. The image and integration of different needs will also be addressed. The concept of what makes up a complete and economically feasible recreational complex wil be explored with additional emphasis on the hotel, individual rooms, entrance lobby and circulation therein.
Major Goals are;
- to integrate the program into a working and aesthetically pleasing complex -to create an atmoshere and image to atract people and thus create business -to integrate outdoor space with indoor space -to design hotel rooms into a working and easy to use solution
-to create a lobby/entrance to help direct and intice the public into the complex -to integrate a resteraunt/bar into the public space
Due to the complex program requirements and a time favtor of only 3-4- months, I will do a master plan

of the program dealing with possible locations of each requirement and/or specific buildings. I do plan however to deal very specifically with the hotel complex and resteraunt/bar. This will deal with the design of; individual hotel rooms hotel services lobby/entry area
rest^raunt food preparation and serving bar lounge and entertainment design parking for the complex including auto circ. circulation troughout the site and building
5) Aporoach-
-to investigate the problem, finding the wants and needs of the clients -research hotel/recreational design
-formulate a working program dealing also with concepts
-design complex resulting in conceptual and working design drawings (this does not mean working contract documents but does mean the results would lead to working drwgs.) -presentation of research and product to thesis committee and to clients
6) Personal Goals-
My major goal is to follow a design project from

preliminary programming and feasibility to conclusion of a concept. Also the fact that implementation is possible conclusion, this would indeed be a thorough test of designing. I also would like to see how I can integrate landscape design into the architectural design.
design of the program design of the concept
following through of concept by design
full presentation of concept and design with graphics
renderings, and model
Thesis Board-
The following professors and prof/essionals I would like to have but have not asked yet.
William Heinzman Robert Utzinger G.K. Vetter
Time Outline-
December 21... programing and site study completed January 29.... review of program and any additional
information added master plan completed of site and related building including location
February 23...

March 16.... April 13.... May 4....
of hotel complex and parking areas completion of concepts and begin schematic design
design completion, begin final graphics and complete and detail working model graphics and presentation complete-present to masters thesis committee

December 1578
Motor Hotel
1) 158 guestrooms with ancillary uses cocktail lounge with a capacity of 250 seats dining room with coffee shop with a capacity of 250-300 seats
parking capabilities of 4-50 cars possibly on two levels
2) Retail space-
10,000-12,000 sqft which would include a tennis pro-shop
3) Office Space-
11,000 sqft which would include a real estate office 4-) Conference Center--banquet facilities -reception room -seminar/ meeting rooms
5) Sports Eacility-
-7 raquetball/handball courts (interior)
-1 squash court (interior)
-1 indoor/outdoor pool
-exercise room health club
-3000 seat stadium tennis court (outdoor)
-6 additional outdoor tennis courts
6) Condominium Residential Complex

-a public establishment offering travellers,against payment, two basic services; accomodation and catering (International Union of Official Travel Organization)
-an establishment that provides temporary lodging in guest rooms and in which meals, entertainment and various personal services for which the public may or may not be provided (City of Boulder)
Motor Hotel/ Motel;
-they are designed to serve the needs of motorists and, as a necessity, must provide facilities for car parking and easy access from the highway (International Union of Official Travel Organization
-a hotel which usually is arranged in such a way that individual guest rooms are directly accessible from an automobile parking area

Site Planning
Number of Rooms Per Floor-
-must strive for the most economical number of rooms per floor which effects the optimum size/ height relationship of the building
-account must be taken of both regulatory <. __~
standards and operational needs Regulatory Standards-
-a minimum of two staircases are necessary and will allow 20-35 rooms on a double loaded corridor and up to 50 if an automatic sprinkler system is installed
-the exact number depends on room sizes, building construction, layout, staircase positions, height fire protection and local standards ( cosuit codes) Operational Needs-
-need to limit/ minimize the number of staircases and service cores- this will minimize the cost of provision
-number of rooms of an average floor shoiild be a multiple of 14- 16; the number which can be efficiently cleaned and serviced by one room attendant
-efficient use of the main and service elevators and other aspects of circulation should be considered

Hotel Development-
-room dimensions are influenced by the shape of the site and building, aspect(views), function and costs
-for preliminary calculations the following space requirements are;
Average Comfort(so ft) High Comfort(so ft)
Twin-bedroom 190 230
Guest bathroom 50 60
Room Circ. and services * 80 100
Residential Area 320 390
Public Areas 160 200
Total per unit 480 590
Total per bed 240 290
*-lobbies, corridors, staircases, floor pantries, etc. Note-the residential area of two single rooms is greater than that of a two bedroom -gross areas per guestrooms for hotel complex calculation;
guestroom areas and circulation + public area and
support services
350 sq ft + 200 sq ft = 550 sq ft per rm

Motel Development-
Space Tyne
Area per room
room area
offices, reception 80-150
storage and service space
carparks (one space per room 300-400
'employees carpark; goods delivery and unloading; driveways; landscaping
minimum site area for a two story 500-700 motel
Area per Customer___________________Area(sq ft)
restaurant and lobby 20-25
kitchen, storage, and staff 15-20
lounge and bar 15-20
additional car park (1 space per 30-50 5 seats)
Note- minimum space requirements for a 100 room motel plus restaurant and lounge is 60,000 sq ft and preferably 100,000 sq ft to allow for variation in layout, landscaping, and other site amenities Analysis of Individual Areas-
-figures are for an economical 100-200 room hotel with a restaurant/coffee shop and bar located in city

Public Areas
Area per Hoorn
main lobby and front desk 10
administration 10
restaurant 18
cocktail bar and lounge 7
public circulation spaces and corridors 10
public cloakrooms, toilets, restrooms 4
total 85
Service Areas Area per room
boiler room, mechanical 14
storage areas 10
workshops and maintenance area 4
recieving area, checking office, garbage store, and freight elev. 7
main kitchen and servery 12
food stores, cold rooms, beverage stores, table linen, china, etc. 10
housekeeping office, uniform store, linen room and valet facilities 10
employee facilities, locker rooms and toilets, pay office, etc. 12
circulation within' service areas 10
total per room Car Parking 95
Typical Standards Motor Hotels City center
restaurant places per car 5 10
park space
guestrooms per car park space 1 2-4

Note- additional spaces should be provided for employees and service vehicles
Access Roads for Hotels and Motels (stds)
Road Tyne_____________________________Ft.-in.
slip roads from motorway 20-0
two lane access road for goods, 18-0
services, buses
access road restricted to autos 18-0
single-lane access road 11-6
parking and passing bays for cars 8-6
parking and passing bays for buses 10-9
and service vehicles
footway 6-9
pedestrian bridge 6-0
Turning Circles and Corners________Min, Radius
-single lane turning for cars
inner curb 15ft
outer curb 27ft.
-single lane turning for buses and service vehicles inner curb 30ft.
outer curb 42ft.
sweep circle clearance 44'-6"
-hard surfaces and pavings are used for all access roads and car parking areas, footpaths, patios, and external overspill areas for restaurants, drinking use, and other areas subject to intensive traffic **a paved area is neccessary around the building to allow for window cleaning and maintenance and for easy acces by fire fighting equipment

-important considerations in all hard surface and
paving construction and choice are;
-traffic type:pedestrian only, autos, delivery and service use
-maintenance: frequency of use, difficulties of access, cleaning and replacement -drainage: gradients and outlets for surface runoff
-base:support required, extent of excavation and fill -slope of surfaces
Access Planning
-the points of entry to a hotel or motel must be clearly defined, convenient, free from hazards and appropriate for the purpose -Provision Must 3e Made For;
-guests: arriving by private car, taxi, public vehicles and/ or foot with arrangements for their reception
-staff: with security control
-goods deliveries: seperate provision may be made for food items with a different delivery point for other goods(laundry, maintenance,furniture)
-refuse and garbage storage and removal: which may use the same acces as other goods -Design Features-
-lines of sight enabling oncoming traffic to be seen as vehicles leave the premises

-radii of curvature for bends and turning areas must be appropriate for size of vehicle using it -dimensions of roads to allow passing, waiting, unloading passengers and goods where thes take place
-the entrance routes for goods, deliveries, maintenance, and refuse removal must be seperated from guests in order to avoid congestion,unsightliness, and noise
-refuse storage must be sceened from viev; and be located so as to minimise noise and smell and carry over of debris and litter
-staff entrances must be seperated from those used by guests and seperate from those used for goods for control and security reasons
Entrances & Lobbies
-the appearance presented by the main entrance and it's approach is important since it tends to typify the hotel and create a lasting image
-the main entrance must be clearly defined and provide a good view of the interior -secondary entrances may be provided for in restaurants and bars or extend off the lobby -the main entrance must lead staight to the reception area

Entrance ?orecourt-
-should he at least 18ft, wide to allow for two cars to pass
-the entrance canopy should be at least 15-20ft. in clearance(to allow for cars and possibly buses) and provide shelter from v/ind and rain
-lighting should be provided to accentuate the entrance,to indicate the interior and provide safety and security
design should not hinder the handicapped Entrance Vestibule-
-used to reduce cold air from entering
-two sets of doors are used
-distance accross should be at least 6ft. and preferbly 10ft.
-provide maximum area of glass for natural lighting and view inside and out
-flooring within is subject to heavy traffic and should be allowed for
-doorways should be wide enough to allow a person carrying two bags or luggage carrier Lobby or Reception Area-
-includes the general circulation and waiting area leading to the reception, cashier, information and other services which are provided in the front office
-it also serves as an assembly point for guests and others using the restaurant, bar and other activities

-will create the first and most prominant impression of the hotel
-provision must be made for easy access from the car parking area
-the aim is to create an impression of spaciousness while enabling the whole area to be used as fully as possible for various functional purposes
Typical Suace Requirements-____________Area oer Room
-main lobby including front desk 9-11
-combined lobby/lounge area 10-13
Planning Considerations-
-dictated by structural design of the building and routes of circulation through the area -regard must be given to the operational needs of the front desk and associated offices Lobby Design-
-the lobby will subject to almost continuous traffic
-routes trough the area include;
-entrance to front desk -to staicases and elevators -to restaurant and bar -to parking areas
-selection of finishes must have a high degree of permanence and be able to withstand high wear and retain a good appearance
-areas of high activity and of more passive activity should be provided for(walking vs. sitting Baggage Handlin.g-
-a station for a bellman must be located near the

reception desk in a position which allows visual control over the entrance doors and the general area of the lobby
-storage space should be provided for luggage left by guests for short periods-off the main circulation routes and with constant supervision
Front Desk
-guest reception and registration -advance reservations office -cashier and accounting
-information,keys, mail, messages and pamphlets -telephone operation,sound and message relays -front office management Design Considerations-
-guest registration, cashier and information are provided over desks or counters which are arranged along one long counter
-counter staff must have direct access to the offices providing back-up information and services -the reception area must be immediately conspicuous to those entering the hotel -it must be located to provide easy supervision of the lobby area
-the cashiers desk must be visible from the elevators
and staircases

-heavy demands are likely at certain peak times and should be able to accomodate this- in particular to avoid creating secondary congestion in doorways or elevators or other circulation areas Space Allowances-
-200 Hotel Rooms counter length-25ft.
area for front-200sqft desk
Individual space allowances
space________________________length depth
counter space for writing 30" 24"
guest standing with luggage 36" 36"
additional circulation 72"
space for persons passing with luggage counter space for clerk with 60" 24"
allowance for equipment,files space behind desk allowing for 42"
working at counter and circ. Reservations And Administration Office-
-located direct^ behind or adjacent to the
registration desk to provide back-up service to the front desk
-office space for the office manager, headcashier, and other related personnel is required Telephones-
-public phones should be in the lobby areas, in a position which can be seen from the front desk or from the bellman's station -calls during travel are mostly long distance and kiosks should have facilities for siting, writing, and directory reference

Cloakrooms,Toilets and Restrooms -
-cloakroom and toilet facilities must be provided
near; -main lobby
-restaurants and private dining rooms
-oars and lounges
-cloakrooms may be open to the corridor or sceened -cloakroom area is }£-1 sq ft
-restroom and toilet facilities must be seperated from any room containing food or utensils for food preperation
-toilet location must consider the fact of noise transmittal
-numbers and space requirements-
(standards on total number of users)
?of fixtures_________________for men_________for women
water closets 1 per 100 1 per 50
(min. 2) (min. 2)
urinals 1 per 25
v/ashbasins 1 per 1-15 5 per 50-65
2 per 16-55 4- per 65-200
5 per 100 and above
-typical space allowances (with circulation)
fixture__________________area (sqft)
water closet 52
urinal 1'4-
washbasin 16
towel holder

and tour organisation.
cosh desk(porTly receded)r*
Space allowances
5.02 The layout and space allocations must take into account
Size of hotel: extent of sophisticated equipment.
Grade or standard: expectancy of efficient service.
Patterns of arrivals and departures: peak periods of use.
Tour groups, convention bookings: extent of pre-registration.
Length of stay and seasonality: adaptability.
The number of spaces provided for guests registering will vary from one or two in a hotel of 100 to 200 rooms up to four or more in a large convention hotel of say 1200 rooms. A similar number of check-out places will be required. The pattern of arrival and departure and the concentration of the peak periods must be ascertained from the market analysis. In extreme cases such as with tour groups, flight departures and conventions, supplementary facilities will be required, particularly to expedite cashing out.
Typical dimensions 5.03
Hotel rooms Counter m Length ft Area for m: front desk* ft2
i 30 10 5 5 60
4 5 15 9 5 100
200 7-5 25 18 5 200
400 10 5 35 30 0 320
Counter and clerical space.
preferred maximum reach
* "(27*) *
* (18') -
workmq heiqhr if seared
2 S OP'" 'W r ii
formsCZ^ drawers LhJI

vpoce for elec me conduit
Front desk: plan a and section b of a counter arrangement for a motor lodge based on data developed by the Design Department of Howard Johnsons, d and e show alternative sections through counters used in larger hotels.

Circulation & Transportation
-the layout must not only facilitate convenient and
efficient circulation but also provide seperate routes
for guests, staff and service personnel
-circulation routes should:
-avoid disturbance, delay and annoyance of the guest
-enable the service facilities to be purposely
planned for efficient operation
-facilitate control, supervision and security
-enable the guest to be given exclusive attention
at the front desk without unnecessary congestion
-allow easier regulation and supervision of people
entering and leaving all areas Space Relationships-
vert.col circulation horizontal circulation
*=£ residen* ques
quests res*Jep^ end non reS.fcos
4 'nainiy nor.-re*Kje,'rs - . staff staff

pace relationships
. Resident guests
Front office
ntrua^and Public
the^^B ircuiation
Main entrance
3orters' jaggage store
Car park 3nd garages
Separation: public areas
Rooms Service
Cocktail lounge
Coffee shop
Lobby --------- Front office
Service elevators, stairs
> Cloakroom, toilets
Lounge bar
Meeting rooms
---- Maintenance stores
Room service
irect services Front desk services. Back-up services
Circulation Reception
Intermediary services
Function areas Back-up services

4. Operational
Delivery / disposal
Secondary stores/ operational areas
> Tableware
> Linen
Bulk food Kitchen stores
Mam kitchen
> Computei
> Generating plant
Water supplies
> Boilers, space heating
> Calorifiers, hot water
Air conditioning
> Linen rooms
Drink stores Bar stores Bars

2.01 In the public areas of a hotel, corridors involve loss of space and adaptability in addition to extra construction costs. As far as possible, circulation should be through areas which are capable of other use (lounges, shopping precincts) or which serve as focal points for multiple activities, such as lobbies. The corridors leading to guestrooms have necessarily to be separated, and here considerations of convenience, noise attenuation and privacy are important aspects of planning. Equally important is the need to provide for efficient room service, housekeeping and maintenance work.
All circulation routes must satisfy requirements for safety and facilitate control and security. In particular, corridors, passages and stairs must comply with the specific standards laid down for fire escape routes if unnecessary duplication is to be avoided.
Consideration Tvpical provisions: corridors used by guests and non-residents
Damage to walls Fending off with prominent skirtings and panels. Protection of exposed corners Wall coverings should be tough and washable
Marking of floor Best commercial grade carpet with close pattern and balanced colour to disguise shading and staining
Safety No projections into space: all fittings and outward opening doors recessed. Floor coverings must be secured down. No loose joints or floor projections allowed. Changes in level, where permitted, should be by:
(irjJudl ramp: maximum incline 1:10, preferably no steeper than 1:12

Corridors and Stairways-
-corridors leading to guestrooms must be seperated with regards for convenience,noise, and privacy Considerations and Frovisions-
consideration___________________typical provisions
damage to walls fending off with prominent
skirtings and panels-protection of exposed corners-coverings must be tough and durable
marking of floor best commercial grade carpet
with close pattern and balanced color to disguise shading and staininsr
no projections into space: all doors should be recessed, if outward opening
clearance height of at least 7ft-6in- on a long corridor the height should be stepped to reduce monotony
-corridors to guestrooms typical-5ft-6ft -where service doors open onto corridor 6ft-6ftSin -secondary and service routes 3ft6in
-corridors serving public areas determined by fire escape req'm
Corridors for Goods and Services-
-layout determined by the need to provide;
-efficient circulation between storage,working and service areas
-links with the public and .guest circulation at appropriate points
-there should be very few steps or no steps between related areas to facilitate the use of carts -doors are usually of a twoway swing type fitted with viev/ing windows

-all staircases intented as egress routes from guestrooms in of fire must be enclosed within a continuous fire protected enclosure having a 2hr. rating
-access from each floor level must be through a vestibule,independently ventilated and lighted and equiped with self-closing doors -a minimum flight for stairs is 3 risers and the maximum between landings is 16 risers -landings must continue the same width and be 3'-6" long
-treads and landings must be solid and the whole construction fire resisting(usually steel)
-circular and monumental stairs with an inner radius of less than 25ft are not acceptable as a fire escape -limiting dimensions;
situation guest rm. area places of
min. headroom vertically above line of noseings 6*8" 8'3"
max. height between landings min. clearance at 12 0" CO
right angles to line of noseings 5'0" 5'0"
min. width 3'8" h'O"- 5*0"

quef lvaror lobby
3 000_
i 10*)
_4000_ (13* TT"
trash disposal (removable sacks)
soiled linen
linen room for up to
60 rooms
per floor
entral service rooms alien'd from a service elevator lobby
'ar design
.03 Important features arc:
Platform dimensions: to meet variety of uses. For freight \insportation 2500 x 3000 mm (8 ft x 10 ft) is necessary.
Adequate height: 2000 mm (8 ft (> in) is usually the minimum.
Capacity for service use only 1400 kg (3000 lb) is the oinimum and, for freight, 2800 kg (8000 lb).
Car speeds are similar to those for passenger service; for reight onlv a single speed of 0-5 m/s (100 ft/min) is usually dequate for up to 8 floors.
Accurate levelling with covers for landing junctions is necessary to allow easy transfer of trolleys and carts without pillage. For slow freight transportation, hand levelling mav v practical, but automatic levelling is necessary in faster ervice systems.
The car construction must be robust with rustproof metal mings and seamed or covered junctions. Hinged foldable helves mav be provided for trays.
Good lighting and ventilation and provisions for safety ire (^ential and similar standards to those for passenger rontl^Hhce must be adopted.
Control systems are also similar although relatively simple. The location of the elevator must be indicated bv control panel >n the main service lloor. Abuses of service lifts (e.g. by vedging open the doors to immobilise or bv overloading) are ommon and location control is important. All service elevators nust have telephone or intercom systems for communication.
5.01 Escalators are used to transport large numbers of people over a limited number of floors in the hotel and arc used primarily in circulation from the main lobby to mezzanine and vertically adjacent tloors.
Compared with elevator systems, escalators are able to convey large numbers of people without delay. They are particularly suitable for multi-purpose shopping and exhibition facilities in a hotel concourse and for convenient access to hotel reception lobbies or convention and banquet halls located above or below the entrance area.
The floor area taken up by an escalator is extensive and some economy may be obtained by:
Using escalator travel in one direction only: upwards towards the reception area or entrance foyer, or
Utilising the escalator as an emergency staircase. In latter case special precautions are necessary to comply with fire regulations.
Planning features
5.02 Typical angles of elevation are 30' or, with restricted space 35", The former represents an inclined section of 1-7 32 x vertical height, and to this must be added approach lengths of about 1800 mm and 2700 mm (6 ft and 9 ft) at the top and bottom of the incline respectively. Capacities are related both to width and speed.
Speed ms ft/min Width m m ins Capacity persons/hour (at 0 45 m/s) Notes
CMS OM) 00 120 810 12 5000
IOOO 40 70(H) Allows 2 persons side by side
1200 48 8000 Allows for baggage
The panel sides must be smooth and free from obstructions, tapering in by some 200 mm (8 in) to the moving platforms, which are designed to avoid trapping objects.
Minimum headroom below floor projections is 2150 mm (7 ft b injand theopening well must be protected by balustrades or enclosure wall. Access to the machine space, which extends from 1400 to 1050 mm (4 ft 6 in to 3 ft 6 in) below the landings, must be provided at each end.
5.03 Safety devices include:
Emergency brake: manual and automatically operated in event of accident or machine fault.
Maximum loading cut out.
Automatic locking to prevent reverse movement.
Landings must be non-slip and there must be no obstructions to the approaches.
Fire precautions stipulated by regulations or codes include:
Enclosure within a protected area having fire-resistant con-

-ramps are used for disabled guests, service routes
transporting goods and limited changes in level
-tvne of ramp________________max, gradient
maximum gradient 1:10
(foot trffic)
short ramps for disabled and 1:12 carts
long ramps for disabled and 1:20 heavy equipment
-Note-in terms of fire escape provision, the capacity of a ramp is approx. 2/3 that of stairs Slevators--location
-the main elevator bank must be immediately conspicuous on entering the lobby,and secondary entrances serving restaurants -elevators must be grouped near stairs to enable the stairs to be used as an alternative or emergency route -elevator lobbies
-must be at least one third wider than the adjacent corridors to allow for waiting and egress -walls and floor coverings are subject to considerable damage -grouping
-grouping provides better service,economy of installation and maintenance -cars should be arranged in parrallel rows of threes, facing each other

-lobby should have a width of at least /14'0"
Service Circulation-
-one service elevator should be provided per 5 passenger cars
-a service lobby should be provided so as to seperate from guest circulation Engineering: Services-
vertical ~ service cores
service ducts chases
cavity walls
-multiple enclosure of stairs,elevators chutes,ventilating ductwork,pipes, cables,etc. in fire protected shaft -provision must be made to prevent fire penetration through the floor voids -cables in conduit, pipes and other services recessed into walls -within one story, hollow partition walls may be utilized for wiring and mechanical
ceiling voids -depth of space is determined by air
duct requirements-usually located in corridors or entrance lobbies where a lower ceiling level is apparent
engineering floor -usually most of mechanical service
is located on one floor either in the basement or an intermidia.te floor between the lobby and guest room floors

Room Dimensions and Variations in Size-
-in framed buildings, column spacing should be regular
-variations in room sizes are possible in multistory hotels by;
-column spacing to accomodate 2 room widths, usually within a pratical limit of 23-26ft for maximum flexibilty, the inner rows of columns should coincide with the service ducts -diferent column spacing on different sides of a double loaded corridor (typical application are in those buildings with curved plans -variations in lengths of rooms on each side of a double loaded corridors. Similarly, balconies may be provided on one side only -changes in room sizes in different wings of the building
Note- structural irregularity may give rise to
planning difficulties at corners and junction points
Vertical Service Ducts-
-planning limitations are imposed by the positions of vertical services (water,soil and waste pipes,
and ventilation which must extend from one floor to the next and serve adjacent bathrooms

-these vertical services should be closely grouped for economy in pipe and duct runs -dimension restrictions apply in locating elevator and staircase cores which must be within a specified traveling distance of each bedroom Housekeeping-
-the efficient number of guestrooms which can be cleaned by one room attendant varies from 141Grooms which all arrangements should be a multiple of -the extent of cleaning involved increases in proportion to room size
-the more elaborate and varied the design, the greater the housekeeping task Convertabilty-
-flexibilty may be provided by standard rooms fitted with twin beds for single or double use -fold away or convertable beds may also be used -suites may be formed by using connecting doors and doorways with consideration for passage location and security
Terraces and 3alconies-
-individual amenity spaces add to the volume of the building,construction costs and building line restrictions -problems include',
-wind funneling and suction -waterproofing

-extra cleaning and maintenance -balconies may project outside the building or be recessed into the area of the room -they may be angled to increase the view from one side and to provide better screening from noisy or unpleasant areas
-balconies make window cleaning easier and may provide a secondary fire escape -balconies provide sound shadowing of noise from carparks,streets or work areas at lower levels -balconies reduce the abrupt outline of a large building and reduce the scale of the building Servicing of Rooras-
-provision should be made for;
-seperation: service areas and elevators seperated from guest circulation
-transportation: provision for the movement of carts carrying housekeeping supplies and food -equipment: access to service ducts -control: housekeeping offices and stores Service Areas-
-service elevators and stairs should open into a service lobby providing direct access into rooms and closets necessary for housekeeping -the entry to the guestroom corridor should be through a service door designed to take heavy use an suit the hallway decor

Space Reouirements-hotel room tyoe
one bed unit std. twin
tv/in dbls. and suites
12ft x 14ft 12.5ft x 16ft 12.5ft x 18ft -14.5ft x 18ft
one bed unit twin doubles
Ceiling Heights -
14ft x 14ft 14ft x 18ft
minimum over sleeping area normal
minimum over entrance foyer 7ft0in
Bed Sizes-
bed types width depth
twin 39in 75in
double 54in 80in
queen 60 in 84in
king y 72in 84in
studio bed length . 79in
width settee 20in
bed 3Sin
Hanging, Shelf and Drawer Space
hanging space length single 21 in
double 36in
storage space area shelves trays
single 12sqft
writing and dressing table combined -total area
Other Furniture
bedside table luggage rack writing table
c+ ct

location of Purniture-
-construction of furniture and headboards should be against the walls seperating guestrooms which helps in noise reduction
-bedroom layouts should alternate so that similar units are back to back on seperating walls Television-
-location must be related in terms of viewing distance, angle and height to both seating areas and beds, usually put on a fixed,swivel unit Telenhone-
usually located on one of the night tables Constructional Features-entrance doors-
-should be at least 36in to allow for luggage -doors on opposite sides of the corridor should be staggered for privacy and circulation -doors should be solid and made of durable materials walls and ceilings-
-must be suitable for easy and inexpensive redecoration within a cycle of 1-4- years floors-
-surfaced with carpet for a comfortable appearance and reduction in noise windows-
-dimensions- related to structural and room modules- full width windows provide the best

4 $70 (15*0*)
- a
(g) Hotel Croatia de luxe. Cavtat. Compact room units, with balconies, angled to the corridor. Architects: S. Milicevic, Energoprojekt.
(h| Belo Horizonte Othon Palace Hotel. Based on a curved plan.
a '
'20 fr

advantage from view but requirements for insulation screening, curtains, equipment and furnture must be considered
-sill height- 3ft8in is desirable- a barrier rail should be provided if lower Bathrooms-
-three basic plan arrangements
-bathrooms on external walls- allows natural ventilation and lighting but less efficient use of the interior of the building -bathrooms interspaced between bedrooms-width of building is reduced up to 15ft -internal bathrooms- forms an entrance vestibule
Dining Areas & Bars
-range of provision for a speciality restaurant use and area
-based on speciality in food method of service or style of operation
-mainly used in the evening but lunch may also be provided
-provisions usually include -visible cooking
-stage,bandstand and/or dancing area (20sqft)
-wide range of lighting variations including spots -local sound system and acoustic control

Desism Reouirements-
-specifically designed to compliment the food and service
-the decor is sophisticated and themed with many focal points of activity and interest -personalised seating areas are seperated by individual lighting and/or by screens or balconies (intimate atmosphere)
-the central area should be flexible in layout to allow;
-different groupings of tables -an area for dancing or entertainment visible to all areas
-provision may be required for cooking at the table -the bar or lounge may be seperate or a part of the eating area
-fittings, furniture and furnishings are of high quality and are to individual design Planning Criteria: Circulation-
-entry to the restaurant should be through a reception lounge or foyer- this area will be used as an assembly point before entering or on leaving the restaurant or bar lounge -cloakrooms, powder rooms and toilets should be near the entrance lobby
-all entrances and exits should be positioned to allow supervision and control

Lounge Design-
-acoustic considerations- must reduce transmission of sound from associated working areas -dimensions- aim is to design a space which is broken up into small intimate areas
-these areas can be done by alcoves, changes in level and dwarf partitions -furniture groupings can be used also to create seperate areas of activities -space requirements range from 12 to 18sqft per seat
-ceiling heights should be 9ft or more over the general area but lower heights in small intimate areas
-cocktail bar
-the design should enable drinks to be served over the counter by waiter/waitress service -seats are required for those wishing to be served at the bar
-bars are usually two levels (preperation and drinking areas)
-bar counters are the focal points of attraction and must be individually designed to make it standout
-the working area has sinks,and facilities for glass storing, drink dispencing and draining of

-drink storage
-bottle storage must be accomodated in lockable cabinets below or behind the counter -an area for the main stores is needed in close proximity to the bar Restaurant Design-
-layouts should take into account the features of the room, external vistas and internal displays and entertainment, circulation patterns of customers and staff, method of food service and seat groupings -customer circulation
-congestion in the entrance and cashier should be avoided
-an enlarged area with tables set back and screened should be provided for customers entering (grouping, waiting,for attention)
-the entrance should extend into a wide aisle leading to seats on both sides -seating must be arranged by backing on to the circulation areas and by screening to minimise distractions -staff circulation
-circulation routes include table service, counter service and service of drinks

important considerations are; service arrangements
entry and exit to servery
counter service drink service
Environmental Requirements
seperation and screening of view, control of noise and light penetration and positions of nearby tables
sequence- deposit counters for used tableware, arrangements for meal, service over counter and self help by waiter
position within rest, in convenient places and design with sideboards and carts
location of counter with regards for provision for visible cooking
circulation to and from bar
-restaurants require sophisticated environmental control including ventilation and heat (1-5 air changes per hour)
-windows can be used, to take advantage of view or
attract outside attention, they can also open onto swimming pools, gardens or landscaped areas -for restaurants used primarily at night, it ma;/ be completely enclosed v/ithin the interior of the building
Design Features-
-cielings should be normally at least 9ft high and should provide sound absorption and sound damping via changes in levels and broken up surface

Entrance and Exit Doors-
-must be suitably positioned, proportioned and protected
-they should not swing into the room but be recessed into the lobby or corridors -service doors should lead from service lobbies and corridors communicating with kitchenand pantry and provided with noise and light baffling
Ballrooms And Convention Halls-
-direct access for public uesrs is essential with access consideration for food and beverage service and for exhibition or stage use -main entrance doorway should be central and a min. of 8-1Oft high
-a ceiling height of at least 15ft is normally required
-storage space will be required for audio-visual
equipment as well as furniture, tables and various
other items needed for banquets and other functions

Fig. 48
baJ t 7* RM ~B SAL L RM B COR' B RM *r **t*
r - RM _ v RM B ^COR i

Fig. 43 Fig. 44
Ni* OPEN CCR^ RM Ra ! OPEN COR 7Jt V 1 "r~~ <-**-- -TJ* >
^7 BAL^. RM B ,C0R_^B RM
} *ybli'c tf
Food on
bar a: Rrivat Fmplc Kitch< Stewc Walk bver Chine Recei Garb
Mono Sec re *ccoi linen lounc Men's Mens
Main! ^urn it Gene boile Tron*
Extra it
Food *** mo rOom$ ^Otorisf. ^ondy; i

n node, however, for the manager's office the secretarys office, as each woulcf need about the same area.
a ALLOTMENTS fo* typical I00.8OOM MOTEL
^,c ipc* lobby
front office
Corridor adjoining Attn* toilet for guests Women's toilet for guests Women's restroom Cool checkroom
Cessions and subrenlals looted stores ijodond beverage service space gining room (110 seat.)
Cofiee shop (70 seals)
lo, 0nd cocktail lounge (50 seals)
pirate dining rooms (75 seats)
employees dining room (20 seats)
y,word's storeroom
Wolk-in refrigerators
jeeroge storage
Ctiino, gloss and silver storage
Inceiving room
Jorboge room
j^mnrl service space mcnoger's office Secretary's office secounting office linen room Uundry
men's toilet for employees men's locker room Women's toilet for employees Women's locker room maintenance shops
fcrnilure storage Cenerol storage j,il,r room
rn-nsformer and switchboard
Hems [if needed)
(or motorized lawn mow-
Area, sq ft 1,100 100 500 300 140 120 100 100

Ooroge tn and snow plows j.imming pool filters, chlorinate pomp, and heater $ttfcge for lawn furniture and recreation equipment
Itod service is not a lucrative part of m eolel business; money invested in would pay better dividends. The

will want food service
^*is, however,
if not actually on the premises, then
only a step away. He generally dislikes to go more than a few hundred yards fo find a restaurant. Therefore, unless adequate food service is already adjacent, it is advisable to provide if.
For the motel requiring strictly minimum facilities, a good solution is the factory-assembled roadside "diner" with a dozen or more seats, which can be handled by a single employee during slack hours. For the more ambitious but still rather small motel with little outside patronage, the best solution may well be a coffee shop, possibly supplemented by a bar. Such an arrangement helps to keep investment and labor costs within bounds. For the larger motel, a dining room, coffee shop, and bar with cocktail lounge may all be needed. If the motel is near a city, private dining rooms are usually added as well. Outside patronage is necessary to make extensive restaurant operations pay. The larger, more spectacular motel restaurants may derive as much as 75 per cent of their business from persons who are not overnight guests (Fig. 50).
Motel restaurant facilities average about two seals per guest room. The ratio varies, however, from one-half to three or more dining-room seats per guest room.
Care should be taken in applying the schedule of space allotments to ensure that, if any food-service area is modified, the effect on auxiliary facilities is considered.
The lobby should be designed to impress the prospective guest favorably and bid him welcome. The entrance must be easily recognizable and accessible. If feasible, the prospective guest should be sheltered from Ihe weather, from his car to the entrance doors. Within the lobby, the registration desk should have a relatively central location, for it is the main control point of motel operation. If the guest, standing at the registration desk, can look through a large plate-glass window and see the swimming pool, attractive landscaping, or a scenic view, room sales will be greatly aided.
For a discussion of laundry requirements, see the section on "Hotel ond Motel Laundries."
Parking spaces, preferably In separate areas, are generally required as follows: (1) I parking space for each guest room (may sometimes be reduced to 0.8 per guest room); (2) 1 parking space for every 5 restaurant seats; (3) 1 parking space for every 3 employees; (4) 2 parking spaces for delivery and service trucks (in addition to space for a truck at the service entrance).
These allotments, of course, Jhould be modified if circumstances warrant it. A
motel that is filled to capacity, with a good restaurant, bar, and banquet business from nonguests, may need 2 parking spaces per guest room. On the other hand, a downtown motel, with parking available nearby and many guests arriving by taxi, might get along with parking space equal to two-thirds the number of guest rooms.
For the design of parking areas in general, see the section of this book on "Parking." Special requirements for motel parking are discussed in the following paragraph.
Parking stalls should be adequate for the largest cars commonly used; 19 ft is the recommended minimum length. Planning for only medium and small-size cars invites trouble. Parking stalls 10 ft wide are recommended; where space is limited 9-ft stalls may be used, but this width should be considered the absolute minimum. Double stripes, 1 */j ft apart, between the stalls will result in better centering of the cars within the allotted space. Since almost all motel guests unload baggage from their cars, and reload it upon leaving, adequate and safe space should be provided for this activity. Motel parking lots planned for maximum guest convenience provide parking stalls 1 1 ft wide by 23 ft long, allowing 4 ft behind a 19-ft car for loading and unloading. Parking spaces under buildings should be 11 ft wide and have o clear height of 7 ft. In the design of sidewalks adjacent to parking areas, consideration must be given to the overhang of the car beyond the curb or wheel buffer; this overhang may be as much as 2'/a ft in front or 4'/2 ft in the rear of the car.
Entrance drive
The turnoff from the highway to the motel should be at an angle of 30 to 45 deg; sharper turnoff angles are inadvisable. The driveway should be 20 fo 25 ft wide, and the radius of the curb on the drivers right should be at least 50 ft. If a restricted site frontage should require a right-angle turnoff, then the driveway should be 25 ft wide and the curb have a 30-ft radius. A curb radius of less than 30 ft is inadvisable under any circumstances.
A slope of 6 per cent is the usual maximum for turnoffs from state highways. A slope of 12 per cent is customary for ramps, but can be os much as 15 per cent. The parking lot should be nearly level. The central driveway may be crowned, with a 1 per cent slope to the edges, so that persons on foot will find it relatively free from water after rain or from ice in winter.
Gas station
Motels sometimes include a service sta-

Adequacy of space will influence building and operating costs and efficiency. When space is too small, labor time and effort are likely to increase and the volume and quality of output decrease. When it is too large, building and maintenance costs are excessive.
Decisions pertaining to space allowance may be strongly affected by the limitations of investment funds and available space. Ample space is sometimes provided by means of low* cost materials and equipment of such inferior quality that they have short and unsatisfactory service life. In other instances, space is restricted to a point where it prohibits profitable volume or the best utilization of labor. Space allowances in relation to investment should be balanced in terms of (1) proposed permanence of the facility, (2) acuteness of need for the specific operation, (3) essentials for operating efficiency, (4) desirable standards in terms of appearance, sanitation, and good quality of production and service, and (5) immediate and future costs, depreciation, upkeep, and maintenance.
Facts peculiar to the particular establishment should be used as the basis for determining space needs. Requirements will vary for facilities of a given type and volume. Location; type of operation; clientele; frequency of deliveries of supplies; kind of food used, such as fresh, frozen, or canned; and the completeness of processing to be done will cause variation in production and storage requirements. The policies of those in charge will have an influence. Certain general information, such as numbers to be served, turnover, arrival rate, and type of service, will be helpful in deciding dining area needs.
Study is required to clarify immediate and future needs in food production. Choices should be made between meat cutting or portion-ready meats, a baking section or use of commercially baked products, and the use of unprocessed versus processed foods. If enlargement is probable, studies made before the building is planned as to how space may be added and how the initial plan should be designed to minimize ultimate cost, will be helpful.
It is well to block out space allowances according to functions that the facility is to perform. Calculate area requirements in terms of: (1) volume and type of service, (2) amount and size of equipment to be used, (3) number of workers required. (4) space for needed supplies, and (5) suitable traffic area. The dining area location and space allowance are usually determined first, the production areas next in terms of specific relationship to the dining area, and the other sections as required to these. Planners should be careful in accepting general space recommendations. There are many variations.
Food Service Planning John Wiley & Sons. New York. I 967
Dining Area
Space for dining areas is usually based on the number of square feet per person seated times the number of persons seated at one time.
Space Requirements The patron's size and the type and quality of service should be considered. Small children may require only 8 sq ft for a type of service in which an adult would need 12 sq ft for comfort. A banquet seating allowance might be as little ns 10 sq ft per seat and that for a deluxe restaurant ns much as 20 sq ft. The amount of serving equipment in the dining area and lineup space will influence needs. Lost space must be considered The diner's comfort should govern allowance. Crowding is distasteful to many people. It is likely to be tolerated more readily by youngsters than by adults. It is more acceptable in low-cost, quick-service units than in those featuring leisurely dining. Both young and old enjoy having sufficient elbow room and enough space so that dishes of food and beverage are not crowded. Place settings for adults usually allow 24 in. and for children 1 8 to 20 in. (Table 1).
TABLE 1 Square Feet per Seat Used for Various Types of Food Operations
Type of operation Square feet per seat
Cafeteria, commercial........................ 16-18
Cafeteria, college and
industrial................................. 12-15
Cafeteria, school lunchroom. . . 9-12
College residence,
table service.............................. 12-15
Counter service.............................. 18-20
Table service, hotel,
club restaurant............................ 15-18
Table service.
minimum eating 11-14
8anquet, minimum............................ 10-11
All of the areas in a dining room used for purposes other than seating are a part of the square footage allowed for seating. This does not include waiting areas, guest facilities, cloakrooms, and other similar areas. Excessive loss or use of space for other than seating in the dining area will, however, increase needs. Structural features of the room should be considered. Width and length of the room, table and chair sizes, and seating arrangements affect capacity.
Service stations may be estimated in the proportion of one small one for every 20 seats or a large central one for every 50 to 60 places. The advisability of having a central serving station will be influenced by the distance of the dining area from the serving area. It is of special value when production and dining are on different floors. Plumbing and wiring and whether supplies are delivered mechanically will influence location of the stations. Small substations for silver, dishes, napery. bever-
ages, ice, butter, and condiments may t 20 to 24 in. square and 36 to 38 in. higf size of central stations varies from that small enclosed room to that of a *cr section measuring approximately 8 to long by 27 to 30 in. wide by 6 to 7 ft high-Table size will influence patron comfort efficient utilization of space. In a ca_ for example, where patrons may dine on *** f;
that the table be of **t>li odate the numb* *
14 by
trays, it is importa quate size to accomm trays likely to bo there. Four trays in. fit better on a table 48 in. square lb*" a table 36 or 42 in. square. Small table** ^ as 24 or 30 in. square, are economical tot \ ing but are uncomfortable for large P*^ ] They are only suitable in crowded are**
fast turnover and
qht meals. Tables be*5* common width and height allowing them J fitted together will give flexibility in **-t^ \ arrangements. These are particularly g^ |
banquette or cocktail-type bench ****** along a wall. Tables for booths are for waitresses to serve if they are longed 4 ft. The width of booths including se*11 *** table is commonly 5ft. A lunch coon** idth of 16
The lin
dirt*1* -
' 1
dual br *0 to The *"'"8
give O t.
will have a minimum maximum width of 24 to 30 in are calculated on the basis of 20 to 24 in* P" seat. The maximum area best served by
waitress is generally 16 ft of counter-will give eight to ten seats. U-shaped make maximum use of space and reduce tr
II be re')u-r*1 This W'111"
, co*" 1. 1J ,,, in. '-ntn, inss* '** * '"*>
i **
Space in depth of 8'/ to 1 1 ft wi for every linear foot of counter, vide 3 to 4 ft of public aisle, 2A ft fr 1 space for employees. A width of 4',4 ft i* c able where employees must pass. j
Calculate aisle space between table* 1 chairs to include passage area and that oc** pied by the person seated at the table* minimum passage area is 1 8 in. between ch***
should *

and, including chair area, tables spaced 4 to 5 ft apart. Aisles on carts or other mobile equipment moved should be sized according to the of such equipment.
The best utilization of space be arrived at through the use o or scaled models. Diagonal arrange1*'3 of square tables utilizes space better tt** square arrangement and yields a more trouW* traffic lane. Lanes that pass betw***
e can of tempi*** t
backs of chairs are likely to be blocked guests arise or are being seated.
Table heights in schools should be
by many grades a compromise height will ^* needed between the 30 in. normally u**^ ^ adults and the 24 in. suitable for children, ** two sizes may be used in different section* the room. A table length to seat four, 0 eight is preferable to longer ones.
Number of Persons Allowance The number*
persons to be seated at one time is the tec point of information needed for calculeb^J of the dining room size. The total number seats required at one time, multiplied by *** at. will g'* m tf*
square ............
space required for each seat, will g total number of square feet needed m

The number of times a seat is during a given period is commonly to as "turnover." The turnover per {tines the number of seats available, gives * number of patrons who can be served
f jtour. If peak loads, or number to be one time, are known, the number of WZ. ^auired can be estimated.
^tKtver rates tend to vary, for thev are ^by such factors as the amount of eeten, the elaborateness of the service,
f, the diner's time allowance. A breakfast ^0/few foods may be eaten more quickly dinner, and a simple fare faster than a g ^ycourse meal. Turnover is quickest in rooms where food has been prepared ^j0ance for fast service and where patrons ^ {hemselves and bus their soiled dishes.
turnover time is speeded up 10 percent jj^trons removing their soiled dishes so that are quickly available for other guests, service for leisure dining, involving ^0fa\ end placement of several^ courses, ^ the longest time. Although specific may vary from 1 0 minutes to 2 hours, r j atino time is normally 10 to 15 minutes Mkfast, 15 to 20 minutes for lunch, and

40 minutes for dinner.
calculation of occupancy of seats in a
I ^ room must take into consideration a percentage of vacancy, except where ir- number are seated at one time accord-1* 10 assignment. In table-service dining (his has been estimated as 20 percent capacity, in cafeterias from 12 to 18 f and for counter operations 10 to
i^^csnt. Many factors influence this per* .1 |t|T. such as patrons arriving at different
1 irrequ|ar rale of turnover, and reluctance
^ - -i.lo uuith trannro
w a table with strangers.
*^S table sizes used in the dining room will \MA occupancy. It is often desirable to for groups varying from two to eight. \ ^0 a predominance in most dining rooms Apt* for two people. The "deuces" may be ^ ad hape that can ba put together to
({spies for larger groups. In metropolitan 0 where many tend to dine alone, wall r-' seating and tables for two with a
* 00 ridge or line denoting space for one have
0 0d successfully. Chairs with a "tablet* that will hold a tray have been used for
1 turnover in crowded areas.
00 utilization of seating capacity tends to
ter for cafeterias than for table service.
the table waiting for diner may begin eating

wpatron may spend 25 to 50 percent of the
^ while seated
^0. The cafeten t0On as he is seated. One cafeteria line larva four to eight patrons per minute ^inn on (1) the speed of the servers, elaborateness of food selection, (3) ,ence of the layout, and (4) the type 'tj^gffooe- At these rates, 240 to 480 patrons
* to be seated within an hour. *lf the .010 rate is two per hour, then from 120
£ JI0 seats will be used. However, if 15 > * , of the total capacity at the peak period
unfilled, then between 140 and 280 will be required. An additional 14 to fce*itor 10 percent would be needed if the
* do not bus their soiled dishes, peonage estimates for facilities of different
jmsy be guided by the number of persons L1" |tsjdence, enrollments in a school, an payroll, the membership of a club
r 9
amount of traffic in an office or shop-In each case a certain percentage lly be expected to dine in the facility The percentage will be influenced factors as its location in relation to faciliti68 the patron's buying power.
the price plan (on the basis of subsidy or profit), patron's mealtime allowance, and convenience of the location.
The patronage estimate for a college cafeteria should take into consideration the number of students who live at home, are members of a live-in group, such as an organized house, and the number of other dining facilities available on or near the campus. A college residence providing table service may have to allow a seating capacity that is 1 10 percent of occupancy if a policy exists for having "special guest" occasions and seating all at one time.
An industrial lunchroom may serve as few as 25 percent and as many as 90 percent of the payroll. Clues to probable patronage may be drawn from such factors as nearness to other eating facilities, wage rates, type of work, prices to be charged, convenience, quality, and attractiveness. The attitude of management toward the lunchroom may affect patron-uge also. Pride in providing u good service for the industrial family as opposed to a take-it-or-loave-it attitude tends to win favorable response.
The size of a dining room in a hospital should be determined as to whether it is to be used for employees, patients, or guests, or any combination of these. The type of hospital and the number of ambulatory patients should also be considered. The type of hospital will also influence the number of personnel employed. The ratio of personnel to patients will vary from 1 to 3, depending on how much special care is required or how much teaching and research are done. Good food and reasonable prices will attract a high percentage of those eligible to eat in the facility.
School lunch participation varies 25 to 75 percent and a good percentage for planning is 60 to 75 percent of enrollment. Where prices are low, the food good, meal selections appealing, and the food service carefully integrated with the educational program, the percentage will be high.
Banquet seating requires planning because maximum seating potential means maximum profits. Folding tables 30 in. wide are popular. These ore obtained in varying lengths, but 72 and 96 in. are commonly used. The spacing for the legs should be such as to allow for comfortable seating when the tables are joined end to end and place settings are laid on 24*in. centers.
Restaurant operators should consider space in relation to patronage volume essential for a profitable business. Labor, food, and operating costs must be met and a profit realized that covers risk-bearing effort expended and return on investment. Essential income is weighed in the light of probable patronage and probable average check. The number of seats provided in planning must cover this need.
Flexibility in seating capacity is often desirable. People do not like to be crowded nor do they enjoy the lonely experience of being seated in a huge area occupied by only a few. Sparse patronage creates an impression of poor popularity. Separate rooms, folding doors, screens, or other attractive devices can be used to reduce size of an area during slack periods. Sections left open should be those easiest to serve. Balconies, back rooms, or other less desirable space can often be used for overflow numbers that occasionally require service.
A common experience in many dining room operations is the need for more seating at one meal than at others. This may be due either to increased numbers or different turnover rates. A residence cafeteria serving
600 men has an overflow room seating 100, which it uses only at dinner. The night meal is not only larger but the men dine in a more leisurely fashion. The room is available for serving other groups at breakfast and lunch.
Commercial restaurants located in shopping or office areas often have a heavier demand at noon than at the dinner hour. Rooms used for general patronage at noon may be closed at night or provide space for private dinner parties. Entrances to these rooms should not require passage through the main dining room. Convenience for special service is important.
Production Areas

____^ It has been
found unsatisfactory, however, to go by a set space allowance for this area. Detailed study of space allocations leads to the conclusion that percentages in relation to the dining area are "completely unrealistic and unreliable." An analysis of specific needs is required. Many factors influence space requirements, such as:
1. Type of preparation and service
2. Amount of the total production done in the unit
3. Volume in terms of the number of meals served
4. Variety of foods offered in the menu
5. Elaborateness of preparation and service
6. Amount of individual service given, as in a hospital tray service
7. Seating and service plan, whether on one floor or many
The cost of providing space, equipment, and labor is sufficient to merit careful calculation of the best type of operation before planning. New products on the market, new cooking methods, and new equipment available should be evaluated. The use of preprocessed products in many metropolitan areas has made a pronounced change in the amount of space allotted for bake shop, meat cutting, and vegetable preparation areas. Where portion-cut meats are readily available, it is questionable whether even a large establishment can afford to equip and provide skilled labor for a butcher shop. The use of large quantities of frozen foods affects storage needs. The cost and quality of market products, their availability, and the frequency of deliveries are all to be considered.
Variety in menu selection and elaboration of foods tend to increase space needs in work areas and storage. Small amounts of numerous items do not permit stacking and bulk packaging. Elaboration of food often involves individual portion treatment, with individual casseroles, for example, as compared to bulk steam table pans. A hospital food service requiring many special diets serves as a common example of menu variety and individual portion treatment imposing special space requirements.
The equipment provided will affect the space needs. Garbage and refuse, for example, may require a sizable area for storage awaiting pickup. Disposal units for food garbage, incinerator for burnable refuse, and a crusher for tin cans will greatly reduce the amount to be held. Frequency of garbage collection will minimize the space needs.
Structural features of the building may influence the utilization of space. The shape of the kitchen, location of ventilation and elevator shafts, support columns and partitions should be considered in relation to an efficient layout for work. The location of entrances and

exits for a good flow of traffic, window place* ment, suitable space, and relationship of sections need consideration. Eliminate partitions whenever possible: this will reduce space needs and also permit easier supervision of production areas.
Kitchens serving a smaller number require a larger square footage per meal than those serving a larger number. The following data used for industrial cafeterias show the rate at which space needs per meal tend to decrease as the number served increases (Table 2).
TABLE 2 Variation in Space Needs in Relation to Numbers Served
Meal load Square feet per meal Variation in square feet
.100-200 5.00 500-1,000
200-400 4.00 800-1,600
400-800 3.50 1,400-2,800
800-1,300 3.00 2,400-3,900
1,300-2,000 2.50 3,250-5,000
2,000-3,000 2.00 4,000-6,000
3,000-6,000 1.85 5,500-9,250
Planners are often asked to make estimates of space needs before having an opportunity to make policies or detailed plans for operations. Figures that will be found useful in making such estimates are given in Table 3. These figures pertain to average kitchen areas found in different types of food facilities. Their use is to be regarded as tentative and to be measured carefully in terms of specific needs. The square footage given is to be multiplied by the maximum number of meals estimated per hour of service, in order to find the total space requirement.
After production policies have been established. work areas may be blocked out in terms of the equipment needs and the number of workers required to do the work in a section. Linear space, depths, and heights for work centers should be controlled in terms of average human measurements. This will include the reach to and grasp of material or equipment used in working. The length and width of the work table is adjusted in terms of the amount and size of equipment that will rest on it during the progress of work. The linear measurement will vary in terms of the number of workers using it at one time.
The width of the table may be 24 to 30 in. unless dishes or food containers are to rest at the back of the table. Tables 36 in. wide are preferable when the back of the area is used for such storage. Where two workers work opposite each other, a table 42 in. wide may be used. A work area of 4 to 6 lin ft will be within convenient reach of the average poicon. Tables 8 to 10 ft long are used if two people are working
side by side. A height of 34 in., commonly used as a working height, should be evaluated in terms of specific work done and equipment used.
Aisle space should permit free, easy movement of essential traffic. The minimum width for a lane between equipment where one person works alone is 36 and 42 in. where more than one is employed and where workers must pass each other in the progress of work. Where mobile equipment is used, 48 to 54 in. are recommended. At least 60 in. are needed for main traffic lanes where workers regularly pass each other with mobile equipment. If workers or equipment must stand in the lane while working, appropriate space should be allowed for this. Thought should be given to space for doors opening into an aisle and for handling large pieces of equipment, such as roasting pans, baking sheets, and stock pots.
Main thoroughfares should not pass through work centers. Compactness is essential for step-saving. It is well for the work centers to be in close proximity to main traffic lanes, with easy access to them. It is important both to avoid distraction from outsiders passing through work centers and to conserve space. Work centers at right angles to traffic lanes are efficient (Fig. 1).
The percentage of floor area covered by equipment varies according to production needs and the type of equipment used. A satisfactory layout may claim less than 30 percent of total space for equipment while work areas, traffic lanes, and space around equipment for easy operation and cleaning may require 70 percent or more.
For hospital production and service areas, 20 to 30 sq ft per bed is suggested. The need is reduced as the number of beds increases approximately 30 sq ft per bed for a 50-bed, and 20 sq ft per bed for a 200-bed hospital. This allowance does not include major storage areas, dining rooms, employee facilities, or floor serving pantries.
Serving Areas
Space allowance of serving areas should be adapted to the needs of the specific facility. The menu, organization of work, and number served will influence size. The type of service will also be influential in dictating space needed.
In cafeterias the counter length should be regulated by the variety and volume. Excess space partially filled is unattractive, but crowding is also undesirable. An estimate that may be used for allotting width is 14 ft. This allows for 4 ft as patron lane space, 1 ft tray slide, 2 ft counter width, 4% ft for workers, and 2% ft for back bar. The size of the tray should dictate the width of the tray slide. The average length of counters in college residence halls and hospitals is found to be 30 to 32 ft, while those
Estimated maximum meals per hour
Estimated maximum meals per hour
Type of facility 200 or less 200-400 400-800 800-1,300 1,300-7,500
Cafeterias................... 7.5-5.0 5.0-4.0 4 0-3.5 3.5-3.0 3.0-1.8
Hospitals.................... 18.0-4.5 12 0-4.5 11.0-4.5 10.0-4.0 8.0-4.0
Hotels....................... 18.0-4.0 7.5-3.0 6.0-3 0 4.0-3.0 4.0-3.0
Industrial lunchrooms........ 7.5-5.0 4.0-3.2 3.5-2.0 3.0-2.0 2.5-1.7
Lunch counters........... 7.5-2.0 2.0-1.5
Railroad dining car.......... 1.6
Restaurants (service)........ 7.0-4.0 5.0-3 6 5.0-3.6 5.0-3.0 5.0-3.0
School lunchrooms............ 4 0-3.3 3.3-2 2 3.0-2 0 2.5-1.6 2.0-1 6
in school lunchrooms average around 1 5 to ft. Some commercial cafeteria counters be 70 to 80 ft long, but counters over 50 ftlo^ are frequently considered inefficient. Tweni; feet is usually thought of as a minimum b* under special conditions and where a limit* menu is served, 6 to 8 ft may be suffio** The trend is toward shorter counters mobile serving units or dish holders set at "9* angles to the counter. Smoother service greater speed are achieved. Counter hei^ may be set at comfortable levels for work** and patrons. Schools may have lower count** so that children may see the food and their trays along a slide as they are For little folk, 28 to 30 in. is desirable, <***; counters narrow so that servers may r**^ over to assist a child. A solid tray slide t**^ to result in fewer accidents than those made bars or tubing. Plastic trays measuring 9 by *-in., compartmented. and of pastel colors popular. Slides for these may be on the serv** side of the counter for ease of service sod eliminate spillage or accidents. The child pi**r up the completed service at the end of the Ime .
Some planners use, as a rough guide, t counter or line for every 250 to 300 petroe* ^ served, but arrival rate, speed of service* turnover are more reliable factors to consider -in establishing the number of lines requt* <
Hospital service space will depend up* whether central or floor service is used, tr*1* | are set up in serving pantries, and modified ^ diets are set up in line or in a diet kitch*rt Space must be allowed for bulk food truck* j tray trucks, small tray carts, or special 4** } pensing units used.
Short-order units where food moves direed? from production to the consumer require least service space. The need for an
mediate station is eliminated. Step-saving pactness saves space. The units requiring £ most space are those furnishing elaborate | highly individualized service.
Receiving and Storage Areas
Space allocation for receiving and storage mue* be based on specific needs. The volume type of items received and stored should be considered. Although the average ope***1 may find a dock 8 ft deep and 12 ft long cient for receiving items, this would not sufficient for a large one. The space require-ment in square feet for food storage for 30 d#t has been calculated by some as approximated one half the total served or, if 1,000 are served. 500 sq ft may be used as a tentative figure total food storage needs. Cases of 6/10"* stacked 6 cases high on flat trucks will hev* bearing weight of approximately 250 to 300 per sq ft. Skid sizes should be 3 by Z'k 8 to 12 in. high. Where heavy items, such >
10-gal cans of milk, are stored, bearing
may be increased. One case of 6/10s, 24/2'i* or 24/2s weighs approximately 50 lb occupies 1 cu ft.
Common Storage The volume of canned needed to serve 100 persons three meal* de*T for one month is estimated at approximated^ cases of 6/10s or equivalent. The maxi*1*--1 stack height will be 8 or 9 cases or fppro
mately 72 in. Accessibility of items that
iiy 1 c. in. Mccaasiuiiiiy ui um.-difl**'
well as volume, will govern the number* stacks needed. A total of 3 cu ft pr *** is estimated to include floor space covered bf a case of canned food, plus a share of space. One thousand cases piled eight high -125 stacks will require 375 sq ft or a *tor*3* area approximately 20 by 20 ft. Storeroe* aisles may be as narrow as 36 in., but 42 or


Employe* facilities

Linen and paper storage Time recorder
dining 1 L

Common r*" Bake shop Fountain
storage 1 1 1 1 service
i i T Short order

Refrigerator and frozen storage Meat r* Cooks
preparation r unit 1 1
Salad and sandwich unit
Pot and pan washing and storage
SM ** Can and truck washing Janitor closet
Row diagram showing functional relationships.
ifi preferred. Wider aisles may be required a re used. A 3-#t skid on a hydraulic If rolling bins
. naeds maneuvering room
e cans on dollies are used for storage, If cans or bins are
0 garbage
^ location for these
shelves, adjust height of bottom shelf
and allow for work space for removing from these containers. Fixed shelving ^ best when planned to suit the sizes of stored. Consider both interspace and suitable. Condiment bottles, cereal pack-and canned goods differ in package sizes ^ in stacking quality. The depth of a, shelf ^yjd accommodate either the width or length ^jj^case, and the interspace should be ade-for the number to be stacked one on top ^ soother. Allow 1 % to 2 in. as free space j^ggjeof positioning. Add thickness of shelv-p to interspace when stating measurements
4 centers,
fi Position heavy items to reduce lifting and ^pjitate dispensing. Drums of oil and vinegar I ^oid have spigots and be equipped with * s or located on cradles. Table surface
$ icale* should be located for convenient

of dry stores. Plan to have all products
6 in. above the floor or movable to facil-^^^Meaning of storage area. Limit height jMJ^ghelf for easy reach without aid of stool g ,tspladder. The average vertical reach of
men is 84% in. and of women 81 in. Use of the top shelf for light, bulky packages, such as cereal, is recommended.
Refrigerated and Low-Temperature Storage There are many factors affecting space needs for refrigerated and low-temperature foods. Across-the-board figures generally should be used only in preliminary estimates. The quantity stored at one time will dictate the storage needs. Variation in the type of storage also will be indicated by the types of items to be stored. Allocation in preliminary planning may be as follows: 20 to 35 percent for meat (portion-ready meats require % to '/, less space than carcass or wholesale cuts); 30 to 35 percent for fruits and vegetables; 20 to 25 percent for dairy products, including those in serving areas; 10 to 25 percent for frozen foods; and 5 to 10 percent for carry-over foods, salads, sandwich material, and bakery products. A requirement of 1 5 to 20 cu ft of refrigeration per 100 complete meals has also been used by some planners. Others state 1 to 1 % cu ft of usable refrigerator space should be provided for every three meals served. Analysis of a number of award-winning installations indicated that approximately 0.25 to 0.50 cu ft of refrigerated walk-in space was provided per meal served, and frozen walk-in space approxi-
mated 0.1 to 0.3 cu ft per meal served. Additional low-temperature or refrigerated space in terms of reach-ins was not calculated. In some climates, refrigerated space must be provided for dried fruits, nuts, cereals, and other foods to prevent weevil and insect infestation.
A walk-in becomes feasible for an operation serving 300 to 400 meals per day, and refrigerated pass-throughs can be added when from 400 to 500 meals are served per day. A walk-in 5 to 6 ft wide does not permit storage on both sides with adequate aisle space. Storage space of 1 % to 2 ft should be allowed on either side of the aisle. If crates or cases are stored, this may have to be increased. Aisles of 30 in. are usually too narrow; 42 in. are desirable. If mobile equipment is moved in and out; aisles may have to be wider. Walk-ins that are 8 to 9 ft wide and about 10 ft long are minimum size. This allows for two storage areas 30 in. wide with a 3 to 4 ft aisle. If added width is desired for storage space in the center, allowance for storage areas of about 3 ft wide and 42 in. minimum aisles should be provided. Large walk-ins may be designed for lift truck operation, with doors opening from the receiving dock on one side and into the kitchen opposite. If this is done and lift trucks are used, space must be provided in storage aisles for their working and turning around. Doors should be a minimum of 42 in. wide to admit large crates and containers or be sized to suit mobile equipment. Doors to low-temperature areas are most often planned to open into a refrigerated area. If this is not done a heating device may have to be installed on a door opening into a warm area to prevent its freezing tight from condensation. About 1 2 to 1 5 sq ft must be kept free for every door opening. About 45 lb of frozen food, if stacked in cases, can be stored per cubic foot. About 30 to 35 lb of refrigerated food can be stored per cubic foot.
Sanitation Areas
Dishwashing Area The space required for the dishwashing operation depends on the methods and equipment used. In all instances there must be adequate room to receive the volume of soiled dishes likely to arrive at any one time, plus space for scraping, stacking, and placing in baskets on a conveyor of a machine or into a prerinsing operation. The dimensions may be only 30 to 36 in. for a single tank machine, 60 to 72 in. for sinks, or 7 to over 30 ft for a conveyor-type machine. The requirements in the clean dish area will vary. It is important that there be enough space for dishes to be exposed to air for sufficient time to air-dry before stacking. For a basket-type machine, it is well to allow space equal to that required for three baskets, a stack of trays, and three or four stacks of dishes. For basket machines, it is usually recommended that the clean dish area occupy 66 percent of the total table space and the soiled dish area, 40 percent.
Methods used for transporting and storing dishes will influence space needs. Where mobile storage equipment is used, more space is needed for the several units than where one cart is used for transporting and is repeatedly loaded and unloaded. A table surface is desirable for sorting, treating, or inspecting silver and other tableware. The installation of a domestic washer and drier in the dishroom may require space.
Pot and Pan Section Provide a soiled utensil collection area adequate for the largest volume that normally arrives in the section at one time. The busiest periods are likely to occur when preparation containers are emptied for service

53T3YS?3n UZVV. JH'
\.\U\TS OF MOLE ______


Fig. 4
Abs. Min. Des. Min. Comfort* able
A and pub. circ'n 2-6 3-0 3-6
Length 3-6 3-9 4-0
Width 3-0 3-3 3-6
Note: This type not ordinarily recommended.
Abs. Del. Comfort-
Min. Min. able
Service 2-6 3-0 3-6
A and pub. to to to
circ'n 3-0 4-0 5-0
Length 2-0 to 2-6
4-10 5-2 5-8
Width to to to
5-6 5-6 5-10
dimensions in feet and inches
Abs. Des. Comfort-
Min. Min. able
Service 2-6 3-0 3-6
A and pub. to to to
circ'n 3-0 4-0 5-0
3-9 4-0
Length 3-6 to to
4-0 4-2
4-10 5-2 5-8
Width to to to
5-6 5-6 5-10
Abs. Min. Des. Min. Comfort- able
H 3-0 to 3-6 3-6 4^0
S l-S to 1-6 1-5 to 1-6 1-6
T 2-5 2-5 to 2-6 2-6
W 1-8 to 2-0 2-0 to 2-2 24 to 26
Seat 1-4 to 1-5 1-5 to 1-6 1-6 to 1-8
Splay 0 to 0-3 0-2 to 0-3 0 3 2 to 04


level floor dropped floor
Ranqe of Dimensions Ranqe of Dimensions Ranqe of Dimensions
2-6 to 3- 6 X 1-2 to 1 3 B 3-0 to 3- b
1 K 2-4 to 2-10
rt __ 3 0 to 3- 6 Work 2-4 to 2- 7 s 1-6 to 2- 1
7 to 10 S 1-6 to 2- 6 X 1-2 to 1- 3
l 7-4 to 2- 8 Work 2-4 to 2- 8
j S Food bars.

SERVING TABLE (& sideboard)
Length / Width \
10 20 42
is averaae.
Abs. Min. Des. Min. Comfort- able
As Service only 2-6 3-0. 3-6
Ap Public circn 2-0 2-6 3-0
C Clearance to adjacent units 2-0 2-3 2-6
Display tables (hors d'oeuvrcs. etc.) usually 5' 0 (wines), 3'0" round
r 0"
Abs. Des.
Min. Min.
As Service only 2-0 2-6
R ^Xurn radius 3-0 3-6
O DoorT^opening width 2-0 2-6
Approx, area when stofer^ 38'' x 21W" x 35"
lUtyl I i|l
Length (tray) ) Width (tray) )
Abs. Min. Des. Min. Comfort* able
As Service only 2-6 3-0 3-6
Ap Public circ'n 2-0 2-6 3-0
^ Clearance to adjacent units 2-0 2-2 2-6
Depends on type of restaurant
Approx, area of stand, stored: 5" x 20" x 34"
Abs. Min. Des. Min. i Comfortable
As Service only 2-6 3-0 ! 3-6
Ap Public circn 2-0 2-6 3-0
C Clearance to adjacent units Can arrange on top or front
Length | Depends on capacity and if glass storage Width \ included. _______
Fig. 6 Serving units.


i j .
r\ r\ r\ r\ ^
CURVED TYPES: Radius R should be at least
2 ft.; other dimensions as for straight types.
{JCHT TYPE-with or without stools
Abs. Min. Des. Min. Comfort- able
aisle 3-6 to 4-6 4-0 to 5-0 4-6 to 6-0
to wall 1 -0 to 1 -6 1-2 to 1-6 1 -4 to 1 -6
^,1 cent, to cent. 1-9 to 2-0 2-0 2-2 to 2-6
^Tto ber 9 to 1-0 1-0 l-l to 1-2
,ck ber 1-6 t0 1-8 1-8 to 2-0 2-0 to 2-3
lender's aisle 2-0 to 2-2 2-6 3-0
2-3 to 2-6 2-5 to 2-6 1 2-8 to 2-9
Bar length: Allow from I ft. 8 in. to I ft. 10 in. per person for standup bars; 2 ft. for each stooi.
Bar depth: No increase in depth is needed for more than I bartender, as each man should be provided with his own set-up space in the work counter and back-bar.
Service bars: These are usually from 6 to 8 ft. long, for I-man service- from 10 to 12 ft. long if 2 bartenders are needed for peak service periods. No footrail. counter overhanq. or stools are required. Location is often adjacent to kitchen and concealed from patrons: however, advertising values sometimes cause it to be set in public view. In the latter case, a rope rail or similar device, to discouraqe patrons from standing at the bar, is often advisable.

P = 7 to 10 H = 7 to 10
dimensions in feet and inches
Usual Min. Usual Max.
8 3-6 3-9
B8 3-6 3-9
Cab 3-0 to 3-10 5-0 to 5-7
S 2 4 to 2-6 2-7
Work 2-4 2-6
X 1-0 to 1-2 1-2 to 1-3


c Cashier's Aisle 2-0 to 2-4
Ap ?ub,le Aisle 3-4 to S-0
Length +-0 to 8-0
2-0 to 2-4
Abs. Min. 1 Dei. Min.
3-0 4-0
As 2-4 2-8
i 1-0 1-4
c 2-0 3-0
1-4 1-8
W 1-10 2-0
Fig. 8 Check room.
dimensions In f*et and inchei
and immediately following service when service equipment is brought from the serving areas. A disposal or a removable strainer above a drain is desirable for waste removal.
When allowing space for the pot and pan aection, 40 sq ft is generally regarded as a minimum for the smallest unit. The free work aisle between the sinks and other equipment should be 4 ft wide. The space allowance above the minimum will vary widely depending upon the type equipment used and the volume of pots and pans handled. Less space in relation to the maximum load may be required where a mechanical washer is used and fewer labor hours will be spent in handling a large volume per unit handled.
Miscellaneous Sanitation Areas For washing mobile equipment, space is needed where splashing can be confined and that has satisfactory drainage. This area may be adjacent to the dishwashing section or to the place where can washing is done. The size and type of equipment to be handled will govern the space needs.
A storage area for emergency cleanup equipment is needed in convenient relationship to dining rooms and work sections. Spillage and breakage create unsightliness and are accident hazards. Immediate care usually does not require heavy or large equipment but may be handled by a small broom, dustpan, small mop. and bucket not used for major cleaning. A mobile unit may be designed to carry these things, or a small closet may be provided.
Major cleaning equipment required will depend on the floors, finishes, and furniture to be cleaned. Determine whether a power sweeper, scrubber, and waxer are to be used. Space may be required for storage of janitor supply carts and for miscellaneous replacement items, such as light bulbs. Provision will be needed
for storing, emptying, cleaning, and filling mop trucks and for cleaning and air-drying wet mops.
Employes Facilities
Facilities for employees may include locker and lounge area, toilets, showers, time-recording equipment, hand basins near work areas, and dining rooms. An employee entrance should be so located that the employees may go directly to the dressing rooms without passing through the dining room or production area.
Locksr and Lounge Area Employee possessions should be protected in a suitably safe and sanitary condition while the employees are at work. Whether individual lockers or common cupboard, sufficient space should be allowed for personal clothing to hang without crowding or wrinkling. If cupboards are used for clothing, a separate space should be afforded for street clothing and for uniforms, and individual parcel lockers should be provided for storage of purses and other valuables. The height of the space for clothing should permit the longest garment to hang straight without wrinkling. The depth from front to back should be a minimum of 20 in.
Suitable size for an employee lounge depends largely on scheduling of workers and the policies of individual establishments- Many operators discourage lounging in the dressing room and recommend the employees' dining area for this. Others having broken shifts on their schedules favor an extra room for lounging. In all cases benches or chairs are to be provided upon which workers may sit while changing clothes and shoes. A cot or daybed,
36 in. by 6 ft, should be provided in the women's room.
Toilets and Showers The location of toilet ties near work areas is preferred over location in promoting good health habits, sening loss of labor time, and permitting employee supervision. Separate fee**31 should be provided for men and women, should be separated from food areas by ^ way or double entrance. Supply one wash *& for every 8 to 10 workers, one toilet stool every 1 2 to 15 women, and one urinal a^ ** toilet stool for every 15 men. Toilet comp* ments measure approximately 3 by 4'^ The type of employees, the climate, kind^ work, and conditions of work will influe* the need for shower facilities. Showers be appreciated and used by employees work-* in hot, humid kitchens- Experience has da*** strated that they are little used in locals where the weather is cool most of the the work areas well ventilated, and work* drawn from an income group who have g* facilities at home.
Time-recording Equipment Provide space for*1 corder near and within view of the office. V* hung card racks of sufficient capacity 1 recommended for the number of workers, b* full and part time, who are likely to be ployed during an accounting period. Estim* space for a clock recorder is approxim*4* 18 in. wide by 12% in. deep and 18 in. M and a rack of 50 cards approximately 4 2% by 34% in.
General Considerations The size of empK*r facilities has been found to vary widely- Sc* operations may not supply lockers and rr have only a toilet and lavatory for work* Some do not provide separate dining Expediency in allowing ample space may tempered by cost of space, available reo and the acuteness of need. Total spec# *
*0*9* ; a*-a--,*

^g^Mtacreased where main toilet and locker ..^^^remotely located and additional facil-^^e provided near work areas. It may be .ased where the food facility ia a part of larger organization providing facilities for jjier workers as in a hospital or in a hotel.
:0ft Facilities
gaflifort and cordiality should characterize antrance and waiting area for guests. The pj* of the area should be based on probable for waiting, type of service, and number .f persons likely to congregate at one time. If there is a lounge or hallway adjacent to the fining room, this may provide some waiting tpece-
Locate the public telephone, coat rack, and ,pj#t facilities in convenient relationship to the getting area. In college dining rooms provide ^ple space for books as well as coats. In .^jdences. a hallway approaching the dining will lessen the wear on the lounge, ve benches or seats are recommended.
space allocations and clearance con*
jjiad ^'9S' 2 to 7 are presented as determining capacities, desirable seating
ejouts. and necessary clearances. Infor-
ggtion was furnished by the John Van Range
ind Albert Pick Co., restaurant equipment i iajjSts; Louis A. Brown, architect; and the
yyns*ick-Balke*Collender C*
Tabulations are divided into three groups. The most luxurious establishments ordinarily use as minima the largest figures given, and vice*versa.
There are, in some localities, code and other restrictions on booth furniture dimensions. Authorities having local jurisdiction should be consulted. One designer consulted regarded the 2-person booth (side-by side) as a waste of space; others recognize that conditions may arise when no other type of furniture will suffice. Booths for more than four persons are not commonly encountered.
Diagrams, tables, and other data given in Fig. 8 and below illustrate only a few of the many types of nondining spaces and clearances required. Data included here may, however, suggest methods of solving most problems.
Preferred location for the cashier's desk or counter, according to the Albert Pick Co., is on the right hand side of the door when leaving, in order to avoid cross-traffic and resulting congestion. Dimensions vary from those given in the table according to what merchandise is sold by the cashier and can best be determined in
conjunction with each job. If quantities of tobacco, etc., are sold, a back wall case may be necessary.
Coat Checking
Figure 8 illustrates only one type of check room layout; selection of type and size depends on the job under consideration. It is generally considered uneconomical, except in the most luxurious restaurants, to provide check rooms capable of accommodating garments for the peak load of patrons, for the following reasons: (1) Women usually do not check coats; (2) not all male patrons check coats; (3) space required can usually be used otherwise to greater advantage. The Albert Pick Co. estimates that approximately 5 garments can be hung per linear foot on each side of the type of racks diagrammed.
Use of coat trees in dining areas is termed necessary but never desirable." These occupy approximately 20 by 20 in., are 72 in. high, and can accommodate 8 garments per customer. Overshoe racks are considered undesirable; umbrella racks, desirable in check rooms.
Telephone Facilities
Booths are usually preferred to telephone jacks, probably because of costs of installation and of relocating wiring when redecorating or replanning. Booths should be out of direct vision yet convenient to dining and lounge areas. One booth per 50 seats is the usual ratio or one phone jack per dining booth.

Organization Chart of Sections and Zones
Section numbering in this chart corresponds to the numbering of the kitchen sections listed in the Lenged on page XII and the layouts on the following pages.
Steam table Cold counter Pastry counter Beverage counter Soiled-dish
1 Meal and beverage counter/Waiters passageway

A 2
A 2 Restaurant Kitchen
especially suited for city or excursion restaurants.
Capacity: as A I.
Waiters' passageway: tangential. Kitchen: The cooking, roasting, grill, and frying apparatus are planned as wall structures.
B 2 Restaurant Kitchen
Capacity: This arrangement is conceived tor a very busy city restaurant of good quality (aproximately 600 persons-e. g.t 150 seats with fourfold reoccupancy).
Waiters passageway: in the center Kitchen: The cooking, roasting, grill, and frying apparatus are planned as wall structures.
for Restaurant and Hotel Kitchen Layouts
1 Waiters passageway meal and beverage counter dish return
2 Dishwashing area (dishes, glasses, silver)
3 Beverages preparation and serving
4 Pastry (cookies, cakes, ice cream, dessert) preparation and serving*
5 Cold kitchen (cold appetizers, salad, fish) preparation and serving
6 Warm kitchen saucier/ rdtisseur area (sauces, roasts, grill, fish) preparation including large apparatus area and serving
7 Warm kitchen entrem6tier area (soups, vegetables, entries) preparation including large apparatus area and serving
8 Pot and pan washing casserolier area
9 Vegetable preparation
10 Meat preparation
11 Vegetable cold storage
12 Meat cold storage
13 Economat (dry storage)
14 Beverage cold storage
15 Linen, dish, cleaning supplies storage
16 Staple goods storage
17 Goods acceptance and control
18 Empty goods and garbage collecting xooms
C 2 Large Restaurant Kitchen
for restaurants with many auxiliary rooms, bowling alleys, garden, and a snack bar projecting into the main dining' room. Suitable for a highly frequented city restaurant or for an excursion spot with various conference rooms, etc.
Capacity: 1.0001,200 persons. Waiters passageway: tangential. Buffet and washing-up zone (dish return) placed in front. The waiter can pick up drinks and other Items at two places in the kitchen, the drinks coming partly from the bar. Kitchen: Warm kitchen as wall structure with central serving area: cold kitchen and pastry area divided with two serving areas each, symmetrically arranged.
Layouts: Scale 1 :300
*2 Dishwashing Area
Dishes, Silver, Glasses
The zone layouts shown correspond in size to the overall layouts A, B, C; they are taken out of the context of these layouts and are reduced to the typical. In every individual plan, the work flow and the relationships to the other areas must be arranged, reconsidered, and combined.
Work flow: The soiled dishes are brought by the waiters or in self-service restaurants by the guest to the dish return, or they are conveyed by conveyor belts or collected and then taken by trolleys to the dishwasing zone. If the waiter returns the dishes, he can sort the cutlery and perhaps even the dishes (see page 29). Otherwise, space must be provided for sorting in the dishwashing area. At the place where the dishes are handed over, there must be mobile containers for scraps, ashes, paper, and linen.
The superficial cleaning of the dishes in small restaurants is carried out in a sink with a spray attachment: in medium-sized and large businesses, it takes place

F/G Restaurant for Travelers
(Highway restaurant, or cate-restaurant at a busy intersection in the city)
Snack 4550 seats (200 persons every hour)
Restaurant 80 seats (two- or threefold reoccupancy during meals; at other times, coffee, ice cream, pastry, and sandwich service)
Grill 40 seats (one- or twofold reoccupancy, high standard service) Kitchen: Linear-wall arrangement, approximately equal balance between freshly prepared meals and ready-to-serve meals. Storage, empty goods, and personnel cloakrooms in the cellar.
1 Waiters passageway 1a Service corridor for snacks, and cold meal and pastry-serving counter for restaurant
H Large Hotel-Restaurant Kitchen
also for large restaurants with some auxiliary rooms and with outside deliveries or production for other organizations (variant of C 1 and C2) Capacity: 800-1,000 persons Waiters' passageway: in the center, with a special serving link to the garden (or, for instance, to a bowling alley) and directly connecting to the auxiliary rooms Kitchen: Linear arrangement with rear side of large apparatus
l/J Cafe-Restaurant
with tearoom, or a city restaurant in a busy district
Cate: alcohol-free beverages, except for bottled beer; pastry and small meals cold and warm
Tearoom: alcohol-free beverages, pastry, sandwiches
Capacity: About 150 seats (continuous service from early morning to midnight or later)
Kitchen: extensive use of precooked meals; little storage
1/3 Waiters Beverage self-service 2 Dishwasher
4 Pastry
5 Cold kitchen
6/7 Warm kitchen (roast, grill, fry) bain-marie in the serving counter 6/7a Cooking and frying apparatue (2 vats, 1 pan)
8 Pot and pan washing
9/10 Meat and vegetable preparation
11 Storage for the day
11a Cupboard group, cooled and no cooled
12 Kiosk facing the street 12a Cigarette machine
17 Goods delivery 17a Office
17b Elevator to cellar 19 Employee toilets G 1 Snack area with about 40 seats and seats at the bar G 2 Restaurant
G 3 Grill restaurant, possibly witt small bar for espresso coffee, ap6ri tifs, whisky, and other spirits G 4 Guests toilets
1 Waiters passageway
1a Meal and beverage serving tc garden
1b Access to auxiliary rooms
2 Dishwashing area
3 Beverage serving area
3a Beverage cold storage (day cel lar)
4 Pastry
5 Cold kitchen
6 Warm kitchen saucier / rdtis seur area
7 Warm kitchen entrentetier are*
8 Pot and pan washing
9 Vegetable preparation
10 Meat preparation
11 Cold storage and storage room! 11a Accesses to delivery, empf goods room, and intermediary stor age, office, personnel cloakroom! and toilets
S Service accessories (cash re gister)
1 Waiters' passageway
1a Serving stations and cash re gister
2 Dishwasher
3 Beverage buffet with mixei toaster, ice cream container, etc.
4 Pastry
4a Pastry oven
5 Sandwich unit
6 Defrosting and heating equip ment, soup vats
7 Oven, grill, frying apparatus
8 Pot and pan washing
11 Day stores, empty goods (stapl goods in cellar)
15 Linen storage 17 Delivery 17a Office
19 Employees washrooms, cloak room for waiters (cloakroom an< washrooms for kitchen employee in cellar)
G 1 Tearoom G 2 Cate-restaurant G 3 Terrace or garden G 4 Washrooms G 5 Telephone booths

of High Standard
Chef de cuisine (kitchen chef) is responsible for purchase of goods, cost control, setting up the menu, and supervision of personnel and hygiene in the kitchen area.
__Sous-chef (kitchen chefs assistant) ^^^ssents the kitchen chef in his ^^Ince; in a large organization, he takes over some of the chefs duties.
Saucier (sauce cook) prepares all sauces and the meals that go with them, as well as ail fish dishes (although in large organizations there is a poissonier); he is responsible for the work at the kitchen range, and in medium-sized establishments he assumes the functions of the chef's assistant.
Rotisseur (roast, fry, and grill cook)
In large restaurants, there is, irt addition, a grilladin.
Entremetier (soup, vegetable, and side-dish cook)
In large restaurants a potagier prepares soups and broths.
Garde-manger supplies the ready-to-cut meat and fish preparation, the cold appetizers, hors d'oeuvres, and salads. In large restaurants, this work is divided between the hors d'oeuvrier (appetizer cook) and the boucher (butcher).
Patissier makes cookies, cakes, ice cream, and other desserts; in large restaurants, the work is divided among the glacier (ice cream maker), confiseur (fine pastry cook), and boulanger (baker of bread, rolls, and other baked goods).
Commis (juniq/- cook) is available to chefs of sections.
Salad man or girl produces and serves, various kinds of'salads and in some restaurants is responsible* for the smorgasbord (hors doeuvres) and is subordinate to the garde-manger.
Casserolier cleans, cares for, and services all pans, cooking equipment, and kitchen machines.
Kitchen boy cleans the kitchen, helps with the preparation of dishes, and has other duties.
Contrdleur is in charge of supplies, controls their placement and storage, and does the inventory bookkeeping.
Gouvernante accepts goods, exercises control, supervises the economat, dry storage, linen, and cleaning materials, and hands out staples.
In European restaurants, the bar lady is responsible for all beverages and often is the representative for the management, and, in smaller restaurants, oversees the waiters.
> Argentier is ke of silver.
Office boy
for the
Dish washer
Capacity for main meals:
Hotel -
100-200 persons / menu
100 persons / & la carte Restaurant
200300 persons / mealtime from 11 :30 to 1 :30
Waiters' passageway: tangential Kitchen: Linear arrangement with large installations in the rear.
B 1 Hotel or Restaurant Kitchen
Capacity: With this layout, a 200-seat restaurant will be able to handle three full sittings.
This layout can also take care of a hotel with 100 guests and can also accomodate a restaurant open to the general public, an outdoor restaurant, and a private dining area for parties and conferences (altogether, 400 guests). Waiters' passageway: in the center. Kitchen: Linear arrangement with large installations in the rear.
C 1 Large Restaurant Kitchen
for restaurants with many private party and conference facilities or with commissary and catering capacity for other businesses. Suitable also for large hotel with large restaurant for the general public. Capacity: 800-1,000 persons (e. g., 200 seats and fourfold reoccupancy). Waiters' passageway: tangential, with food buffet situated in front. The waiter has access to beverages and other items from the waiters passageway in the kitchen and from the dining room side as well. The buffet looks over the dining rooms. Kitchen: Linear arrangement with fitted berths for large apparatus.
Layouts: Scale 1 :300

(b) Bulk Requirements 1. Established Districts ZONING REQUIREMENT RR-E ER-E LR-E
1. Minimum Lot Area (sq. ft.) 30,000 15,000 7000
2. Minimum Lot Area per Dwelling Unit (sq. ft.) 30,000 15,000 7000
3. 1 Minimum Number of Off-Street (a) Parking Spaces per Dwelling Unit One One One
4. Minimum Number of Off Street Parking Spaces per 300 sq. ft. of Floor Area for non-residential uses and their accessory uses One One One
5. Minimum Front Yard Setback for all Principal Buildings & Uses (ft.) 25 25 25
for all Accessory Buildings and Uses (ft.) (9) 60 60 60
6. Minimum Side Yard Setback from a Street for all Buildings and Uses (ft.) 25 25 12.5
7. Minimum Side Yard Setback from an Interior Lot Line for all Principal Uses (ft.)(c) 15 10 5
for all Accessory Uses (ft.)(c) 15 10 3 fee
8. Minimum Total on the Same Lot for Both Side Yards (ft.) 40 25 15
9. Minimum Rear Yard Setback for all Principal Uses (ft.) 25 25 25
for'all Accessory Uses (ft.)(c)
10. Maximum Height for all Principal Uses (ft.)) 35 35 35
for all Accessory Uses (ft.) 20 20 20
NOTEs footnotes (a) through (g) are found on the following page.
' 6000 6000 6000 6000 6000 7000 7000 5 acres
3500 1600 1600 1600 1600 7000 7000 5 acres
1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 * One One
One One One One .75 .50 .50 One
25 25 20 feet of lai dscapec area 25 25
(which may includi access driveways)
60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60
25 25 25 15 15 15 15 25
5 10 10 12 fet t, if £ ny side
yard is pro\ ided 10 15 .
if any side yard is 12 fe< t, if c ny side 3 feet if ar
provided yard is prov ided is provided -
15 25 30
25 25 25 20 20 20 25 25
3 feet, rovidec

35 35 35 35 35 35 35
20 20 20 20 20 25 20 30
amended 3/7/78

..EkJTSY 3 ..
f i
JHOXE:' iPACZ 1 COUTlhl&ihlT UPOM .EkjTEY.3............... j
Note: Overhang dimensions are intended to indicate possible location from parking area edge for location of bumpers.
A PASO Is! 6 AWCilE ytall width C 47AU *0 C. L'.?3 O WIDTH E CU9S IsVJfiTH P HAN
0 9 9. 0 12 23 . i
9.5 9. 5 12 23
10 10. 0 12 23
20 9 15. 0 11 26. 3 0.
9. 5 15. 5 11 27. 8
10 15. 9 ' 11 29. 2
30 9 17. 3 11 18 1.1
i 9. 5 17. 8 11 19
10 18. 2 11 20 -
40 9 19. 1 12 14 i.:
9. 5 19. 5 12 14. 8
10 '19. 9 12 15. 6
45 9 19. 8 13 12. 7 l.'
9, 5 20. 1 13 13. 4
10 20. 5 13 14. 1
50 9 20. 4 16 11. 7 1. :
9. 5 20. 7 16 12. 4
f 10 21 16 13. 1
,60 9 21 IS 10. 4 1. 1
9. 5. 21.2 18 11. o
10 21.5' 18 11. 5
70 9 21. 0 19 9. 6 1. c
9. 5 21.2 18. 5 10. 1
10 21. 2 18. 0 10. 6
80 9 20. 3 24 9. 1 2. (
* 9. 5 20. 4 24 9. 6
10 20. 5 24 10. 2
90* 9 19 24 9 2. (
9. 5 19 24 9. 5
10 19 24 10
All d ime ns io ns are t > ncarei t tenth >f a f<

Ciir t.jiMti.

antennas, chimneys, domes, church spires, belfries, cupolas and silos.
(b) The general height restriction within the City of Boulder shall be as specified in Section 37-203 (b), except as provided as follows:
RR, Rural Residential; ER, Estate Residential; and LR, Low Density
Residential Zones
(a) Building height "(as defined in Section 37-1102(h): up to, and including, 35 feet: permitted by right; provided, however, that if the lot on which the building is to be built has a slope of greater than 20, the building height may not exceed 25 feet, unless permitted up to 35 feet through Planned Unit Review procedures
in accordance with Section 37-1003.
(b) Addition to building of unoccupied appurtenances:
(1) Where their addition does not cause building height
to exceed 35 feet (considering, for this purpose only, the uppermost point of the appurtenance to be the uppermost point of the roof): permitted by right.
(2) Where their addition causes building height to exceed 35 feet (considering, for this purpose only, the uppermost point of the appurtenance to be the
'uppermost point of the roof).
(i) All appurtenances other than private television antennas and chimneys: may be permitted by the Planning Department when not inconsistent with the purposes and standards of this Article, but in no event shall such appurtenances exceed 15 feet in height or take up more than 25 per cent of the roof area, and no unscreened mechanical equipment shall be permitted.
(ii) Private television antennas and chimneys: permitted by right, but in no event may exceed 16 feet in height.
All Zones other than RR, ER, and LR
(a) .Building height (as defined in Section 37-1102(h) ):
(1) Up to, and including, 35 feet: permitted by right, provided that for buildings 25 to 35 feet in height usable open space is at least 10 per cent of the lot, or as required by the applicable bulk requirements in Section 37-203 (b), whichever is greater.
(2) In excess of 35 feet and up to, and including, 55 feet: may be permitted through Planned Unit Review procedures in accordance with Section 37-1003.
(3) Above 55 feet: never permitted.
-D/ -
Amended 8/15/74
Amended 2/20/73

(b) Addition to building of unoccupied appurtenances:
(1) Where building height (as defined in Section 37-1102(h) does not exceed 35 feet, and where addition of the appurtenance would not cause the building height to exceed 35 feet (considering, for this purpose only, the uppermost point of the appurtenance to be the uppermost point of the roof): permitted by right.
(2) Where building height (as defined in Section 37-1102(h) does not exceed 35 feet, but addition of appurtenance causes building height to exceed 35 feet (considering, for this purpose only, the uppermost point of the appurtenance to be the uppermost point of the roof).
(i) All appurtenances other than chimneys,
church spires and private television antennas: may be permitted by the Planning Department when not inconsistent with the purposes and standards of this Article, but in no event shall such appurtenances exceed 16 feet in height or take up more than 25 per cent of the roof area, and no unscreened mechanical equipment shall be permi tted.
(ii) Chimneys, church spires and private television antennas: permitted by right, but in no event may exceed 16 feet in height nor take up more than 25 per cent of the roof area.
(3) Where building height (as defined in Section 37-1102(h) exceeds 35 feet: may be permitted by the Planning Department when no inconsistent with the purposes and standards of this Article, but in no event may exceed 16 feet in height or take up more than 25 per cent of the roof area, and no unscreened mechanical equipment shall be permitted.
Section 37-1003.
Height Exception Procedure
Applications for building heights exceeding those permitted by right by Section 37-1002 shall be made, reviewed and approved following the Planned Unit procedures of Article V of this Chapter, except such parts thereof as are clearly inapplicable. The posting of the property required by Section 37-505(a) shall recite "Height Exception Applied For." The standards and requirements of both Article V, as applicable, and this Article shall apply.
Section 37-1004. Minimum, Usable Open Space and Floor Area Ratio Requi rements
(a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this Section, buildings proposed to exceed 35 feet in height shall meet the following requi rements:
(1) Usable open soace, as defined in Section 37-302, must
-53- Amended 8/16/74
Amended 2/20/73

be provided as at least 15 per cent of the lot, or as required by the applicable bulk requirements in Section 37-203(b), whichever is greater;
(2) The floor area to site area ratio must not exceed 2:1, except buildings in the following districts must not exceed a ratio of 3:1:
a. bounded on the West by 6th Street, on the East by 16th Street, on the North by Pine Street from 16th to 11th Street arid by the alley between Pearl and Spruce Streets from 11th Street to 6th Street, and on the South by the Boulder Creek and Boulder White Rock Ditch; and,
b. bounded on the West by Folsom Street, on the East by 33rd Street from Pearl Street to Arapahoe Avenue and by 23th Street from Arapahoe Avenue to the Boulder Creek, on the North by Pearl Street, and on the South by Arapahoe Avenue from 33rd Street to 28th Street and by the Boulder Creek from 28th Street to Folsom Street.
(b) When the Planning Board or City Council determines that preservation and/or rehabilitation of a building is in the public interest and a height exception is necessary to effect such preservation or rehabilitation, the open space and floor area ratio requirements may be modified in conjunction with a design review under Article V of this Chapter.
Section 37-1005. Standards
The review of any application for a building height exception shall include the following considerations, in addition to the standards and requirements for Planned Units in Article V of this Chapter:"
(a) Its geographical position and possible visual effects on existing structures or established districts;
(b) Potential problems on neighboring sites caused by shadows, loss of air circulation, or closing of the view;
(c) The influence on the general, vicinity, including contrast with existing buildings and structures, streets and traffic circulation conditions, and adjacent open space;
(d) Appropriateness of the uses within the building;
(e) Landscaping and physical separators that may be proposed to buffer the site from adjacent uses;
(f) The relationship of the building to open space, location
Amended 8/16/74
Amended 2/20/73

of parking, pedestrian movement, circulation and buildings on adjacent properties;
(g) The proximity and adequacy of all public facilities, including vehicular and pedestrian traffic carriers, parking, water and sewer utilities, fire protection, and other safety protection measures.
(h) The side yards between buildings and adjacent to streets and alleys and their relationship to pedestrian movement and open space;
(i) The side yards between buildings which exceed 35 feet should approximately equal the average of the combined height of the subject building.
Amended 8/16/74

^^ified in Chapter 33. Other vertical openings are not required to be enclosed.
Fire-extinguishing Systems
Sec. 1207. When required by other provisions of this Code, automatic fire-extinguishing systems and standpipes shall be installed as specified in Chapter 38.
Special Hazards
Sec. 1208. Chimneys and heating apparatus shall conform to the requirements of Chapter 37 of this Code and the Mechanical Code.
In any room in which volatile flammable liquids or gas are used or stored, no device generating a glow or flame capable of igniting gasoline vapor shall be installed or used within 18 inches of the floor.
The storage, use, and handling of gasoline, fuel oil, and other flammable liquids shall be in accordance with U.B.C. Standard No. 10-1.
Every room containing a boiler or central healing plant shall be separated from the rest of the building by not less than a One-hour Fire-resistive Occupancy Separation.
EXCEPTION: Boilers or central heating plants where the largest piece of fuel equipment does not exceed 400,000 Btu per hour input.
---- WMO'IW
Chapter 13
Group R, Division 1 Occupancies Defined Sec. 1301. Group R, Division I Occupancies shall be: \
Hotels and apartment houses. * ^
Convents and monasteries (each accommodating more than 10 persons). For occupancy separations see Table No. 5-11.
For occupant load see Section 3301.
Construction, Height and Allowable Area
Sec. 1302. (a) General. Buildings or parts of buildings classed in Group R, Division I because of the use or_^eharacter of the occupancy shall be limited to the types of construction set forth in Tables No. 5-C and No. 5-D and shall not exceed, in area or height, the limits specified in Sections 505, 506 and 507.
(b) Special Provisions. Group R, Division 1 Occupancies, more than two stories in height or having more than 3000 square feet of floor area above the first story, shall be not less than one-hour fire-resistive construction throughout.
EXCEPTION: Dwelling units within an apartment house not over two stories in height may have nonbearing walls of unprotected construction, provided the units are separated from each other and from corridors by construction having a fire-resistance rating of not less than one hour. Openings to such corridors shall be equipped with doors conforming to Section 3304 (h) or other equivalent protection.
Every apartment house three stories or more in height and containing more than 15 apartments and every hotel three stories or more in height containing 20 or more guest rooms, shall have an approved fire alarm system as specified in the Fire Code.
For Group R, Division I Occupancies with a Group B, Division I parking garage in the basement or first floor, see Section 1102 (a).
For attic space partitions and draft stops see Section 3205.
Location on Property
Sec. 1303. For fire-resistive protection of exterior walls and openings, as determined by location on property, see Section 504 and Part V.
Exit Facilities
Sec. 1304. Stairs, exits, and smokeproof enclosures shall be as specified in Chapter 33.
All stairs and exits in Group R, Division 1 Occupancies shall open directly upon a street or alley or upon a yard or court not less than 4 feet in width directly connected to a street or alley by means of a passageway not

less in width than the stairway opening into such passageway and not less than 7 feet in height.
Buildings more than one story in height shall have no transoms or ventilating openings from guest rooms to public corridors.
Door openings from guest rooms to public corridors shall be protected as specified in Section 3304..
Every sleeping room below the fourth story shall have at least one | operable window or exterior door approved for emergency egress or I rescue. The units shall be operable from the inside to provide a full clear | opening without the use of separate tools.
All egress or rescue windows from sleeping rooms shall have a minimum 1 net clear opening of 5.7 square feet. The minimum net clear opening | height dimension shall be 24 inches. The minimum net clear opening width | dimension shall be 20 inches. Where windows are provided as a means of I egress or rescue they shall have a finished sill height not more than 44 in-1 ches above the floor.
Light, Ventilation and Sanitation
Sec. 1305. (a) I.ight and Ventilation. All guest rooms, dormitories and habitable rooms within a dwelling unit shall be provided with natural light by means of exterior glazed openings with an area not less than one-tenth of the floor area of such rooms with a minimum of 10 square feet. All bathrooms, water closet compartments, laundry rooms and similar rooms shall be provided with natural ventilation by means of openable exterior openings with an area not less than one-twentieth of the floor area of such rooms with a minimum of I'/: square feet.
All guest rooms, dormitories and habitable rooms within a dwelling unit shall be provided with natural ventilation by means of openable exterior openings with an area of not less than one-twentieth of the floor area of such rooms with a minimum of 5 square feet.
In lieu of required exterior openings for natural ventilation, a : mechanical ventilating system may be provided. Such system shall be capable of providing two air changes per hour in all guest rooms, dormitories, habitable rooms, and in public corridors. One-fifth of the air supply shall be taken from the outside. In bathrooms, water closet compartments, laundry rooms, and similar rooms a mechanical ventilation system connected directly to the outside, capable of providing five air changes per hour, shall be provided.
For the purpose of determining light and ventilation requirements, any room may be considered as a portion of an adjoining room when one-half of the area of the common wall is open and unobstructed and provides an opening of not less than one-tenth of the floor area of the interior room or 25 square feet, whichever is greater.
Required exterior openings for natural light and ventilation shall open directly onto a street or public alley or a yard or court located on the same lot as the building.
EXCEPTION: Required windows may open into a roofed porch where the porch:
1. Abuts a street, yard, or court; and
2. Has a ceiling height of not less than 7 feel; and
3. Has the longer side at least 65 percent open and unobstructed.
(b) Sanitation. Every building shall be provided with at least one water closet. Every hotel and each subdivision thereof where both sexes are accommodated shall be provided with at least two water closets located in such building, which shall be conspicuously marked, one for each sex.
Additional water closets shall be provided on each floor for each sex at the rate of one for every additional 10 guests, or fractional part thereof, in excess of I0.
Every dwelling unit shall be provided with a kitchen equipped with a kitchen sink and with bathroom facilities consisting of a water closet, lavatory and either a bathtub or shower. Each plumbing fixture shall be equipped with running water necessary for its normal operation.
For other requirements on water closets, see Sections 510 and 1711. Yards and Courts
Sec. 1306. (a) Scope. This Section shall apply to yards'and courts having required windows opening therein.
(b) Yards. Every yard shall be not less than 3 feet in width for one-story and two-story buildings. For buildings more than two stories in height the minimum width of the yard shall be increased at the rate of I foot for each additional story. For buildings exceeding 14 stories in height, the required w idth of yard shall be computed on the basis of 14 stories.
(c) Courts. Every court shall be not less than 3 feet in width. Courts having windows opening on opposite sides shall be not less than 6 feet in width. Courts bounded on three or more sides by the walls of the building shall be not less than 10 feet in length unless bounded on one end by a street or yard. For buildings more than two stories in height the court shall be increased 1 foot in width and 2 feet in length for each additional story. For buildings exceeding 14 stories in height, the required dimensions shall be computed on the basis of 14 stories.
Adequate access shall be provided to the bottom of all courts for cleaning purposes. Every court more than two stories in height shall be provided with a horizontal air intake at the bottom not less than 10 square feet in area and leading to the exterior of the building unless abutting a yard or public space. The construction of the air intake shall be as required for the court walls of the building, but in no case shall be less than one-hour fire-resistive.
(d) Projection into Yards. Eaves and cornices may project into any required yard not more than 2 inches for each foot of yard width. Unroofed landings, porches and stairs may project into any required yard provided no portion except for guardrails extends above the floor level of a


habitable room and provided further that no such projection shall obstruct a required exitway.
Room Dimensions
Sec. 1307. (a) Ceiling Heights. Habitable rooms or areas shall have a ; ceiling height of not less than 7 feet 6 inches except as otherwise permitted I in this Section. Other rooms "or areas may have a ceiling height of not less | than 7 feet measured to the lowest projection from the ceiling.
If any room in a building has a sloping ceiling,the prescribed ceiling height for the room is required in only one-half the area thereof. No portion of the room measuring less than 5 feel from the finished floor to the finished ceiling shall be included in any computation of the minimum area thereof.
If any room has a furred ceiling, the prescribed ceiling height is required in two-thirds the area thereof, but in no case shall the height of the furred ceiling be less than 7 feet.
(b) Floor Area. Every dwelling unit shall have at least one room which shall have not less than 150 square feet of floor area. Other habitable rooms except kitchens shall have an area of not less than 70 square feet.
(c) Width. No habitable room other than a kitchen shall be less than 7 feet in any dimension.
Efficiency Dwelling Units
Sec. 1308. An efficiency dwelling unit shall conform to the requirements of the Code except as herein provided:
1. The unit shall have a living room of not less than 220 square feet of superficial floor area. An additional 100 square feet of superficial floor area shall be provided for each occupant of such unit in excess of two.
2. The unit shall be provided with a separate closet.
3. The unit shall be provided with a kitchen sink, cooking appliance and refrigeration facilities each having a clear working space of not less than 30 inches in front. Light and ventilation conforming to this Code shall be provided.
4. The unit shall be provided with a separate bathroom containing a water closet, lavatory, and bathtub or shower.
Shaft Enclosures
See. 1309. Exits shall be enclosed as specified in Chapter 33:
Elevator shafts, vent shafts, and other vertical openings shall be enclosed and the enclosure shall be as specified in Section 1706.
Fire Warning and Fire-extinguishing Systems I Sec. 1310. (a) Fire Warning Systems. Every dwelling unit within an 1 apartment house and every guest room in a hotel used for sleeping pur-| poses shall be provided with smoke detectors conforming to U.B.C. Stan-| dard No. 43-6. In dwelling units, detectors shall be mounted on the ceiling I or wall at a point centrally located in the corridor or area giving access to
rooms used for sleeping purposes. In an efficiency dwelling unit, hotel sleeping room and in hotel suites, the detector shall be centrally located on the ceiling of the main room or hotel sleeping room. Where sleeping rooms are on an upper level, the detector shall be placed at the center of the ceiling directly above the stairway. All detectors shall be located within 12 inches of the ceiling. Care shall be exercised to insure that the installation will not interfere with the operating characteristics of the detector. When actuated, the detector shall provide an alarm in the dwelling unit or guest room.
(b) Fire-extinguishing Systems. When required by other provisions of this Code, automatic fire-extinguishing systems and standpipes shall be installed as specified in Chapter 38.
See. 1311. Every dwelling unit and guest room shall be provided with heating facilities capable of maintaining a room temperature of 70F. at a point 3 feet above the floor in all habitable rooms.
Special Hazards
Sec. 1312. Chimneys and heating apparatus shall conform to the requirements of Chapter 37 of this Code and the Mechanical Code.
The storage and handling of gasoline, fuel oil, and other flammable liquids shall be in accordance with U.B.C. Standard No. 10-1.
Doors leading into rooms in which volatile flammable liquids are stored or used shall be protected by a fire assembly having a one-hour fire-protection rating. Such fire assembly shall be self-closing and shall be posted with a sign on each side of the door in I-inch block letters stating: FIRE DOORKEEP CLOSED.
Every room containing a boiler or central heating plant shall be separated from the rest of the building by not less than a One-hour Fire-resistive Occupancy Separation.
EXCEPTION: A separation shall not be required for such rooms with equipment serving only one dwelling unit.
Existing Buildings
Sec. 1313. For existing buildings see Appendix, Section 1313.

1504 1506
Flammable liquids shall not be stored, handled or used in Group M Occupancies unless such storage or handling shall comply with U.B.C. Standard No. 10-1.
Garage Floor Surfaces
Sec. 1505. In areas where motor vehicles are stored or operated, floor surfaces shall be of noncombustible materials or asphaltic paving materials.
Agricultural Buildings
Sec. 1506. Where applicable (see Section 103)7 For agricultural buildings, see Appendix, Chapter 15.
1976 EDITION 1601 1602
Part IV
Chapter 16
Sec. 1601. (a) Fire Zones Defined. For the purpose of this Code, the entire city is hereby declared to be and is hereby established a Fire District and said Fire District shall be known and designated as Fire Zones No. I, No. 2 and No. 3, and shall include such territory or portions of said City as outlined in an ordinance of said City, entitled: An Ordinance Creating and Establishing Fire Zones. Whenever in this Code reference is made to any fire zone, it shall be construed to mean one of the fire zones created by said ordinance.
(b) Buildings Located in More than One Fire Zone. A building or structure which is located partly in one fire zone and partly in another shall be considered to be in the more highly restricted fire zone when more than one-third of its total floor area is located in such zone.
(c) Moved Buildings. Any building or structure moved within or into any fire zone shall be made to comply with all the requirements for new buildings in that fire zone.
(d) Temporary Structures. Regardless of type of construction, temporary buildings, reviewing stands and other miscellaneous structures ; conforming to the requirements of this Code, and sheds, canopies or | fences used for the protection of the public around and in conjunction f with construction work may be erected in Fire Zones No. 1 and No. 2 by | special permit from the Building Official for a limited period of time, and | such building or structure shall be completely removed upon expiration of ; the time limit stated in such permit.
(e) Center Lines of Streets. For the purpose of this Chapter, the center line of an adjoining street or alley may be considered an adjacent property line. Distance shall be measured at right angles to the street or alley.
Restrictions in Fire Zone No. 1
Sec. 1602. (a) General. Buildings or structures hereafter erected, constructed, moved within or into Fire Zone No. 1 shall be only of Type I, ll-F.R., II, One-hour, 111, One-hour, or IV construction and shall meet the requirements of this Section.

EXCEPTIONS: I. Open parking garages may be of Type II-N construction as permit led by Section 1109.
2. Type ll-N buildings not exceeding one story in height or 2500 square feet in area housing a Group B or M Occupancy may be erected in Fire Zone No. I provided any exterior wall located less than 20 feet from a properly line is protected in accordance with Table No. 5-A and Section 2103 (a).
| Roof coverings shall be fire retardant as specified in Section 3203 (e). 1 See Section 104 (f) for repairs.
(b) Alterations. No building of Type II, One-hour or II-N construction in excess of 1000 square feet in floor area nor any building of Type V construction already erected in Fire Zone No. 1 shall hereafter be altered, raised, enlarged, added to or moved, except as follows:
1. Such Type II, One-hour or II-N building may be made to conform to all the provisions of Sections 1602 (a) and 2103.
2. Changes, alterations, and repairs to the interior of such building or to the front thereof facing a public street may be made, provided such changes do not. in the opinion of the Building Official, increase the fire hazard of such building.
3. Roof coverings shall be fire retardant as specified in Section 3203
(e). See Section 104 (f) for repairs.
4. Such building may be moved entirely outside the limits of Fire Zone No. I.
5. Such building may be demolished.
(c) Occupancies Prohibited. No Group H, Division 2 Occupancy having a floor area exceeding 1500 square feet shall be permitted in Fire Zone No. I.
No Group H, Division I or 5 Occupancies shall be permitted in Fire Zone No. 1.
EXCEPTION: This shall not apply to dry cleaning plants not using highly flammable liquids.
Restrictions in Fire Zone No.2
Sec. 1603. (a) General. Buildings or structures hereafter erected, constructed, moved within or into Fire Zone No. 2 shall be one of the Types of Construction as defined in this Code and shall meet the requirements of this Section.
For fire-resistive protection of exterior walls and openings, as determined by location on property, see Section 504 and Part V. (For regulations covering open parking garages see Section 1109.)
Roof coverings shall be fire retardant as specified in Section 3203 (e). i See Section 104 (f) for repairs.
(b) Alterations. No building of Type II, One-hour or ll-N construction in excess of 1000 square feet in floor area nor any building of Type V construction already erected in Fire Zone No. 2, shall hereafter be altered, raised, enlarged, added to or moved except as follows:
1. Such building may be made to conform to the provisions of Section
2103 for Type II, One-hour or ll-N and Section 2203 for Type V construe^ tion.
2. Changes, alterations, and repairs to the interior of such building or to the front thereof facing a public street may be made provided such changes do not, in the opinion of the Building Official, increase the fire hazard of such building.
3. Roof coverings shall be fire retardant as specified in Section 3203 (e). See Section 104 (f) for repairs.
4. Such building may be moved entirely outside the limits of Fire Zone No. 2.
5. Such building may be demolished.
6. Combustible finish on the outside of walls may be replaced by or covered with exterior plaster as specified in Chapter 47.
(c) Occupancies Prohibited. No Group H, Division 2 Occupancy having a Boor area exceeding 1500 square feet shall be permitted in Fire Zone No. 2.
No Group H, Division I or 5 Occupancies shall be permitted in Fire Zone No. 2.
EXCEPTION: This shall not apply to dry cleaning plants not using highly flammable liquids.
Restrictions in Fire Zone No. 3
Sec. 1604. Any building or structure complying with the requirements of this Code may be erected, constructed or moved within or into Fire Zone No. 3.


Sec. 37-1201. Purpose.
This article regulating certain areas subject to flooding is adopted to promote the public health, safety and welfare:
(a) By reducing the hazard of floods to life and property through:
(1) Prohibiting certain uses which are dangerous to to life or property in time of flood;
(2) Restricting uses which would be hazardous to the public health and safety in time of flood;
(3) Requiring, on uses allowed, that structures be erected to prevent their being washed away as well as protecting such structures from severe damage.
(b) By protecting those wno may occupy areas of special flood hazard through:
(1) Regulating the manner in which structures and development designed for human occupancy may be constructed and developed so as to prevent danger
- to human life within and around such structures;
(2) Regulating the method of construction of water supply and sanitation systems so as to prevent disease, contamination and unsanitary conditions;
(3) Requiring recording of the within regulations and maps delineating areas subject to such regulations so as to protect individuals from purchasing lands for purposes which are not suitable.
(c) To protect the public from the burden of extraordinary financial expenditures for flood control and relief by regulating all uses within areas subject to special flood hazard so as to produce a method of construction and a pattern of development which will reduce the probability of damage to property and loss of life or injury to the occupants of the special flood hazard areas.
(d) To protect the natural areas required to convey flood flows and retain slow flow characteristics.

(e) To protect and preserve the water-carrying and water-retention characteristics and capacities of all water-courses, used for conveying and retaining floodwaters.
Sec. 37-1202. Definitions.
"Area of Special Flood Hazard" means land in the flood plain subject to a one percent or greater chance of flooding in any given year.
"Director of Public Works/Public Utilities" means the present official so designated in the organization of the city and future officials with similar responsibilities should such designation later be changed; further, it includes all personnel responsible to such person.
"Development" means any man-made change to improved or unimproved real estate, including but not limited to buildings or other structures, mining, dredging, filling, grading, paving, excavation or drilling operations located within the area of special flood hazard.
"Flood" means a condition of inundation from a watercourse that temporarily overflows the boundaries within which it is ordinarily confined, or from the rapid accumulation of runoff of surface water caused by heavy rain.
"Floodplain" means areas which are inundated by a- one hundred year flood.
"Flood Storage Areas" means those portions of areas of special flood hazard that are not in the floodway area; and tend to reduce downstream flood depths.
"Floodway Area" means that portion of areas of special flood hazard required for the passage or conveyance of the one hundred year flood in which waters will flew at significant depths or with significant velocities. With the exception of watercourses whose particular characteristies make the following criteria impractical or inappropriate in terms of the purposes of these regulations, "significant depths or' with significant velocities" shall be interpreted to mean flows at two (2) feet of depth or greater, or flows at two (2) feet per second (f.p.s.) of velocity or greater, or encroachment of the floodplain to a point where the one hundred year flood profile will be raised by more than five-tenths (0.5) of a foot, consideration being given to a reasonable expectation of blockage at bridges and other obstructions by floodborne debris.
"Flood Profile" means a graph showing the elevations of the flood water surface and the elevations of the underlying land as a function of distance along a path of flow.
Amended 7/11/78

Uses or adjuncts thereof which are public nuisances shall not be permitted to continue. No expansion or enlargement of an existing structure or use shall be undertaken except,upon application made and processed in accordance with the requirements of Sections 37-1207 or 37-1208, whichever is applicable. In case of conflict between the requirements of this section and the general provisions for nonconforming uses, buildings and lots contained in this chapter, the requirements of this section shall control. In cases where this section requires consideration of the market value of a structure and proposed improvements, and the Coordinator of Public Facilities does not accept as reasonable the values submitted by the apolicant, the value shall be determined by an appraiser acceptable to the applicant and the Director of Public Works/Public Utilities (The cost for which shall be borne by the City). If they are unable to agree on an appraiser, each shall select an appraiser (The costs for which are to be borne by the respective selectors), the two (2) appraisers shall select a third appraiser (The cost for which is tc be borne equally by the City and the applicant), and the value shall be determined as the average of the three (3) appraisals.
Section 37-1206 Permitted uses in Floodway District--Standards and Conditions of Use.
The following uses are allowed within the Floodway District to the extent that they are not prohibited by an underlying zoning ordinance and provided they do not require any structure, fill, storage of materials or equipment, or change in a channel of a watercourse:
(a) Agricultural uses such as general farming, grazing of horses and livestock, truck farming, forestry, sod farming, wild crop harvesting and the raising of plants, flowers and nursery stock;
(b) Residential uses such as lawns, gardens, driveways, and play areas;
(c) Industrial-commercial types of use such as loading areas; railroad rights-of-way not including freight yards or switching, storage or industrial sidings; airport landing strips;
(d) Recreational uses such as swimming pools, golf courses, golf driving ranges, open air theaters, parks, picnic grounds, camp sites, horseback riding and hiking area;
(e) Wildlife and nature preserves, game farms and fish hatcheries;
(f) Open pit mining for the removal of topsoil, sand, gravel, or other minerals;
(g) Utility transmission lines, pipelines, water monitoring devices Amended 7/11 and roadways (not including bridges).

Sec. 37-1207. Permits for other uses--Floodway District
(a) In the Floodway District, in order to accomplish more than nominal filling, or to build a solid fence or wall, or to store materials or moveable objects, or to build a structure, or to construct a parking lot, or to build a bridge, dam or irrigation structure, or to make any change in a watercourse-, or to construct public utility facilities including electrical substations, static transformer stations, gas regulator stations and telepnone exchange facilities, or to make a use of land other than that which is permitted under the provisions of Sections 37-1205 and 37-1206 (but such an applied for use
must conform to the provisions of an underlying zoning ordinance) an application therefor shall be submitted to the Director of Public Works/Public Utilities and processed according to the standards, provisions and procedures as contained in this section.
(b) The applicant may also be required to furnish such additional information and details as is deemed necessary by the Director of Public Works/Public Utilities for evaluation relating to the effects of the proposal upon the floodway district and flood storage district which can include, but are not limited to,
the following:
(1) A typical valley cross-section showing the floodplain surrounding the watercourse, a cross-section of the area to be occupied by the proposed development, and high water information.
(2) Plan (surface view) showing elevations or contours of the ground; pertinent structure, fill or storage elevation; size, location and spatial arrangement
of all proposed and existing structures on the site; location and elevations of streets, water supply, sanitary facilities, and soil types.
(3) Profile showing the slope of the bottom of the channel or thalweg of the watercourse.
(4) Specifications for building construction and material, filling, dredging, grading, channel improvement or changes, storage of materials, water supply and sanitary facilities.
(c) The Director of Public Works/Public Utilities shall, when reviewing an application for a permit, judge the same as to whether or not it meets the purposes of this article as set forth in Section 37-1201 by considering, by way of illustration but not limitation, the following:
(1) The effects upon the efficiency or capacity of the
floodway district; Amended 7/11/78

(2) The effects upon lands upstream, downstream and in the immediate vicinity;
(3) The effects upon the one hundred year flood profile;
(4) The effects upon the Flood Storage District and lands beyond the Flood Storaqe District; ^
(5) The effects upon any tributaries to the main stream, drainage ditches or any other drainage faci1ities 'or systems;
(6) Whether additional public expenditures for flood protection or prevention will be necessitated;
(7) Whether the applicant would obtain an undue advantage
compared to later applicants who might request a permit;
(8) Whether the proposed use is for human occupancy;
(9) The potential danger to persons upstream, downstream and in the immediate vicinity;
(10) Whether any proposed changes in a watercourse would
have an adverse environmental effect on the watercourse, including streambanks and streamside trees and vegetation.
(d) If the Director is satisfied that the purposes of this article have been fulfilled by the applied for use, he shall issue the permit and may attach such conditions as he deems necessary in furtherance of the purposes of this article, consistent with the provisions of Section 37-1209. Provided, that before acting upon any application that proposes a change in a watercourse, the Coordinator shall first refer the application to the Planning Board for its recommendation.
Provided, further, the Director shall;
(1) Prohibit encroachments, including fill, new construction, substantial improvements, and other development unless certification by a Registered Professional Engineer or Architect is provided demonstrating that encroachments shall not result in any increase in flood levels during the occurrence of the one hundred year flood discharge; and,
(2) Prohibit the placement of any dwelling in the Floodway District; and,
(3) Prohibit the placement of any mobile home in the Floodway
District, except in an existing mobile home park or
existing mobile home subdivision, as these terms are
defined in Section 37-1209(f). . . .
v ' Amended 7/11/78

(e) If the Director issues the permit, such permit shall not be effective for thirty (30) days from the date of such issuance.
The Director shall promptly after issuance of the permit forward to the City Council a report including the relevant data on,the applied for use, his reasons for approving the application and any conditions which have been imposed, and in cases involving
a change in a watercourse the recommendation of the Planning Board. Further, public notice of the applied for use and the issuance of the permit shall be given by one publication in a newspaper of general circulation in the City within ten (10) days after the issuance of the permit. The City Council can, upon receipt of such report, and prior to the effective date of the permit, direct that the application be brought before the City Council for a hearing de novo. The permit shall then be considered revoked.
At such a hearing, both the applicant and the Director.shall make a presentation to the City Council. The City Council shall judge the application by the provisions and standards as in this section contained and if it determines that the permit is to be issued, conditions, as set forth in subsection (d) hereof, may be imposed upon the applicant.
(f) If the Director denies the applied for permit, the applicant shall have two (2) months from the date of such denial to appeal the adverse decision to the City Council. Upon appeal, the City Council shall hold a hearing and follow the same guidelines as set forth in the provisions of subsections
(c) and (d) above.
(g) A certificate of compliance shall be required before final approval of any permitted use. The applicant shall submit a certificate by a Registered Professional engineer that the proposal has been completed in accordance with the approved plan and all conditions have been satisfied. The Director of Public Works/Public Utilities, within ten (10) days after receipt thereof, shall verify the same and the final permit shall be issued upon said verification.
Sec. 37-1208. Permitted uses--Flood Storage DistrictStandards and Conditions of Use.
(a) Nonconforming uses shall be allowed in the Flood Storage District as hereinabove set forth in the first paragraph of Section 37-1205.
(b) Uses shall be allowed in the Flood Storage District as hereinabove set forth in Section 37-1206.
(c) Floodproofing must be accomplished if moveable objects are to be stored in the Flood Storage District; however, automobiles may be parked or located in the Flood Storage District without the necessity for floodproofing. Amended 7/n/78

(d) Storage or processing of materials that are buoyant, flammable, poisonous, explosive or in times of flooding could be detrimental or injurious to human, animal or plant life, shall be at
or above the flood protection elevation for that particular area, or if not, appropriate flood proofing shall be accomplished.
(e) All other uses allowed by the underlying zoning within the Flood Storage District shall be permitted as long as the conditions set forth in Section 37-1209 are satisfied. Before a building permit for a building or structure, including accessory buildings and fences, is issued, the Director of Public Works/Public Utilities shall review the plans to see that the above-stated provisions are satisfied.
If the applicable standards are met, and the plans meet all the other applicable laws, the building permit shall issue and the construction shall comply in all respects with the plans as finally approved. If the Director of Public Works/Public Utilities is of the opinion that the standards have not been satisfied, the permit shall be denied.
Within two (2) months after the date of denial, the applicant shall have the right to appeal an adverse decision to the Board of Appeals (that board heretofore established under the Building Code of the City). The applicant shall have the burden to establish by clear and convincing evidence that the standards in fact have been satisfied.
The applicant may at any time apply for a permit under the provisions of Section 37-1205 hereinabove set forth.
Sec. 37-1209 Provisions for Flood Hazard Reduction.
In all areas of special flood hazard the following standards shall apply:
(a) Anchoring. All new construction, suDStantial improvements and mobile homes shall be anchored to prevent flotation, collapse or lateral movement of the structure. All mobile homes shall be anchored by providing over-the-top and frame ties to ground anchors. Specific requirements for mobile homes shall include the following:
(1) Over-the-top ties at each of the four corners of mobile homes, with two additional ties per side at intermediate locations, except that mobile
homes less than 50 feet long need only one additional tie per side; and,
(2) Frame ties at each corner of mobile homes with five additional ties per side at intermediate points, except that homes less than 50 feet long need only four additional ties per side; and,
Amended 7/11/78

(3) That all components of a mobile home anchoring system be capable of carrying a force of 4,800 pounds; and,
(4) That any additions to a mobile home be similarly anchored.
(b) Construction Materials and Methods. All new construction and substantial improvements shall be constructed with materials and utility equipment resistant to flood damage, and the same shall be constructed using methods and practices that minimize flood damage.
(c) Utilities
(1) All new and replacement water supply systems shall be designed to minimize or eliminate infiltration of flood waters into the system.
(2) New and replacement sanitary sewage systems shall be designed to minimize or eliminate infiltration of flood waters into the systems, and discharge from the systems into flood water, by means of cutoff valves or the elimination of gravity drains below the flood protection elevation.
(3) On-site waste disposal systems shall be located in a manner designed to avoid impairment to them or contamination from them during flooding.
(4) Electrical equipment, heating units and other service facilities shall be flood proofed or be located on a plane at or above the flood protection elevation for that particular area.
(5) Other and additional precautions and measures may be required in accordance with the City of Boul'der drainage manual on file in the office of the Director of Pubic Works/Public Utilities.
(d) Alignment of Structures. Where practical in order to minimize the obstruction to flow caused by buildings it shall be required that structures be placed with their longitudinal axis parallel to the predicted direction of flow of flood waters or that structures be placed so that their longitudinal axes are placed on lines parallel to those of adjoining structures.
(e) Subdivision Proposals
(1) All subdivision proposals shall be consistent with the need to minimize flood damage;
Amended 7/11/73

Residential Swimming Pools
The drawings below illustrate the use of a 9-point dimension grid ^ich expresses the minimum desirable dimensions to be used when rther specifying or designing a kidney or rectangular shaped pool for residential use.
Width, length, and depth dimensions may apply to any shape residential pool.
The minimum length with diving board and wading area is 30V The average length of a residential pool is 40*.
Required in most areas from building, health, plumbing, and electrical departments and zoning board. Check for setback restrictions and easements covering power and telephone lines, sewers and storm drains.
Check the site for the following conditions, any of which will increase the cost considerably:
1. Fill more than 3' below pool deck.
2. Hard rock which will require drilling and blasting.
3. The presence of underground water or springs necessitating pumping.
4. Accessibility of the site for mechanical equipment, minimum entry 8' 0" wide x 7' 8" high, with a grade easy enough for a truck to reach the site.
5. Locate the pool where it will get the most sun during swimming season. Place deep end if possible, so a diver dives away from, not into, the afternoon sun. Avoid overhanging tree branches near the pool.
6. The slope of the site should be possible; a steep slope requires reta the pool.
Pools may be made of reinforced c< poured on the job, precast or gunita Crete block, steel, aluminum, or plasti-out block back-up. Concrete, alumii pools are available in any shape: recta kidney, oval, or free-form. Complete ations and plastic pool liners with va are available only in manufacturers' s and sizes.
For practical purposes a rectangular p< satisfactory giving the longest swimr
(Rule of Thumb): 36 sq. ft. for each sq. ft. for each diver. Pool 20" x 40 14 persons at a time but since not e pool at once, pool and surrounds 30 40 people.
filter requirements :
Filter shall be sheltered, motor and eli ment shall be waterproofed.
Kenneth Jacobsen. R. Jackson Smtth. AIA. Eggers& Higgins; New York, New York

Public Swimming Pools: Shapes
i ar^^enerally considered as those belonging to municipalities, .ini^^^^bs, hotels, motels, apartments, and resorts. Permits tWWon are required in most areas from local and state Boards well as the departments of Building, Plumbing and Electricity.
v pools should be integrated with existing and projected recreation ,, such as picnic areas and parks, for maximum usage. Transpor *ss should be good, and there should be ample parking space In ate, enough shade should be provided, particularly in the lounging so located that it can be easily converted to spectator space by f bleachers.
i codes require that public pools have: (1) multiple unit filters, imcal chlorination, (3) a prescribed floor slope, (4) scum gutters 'ye pools.
most public pools were designed to meet competitive swimming nts. The trend today is to provide for competitive dimensions lesign for all-around use. The following should be considered:
of shallow water to deep water. Formerly 60% pool area 5' deep ess was considered adequate Now 80% is considered more realistic, i of loungers to bathers. Generally, no more than one third of
attending a public pool are in the water at one time. Consequent G' to 8' walks formerly surrounding pools and used for lounging t -.rn enlarged so that lounging area now approximates pool size icity Formula see "Public Swimming Pool Capacity" diagram on page.
24 inches MIN 5 0- 4' 6" 8-0" i rxi O 1 00 6-0- 6'- 0 - 24-0"
MAX 5 -6" 4' -0" 10 -0"'
1 meter MIN 5' 0" 4 -6" 8* -6 8' -0" 7-6 5' 0 " 6-0" 9-0" 30-0
MAX 5' -6" 6-0" L'o'-o-
3 meters MIN 5 0 4' -6" 12' 0 " 11 -6" 8' -6" 5 -0" 6 -0" 9-0" 35 0 '
MAX 5 6" I 6' 0" 10 -0"
uigc* shallow area(s). Diving area off ide. Water in large part of pool from to 5'-0" deep, adequate for regular ive events.
These two shapes generally desired for large 50 meter pools.
j design. Good for tive swimming & jool design. Shallow en inadequate.
Successful where there is a high percentage of children. Largest area for shallow depth. Deep area can be roped off or separated by bulkhead.
Kidney & oval shapes are the most common freeforms. Use only where competitive meets are not a consideration.
Provides for separate diving area. Shallow area with 4' 0" min. depth may be roped off for competitive meets.
Separate pools for beginners, divers and swimmers. Ultimate in desirability especially if pool is intended for large numbers of people. Variation at left shows single pool and bulkhead over it with ad vantage that swimmers are kept out of area re served for beginners. Both designs may use common filtration system.
Generally provided in connection with community and family club pools. Placed away from swimming area to avoid congestion If near swimming pool, wading area should be fenced off for chil dren's protection To add play appeal provide spray fittings and small fountains in pool. Also provide seats and benches for adults who accompany children to pool.
S Swimming Pool. D Diving Pool, B = Beginners Pool
Jacobsen. R Jackson Smith. AIA; Eggers & Higgins; New York. New York

60' -o"

_E F* 32 -O"
SCALE, r- 32- -O'1
SCALE 1 32* -O"
the Northern states. North-Northeast and South-^ "t is best.
Surface drainage-Pitch 1 per 10'- 0". Pitch side to side for single court: pitch end to end for 2 or more courts. Need for drainage system depends on soil conditions.
This information is for preliminary planning and design only. For final layouts and design investigate current rules and regulations of the athletic organization or other authority whose standards will govern.
-net line
3-6" AT ENOS
vLE r= 32 -O

^^line post jj
scale r*8 -o"
es F. D. Egbert, AIA; Architect. Washington, D. C.

Handball, Cricket, Squash, Polo, and Ice Hockey
<* I So hi

(/) J
< j
(0o: WOy r Q Q
7 Cj u
j u 3
SCALE : I" 20'-O"
A 20' -O" DiAM

/ WALL. . j
^ y;( REAR 1 ?!
/Flush door
(size optional
V>- > ! Z
L_______________46 -O I 4Q -Q-)
FROMT wall = 30 -0 hiGh REAR WALL 12-0" HIGH
23 -0" 20 -Q")
23 -0" ( 20 -0 l
short lime 'SiDEwall
2 *
0-45-0" S 32' -O"
.O-iS' S-iC
DOOR hGT 5 -6". width DOUBLES -.3-0". singles 2 -s
SCALE: I" *20
SCALE. I"* 60 -0"
note : This information is for preliminary planning and design only. For final layouts and design investigate current rules and regulations of the athletic organization or other authority whose standi will govern.
Charles F. 0. Egbert. AlA. Architect; Washington. 0. C.

BT---V ^ \__________---__----______________________________________TM-M
Fig. 11 Vomitory-Type B.
possible elevations exist for the crossover relative to the seating tread levels. It can either be flush with the last row of seats on its front side or be one riser above this last row. The crossover at the lower level minimizes visual interference for spectators in the upper seating from those walking the crossover and is the preferred alternative. The other option does reduce the height of the bulkhead and thus the number of steps required to reach the upper seating. Railings on these stairs and bulkheads should be solid for their lower portions with open pipe rail above. The total height should be kept as low as allowable to prevent sight line interference.
Vomitory Type B (Fig. 11). This detail may be used either as part of a full vomitory or as a stair access only to upper seating tiers. It is not as desirable as Type A in a vomitory situation, as the stairs empty into the traffic path between crossover and vomitory and can cause excessive congestion.
Truck Access. Access to the playing floor surface for large trucks will be required at one or more points. Vomitories at least 10 ft
wide and 14 ft high should be provided at one end of the playing floor. Two are preferred in those arenas expecting to book circus performances to allow for the promenade of animals and performers out one and in the other. Temporary treads and risers can be placed over these large vomitories to gain seating capacity when they are not in use. It also follows from the exterior to this floor level by some means as well as to the londing/receiving area of the building. Additional vomitories will be needed to give spectator access to and from the temporary floor seating setups. Also required will be an opening or vomitory at one end of the arena floor to allow for the overrun for indoor track dash events. At feast 20 yards should be available past the finish line of the 60-yard dashes for this purpose.
Temporary Seating For most events some amount of temporary seating must be set up to fill in the gap between the fixed seating and the size of the playing surface or performance area. This will in some cases be flat on the floor or on shallow riser platforms.
To minimize labor cost for setups, the amount possible of this seating should platforms which telescope out from the pa rip** =| ery of the fixed bulkhead line. Where riser ,? heights are sufficient to permit it, these ***** can be left attached to the platforms and folded flat to allow stands to be pushed against tfe* bulkhead wall. Where this is not practical, the i seating and/or the platforms will have to be : disassembled, stacked, and moved to torefl* areas in other parts of the building. ;
large** ^ be o
Crowd Movement
Great care should be taken in the design/p*** ning process to avoid building in situation* which will inhibit the smooth flow of *9** tators through the public circulation spec** and to and from the seating areas. This should be true for normal traffic situations or ing panic in emergencies. Activities which in* volve spectators waiting in lines must have *u^ ficient room so that circulation is not blocked behind them. Toilet rooms must be laid out
so that peak usage at intermissions
is handled

optimum plan shape for this type of multiuse arena. It is the best possible adaptation of a curved-row configuration, desirable to minimize lateral head movement to the governing size of an ice hockey rink. In both examples noted above, the outer perimeter of seating was carried to a circular outer wall line. This being done primarily to take advantage of the structural economies of a cable-suspended roof system. The intersection of the elliptical seating form and the circular outer wall generate an undulating line at the perimeter. The high point of this undulation, and thus the maximum number of rows, occurs along the sidelines, and the low point with minimum seating occurs at the ends of the arena. The radius of the outer circular wall was held to approximately 200 ft to stay within the practical limits of spectator visual acuity as discussed earlier. The elliptical seating form was developed from circular arcs on a 4-center point system. Radius points for the two broader sideline curves fall 200 ft above and below the center line for the tighter end curves. They are 61 ft left and right of center.
Madison Square Garden seating differs from the Forum in one respect the addition of a balcony (Fig. 9). As mentioned above, the main
body of seating has an undulating intersection with the outer wall with a low point at the arena ends. Above these low end seats, space develops which can accommodate balcony seating. Madison Square Garden takes advantage of this option to gain maximum capacity. The balcony is given a circular configuration seven rows deep following the outer wall line. For a portion of the sideline areas the balcony blends with the main body of seating rising from below but is kept separated by a continuous circumferential bulkhead.
Seating and Sight Lines
The study of spectator sight lines in section should proceed simultaneously with development of the arena plan configuration. Sections should be developed at both the arena axis and several intermediate points in any curved plan .configuration to verify the arrival point of sight for the maximum number of seats.
The "Picket Fence Effect" It is impractical to provide riser heights sufficient for spectators to see over the heads of persons in the row immediately in front. It is assumed view will be between heads of persons one row in front and
over the heads of those two rows in ^ Looking straight ahead, a spectator will ^ j a reasonable wide angle of vision betwa*1 ^ ^ heads immediately in front. However, th* 5
ther one looks to the left or right fl* ^ j players' action on the arena floor, the mor* ^ cone of vision between heads diminish** is the same effect as one gets standing j feet in front of a picket fence. Looking str*^ f ahead between pickets the view is ******
paired, but as the eye moves left or right
i sol* ** \
face. It is for this reason as mentioned ,n cussing alternate plan configurations that
pickets gradually appear to move togath* j at some point they appear to form a solid
curved-row plans are preferred over stre*** row seating as they minimize the lateral vl
ing angle and thus the picket fence effect
Two-Row Vision When plotting graphically
calculating sight-line sections, assume a P** tator's seated eye level at 3 ft 11 in. above lf<** elevation and 5 in. from eye level to top of In most arena situations the hockey flof ** will be the most restrictive in determining 9*^ er sight-line profiles. If sight lines can b* rr'**' to work for hockey, they will be more than ** quate for ail other smaller floor sixs
80' Above Center of Arena But Never Less Than Horizontal
To A.P.S. of Balcony Ideally Should Coincide With Top of Dasher Behind Goal

v.fn ........ ' V**MW*
Recreation and Entertainment SPORTS ARENAS
Wm rail in lieu of solid not to raatrict viaw.

^ 10 Vomitory-Tc* A.
^arrival point of sight should be made to fall 0tl toP d9 the n*r hockey dasher (3 ft | in. above floor level). To graphically plot a of sight lines, begin by assuming a l^ght above the floor for the first row of fixed
. *
.This should be as low as possible to still
modate temporary seating which will
V y] between the playing surface and the first r. (j#d seats. Next extend a line from the arrival $ of sight (APS) to the top of head of the yii row spectator (tread height + 4 ft 4 in.). ||you continue this line up and to the rear the % fiance of two rows, you will set the eye level ¥ the third row of spectators. The trend pght for this row will then be found by sub- -acting 3 ft 1 1 in. Tread heights are now es-fished for the first and third rows; the sec-%>3 row will be midpoint between them. This ^cedure should be repeated for each succes-row working from the bottom up. When a v *4 section of seating is plotted in this manner
all sight lines meeting the same APS, the kn profile will have a slightly dished or affect, with each riser height being a frac-pn of o inch greater than the one below. For
the sake of construction economy, risers are grouped in sections of four or five of the same height before an increase is made. Several trials may need to be made to keep the overall profile within desired limits. Changes can be made in the original assumptions of first tread elevation and tread width which can alter the cross section as successive rows are plotted. For instance, if too high an elevation is selected as the lower row starting point, the upper rows may develop riser heights which exceed code limits, or the overall building height might prove too great.
Tread and Riser Dimensions Tread width of rows should vary between 32 and 36 in. The wider dimension is generally used in the lower tiers of seats which are of shallow slope and where the extra comfort is commensurate with their premium cost. Any tread width below 32 in. should be avoided if possible especially if upholstered seats are used. In addition to sacrificing spectator comfort, narrower rows inhibit travel to concessions at intermissions and prove more time-consuming for mainte-
nance personnel to clean. Riser heights will vary from 3 or 4 in. to 22'/* in. Generally risers can go up to 7% in. before an additional step must be added in the aisle. Risers over 15 in. will require two steps and to accommodate the two steps the tread must be at least 36 in. wide. These tread and riser dimensions are accepted good practice but should be checked against local codes for specific situations.
Aisls Width and Spacing Recommended aisle width is 3 ft 0 in. Spacing of aisles is usually every 14 to 15 seats. Where seating sections abut a wall or railing, the dead-end distance should not exceed 7 seats. Where aisles are radial to one another in curved configurations, each seating section cannot exceed the maximum allowable width at its upper or wide end. Thus some inefficiencies develop as at the lower end of these sections only 7 or 8 seats may separate aisles.
Crossover!- Width and Spacing Crossover aisles will be needed at one or more locations which run horizontally parallel to the seating rows and connect the vertical aisles with vomitories leading under the seating to exits and promenades. Again local codes should be consulted for specific requirements. However, crossover width should be between 4 and 6 ft depending upon spacing of vomitories. It should be kept in mind that a bulkhead will be required at the rear side of the crossover and the tread of the first row behind it raised to a height to allow sight lines not to be interrupted by the lower seats. Where site conditions permit, it is ideal to have both a lobby/promenade and a crossover aisle at or near grade level. The seating can then be split with approximately one-half below grade and one-half above, which very much simplifies exiting problems. Crossovers at the top of balconies should generally serve not more than seven rows of seats. Aisles running up from a crossover and dead-ending at a wall or bulkhead should not serve more than 18 to 20 rows.
Vomitories As stated earlier vomitory width and spacing will be governed by local code conditions. When they are used in connection with horizontal crossovers, stairs will be required to reach the first row to the rear of the crossover which must be elevated 4 to 5 ft. Two types of vomitories are illustrated:
Vomitory Type A (Fig. 10). Here a stair leading to the upper seating flanks either side of the vomitory passage. These stairs are entered at their lower end before reaching the crossover and thus minimize crowd congestion. Two

Stadia: seating design
..mation in this section was pre-red by Ronald Allwork from data as-nbled by the Portland Cement Ass'n.; vin Hadden; A. B. Randall; E. S. iwley. It is intended to furnish a iis for designing outdoor seating for mdstands, arenas, bowls, theatres, achers, etc.
neral. The purpose of a grandstand to provide an audience with a good w of a performance under comfort-!e circumstances. The view is affected both the distance to the action and itructions in the line of sight. Shape i relation of grandstand to action is terally determined by type of per-mance.
|ht line*. Best view is obtained when s sight line to any part of the field of don clears the heads of the spectators
in front. Since this is not always practicable, only sight lines normal to the grandstand are ordinarily considered; oblique lines to different parts of the held are neglected. However, compensation is sometimes made (particularly in bowls) by curving the stands so normal lines approach the center of action.
The focal pointintersection of sight line with playing fieldvaries according to the type of action. For football, it may be the nearest line of the playing field; for track, at about chest height of the runner in the nearest lane; for baseball, the catcher.
The approximate eye level of a seated spectator is assumed to be 4 ft. above the floor and 6 in. below the top of his hat. Referring to diagrams below, it will be observed that, with focal point and elevation for first row of seats established, required elevation for higher
seats is materially affected by the assumed value of c. With a value of 6 in. given to c, an unobstructed view may be assumed, but except for small grandstands, this dimension often results in excessively high rear seats. It is therefore common practice to assign a smaller value to c, especially in large grandstands. It is assumed that spectators will have a satisfactory view if they can see over the heads of those in the second row ahead of them. This requires a value of 3 in. for c.
Diagrams below illustrate two types of sections; the second shows a curved seat section with a common focal point, and the first, a straight seat section with a different focal point for each seat. In the straight section, lower seats have better visibility, and upper seats poorer visibility, than in the curved section, but the average is the same.
; .

Stadia: seating and exit design
d l S d l 5 d l S
1 0.0000 36 4.1468 71 4.8328
2 1.0000 37 4.1746 72 4.8469
3 1.5000 38 4.2016 73 4.8608
4 1.8333 39 4.2279 74 4.8745
5 2.0833 40 4.2535 75 4.8880
6 2.2833 41 4.2785 76 4.9014
7 2.4500 42 4.3029 77 4.9145
8 2.5929 43 4.3267 78 4.9275
9 2.7179 44 4.3500 79 4.9403
10 2.8290 45 4.3727 80 4.9530
11 2.9290 46 4.3949 81 4.9655
12 3.0199 47 4.4167 82 4.9778
13 3.1032 48 4.4380 83 4.9900
14 3.1801 49 4.4588 84 5.0021
15 3.2516 50 4.4792 85 5.0140
16 3.3182 51 4.4992 86 5.0257
17 3.3807 52 4.5188 87 5.0374
18 3.4396 53 4.5380 88 5.0489
19 3.4951 54 4.5569 89 5.0602
20 3.5477 55 4.5754 90 5.0715
21 3.5977 56 4.5936 91 5.0826
22 3.6454 57 4.6115 92 5.0936
23 3.6908 53 4.6290 93 5.1044
24 3.7343 59 4.6463 94 5.1152
25 3.7760 60 4.6632 95 5.1258
26 3.8160 61 4.6799 96 5.1363
27 3.8544 62 4.6963 97 5.1468
28 3.8915 63 4.7124 98 5.1571
29 3.9272 64 4.7283 r 99 5.1673
30 3.9617 65 4.7439 100 5.1774
31 3.9950 66 4.7593 101 5.1874
32 4.0272 67 4.7744 102 5.1973
33 4.0585 68 4.7894 103 5.2071
34 4.0888 69 4.8041 104 5.2168
35 4.1182 70 4.8186 105 5.2264
Straight section need be checked for sight lines from top seats only, as these have the poorest view. In this case, the relation between horizontal distance from seat to focal point d, height of eye above focal point e, width of tread t, height of riser r, and clearance c is represented by the formula:
d t
Curved section. Relation of the various factors is represented by the formula:
' e, c
e dn -j- (SmSi)
-d, t
in which c elevation above focal point of eye of spectator in row n.
e, = elevation above focal point of eye of spectator in row 1.
d distance from focal point to row n. c clearance between successive sight lines, t width of tread.
d, d,
S, and S values from table corresponding to and .
t t
For simplicity the value of d, should be an exact multiple of t. As an example of the use of this formula, assume that it is desired to design a grandstand with a common focal point. Assume the factors:
e, = 6 ft., d, 32 ft., c = 0.25 ft., t 2 ft.
Then the formula becomes
' 6 0.25
e = d. -j--------(S 3.5182)
32 2
which can be simplified to
e d (0.125S. 0.2273) for these specific conditions. For the last row
d = 78; = 39; t
from the table, and the formula gives
S = 4.2279; e, = 23.494
which is the distance above the focal point of eye of spectator in the last row. Elevation of tread for this spectator is thus 23.49 4.0 = 19.49 ft. The elevation of each row is obtained similarly. To provide this curved seating section requires that each riser be slightly higher than the preceding one. Few grandstands have been built to the theoretical curve but a number have been constructed with a series of straight sections which approximate the theoretical curve. This is obtained by increasing the height of riser for succeeding groups of 5 to 10 rows rather than for each row. This greatly reduces the construction difficulties involved in the use of variable riser heights. Such a plan is recommended for structures containing more than about 25 rows of seats and may be used in smaller structures.
Treads and risers for grandstand seats should be as small as possible for economy but sufficient for comfort and good view. Width of treads may be from 24 to 30 in. Width of 26 in. provides reasonable comfort and is probably satisfactory for average cases. When seats with fixed backs are used, tread should be at least 30 in. Where there is much movement of spectators during the program, as at race tracks, wider treads are required than when spectators remain in their seats. First tread should be wide enough to provide 18 in. between front edge of seat and wall or rail. Distance between back of last seat and rear wall need not be more than 6 in. unless a transverse aisle is provided here. Riser heights may vary from 6 to 18 in. Risers in small stands usually are from 9 to 14 in.
Seats. Space allowed for each seat, lengthwise in the row, is generally between 17 and 1844 in. Width of seats may be varied slightly to provide for varying lengths of rows caused by entrance-ways, aisles, etc. Height of seat from floor should be approximately 18 in.

Aisles. Stadia are generally divided into sections by transverse aisles. The width of these sections, in terms of number of seats, varies from 24 to 32 seats per row. Most common are sections 26 or 28 seats wide.
Aisles adjacent to end walls of grandstand are advantageous if connected directly to an entrance, but they are not essential. By placing one half section against the wall at each end of the stand, one less aisle will be- required.
Aisle widths vary, but 3 ft. is most widely accepted. This width permits a single file in one direction and an usher going in the opposite direction. Aisle 4 ft. wide will permit two lanes of traific in the same or in opposite directions. If there are aisles on both sides of an entranceway they need be only 2 ft. wide. This width is the minimum advisable to insure sufficient clear-
re against the hazards of clothing
.ching in the 3eats or disturbing the occupants of the end seats.
Seat risers more than 9 in. high will require an extra step in the aisle. In this case make each step riser one-half the height of the seat riser, and the step tread one-half the width of the seat tread. Steps should be full width of the aisle.
Longitudinal aisles, either in front of the first row of seats or part way up the stand should be avoided since their use obstructs the view of spectators seated in back of them. However, where seats are not reserved, an aisle at the entrance level is a considerable convenience to spectators in choosing their seats, although it does interfere with the view of those already seated. When such an aisle is employed part way up the stand, sight lines for several rows above it should be checked to determine the effect of the extra tread width.
Entrances and Exits. In the small stands which do not have entrance through vomitories, it is preferable to have entrances from the field level at each transverse aisle rather than provide entrances at each end only and a longitudinal aisle leading to the transverse aisles. When the small grandstand is built on an embankment, entrance to the transverse aisles can be made from the rear, either directly, or by means of
longitudinal aisle connected with Bern.
^In larger stadia, entrance is usually through vomitories whose widths may vary from 4 to 8 feet. A 6-ft. width is
most common. Standard requirements for exits are based on traffic lanes of 22-in. width. Widths of vomitories and passageways should therefore be determined with this minimum in mind. Handrails extending not more than 3% in. from the walls are not considered as reducing the effective width.
Width of exits is specified by most building codes in term3 of number of seats to be handled. For example, if 8 in. is required for each 100 seats, a single vomitory or exit serving a section of 800 seats would require a width of 64 in. This should be increased to 66 in. to provide for three 22-in. traffic lanes, the rule being to increase the width rather than reduce it.
When seats are not provided with back rests, many spectators approach the exits by walking over the seats rather than in the aisles. In such cases, therefore, it is not necessary to have the width of the aisles equal to the width of the exits, and some codes take this into consideration. The code which required the width of exits to be 8 in. per 100 seats, for instance, permits the aisles to be 6 in. per 100 seats.
The location of vomitories will depend upon the contour of the site and the size of the particular section to be served. Where the section is relatively small, the vomitory can be at the same level as the entrance, thus avoiding ramps or stairs. For larger sections it is advisable to place the vomitory part way up the stand so that it will be served by an aisle below as well as the aisle above. In large stadia, a second row of vomitories is often provided.
Stairways and Ramps. The rate of egress from stairways and ramps is not constant, but some authorities consider 30 persons per minute per 22-in. traffic lane about average for stairways, and 37 persons per minute per 22-in. lane in ramps. Other authorities give higher rates, in some cases assuming a rate of egress of 45 persons per minute per traffic lane for both stairways and ramps. On this basis, if it were desired to exit an entire audience of 10,000 persons in 5 minutes, a total of 45 lane widths would be required for ramps, vomitories, stairways or gates. This total width should be maintained to the outside of stadium and enclosure.
In designing grandstand stairways, common rules are widely used. These require that the sum of riser heights and tread width, in inches, shall not be less
KtCKtAI IUINOU Stadia: seating and exit design
than 17% nor more than 18; that the sum of 2 risers and 1 tread, in inches, shall not be less than 24 nor more than 25; that the product of riser and tread, in inches, shall fall between 70 and 75. Risers of 6% to 7% in. with treads of 11 to 10 in. are most commonly used.
The capacity of ramps may be considered as being between that of stairways and level passageways. They are recommended primarily for greater safety rather than for greater capacity. Requirements for building exits often limit ramp slopes to not more than 1 in 10 because of the danger of possible panic from fire or other cause, but since this danger is less in grandstands than in buildings, somewhat steeper slopes are permissible. Ramps with an incline of 1 in 4 have been used, but slopes of 1 in 6 to 8 are safer and more often used. Ramps are longer than stairways of the same height. They are particularly suitable for grandstands where it is not necessary to make maximum use of the space under the deck, and in large stadia.
Walls and Railings. Passage-ways, entrances, back and 3ides of grandstand must have walls or railings for protection of spectators. These may consist of concrete walls or of pipe sections, anchored to concrete or steel, etc., as the case may be. Solid walls In front of the first row should not be more than 3 ft. high above the lower tread. Handrails on enclosed stairways are often placed 32 in. above the lip of the step. Rails and walls at ends of stand and around entrances are usually 3 to 3% ft. above the front edge of the tread. Solid back walls give spectators protection against strong winds and are frequently made higher for this reason.
Gates and Fences. Entrance gates should be so arranged that a single file of persons entering passes each ticket collector, but should also provide quick, unobstructed passage for exit of the crowd. Swinging gates are commonly employed; sliding gates are also used. Size of gate is determined by same method employed for determining 3izes of vomitories, stairs and passages.
If admission is charged, a fence must enclose the entire field. Wire fences are used in a number of instances, but they do not shut off view to people on the outside; hence solid walls of concrete or other material are often employed.

Stadia: seating and exit design
(not to scale)
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r i
> i
or z& seats
SCALE Vi6*-l-o*


_ LJ


From the beginnig of the project, fitting the program onto the site was difficult. An L-shaped building was initiated early and was used to direct views towards the mountains and block views of the industrial park. Individual rooms are also oriented towards the mountains by angleing them at 30 degrees.
Since the program called for many rooms and along with Boulder's height limit, the corridors to the rooms became fairly long. By creating secondary lobbies and large glass areas at the ends of the hallways, I felt that this problem could be overcome.
The restaurant, bar and shops were seen as public spaces and should be directly linked to the hotel. The other recreational activities were placed so as to act as buffers, a link to BVRC and as coverings for parking.
Due to the nature of the site, the main lobby was long but was seen as an interior mall where most of the hotel activities whould take place. This same scheme is used in variuos grand hotels and I felt it could be used here. By making the corridor wide and glass covered and lined on one side with shops, this would become an interesting entry into the hotel proper. This space ends with a 35 foot high, glass covered grand lobby to create a relaxed and exciting space,

Parking was put on grade with the rest of the building above it. This parking area plus the parking on the BVRC site would provide parking for 400 cars. The last parking area to be used as surplus parking.
The landscaping scheme is formal and is intended to emphasize the entrance. It is designed to be seen from a car passing by and be easily understood by the driver. Eurming is intended to reduce the affect of the parking level as well as provide protection from floods at the entrances of the parking area.
Overall, the building does overshadows it's neighbors but it also stands out to help attract business. Most of the program has been met and I feel that this design will attrect business as well as help to rejuvinate the area.


9 45
SCALE 1/50'- 0