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Health Â£> Recreation Centre
Glenwood Springs, CO
University of Colorado
Nancy Carlisle May 1905
Health Â£> Recreation Centre
Glenwood Springs, CO
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Archirecrurol Thesis University oj" Colorado
Nancy Carlisle May 1905
THE HEALTH AMD RECREATION CENTER
AT YAMPAH SPRINGS
Ar c:h i t ec: tur a 1 Thesis
Presented to the
C o 1 1 e g e o f D e s i g n a n c:l P1 a n n i. n g University of Colorado at Denver
i n p ar t i a1 fulfillment o f the requirements for
ie Degree of Master of Architecture
Nancy A. Carlisle
Marty people helped me in many ways throughout my years in architecture school and with my thesis project. Gary Long and Greg Franta proved to be excellent thesis advisors. They gave their time unselfishly and provided both constructive criticism artd encouragement throughout the process. Paul Heath and Dan Young both helped me more titan they probably realize, to develop my own desigrt process and approach a problem in a comprehensive manner. Ted Prythero shared my high and low points throughout my five years in school and provided me with ideas and helped me work out my own ideas for this project as well as most of our other studio projects. My friends, Susan Klein and Katie McCormack were always available when I needed to discuss ideas or just needed a few kind words. Ron Hoban and Dave Morris, owners of the Vapor Caves, allowed me to work on their project and were very cooperative. Many others who I called for information in and around Glenwood Springs as well as fellow students were all very helpful. Thank-you all!
table of contents
7. IMAGE AND TYPOLOGIES
7. PROGRAMMING CONCEPTS
8. ZONING AND PARKING REQUIREMENTS
9. BUILDING CODES
10. CONCLUSIONS AND DESIGN SOLUTION
APPENDIX 1 Parking Survey APPENDIX 2 Parking Design Criteria
The Vapor Caves site is one o-f the first si g!its of all visitors arriving from the east on 1-70. The site is hounded on the south by the Colorado River and 170 and it slopes steeply to the north, the Vapor Caves property and the hillside property above is approximately 5-6 acres.
The concept of an integrated health and recreation facility is still evolving. It draws upon elements of a European health spa in which health is dependent upon quality of life as well as the mind, body and spirit working together. This concept of health is not new by any means but it is unique in the LI.S. Awareness of the connection between the health of the body and mind has been around since early Greek and Roman civilizations, when spas had their genesis. Somewhere in our more recent past, Americans have lost this awareness of synthesis between body and mind. In American medicine there is fragmentation between body and mind. This is not so in Europe where the concept of integrative health has full vibrant wellbeing as it's objective rather than symptom removal and crisis intervention.
The proposed health and recreation facility is basically for healthy people, aged 3050 in corporate middle management positions who are under a lot of job related stress and wish to remain healthy and prevent the development of health problems. It is unique in the sense that it will address aspects of
health other than physical fitness. Most health/fitness centers in the U.S. typically only emphasize the physical component of health. In this facility, a participant will be interviewed by a physician and undergo a series of tests. An individual program for each participent will be worked out when a person begins his or her week long stay at Yarnpah Springs. The most unique aspect of this facility will be the Vapor Caves where one can partake in a vapor bath. This consists of relaxing in a cave naturally heated to 115 F with 100X humidity. The mineral vapors have been world famous in the treatment of arthritis, asthma, and sinus colds. Other treatments which will be offered at the facility include: massage, physical therapy, biofeedback, acupuncture, nutrition counseling and a variety of educational classes and seminars. In addition, the facility will offer recreational classes in aerobics, tai chi, yoga and dance. Medical doctors and physical therapists will rent space and operate their practice out of this facility. It is a common practice for medical doctors to be on staff in European health spas. Currently in the Denver area this practice is becoming more prevalent. Several area fitness centers lease space to physical therapists and the Swedish Wellness Systems Group offers consulting services to fitness facilities interested in adding a wellness component.
The facility will be designed to be a total sensory experience which is divorced from the hectic pace of everyday life yet main
t a i r i s a s1 *. r o n q v i s u a 1 c o n n e c t i o n w i t. h t. h e
surrounding mountain vistas and connections with the? ever changing environmental factors of natural light and solar gain. The
facility will have a casual relaxed atmosphere and a rich ambiance.
The success of the entire development is dependent. upon the ability to market the concept. to corporate middle managers. Options, such as preselling the facilities in the form of "weekly time?shares" to major corporati ons, are curren11y being d i scussed. Uniess the developer c an successfully mar ket 111e en t ire pac k age 1 odg i ng conf er ence c en-ter, and the health and recreation facility to the target market, the health and recreation facility will not be an economic venture strictly on its own.
I 1YP0TTIT S I S
l b e t. y p o 1 a g y a n d i m a g e o f a h e a 11. h c 1 i n i c e.g. a small medical building or hospital, is readily apparent to most people?. It is g e n e r a 1 1 y a n i n s t i t. u t i o n a 1 b u i 1 d i n g
c 11 a r a c t e r iz e? d b y a u n i f o r m facade, bland colors, and organized to maximize efficiency. The? interior generally has wide double loaded corridors and shiney linoleum floors. The
interior i s impersonal and people are somewhat tense when they enter because most Americans generally only go to the doctor when they feel that something is wrong with
them. On the other hand, a recreational building or fitness facility is generally associated with leisure time activities and fun. These buildings may have nonsymetrical facades which convey an image of informality.
Rooms inside generally have varied volumes depending on the activities within the' space and bright colors are used throughout. People inside are engaged in varied activities e.g. aerobics, weight training, swimming. They are casual in dress and moving at thsir own pace.
As hospital costs continue to rise and as medical insurance continues to offer incentives for people to stay well and out of the hospital, it is my belief that the concept of an integrated health and recreation facility will become more prevalent in this country. As it becomes more prevalent, it will become a r ecogn i. z ab 1 e bu i 1 d i ng f or m.
The hypothesis for this thesis is that elements from several related building types can be used to create a form and image for a new building type which houses health and recrea t i an act i vi t i es. Some of the? key elements to be used by this new building type include the fol1owi ng:
The image of the facility will be informal and friendly. The idea that fitness is fun as well as good as you is very important to t h e c on c ep t of the f ac. i 1 i t y.
The building will be whole not fragmented to express one identity. This is important because the concept of the facility involves the melding together or integration of two activities, health and recreation, which normally invoke two very different images. Wholeness in the building form can be expressed in many ways ranging from the development of one building form to several forms connected with one continuous element
t hr oughou t.
The si te will envelop the building to create a secure and serene atmosphere conducive to relaxation.
The sequence of activities will enhance the Tun and drama inside the building. For example, the walk down to the caves should express the drama of descending into the bowels of the earth. Sequence in the facility will be expressed by varying volume, light, color and materials.
Especially in the health clinic area, related activities will be clustered as much as possible rather than compartmentalized. The purpose of this is to enhanse visual contact and to some extent social interaction among participents to create a more friendly and social atmosphere.
The entry courtyard to the facility will be rich in detail and texture like a European spa to express an inviting feeling to cli ents. 5
2. typology & image
The hypothesis for this thesis deals with the development of a typology and image for an integrated health and recreation facility. Currently there is no one typology i.e. clinic, spa, health club that can be applied to this facility. Since there is no one typology, there is no specific image which this type of facility evokes. As the health and fitness industry continues to expand and if the trend toward the integration of health and recreation continues, the question of developing an appropriate recognizible image for this type of facility becomes more important. As discussed in the introduction, the concept for this facility draws upon elements of many types of health and recreation facilities from heal tli clubs to vacation spas, but it is essentially a new concept. To determine elements which are important to the overall image of this facility, this chapter describes and analyzes the various types of existing health and recreation facilities which may be drawn upon in the development of this faci1i ty.
EUROPEAN HEALTH SPAS
The general opinion in Germany is that you may live an unheal thy life for 11 months of the year but during the twelfth month you "take the cure" at one of the many spas. Spas are also popular in Switzerland, Austria, Checkoslavokia and Russia. Wiesbaden, Germany; Baden-Baden, Germany; BadGastein, Germany and the Bircher-Benner Clinic in Switzerland are some of the more well known
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European spas. These spas are generally set i n r e nio L e ntoun t a i. n v i 1 1 a q e s w i t h b r e a t h t a k i n g scenery, ITany are described as having "old world charm" or "pr e- Word d War II elegance".
T' h e I \ a t e 1 s a r e <:1 e s c r i b e d a s p o s h a n d 1' w o r 1 d class". The hotels are of grand scale with marbled corridors and columned facades. Hotel rooms have floor to ceiling french windows, fresh flowers and esquisite antique furniture. In many towns with spas there are recreational centers, theatres, casinos, and galler ies. European spas can be classified into several categories: o Nature Cure Spas. In this type of a spa the treatment stresses the need for the body to build up it's resistence to disease. The BircherBenner Clinic in Switzerland is the most prestigeous in this category, o Sanatorium. This is a place where people who are suffering from physical or mental problems go for specific treatments. Hundreds of people are treated in very large establishments. In my opinion these places evoke a negative image of desperation and sickness.
o Inpatient. In this type of spa, the guests r e s i d e i. n 1 a r g e 11 o t e 1 s w h ere the r a p y facilities are located. Diets are prescribed and food is eaten in special dining rooms, o Outpatient. In this type of spa guests are housed in many hotels wherever they choose and go to daily therapies. This seems to be the most common arrangement in spa towns such as Baden-Baden, Wiesbaden and Bad-Gasten. The daily therapy is taken in addition to relaxation and enjoyment.
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Tri the (last, spas in the U. S. were primarily for women and the purpose of the spa was for pamperirig quests. Now the focus is shifting to "seperate taut equal" facilities for men and women and the spa program emphasises becoming tolerant of stress, more fit and more healthy, although pampering and beauty t r e atment s a re s t i 1.1. a n i m p o r t ant com p o n e n t. Unii he European spas, people in the U.S. generally go to a spa for 5 days to one week. Some of the more well known U.S. spas are the Golden Door, Sonoma Mission Inn, La Costa and the Palms, all located in California. Silence and tranquility is the image at the Golden Door where the decor is a blend of eastern and western culture. The spa at Sor ioma N :i ssi on i s ver y i n war d f ocus ing. When you close the heavy oak doors behind you as you enter, it symbolizes cutting ties with the outside world. The Palms and La Costa can be characterized as extravagent. At La Costa where the spa looks like a drawing of a r o m a n b a t h s u per s o p h i s t i c a t e d m i d d 1 e a g e d women are described as thriving on a folksy attitude where staff "hugs and coos and moves you along". At these exclusive spas generally there? are 3 staff per guest.
The Phoenix in Houston is a 21 acre health and fitness facility that seems to be in a class by itself. It is a development with a 300 room h ot e1, c onferen c e c enter, medic a1 center, luxury condos and a sports and rec-r e a t i o n facility. LI n 1 i k e t r a d i t i a ri a 1 s p a s the contemporary health resort emphasises e d u c a t i o r i, t a k e h a m e f i t ness and total be a u t y
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of mind, body and spirit. They offer week 1ono sessions whieh cover everything includ- i r i q e a t i n g beauty, f i t ness, and fitness e v a 1 u a t i o n T h e a t m o s p h ere is casual a n d relaxed. The hotel is an art deco mansion which feels as if you are visiting someone's wonderfu1 estate hame.
Dur i ng the 19th and part of the 20th century, the LJ.S. had dozens of European-sty 1 e spas where i t was custom t.o take the cure. In carefully segregated men's and women's sections of the bath house?, guests would recieve a private hot bath in a one person tub and possibly a colonic irrigation, followed by a sweat wrap, believed to be the most effective way to purge poisons, and sometimes a massage. As automobiles and roads proliferated in the 1920's simpler motels were built at min e r a 1 s p r i n g s r a t h e r t. h a n 1 u x ury hotels. During the last. 30 years the general public has become increasingly dependent on prepaid medical plans and various forms of Medicare, none of which officially recognize the healing power of mineral springs. Therefore the number of people willing to pay for such treatments out of their own pockets has diminished and many of the old resorts have never been modernized. Many senior citizens patronize these resorts. Today there seems to be a renewed interest in the pleasures of soaking in hot water.
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I M AND FITNf:SS Cl l IDS
Mealt h and f i tness d i ver s e. TI i e y t: a n ca Leg or' i es: o Health Clubs, store front chain
clubs in the U.S. are very b e c 1 ass i f i ed i r11. o 0 basic
Usually health clubs are o p e r a t i o n s o p e r a t i n g f o r I r of i t. De<::or usua ] 1 y :i 11c. 1 udes yo 1 d and white columns and sprouting fountains. They began a decade or so ago prior to coed fitness so they generally have 1 locker room, fhey emphasise exercise, equipment and
fitness systems. They have flexible spaces and offer a variety of classes.
o Court Clubs. In these clubs, the main focus is the courts, genera11y racquetbal1. fhey offer weight training, and aerobics e x e r c. i s e classes. T h e y a r e f o u n d i n free
standing buildings, suburban malls, and commercial buildings. They are generally not well staffed and currently the industry is overbuilt. A court club generally has a high amount of social interaction.
o Wei gift. Training Centers. Nautilus is the most prevalent. The concept, is only 5 .years old. Host facilities are? small storefronts.
11Accor ding t o Nau t i1 us, a room measuring 1500-2000 sq. ft. can adequately accomodate ex f u 11 c i r cu i. t of equi pmen t and an entire facility can be housed in 3500-5000 sq. ft. of space." (Dietrich) The facility is not social in the sense of a court club. The Nautilus machines are slick and high tech in appearence.
o Figure Salons. This is a 1960's phenomenon which resulted from "thinis-in" mania of the 60's as well as a proliferation of relaxation ori en t ed spas. They p romot ed fan t a s i es of
"no sweat fitness" using vibrating belts,
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r o 11 e r s, a n < I p a a a i v e m a c lunes. T hey also had i a mi i n q b e d s a r i d in a s s a q e t a b 1 e s an d o f f e r e d < I i e t. c o u n s e 1 i. n g .
<> Aerobics Studios. These are? storefront a p e r a t i o n s w h i c h o f f e r c 1 a s s e s. T h e
studio's generally have resilent wood floors and large rooms as opposed to the smaller carpeted rooms of the figure salons where calisthenics were? practiced. Some aerobics studios are? decorated with colorful pastels and likely to be located in older buildings, o Corporate Fitness Centers. These are 15 in a 1 1 f ac i 1 i t i es wh i ch emphasi 2 e e f f ici ency getting the maximum workout in minimum time. They offer excellent individual programming and profiling. Clients are generally, informed and well educated. The atmosphere of high" efficiency does little to stimulate ex traneous conversat i on.
0 Nonprofit. Fitness Centers (V's) V's originally saw themselves as the guardian of
yout 11 in a dangerously libertine era. The concept of sound mind in an active body was
1 i e a r t. i 1 y e n d o r s e d. hi o s t Y s o f f e r a n impres si ve ar ray of vacat i orial cu 1tur a 1 and recreational classes for people of all ages, fhey 11ave exce 1 lent gyms, gymnastic equipment, are leading proponents of amateur leagues, offer good swimming programs and a dopt. new f i t ness j. 11 novat i on s as t h ey c:: ome along. They are all American family oriented p1aces.
o U r b a n C o u n t r y Cl u b s. T h e s e a r e a r e 1 a -t i ve 1 y n ew phenomena wh :i. ch h a ve devel oped over the last 5 years. This is an urban version of a country club. Like a health club it is multifaceted, like a raquet club it offers playing courts, like Y's it focuses
on sports, .team and family recreational opportunities and like a country club it brings all of this an air of luxury and an a 1 mosphere to promote soci. a 1 i nteract ion. The building is often so massive that it is obvious that. millions of dollars have been i. nvest:ed in i t. 11 of f ers the best possible
style?, clean pools, rooftop running tracks, a variety of conditioning equipment and classes in everything. It. is rich in atmosphere and ambiance. It offers an all purpose business and social facility with conference rooms, banquet rooms, parties, excursions outings a r i d 1 e c t u r e s. 11. e m p 1 o y s m any experts
physicians, dieticians, exercise
psysiologists etc. The Point in Lakewood and to a lesser extent, the Denver Sporting Club c a n b e c h ax r a c t e r i z e d ax s u r ban c o u n try c 1 u b s.
JAPENESE BATH HOUSES
The? concept of bathing is very different in the IJ.S. and in Japan. Americans bathe to
cj e t c lean a n d J a p a n e s e clean t o b a t h e. Japanese bath houses offer a high quality of service. A client is generally ushered to a single private room with a dressing table, closet. and massage table. An attendent ushers her client through each step of the process including scrubbing one's back. The bath is followed by a sauna and a massage. The image is clean, efficient, contemplative and nurturing. In my opinion I think many, maybe most Americans seem too inhibited to e nj oy this t ype of fac i1i t y.
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A r e s o r t. f t o t el i s d e signed for longer stays than a tourist or businessman's hotel. Resort hotels are designed to create a s t i m u 1 a t i n g e n v i r o run e n t b u t n o t a t the expense of the area or country in which the hotel is located. The sense of place is what the designer of a modern hotel is trying to achieve in spite of such counteracting 20th ceiVtur y amenities as air conditioning. Often a resort hotel is in an isolated area and must. fulfill all the needs of it's guests their food, entertainment, and leisure activities and this must be done in an exciting manner. Even a weekend guest can become bored. Thus a designer must try to create a stimulating environments but not at the expense of the natural environment outside. On the one hand it is thought that the walls should be minimized and the interior opened up to the scenery. On the other hand it is important that a strong identity be made with the shell of the hotel to make it special and preferable to the competition. There must also be plenty of creature com f o r t s i n s i d e r & s o r t h o t e 1 s.
HEALTH FACILITIES AND CLINICS
Most people perceive? hospitals and clinics as intimidating, demoralizing, antiseptic and ugly. The scale of these facilities is usua11y i nsti tut ional. Much of the design of these facilities has been based on the incredible complexity of requirements for sophisticated mechanical and electrical networks needed to service or link up p er so n n e1 and mac hi n es; functional
efficiency; and strict codes for fire, safety, health and accessibility. In the past the image and psychological perception
that the public has of these facilities was not peripheral to the design problem. In the last 10 years, it seems as if more emphasis has been placed on de-institutionalization of the image of these facilities. Part of the reason for this is that competition between health care facilities seems to be growing.
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The site is on the edge of the North Glenwood Springs neighborhood. Property ownership for the site is shown in the first map in this section. The site for the health and recre-at i on f ac i 1 i ty, the hotel rest.aurant and par k i ng struc ture i. s approx i mate 1 y 56 acres. The north boundary of the site is somewhat arbitrary because Dean Moffatt also owns 50 acres to the north of the boundary line so the hotel can extend beyond this line if necessary. It is proposed that the upper 50 ac res b e deve1op ed as hi kin g trails f or use by the hotel guests. The? owners of the Vapor Caves property have? already purchased the property housing the city owned electric building. Public Service of Colorado (PSCo) is in the process of purchasing the city a w n e d e 1 e c: t r i c comp a n y. A s p a r t: a f t h e transaction, the site with the hr art-formers (labeled PSCo property) will be sold to the owners of the Vapor Caves and the city of
Glenwood Springs is requiring that the PSCo remove all the transformers and telephone poles from the site. The owners of the Vapor C a v e s p 1 a n t o d e m o 1 i s h t h e e x i s t i rt g V at p o r Caves building and the city owned electric building Photos are included in this section to show the Vapor Caves building and the t r a n s f o r rn e r s at n d views f r o m t h e site.
The second map provides an analysis of the site. The site? hats some major constraints It is very steep. Noise near the street le?vel is a problem but it lessens ats one goes higher and away from the street. Another major site? constraint is the access to the Vapor Catves. It is right next to the? road which runs to the south of the site. A
t h i r d c o n s t r a i. n t s i s t h e u n k n o w n c o n d i t i o n s o f m i n e r a 1 s p r i n g s a n d c ai v e s 1 o c a* t e d b e 1 o w the site. This precludes the use of any underground pairking structures.
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The availabilty of climatic information for Glonwood Springs is limited- Information on temperature, precipitation, and snowfall was available. Information on heating and
c o o 1 i n q d e tjre e -- d a y s w as only available for Rifle, CO a city about 20 miles away.
i he G1en waad Spri n gs c1i ma t e seems to be relatively mild, considering it's mountain 1 o c a t i o i i. A v e r a g e m o n t lily t e m p e r a t u r e s r a n g e
from a high of 89.0F in July to a low of
36 9 F i n January. Heat i rig degree-days egua 1 6795 per year and cooling degree-days equal 344 per year (for Rifle). Glenwood Springs only receives 16.53 inches of precipitation per year with the greatest amount occuririg in August. The largest snowfall occurs in January at. 7.3 inches per year.
Wind at the site is probably more of a
functi on of the 1oca1 mi crocli mate than a
prevailing wind direction. Winds most likely come from the south during the day as the hot air rises along the steep north slope of the site. At night, the winds most likely come from the north and down the slope as the air coo1s and falls.
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SOLAR POSITION AND INSOLATION, 40N LATITUDE
6. architectural program
1 he spaces in this facility can be classified as belonging to one of three groups; the h e a 11 h c 1 i n i. c r e c r e a t. i o r a n d relaxation o r support. Support, activities are those which don't fall into one of the other two categor i es. A 1 i st i ng of all t.he spaces by category is provided below. The pool area is the largest single space?. It is assumed that the hotel guests will be most interested in u sin g t1 > e p o o 1 a r e a, the caves, the solarium, and the activity rooms. The next most important spaces will be the massage therapy area, the clinic and the juice bar. In
addition to the hotel guests, it. is assumed that the existing Vapor Caves clientele will conti nue to use the new facility. These people, who will represent 25-307. of the f aci1i ty's users, wi11 most 1i kely use the massage therapy area, the caves, and the solarium and possibly the pool and the juice bar. It is planned that, the health clinic will develop a percentage of it's business, approximately 307., from non-hotel guests. This section of the report presents the space? requirements for the facility as well as a number of conceptual ideas for the organization and image of the facility.
clinic support n n m m n
recreation Â£, relaxation
D o c t: o r s 0 f f i c e s Treatmerit Rooms Lab
Rec ept. i on / Wa i t i ng Staff Lounge Physical Therapy Room Record Storage
Lobby/ Entrance Informati on Fitness Evaluation Juice Bar
Fitness Counselor Offices Seminar Room Li brary
Facility Director's Offices Restrooms
RECREATION Locker Rooms Activity Rooms Pool Area Staff Rooms Laundry
Mechanical Space Laundry
RELAXATION Massage Therapy Sol ar i. urn Vapor Caves
CHAF^ACTER I S I ICS
Lobby 1500 or i entat i. on i nformati on natural light, inviti ng, f r i end1y clinic, recreation, juice bar, fitness eval uat. i on
Fi biess E v a1uat i on 500 5 stations blood press, bench steps muscu1 ar flex, si tups body fat calc. f 1 exi b 1 e entry, f i tness counselors
Juice Bar 500 eating It. sandwiches, yogurt drinks salads, juice casual,br i ght c o1 or s,c omfort-ab1e,outdoor eat i ng Lobby
Seminar Em. 250 sm. seminars 1i brary
Library 150 read i ng c:: omf or tab 1 e chai rs,1i ght seminar rin.
Di rectors Office 140 mtg./clients entry
Asst. Director s Offi ce 120 il ll di rector's off i ce
P.R. Dir. Office 120 ii ll ll II
Sec./Recp. 140 office recp. M ll
Restaurant 2500 eati ng/relaxing 1 good views
function SO. FT. ACT IVI TV CHARACTERIST ICS ADJACENT TO
1.0 Fitness Counsel or Of f i. ces 800 mtq. /cl i.ents fitness eval.
8 Doctor O f f i c:bs 800 consul tation comfortable e :! a m. /1 r e a t -merit rooms
8 Treatment Rooms 800 treatment/ ex am comfortable, per son a1i zed Dr. s of f i ces
Smal1 l. ab 150 blood tests, urine tests, etc . treatment rms
Physical Therapy Rm. 600 treatment rm./speci al i::ed equipt. seperate rm./ 2 desks S< seperate hydrotherapy area
Recp./ Wai ti ng 200 recp./wait. record sto. f r i eri d 1 y c o 1 or f u 1 Dr. office, treat, merit
Staff Lounge 150 II ll
W. C. 60 1 ab
Pool Area 3000 2 whirlpools, 1 cold pool, 1 free form, 1 lap pool some privacy, natural It, plants, deck 1ockers
Activity Rm. 1200 600 c1 asses: tai chi, yoga,bal1et, medi tation, aerobics resilent firs., sound proof, high ceilings 1ockers
R INC I ]. ON SQ. FT. ACT IV T TY CHARACTERI ST ICS ADJACENT TO
Staff Rooms 200 200 offices for recreat.i on therapists activity rms
Lack er Room 1000 clothes sto changing, shower i ng, dress!ng . plush,relaxi ng, open pool, caves massage, solar i um, activity rm.
Laundry Room 150 washi ng towels pool, 1ockers
Massage? Therapy 1600 20 massage r ooms 1 i. ght, ai ry qui et., relax i ng caves, solari um
Solar i um 750 rel a:: at i on views, light heat/ plant filled caves, massage
J an i1 or i a 1 100
Meehanical 300 geothermal htg./ pool f i 1 tr at .i on
19,080 3,816 (Added 207. for ci rculati on)
22,876 Total planned square -footage
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7. program concepts
Following are sketches of concepts which will be carrie 11 u i J cl i 11 q cl e s i q n I h e c: o n c e p t. u s an attempt: to more fully de-fi described in the by pot lu si s.
some ?d ou d sk n e
of the i n t h e
::hes are e ideas
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8. zoning Â£ parkjng requirements
The property is zoned 0-1, Limited Commercial The C--1 district appears to be able to accomodate all the proposed uses for the property. It speci fica11y includes
hote) s mote 1 s 1 odges medica 1 cl i ni. c:s and restaurants (with and without bars). It does not spec i f i c::a 1 1 y men t i on r ec:: r ea t i on or athiet i c f ac i 1 i. t i es as a permi tted use. A country club appears to be the most si mi liar use to a recreation facility listed. When I discussed this thesis project with a city planner, he thought that it would probably be compatible wi th the 0-1 zoning. He ad. so said that it it would not be too difficult to have the property rezoned to a11ow a hi gher d en s i t y use i f n ec: essary b ec ause all t he adjacent property is zoned C--3. I am assuming that the project is an accepted use within the C-1 zoning. The building which will be d e s i g n e d w i 11 n o t <:: o m ply w i t h t h e f r o n t setback of 25 ft. The e:! isting bui1ding is right on the property line and because of the need to gain access to the vapor caves,
1oc ated w i thi n the front setb ac k, at least part of the building structure must be built within the front setback. For the purpose of this project, I will assume that a variance for this reason will be granted.
C/1 Limited Commercial District.
. Permitted uses, including accessory uses thereto:
a. Residential, institutional, recreational, and office uses:
Single family dwelling Two family dwelling Multiple family dwelling Boarding house, rooming house Hotel, motel, lodge
Church, school, day nursery, auditorium, assembly hall
Hospital, medical clinic, dental clinic Nursing home, convalescent home Office for the conduct of a business or profession
Art gallery or studio, museum, library, public building
Park, playground, golf course, country club
b. Commercial establishments as listed below, provided the following requirements are satisfied:
All service, fabrication and repair operations are conducted within a building;
All outdoor storage of materials is enclosed by a sight-obscuring fence at least six feet in height;
All loading and unloading of vehicles is conducted on private property;
No odor, flare, noise, or vibration is projected beyond the site.
(1) Wholesale and retail establishment:
Sale of food, beverages, dry goods, furniture, appliances, automotive and vehicular equipment and parts, hardware, clothing, mobile homes and accessories, building materials, feed, plant materials.
(2) Personal service establishment:
Barber or beauty shop
Laundromat, laundry or dry cleaning
plant serving individuals
(3) Recreational service establishment: Restaurant (with or without bar)
(4) General service establishment:
Service apd repair of automotive and vehicular equipment, paint or body shop, vehicular rental, service and repair of appliances and building components, blacksmith shop, cabinet shop, glass shop, plumbing shop, sheet metal shop, welding shop, contractor's yard.
2. Special Review Uses:
Automotive service station, automobile washing facility
Drive-in restaurant Drive-in bank
3. Minimum building lot area:
Lots devoted wholly or partially to
residential use: 6,000 sq
4. Maximum floor area ratio: 1.50:1
5. Minimum yards:
Front yard setback (a) from arterial and
collector streets: 25 ft.
(b) from other
streets: 20 ft.
7.5 ft. 35 ft.
Side yard setback:
Rear yard setback provided there is no alley at the rear of the property:
6. Maximum height of buildings:
park: t ng
I i steel on the? following pages are the city parking requirements. Since the primary users of the health and recreation facility are hotel guests, I don't feel that it is nec.es-s a r v t o p r o v i d e a 1 1 p a r k i n q r e q u i r e d f a r each use considered individually. People who are parked at the hotel should be able to walk to the health and recreation facility.
The par-king requi rements would require:
1 space per hotel rm. A 100 runs = 100
1 space per 250 ft2 for medical
c 1 i. n i c s @ 4060 f 12 = 17
1 space per 100 ft2 of restaurant
& 1000 ft2 - 10
1 sp ac e per 300 ft2 af g eneral
office 2970 ft.2 = 10
1 space per 100 ft2 of health club
or private club (<:! 9950 ft.2 =- 1.00
Parr king is a problem in the North Glen wood area. A survey was done to determine the
commerc i a I parking supply and demand in the area. This survey is found in Appendix 1. It; s h o w s t It a t t h e r e i s c u r r e n 11 y a d e f ici t. o f between 262-677 spaces in this area. Based o n the r ec ammen d ati ons wh i c h ar e pr ovided i n 11 i e Nor-1 h G1 en wood C i r c u 1 a t i. on P1 an the city is interested in working with the owners of the North Glenwood businesses to provide a parking structure (possibly behind the Hotel C a 1 o r a d o) t o h e 1 p a* 11 e v i a t e p a r k j. n g p r e s s u r e o n 1.11 e s u r r o u n d i n g s t r e e t. s a n d a c q u j. r e a n d develop parking lots on the north side of 6th
street between Laurel and Pine Streets. Based on these recommendations, at this point in this project, I will assume that the sug-q e s t i o n t h a t s o m e o f t h e p a r k i n g f o r t h i s facility be handled by an of f -site lot and a shuttle service is an option for consideration. D e s i. g n g u i cl e 1 i n e s f o r p a r k i n g s p a c e s a r e :i. n c 1 u d e d i n A p p e n d i;: 2.
Accommodation units: hotel, motel, rooming house, lodge
General office, public administration
Medical, dental, veterinary office, personal service establishment
Retail sales business for sale of goods
Indoor restaurant, bar or tavern, handling sale of food or beverages or both primarily for consumption on the premises
Outdoor restaurant, bar or tavern providing food or beverages or both to customers in an outdoor area
Private club, health club
1 per separate unit for temporary or long-term accommodations, including management and employee unit
1 per 300 square fee of floor area used or designed for office or public use
1 per 250 square fee of floor area used or designed for office or public use
parking area equal in square footage to the total floor area of the building, excluding one-half of storage and display areas used for bulky items requiring extensive floor area such as household appliances, furniture, automobiles, farm and construction equipment.
1 per 100 square feet of floor area
1 per 200 square feet of outdoor floor area
1 per four seats or 1 per 100 square feet of floor area used or designed for use by the patrons
F. Other Uses.
For uses not specifically listed herein but which, in the opinion of the Planning Director, are comparable to uses listed herein, the use classification shall be that classification most similar to the proposed use. For uses not specifically listed herein and which, in the opinion of the Planning Director, are not comparable to any use listed herein, the Planning and Zoning Commission shall recommend and City Council shall establish the minimum off-street parking requirements, based on: the similarity of the use to those uses enumerated above, the zone district of the property, the need for off-street parking in the area where the property is located, the nature and extent of use by the public of the property, the number of employees who will work on the subject property, and for active recreational areas and similar uses, the use capacity of the area. Any person aggrieved by a use classification decision of the Planning Director shall have the right of appeal to the Planning and Zoning Commission in accordance with the provisions of Section Four of Article One of this Chapter.
Section 7. Exclusive Use for Parking.
Except for off-street parking spaces for seasonal or recreational vehicle storage and except where fewer than two off-street parking spaces are required for residential and accommodation uses, no off-street parking or loading space shall be used for any purpose other than the parking of vehicles or motor vehicles. If an off-street parking space is converted to another use or can no longer be used for off-street parking space, it shall be replaced immediately by another off-street parking space meeting all of the requirements of this Article.
Section 8. Joint Use of Parking Spaces.
Where an owner or developer can document that two separate uses do not require parking during the same hours and that adequate provisions have been made to ensure that the uses will not require parking during the same hours, such owner or developer may petition the Planning Commission for permission to allow parking spaces which otherwise comply with the provisions of this Article to fulfill the requirements for both uses. Permission for such joint use of parking spaces may be granted subject to such conditions as the Planning Commission finds necessary to carry out the purpose and intent of this Article.
Section 9., Common Parking Area
Common parking areas may be provided in areas designated to serve jointly two or more buildings or uses provided that the total number of off-street parking spaces shall not be less than that required by this Article for each use.
9. building code requirements
The app 1 icab 1 e bui 1 cling code is the 1982 LJ.B.C. The major occupancy classifications f or t h i s bu i 1 d i ng ar e:
A3 defined as a building with an assembly room with an occupant load less than 300.
B 2 - d e f i n e d a s d i n i. i g e s t a b 1 i s h m e n t s ,
retail stores and offices.
The wall opening protection of occupancies based on location on the property types II one-hour, IIN and V construction is as f ol1ows:
F- i r e R e s i s t a n c e
of E x ter :i. <: ir Walls E x t e r i o r Walls
A-3 2 hr 1 hr < 5 < 40 f t. f t. Not permitted < 5 ft. F-'r o tec ted < 10 ft.
B-2 1 hr < 20 f t. Not per mi 11 ed < 10 f t.
Tl te requi red is as follows: sepers rtion o f mixed occupaneies
A-3 B-2 N N
T a b 1 e 5 C si h o w s t h e at 11 o w a b 1 e f 1 o o r are a f o r buildings one-story in height for all types of construction. Table 5-D shows the maximum height of buildings. A description of the requirements for group A and group B occupancies follows along with requirements f o r o pen parking g a rages.
TABLE NO. 5-CBASIC ALLOWABLE FLOOR AREA FOR BUILDINGS ONE STORY IN HEIGHT8
(In Square Feet)
TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION
1 II 1 tv >
OCCUPANCY F.R. F.R. ONEHOUR H |ONEHOUR | N H.T. | ONEHOUR N
A-l Unlimited 29,900 Not Permitted
A) 2-2.1 Unlimited 29,900 13,500 Not Permitted 13,500 Not Permitted 13,500 10,500 Not Permitted
A) 3-4 Unlimited 29,900 13,500 9,100 13,500 9,100 13,500 10,500 6,000
1$) 1-2-3* Unlimited 39,900 18,000 12,000 18,000 12,000 18,000 14,000 8,000
IF4 Unlimited 59,900 27,000 18,000 27,000 18,000 27,000 I 21,000 12,000
E Unlimited 45,200 20,200 13,500 20,200 13,500 20,200 15,700 9,100
H) l-2J 15,000 12,400 5,600 3,700 5,600 3,700 5,600 4,400 2,500
H) 3-4-5 Unlimited t24,800 11,200 7,500 11,200 7,500 11,200 8,800 5,100
1) 1-2 Unlimited 15,100 6,800 Not Permitted 6,800 Not Permitted 6,800 5,200 Not Permitted
1-3 Unlimited 15,100 Not Permitted3
M4 See Chapter 11
R-l Unlimited | 29,900 | 13,500 9.I001 | | 13,500 9,100* || 13,500 10,500 6,000s
'Ix>r open parking garages, see Section 709.
2 See Section 903.
3Scc Section 1002 (b)
4For agricultural buildings, see also Appendix Chapter 11. 5lw limitations and exceptions, see Section 1202 (b).
6For multistory buildings, see Section 503 (b).
NNo requirements for fire resistance F.R.Fire resistive H.T.Heavy Timber
TABLE NO. 5-DMAXIMUM HEIGHT OF BUILDINGS
TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION
OCCUPANCY 1 " II ' IV V
F.R. F.R. | ONEHOUR | N ||ONE HOUR | N H.T. ONEHOUR | N
MAXIMUM HEIGHT IN FEET
Unlimited 160 65 55 || 65 55 65 50 40
MAXIMUM HEIGHT IN STORIES
A-l Unlimited 4 Not Permitted
A) 2-2.1 Unlimited 4 2 Not Permitted 2 Not Permitted 2 2 Not Permitted
A) 3 4 Unlimited 12 2 1 2 1 2 2 1
B) 1-2-3' Unlimited 12 4 2 4 2 4 3 2
B-4 Unlimited 12 4 2 4 2 4 3 2
E2 Unlimited 4 2 1 2 1 2 2 1
III Unlimited 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
H) 2-3-4-S Unlimited 5 2 1 2 1 2 2 1
II Unlimited 3 1 Not Permitted 1 Not Permitted 1 1 Not Permitted
12 Unlimited 3 2 Not Permitted 2 Not Permitted 2 2 Not Permitted
1-3 Unlimited 2 Not Permitted 3
M4 See Chapter 11
R 1 Unlimited 12 4 2J 4 2 s 4 3 25
R-3 Unlimited 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
hr open parking garages, see Section 709. N-No requirements for fire resistance
^ec Section 802 F.R.-Fire resistive
JSec Section 1002 (b) H.T.Heavy Timber
4lor agricultural buildings, sec also Appendix Chapter 11. l or limitations and exceptions, see Section 1202 (b).
Construct, i on Height,A11aw able Area 0CCUPANCIES Group A (Sec. 601-609) S e e p r e v j. o u s t a 1j 1 e. Division 3 occupancies of 50 or more, located over usable space require a t 1 e a s t 1 h r f i. r e resi st i ve construct, i on .
Location on Requires access to public
Property st. 20 ft. wide. Access must be 20 ft. wide.
Ex i ts see ch. 33 (UBC)
L i g h t Vent i 1 at ion ?< Sani tati on G1 a z ed a r e a m u s t. b e at least 10"/. of fl. area or a mech. vent, system (5 cfm per person). Toilet, rrns req. openab1e windows at least. 3 sq.ft, with 50 add. sq. in. per facility. or mech. vent, capable of 1 ACH/ 15 min. 1 lav./2 w.c's req. 1 drinking fountain/f1oor.
Shaft Enclosures See Sec. 1706 (UBC)
Sprinkler Systems When req. by other pro-vis i on s of t h i s cod e. (i nstal 1 at. i on ch. 38)
G r o u p B (S e c. 7 01-709)
Same as A.
(Sec:. 504) Bu i 1 d i n g s shall adjoin or have access to a public space, yard or street on not less than 1 side, (also see pt. 4)
Same as A
Same as A plus in pkg. g ar ages a veil til a t i on system capable of exhaust i ng 1.5 cfm/sq. f t. of gross floor area or a system designed to ex haust 14,000 cf m/veil.
Same as A
Same as A
Spec: i a I I la: at
E t e r i or o p f t n i n cj s i. n b o j 1 er r o nin s b e 1 ow another s t or y o r i f less t h a n 10 ft. f r o m other doors or windows s h a 11 b e p r o t e c t e d It y a f i re asseinb 1 y havi ng 3/4 hr. fire rating.
Boiler rooms need to be separate from the rest of t h e b u i 1 d :i. n g.
Open parking garages open 4OX total on 2 or more sides. They must be constructed fro in n o n com b u s t: i b 1 e material. (See Sec. 709, i f nec.)
Mod i f i cat i on In a gym or mu 11 i pur pose
room less than 3200 sq. ft.
1 i n. t i ght t ongue and gr ooved or 3/4 in. plywood wall cover may be used in lieu of fire-resistive plaster.
Table 17A provides a listing of the fire resistive requirements by all types of c: o 11 s t r u c t i o it. T h i. s b u i 1 d i n g will m o s t
likely be constructed from concrete or masonry. Therefore it will either be type I o r t y p e II c o n s t r u c t i a n A d e s c: r i p t. i a n o f r e q u i r e m e n t s b y c o n s t r u c t i o n t y p e f o 1 lows along with a chart on allowable atrium openi ngs.
TABLE NO. 1T-ATYPES OF CONSTRUCTIONFIRE-RESISTIVE REQUIREMENTS
For Details Chapters under Occupancy and Types ol Construction and lor Exceptions see Section 1705.
BUILDING ELEMENT TYPE 1 TYPE II TYPE III TYPE IV TYPE V
Flr*- FUtlstlv* Fir* Rtslttlvt IHr. N IHr. N H.T. IHr. N
Exterior Bearing Walls 4 Sec. 180.7 (a) 4 1903(a) i N 4 2003 (a) 4 2003 (a) 4 2103(a) 1 N
Interior nearing Walls 3 2 i N 1 N 1 1 N
Exterior Nonhcaring Walls 4 Sec. 1803(a) 4 1903(a) i N 4 2003 (a) 4 2003 (a) 4 2103(a) 1 N
Structural Frame1 3 2 N 1 N 1 or H.T. 1 N
Partitions Permanent H 1* ii N 1 N 1 or H.T. 1 N
Shaft Enclosures 2 2 i 1 1 I i 1700 1700
Floors 2 2 i N 1 N ll.T. 1 N
Roofs 2 See. 1800 l 190(1 l 1906 N 1 N H.T. 1 N
Exterior Doors and Windows Sec. 1803 (b) 1903 (It) 1903 (b) 1903(b) 2003 (b) 2003(b) 2103 (b) 2203 2203
NNo general requirements for fire resistance. H.T.Heavy Timber.
'Structural frame elements in the exterior wall shall be protected against external fire exposure as required for exterior bearing walls or the structural frame, whichever is greater.
2Fire-relardant treated wood (see Section 407) may be used in the assembly, provided fire-resislance requirements ate maintained. See Sections 1801 and i90l, respectively.
Def i n i t. i on
Exter i or Wal Is
Openi nqs i 11 Walls
F I. oar s
O f f i ces
Structur a1 element.s = st ee1, i ron, mason r y, concrete.
St?e Table 17A.
Type 2 Same as 1.
Same as 1.
3 / 4 hr -f i r e--r at. i n g Same as 1..
at 20 ft. from property line or center of street.
N o o p e n i n g s p e r m i 1t e d i n exterior walls of group A oc c u p an c i e s 1 e s s t h an 5 ft. f r om the property 1 i ne or 3 ft. from the property line f or group B occupancies.
If wood sleepers are laid Same as 1.
on concrete firs., the space between must be filled with n o n c o m b u s t i b 1 e m a t. e r i a 1 .
They shall be a hard noncam- Same as 1. bust i b1e m at er i a1.
Roofs greater than 25 ft. Special provisions for
above the floor may be office bldgs (Sec. 1907)
unprotected noncombusti b1e
material. Roofs between 18
and 25 ft. above floor must
be 1 hr. fire resistant..
S m o k e d e t e c t i. o n s y s t e m s and stand by power and light and emergency systems are required. The use of automati c spri nk1i ng systems allows for modifications in the code requirements.
TABLE NO. 7-AOPEN PARKING GARAGES AREA AND HEIGHT
TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION AREA PER TIER (Squara Faat) HEIGHT
RAMP ACCESS MECHANICAL-ACCESS
Automatic Flro-oxtlngulthing Sytttm
i Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited
ii f.r. 125,000 12 Tiers 12 Tiers 18 Tiers
II l-hour 50,000 10 Tiers 10 Tiers 15 Tiers
II N 30,000 8 Tiers 8 Tiers 12 Tiers
TABLE NO. 7-BOPEN PARKING GARAGES EXTERIOR WALLS
DISTANCE FROM PROPERTY LINE TO BUILDING WALL CONSTRUCTION
TABLE NO. 17-BATRIUM OPENING AND AREA
HEIGHT IN STORIES MINIMUM CLEAR OPENING' (Ft.) MINIMUM AREA (Sq. Ft.)
3-4 20 400
5-7 30 900
8 or more 40 1600
The specified dimensions arc the diameters of inscribed circles whose centers fall on a common axis for the full height of the atrium. I
10. conclusions b design solution
I choc ,e this pr i.i jr i: t for 5G ver al ver y
>r*c j f i c reasons:
< 1 ) I b el leve that a comb i nat i on he a 1 t h and
t ei_r ea 11 Ol i center i a. b ui ldi ng L ype that
we 1 1 s >ee more of i n the f utur e more and
war e pec pj e make major 1 if esty 1 e ch a. nges f or
1 he sat e of maintair i i ng t ho i r own healt h.
Given my world view, a place such as Yampah Spr iuys which emphasises total health of mind, body and spirit will be very important for many people.
(2) I believe that the integration of a building with it's natural environment (where passible) offers the architect an opportunity lu design a structure which enhances the site by creating a structure in harmony with it's natural environment. This is the beauty of indigenous architecture. It is designed in response to it's site. For this reason I wanted the challenge of working with a steeply sloped site.
Given the fact that a health and recreation center is not a prevalent building type, I struggled with what the character of the facility should be and still feel that this issue can be explored further. I wanted the building to be inviting and friendly and feel lhat it is.
The site integration was more difficult than I thought it would be. I am happy with the way it turned out and look forward to developing more expertise in the area of buiIding/site integration in the future.
The design solution is a long building which connects the point of entry to the site with the access point to the Vapor Caves. A circulation spine runs from the west end of the building and ends at the point of access to the caves. From the outside, the spine which is a continuous vaulted skylight, drops in elevation at designated intervals. This is intended to express a sense of of progression as one decends into the caves, which are located below the ground. The caves are the most unique aspect of the the expression of access a major design concept, proposed to be constructed from precast concrete with exposed interior columns. The roof is supported by exposed glulaminated beams. The building is 24,000 s.f. The heat source for the building is proposed to be geothermal, passive solar and a gas -fired back-up boiler. Cooling is provided by
natural ventilation and evaporative cooling. The south side of the building is proposed to be daylit. The design for the facility is shown in the following photographs.
whi ch are
facility, therefore to the caves became The building is
Babcock, Judy; Kennedy, Judy. The Spa Book.
N. V: Crown Pub 1i shers. 1980
Cooper, Patricia; Cook, Lauren. Hot Springs and Spas of California. N.Ys Charles Scribner's Sons. 1978.
Di etric I i , J ohn; Waggon er, Susan. T h e
Complete Health Club Handbook. N.Y: Simon and
Fraker, Harrison. "Formal Speculations on Th erma1 D i aq rams." Pregressive Arc h i t ect ure. April, 1983.
Geraint, John; Heard, Helen. Handbook of Sports and Recreational Building Design. 4 Volumes. London; The Architectural Press.
1 981 .
"Good Health Design." Interiors. August, 1981.
Morscher Betsy. Heal Yourself the European Way. W. Nyack, NY: Parker Publishing Co. 1980.
Hastings, Arthur C. et al Health fat the Who 1 e Per son: The Complete Bui de to Ho 1 i. st. i c; Medicine. BouId er, C0: West vi ew Pr ess. 1980.
Hodgkinson, Allen. "The Art of Construction: Building on Slopes." The Architect's Journal. April, 1981.
" J. n t. er n at i on a 1 Resor t s. " Ar c h i. t ec t ur a 1
R e c o r cl. S e p t. 1978.
Loam, Jaysorn. Hot Springs and Pool s of the S o u t; h w e s t. 3 a n t a B a r b a r a C A: C a p r a P r ess.
"Medical Facilities." Architectural Record. Oct. 1979.
Nat.i ona 1 Oceani c: and Atmospheric
Administrat ion. Cli mato1og y of the U.S. ,
Decennial Census of the U.S. Climate for 1951-60, Colorado. U.S. Dept, of Commerce.
National Oceanic: and Atmospheric
Administration. NOAA Monthly Normals of Temperature, Precipitation, and Heating and Cooling Degree-Days 1941-1970. Ashville, N.G.: National Climatic Center. July, 1973.
"Recreational Faci1ities." Architectural Record. 0c t. 1979.
Redstone, Lewis G. Hospitals and Health Care Facilities. N.Y.: McGraw Hill Books. 1978.
Sun Designs Architects and Planners; Plum Street Professional Associates. North Glen-wood Circulation Plan. Glenwood Springs, CO: City of Glenwood Springs. Dec.,1983.
Swerz, Charles; and Associates. "A Sybaritic Substitute." Interior Design. Sept. 1982.
Wilkens, Emily. More Secrets From the Super Spas. NY: Dembner Books. 1983
Ya I let Robert ; Yal ) er Raye. The Health Spas. Santa Barbara, CA: Wooc^br i dge
Pub 1i s h i n g Co. 1974.
Interviews and/or site visits were held at:
E >: e r t e t: h (9 / 22 / 84 )
S w e d i s h W e 1 1 n e s s C e n t e r (9 / 25/84)
Swedish Sports Medicine Center (9/26/84) Glenwood City Planning Dept. (10/12/84)
I)ev e 1 o p er ( 10 / 12 / 8 4 )
D en ver Sp or t i n g Cen t er (10 / 20 / 84)
PARKING SURVEY OF NORTH GLENWOOD
A survey of commercial property parking supply and demand in North Glenwood was conducted by the City Planning Office August, 1983. Supply was determined by field survey and base map checks. Demand was determined by comparing building and use square footages with city parking code requirements. The purpose of the survey was to estalbish areas of surplus and deficiency. This pinpoints where off-street parking facilities should be established in order to improve North Glenwood circulation.
North Glenwood, Commercial Parking Supply and Demand
Block Property Supply Required Surplus (Deficiency)
1 1. LP Gas Aa A 0
2. D&D Car Wash 32 30 2
3. CMC 11 11 0
- A. Daylight Donuts 3A 13 21
6. Silver Spruce 47a A2 5
7. Big horn Motors 6 3Aa 3A 0
8. Gardiner Dry Wall 11 9 2
9. Iron Mountain Investments
(cycles) 3a 8 (5)
10. Ramada Inn Complex 233 238
Subtotal 399 389 10
2 1. Antlers Motel 119 107 12
2. Glenwood Motor Inn & Rosi's A9 A2 7
3. Starlight Motel 18 18 0
A. Phillips 66 17 22 X51
Subtotal 203 189 1A
3 1. Glenwood Chevron 17 11 6
2. Dairy Creme 12 25 (13)
3. Sioux Villa 6 11 (5)
A. Chilton's et. al. 12 28 (16)
5. Way Station 10 5 5
6. Karik Building 7 11 J41
Subtotal 6A 91 (27)
Block Property Supply Required Surplus (Deficiency)
4 1. The Store 7 4 3 -
2. Computer One/Locksmith 3 6 (3)
3. Valley Tire 14 20 (6)
4. Olson VWb 46 46 0
5. Conoco 19 9 10
Subtotal 89 85 4
5 1. Kentucky Fried Chicken 44 -29 (10)
2. Pizza Hut 25
Subtotal 44 54 (10)
Hotelc Hotel Building:
Colorado 1/room + low-intensity customers 234 (189)
1/roora + hi-intensity customers 61 333 (288)
Hot Springs Pool 331 400-700 (69-369)
Vapor Caves 20 40 (40)
Subtotal 412 674-1089 (262-677)
a Substantial additional parking area remains since only a portion of the
site is developed.
b Car dealerships are stipulated to have exactly met required parking.
c Assumptions behind hotel/pool area i analysis:
- no allowance for real-world joint use between properties that occurs
in this neighborhood.
- pool peak day usage = 1500-2000 people (source: pool management).
- Joint use between 73 Hot Springs lodging units and the pool.
appendix 2 Section 10. Design of Parking Areas.
The following design standards of this Section shall be met for all parking areas, whether or not the parking area is required by the City, except where the parking area is to serve residential and accommodation uses only as set forth in Section Six of this Article and fewer than 10 parking spaces are provided.
A. Access Ways
1. Unobstructed, direct and convenient access for vehicles to and from a public street shall be provided for all off-street parking spaces. Access from any parking area to a public street shall be designed to permit user vehicles to enter and exit in forward drive. Access ways shall be designed so as to reduce the number and proximity of access points along public streets.
2. Each access way between a public street and the parking area shall be not less than 15 feet nor more than 35 feet wide at the intersection of the access way with the public street, and a divider strip at least six feet long shall be installed if the access way exceeds 25 feet in width. Each access way shall be clearly and permanently marked and defined through the use of rails, fences, wall or other barriers or markers. Said marking and defining may be augmented by painting or striping.
3. Parking areas shall be served by access ways containing two traffic lanes with a minimum total width of 15 feet, except that a single lane of 10 foot width may be used for short straight access ways where two-way vehicular traffic is not anticipated.
4. Access ways on the same lot frontage shall be separated by a
minimum length of curb of 30 feet. For lots exceeding 100 feet of frontage, the minimum required length of curb separation shall be increased by one foot for every five feet of property length beyond 100 feet, which formula for increasing curb cut separation shall apply to lot frontages of up to 200 feet. For lots exceeding 200 feet in frontage, curb cuts
shall be separated by at least 50 feet. In the case of a corner lot, access ways shall not be located closer than 50 feet to the intersecting street right-of-way line, or where lot frontage is less than 75 feet, the maximum distance possible from the intersecting street right-of-way line, as determined by the City Engineer.
5. The intersection of an access way with a public street shall be located not closer than 15 feet to a side lot line, except that a common access way to two adjacent properties with width not exceeding 35 feet may be provided at the common lot line.
6. Access ways and corner lots shall have a minimum vision
clearance area formed by the intersection of the driveway centerline and the street right-of-way line, and a straight line joining said lines through points 30 feet from their intersection. No vehicles or visual obstructions over 42
inches in height from the curb elevation may be placed within this area.
B. Stacking Spaces: For any drive-in or drive-through retail or
service use, there shall be provided stacking space for vehicles v/aiting for service which space is sufficient to prevent any such vehicles from extending onto the public right-of-way at any time. In no case shall fewer than four such stacking spaces be provided for each such service bay, window or counter on the entrance side, and one (1) such space on the exit side where an exit is provided. Parking spaces required for such service bay uses may be counted among the required stacking spaces. No bays designed to be entered from more than one (1) direction shall be permitted.
C. Parking Area Layout. Every parking area shall be designed
according to the following table. The top line of figures for each
parking angle constitutes minimum design standards and the lower two lines constitute higher standards to be employed at the option of the owner or developer. The owner or developer may select the parking angle and the line of figures for such parking angles and then all figures in that line shall become requirements. Modifications from the table are applicable to alternative parking layouts such as one-bay, center
cul-de-sac, and herringbone. See the Design Manual for design
requirements applicable to these alternative layouts.
MINIMUM PARKING SPACE AND DRIVEWAY REQUIREMENT
A B C D E F
10 9'0" 9.0 12.0 23.0 30.0
9* 6" 9.5 12.0 23.0 31.0
10'0" 10.0 12.0 23.0 32.0
ro o o 9'0" 15.0 11.0 26.3 41.0
96" 15.5 11.0 27.5 42.0
10'0" 15.9 11.0 29.2 42.0
30 9'0" 17.3 11.0 18.0 . 45.6
9'6" 17.8 11.0 19.0 46.6
10'0" 18.2 11.0 20.0 47.0
45 9*0" 19.8 13.0 12.7 52.5
9'6 20.1 13.0 13.0 53.3
lO'O" 20.5 13.0 14.1 54.0
0 o 9-0" 9'6" lO'O"
0 O 9'0" 9'6" lO'O"
CO o 0 9'0" 9'6" lO'O"
0 o CT\ 9'0" 9'6" lO'O"
A Parking Angle
B Stall Width
C Length of Stall to Curb
D Aisle Width
E Curb Length per Stall
F Width of Double Row with Aisle
D. Size. Each off-street parking space shall cover an area not
less than nine feet wide and 19 feet long except that up to 20 per cent of the number of off-street parking spaces required may be eight feet wide and 16 feet long, which spaces shall be designated for small vehicle parking by means of a permanent, raised identification sign. All parallel Darkinq spaces shall be a minimum of 22 feet in length.
E. Loading Areas
1. For those uses requiring the receipt and distribution of
material or merchandise by truck and which are not contiguous to an alley,an off-street delivery truck berth at least 14 feet wide and 30 feet long shall be provided in addition to the required parking area. Where the property or use is
served or designed to be served by tractor-trailer delivery vehicles, the off-street loading berth shall be at least 14 feet wide and 60 feet long. The loading area shall be designed so that delivery vehicles using the loading area do not obstruct traffic movements in the parking area or in the public right-of-way.
2. Schools serving 25 students or more shall provide within the parking area a driveway designed for continuous forward flow of passenger vehicles for the purpose of loading and unloading children on-site.
F. Garages and Carports. Parking requirements may be met by garages and carports covering or enclosing spaces which comply with minimum space size provisions of this Article. Minimum vertical clearance between driving surface and ceiling shall be seven feet.
G. Location of Parking Spaces.
1. For single family dwellings and multi-family dwellings with two, three, or four dwelling units, off-street parking spaces shall be located on the same lot as the dwelling.
2. Non-living ground cover shall not exceed 20 per cent of the required landscaping area.
3. Landscaping for the parking area shall also include, adjacent to any public street, one tree for every 75 feet of lot frontage.
Wheel Stops. Wheel stops, curbing, or other devices shall be provided to prevent parked vehicles from damaging landscaping areas or screening, from intruding onto sidewalks or other pedestrian facilities, and from projecting into the public right-of-way.
Screening. Every parking area shall be adequately screened from adjoining residential or accommodation uses by a fence or wall not less than 3J feet nor more than six feet in height or by a strip at least four feet wide of densely planted trees or shrubs having minimum mature height of three and one half feet which shall be maintained in good condition at all times.
Lighting. Security lighting shall be provided in all parking areas used or"designed for use during evening hours. The lighting shall not be directed towards any adjacent residential uses or public streets.
Drainage. All parking areas shall be designed and graded to restrict site drainage to a rate no greater than the historical rate, before development, for the 25-year storm or shall include development of a storm drainage system to convey runoff water to a site approved by the City Engineer. Such drainage plan or system shall be approved by the City Engineer prior to the construction of the parking area.
Snow Storage. All parking areas shall include space for snow storage and removal of snow on parking and loading areas and accessways.
4. No parking space shall be located closer than five feet from a window or door of a habitable structure.
H. Grade of Parkinq Use Areas. Outdoor parking areas shall not exceed eight percent of grade and shall be not less than one per cent of grade. The cross slope of any parking or loading space shall not exceed five per cent of grade. The grade of accessways shall not exceed four per cent within 100 feet of the intersection with a public street, or where in the opinion of the City Engineer, topographic conditions preclude maintaining four per cent or less, the grade of the accessway shall not exceed one (1) per cent within 25 feet of the public street.
I. Handicap Parking. A minimum of one parking space for the handicapped shall be provided for each non-residential use which requires a minimum of 15 parking spaces. For such uses requiring more than 15 spaces, one space designated for the handicapped shall be provided for each additional 40 spaces. Handicap spaces shall be located as close as possible to a major entrance of a building or use. Handicap spaces shall be a minimum of 12 feet in width, unless located parallel to a sidewalk on the driver's side of the vehicle, in which case they shall be a minimum of nine feet in width. Parallel handicap spaces shall be a minimum of 24 feet in length. All handicap spaces shall be designated by means of a permanent, raised identification sign.
1. At least 10 per cent of the total un-enclosed parking area, including access ways, shall be devoted exclusively to landscaping of trees, shrubs, and ground cover which reduce the visual impact and assist in defining on-site traffic movement. Such landscaping shall include, adjacent to any public street, a strip at least four feet wide of densely planted trees or shrubs having a minimum mature height of three feet which shall be maintained in good condition at all times. Hedges provided to fulfill screening requirements under Subsection 070.050.100.L may be counted toward this 10 per cent landscaping requirement.
P. Paving. Except for single-family and two-family dwellings, including mobile homes, all access ways between a public street and
off-street parking spaces or areas and all off-street parking spaces and loading areas not covered or enclosed by a garage or carport shall be surfaced with asphalt, concrete, compact gravel, or other similar dustless material. For single-family and two-family dwellings, including mobile homes, off-street parking spaces and access ways shall be covered as above or by lawn or grass.
Q. Design Variance. A variance from the strict application of the
requirements of this Section may be granted by the appropriate City board or officials, whichever board or official approves the
development permit or building permit, as applicable, where a
finding is made that these exists on the property in question exceptional topographical, soil, or other sub-surface condition, or other extraordinary conditions peculiar to the site, existing
buildings, or lot configuration, such that strict application of the requirement of the regulation from which the variance is requested would result in peculiar and exceptional practical difficulties to or exceptional and undue hardship upon the
applicant or owner of the property in question; and that the public good would be better served by granting of the variance. Such
variance shall not he granted if the same would be detrimental to
the public good or impair the intent and purposes of this Chapter. Such design variance request shall be made and reviewed
concurrently with either a development permit or building permit application and, if granted .by the appropriate permitting authority, shall be described and acknowledged in the permit.
Section 5. Procedure and Administration
A. Parking Plan Required... Except for single-family and two-family dwellings, no use requiring a parking area shall commence without the Planning Director's review and approval of a parking plan. The minimum requirements for a parking plan shall be a drawing to scale upon substantial paper or cloth with sufficient clarity to indicate the nature and extent of the proposed improvements and to show in detail that they will conform to the provisions of this Article. The parking plan shall include, where deemed appropriate and necessary by the Planning Director: delineation of parking and loading spaces; the circulation area necessary to serve these spaces; curb cuts; dimensions and material of screening and/or landscaping; proposed treatment of drainage and grading, surfacing and sub-grading improvements; firelanes; specifications for signs, wheel stops, lighting; snow storage, handicap spaces and facilities, and other pertinent details.
B. Appeal. The Planning Director shall determine compliance of a required parking area with the provisions of this Article. Any person aggrieved by a decision of the Planning Director in the course of the administration or enforcement of this Article shall have the right of appeal to the Planning and Zoning Commission in accordance with the provisions of Article I, Section 4 of this Chapter.
Section 6. Number of Parking Spaces Required.
A. General Provisions.
1. Off-street parking spaces shall be provided according to the following schedule for all uses, unless otherwise provided in this Code.
2. When any lot or combination of lots is used for more than one type of use as described below, off-street parking spaces and area shall be provided according to the sum of the standards for all the various uses.
3. -When the computations for off-street parking spaces
result in a fraction, the next highest integer shall apply, and off-street parking spaces shall be provided in a number equal to such integer.