Citation
The Boulder performing arts center

Material Information

Title:
The Boulder performing arts center
Creator:
Dreher, Jann Eyler
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
73 leaves : illustrations, charts, maps, plans ; 28 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Centers for the performing arts -- Designs and plans -- Colorado -- Boulder ( lcsh )
Centers for the performing arts ( fast )
Colorado -- Boulder ( fast )
Genre:
Designs and plans. ( fast )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Designs and plans ( fast )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaf 73).
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
Jann Eyler Dreher.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
12201133 ( OCLC )
ocm12201133
Classification:
LD1190.A72 1985 .D74 ( lcc )

Full Text
ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN
AURARIA LIBRARY
0ffEHEfc
I
I
t
i
. THE
BOULDER
r PERFORMING ARTS
CENTER
L
8
L

1
L>
-
y i t i

JANN DREHER SPRING 1905


ARCHIVES
LD
1190
AT2
1985
DT^


4
3

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I
Principal Advisor
University of Colorado at Denver


TABLE OF CONTENTS
I. Introduction
Thesis and Project Statement.........................................1
II. Background
General Context of Boulder...........................................4
The Performing Arts in Boulder.......................................5
III. Site
Context of Downtown Boulder..........................................7
Vicinity Map.........................................................9
Site Selection Summary..............................................10
Context Plan........................................................11
Environmental Factors...............................................12
Ci rculation........................................................13
Topography/Floodplain/Soil s........................................14
Landownershi p/Uti 1 i ti es........................................15
Site Pictures.......................................................16
IV. Climate
Climate Analysis....................................................20
Climate Graph.......................................................21
Solar Graph.........................................................22
V. Program
Summary of the Program and Area Requirements........................23
Economic Feasibility................................................26
Relationship Diagram................................................28
Specific Area Charts................................................29
VI. Code/Regulations
Building Code Analysis..............................................41
Handicap Code Analysis..............................................51
Zoning Regulations..................................................53
Floodplain Regulations..............................................54
VII. Design............................................................56
VIII. Conclusion.........................................................64
IX. Appendix...........................................................66
X. Bibliography.......................................................73




'
"Man dances...
"He danced for pleasure and as ritual. He spoke in dance to his gods, he prayed in dance and gave thanks in dance.
By no means all this activity was dramatic or theatric, but in his designed movement was the germ of drama and theatre...
"Beyond the mere joy of rhythmic movement, the actor has been impelled to express, in memetic action, something experienced or imagined, and he has taken on the character of himself in another time or of an ancestor or an animal or god. In acting over a period of time, he has fulfilled the first requirement of "drama;" for the word comes from the Greek word Spau, "I do." Primarily it implies "a thing done."
Cheney, Theatre, pp. 11-13
Historically, the concept of the theatre began as a gathering of iP people to witness some shared ritual, primarily religious. Although the
emphasis has changed through the years, the creative spirit of the theatre remains. We continue to celebrate the human potential through interpretative drama and dance; the collective gathering of an audience continues to create a certain excitement found only in a group.
The twentieth century has seen a rapid acceleration of communications technology. With that technology has come the advancement and availability of the dramatic arts via the "silver screen" as well as the growing home entertainment market. Although valid in its own right, a certain isolation occurs with this type of medium. There is no longer direct contact between performer and audience nor interaction within the audience as a group. The experience, on the whole, becomes a passive one. It is my contention that the interactive experience of live drama remains a vital and necessary part of the performing arts.
1


As in historical times, people are drawn to the dramatic portrayal of the human experience that a theatre production brings to life.
I propose to design a performing arts center in Boulder, Colorado. It will consist of two small theatres, an outside amphitheatre and a small cafe. Boulder is an energetic, lively city that derives its energy from the interaction of many varied components. These include a major university, high-tech industries and a well-informed, involved community. The theme of interaction is inherent in the performing arts and it is inherent in the character and fabric of Boulder. The architecture of the performing arts center should reflect and develope this theme. The following paragraphs outline three concepts toward that end.
The entry and lobby spaces should encourage interaction between members of the audience by allowing generous freedom of movement. The spaces can also be varied in relation to one another to give people the opportunity to "see and be seen." The interior and exterior entry spaces as well should take advantage of the park setting to foster integration between site and building. This could be achieved by a transparency of the structure and/or an extension of the building onto the site.
A pedestrian scale prevails in the downtown area and should be recognized. The two theatres are relatively small and therefore conducive to creating an intimate relationship between performer and audience. Small pockets of space (interior or exterior) can also foster intimate settings. The materials used throughout could
2


contribute to this human scale by responding directly to familiar textures and dimensions.
The performing arts center should become a visible, public gathering place in Boulder. A centrally located site, near established activity centers, would provide the opportunity for this to happen. It should be identified as a theatre, and not as a generic multi-purpose space. The use of clear, understandable forms and the differentiation of spaces emphasize this concept.
In summary, the contemporary theatre could become a place of true "creative communication," where the gap between actors and audience is bridged and where people would overcome their diffidence and get to know one another. It could be a place, in short, where a genuine, interesting exchange of ideas would be possible.
3


BACKGROUND


General Context of Boulder
The city of Boulder, Colorado is located on the eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains approximately twenty-five miles northwest of Denver. Boulder's proximity to Denver enables its residents to participate in the economic and cultural activities of a metropolitan area while retain ing the advantages of a smaller community. Boulder has a resident population of approximately 80,000 and is the center of civic and court administration for Boulder County. The city maintains a strong, diversi fied economic base. A number of growing "high-tech" industries are located in the Boulder area. The University of Colorado is a major employer as are several government research agencies. The desirability of Boulder as a place to live is also greatly enhanced by its foothill setting. These factors, along with progressive planning concepts such as the open space greenbelt area and a controlled growth policy, combine to form an attractive and stable community.
4


The Performing Arts in Boulder
Participation in the performing arts by members of the Boulder community on "both sides of the footlights" is very high. There are approximately twenty-five theatre-related companies in the city. Presently, there are no city-owned performing arts facilities. Most productions are performed in facilities at the University of Colorado, auditoriums within Boulder Valley schools, a few private theatres and other inadequate spaces.
Over the years, different groups within Boulder have investigated the needs of the performing arts community and feasible ways to provide space to accomodate those needs. In 1973, the University of Colorado produced a document entitled Program PI an, Performing and Fi ne Arts Center which analyzed the University's needs without considering the city's requirements. In 1975, a citizen group produced a document
entitled Cultural Center for Boulder, Colorado which simply proposed that
*
an arts facility be built immediately. In 1976, a study entitled City/ University Center for the Arts was conducted by both respective groups and the needs for the community as a whole were outlined. In 1979, a further study entitled Arts Facilities Program closely examined the needs, solutions, possible sites, funding alternatives and costs of a city-owned performing arts center. At that time, the following recommendations were proposed:
1. The University of Colorado would renovate Macky Auditorium into a concert hall of approximately 2,000 seats.
5


2. The city would purchase and renovate the Boulder Theatre into a "Festival Theatre" with a 700 seat capacity and adequate support space for a "Road Type" house.
3. The city would build a new facility on the "Park Site" (between 13th and 14th and Canyon and Arapahoe) consisting of : A small theatre with 250-300 fixed seats; an experimental theatre ("Black Box") with a 25-200 seating capacity; a rehearsal/performance (low-tech) space; and required support space to act as a production type facility.
4. The city would renovate the existing Boulder Center for the Visual Arts into formal gallery spaces, outdoor sculptor garden/performance space and support space.
These recommendations remain valid and the program outlined in this document is based on these proposals.
6


Context of Downtown Boulder
Downtown Boulder is an exceptional and unique place. Its attractive physical attributes, such as the magnificent views of the mountains and the Boulder Creek Greenway, contribute to this uniqueness. The popular Pearl Street Mall, preservation of historic buildings and nearby residential neighborhoods give an inviting pedestrian scale to the area. In addition, there are a variety of public uses which draw people downtown: government offices and courts, the Main Library, the historic museum and the Boulder Center for the Visual Arts. All of these factors help to make Downtown Boulder an exciting and lively place to visit, work and live. The performing arts center could become a heartbeat of Downtown Boulder by broadening the physical and cultural experiences in the downtown area.
The Boulder Downtown Plan, Draft Proposal, April 1984 is a comprehensive document that outlines recommendations to preserve and foster these positive qualities. In several areas, certain recommendations are given that directly pertain to the proposed performing arts center as a part of the overall plan. As listed below, these guidelines merit careful consideration in the development of the program to successfully integrate the center into the context of Boulder.
1. The development of 13th Street as a downtown entry
principally designed for pedestrians and bicycles, although still allowing automobiles, and connecting the North Boulder area, downtown, Macky Auditorium and the University of
7


Colorado campus.
2. The development of key sites bordering 13th Street between Pine and Arapahoe as activity areas of pedestrian interest and as a north-south counterbalance to Pearl Street.
3. The encouragement of public-private partnerships to develope mixed-use projects near 13th Street. These developments should include a civic center with integrated parking and must relate to the 13th Street corridor design and use plan.
These recommendations give structure to the concept of the performing arts center becoming a heartbeat of Downtown Boulder. The actual physical extension of the Pearl Street Mall on a north-south axis visually and literally links the Mall to the performing arts center site. This axis also connects Macky Auditorium to the site forming a "cultural corridor." (Please refer to Vicinity Map for a graphic representation of this concept.)
8




VICINITY MAP
This map shows the relationship of the performing arts center site to the Pearl Street Mall (location of the Boulder Theatre) and to Macky Auditorium on the University of Colorado campus. This defines the concept of a "cultural corridor" which offers a variety of cultural experiences in close proximity to each other. This area could be linked together by pedestrian routes, bikeways and possible shuttle bus service. The performing arts center becomes an essential part of this concept, both physically and culturally.
9


SITE SELECTION SUMMARY
A detailed site selection study was conducted in 1980 by an architectural firm in response to the previously mentioned studies on the performing arts center. The site selection process involved the analysis of parcels of land which were either city-owned, undeveloped, or property that could be redeveloped with a positive impact on the City of Boulder. The final analysis focused on three sites which were all located in the downtown area.
Twelve criteria were generated as a basis for selecting a site.
These criteria were: availability and cost of land; area; parking; service; central location; adjacent land uses; accessibility; flood plain; growth potential; character and image; and visibility and topography.
The site, located between 13th and 14th Street and Canyon Boulevard and Arapahoe Street, was recommended for its numerous advantages. Most of the site is currently owned by the city and is large enough to accomodate the proposed program. It is centrally located with public access and is easily serviced. The Boulder Center for the Visual Arts is also located on the site with the Municipal Building and Main Library on adjacent sites to the west. On-street parking is available throughout the downtown area as well as bank and public parking lots. (Please refer to Context Plan.) Most of the site is located in the floodway or floodplain of Boulder Creek and therefore the northeast corner is the only area on which a new structure can be built. For this proposal, it is assumed that the Midland Bank property will be purchased by the city and that the bank itself will be demolished.
10


CONTEXT PLAN


ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS
The major views from the site are of the mountains to the west and of the Pearl Street Mall skyline to the north. Traffic noise from the intersection of Canyon Boulevard and Broadway is considerable but is psychologically buffered by mature vegetation on the site. The trees also help to protect the site from strong northern winds and the summer sun. Left-hand Ditch becomes a welcome respite from the constant traffic activity, and tree-lined 13th Street is an inviting place to walk.
12


CIRCULATION
TO
MunicjPm.
3Ull~blN<5 f
Main +-Li&fZARY
BOULDER CREEK l
w io
The existing circulation pattern shows Canyon Boulevard and Broadway as major arteries feeding the downtown area. Thirteenth Street is a oneway street used mainly as parking for the BCVA. North-south pedestrian crossings at Canyon link the site to the Mall. Parking, as shown on the Context Plan, is available in bank and public parking lots as well as on-street parking. The proposed 13th Street Corridor Plan would develope 13th Street as a pedestrian/bikeway only. The development of the Boulder Creek Greenway System would link the Central Park site to the Municipal Building and the Main Library.
13


TOPOGRAPHY/FLOODPLAIN/SOILS
The site is essentially uniform and flat throughout with 3'-8' embankments along Left-hand Ditch. The Boulder Creek floodway and flood-plain boundaries cross directly onto the site, making the northeast corner the only area on which to build. The area of the site is approximately 45,000 sq. ft. (Please refer to Floodplain Regulations in the Appendix.) The soils in the area consist of predominantly sandy clays and gravel. The major obstacle presented in local soils studies is the ground water table; it varies from 8' to 12' below the surface, restricting any below grade construction beyond one level, except at great expense.
14


LANDOWNERSHIP/UTILITIE$
J I_____________________J I___________________I L
---W---\N---W CANYON BLVD. -----VM---W-----
lanp ~^
LE^£NP>:
W VVATE^.
BOULDER CREEK

SO 0O
The entire site is city-cwned land with the exception of the Midland Bank property on Canyon Boulevard and a few properties lining Arapahoe Street. For this proposal, the Midland Bank building will be purchased by the city and removed to allow for the performing arts center. This expansion strengthens the concept of the site becoming a public space united with other public spaces (the Municipal Building and Main Library) along the Boulder Creek Greenway. The other buildings located on the site could also be purchased by the city for further developement.
15


Looking west onto the site, the foothills provide a textured and rugged backdrop.
The Pearl Street Mall is visible from the site when looking north across Canyon Boulevard.
16


Left-hand Ditch bisects the site providing shade and protected area along its banks.
The cottonwoods that grow along Left-hand Ditch create a screen that conceals the southern half of the site.
17


The Boulder Center for the Visual Arts (BCVA) fronts onto 13th Street and Central Park.
Thirteenth Street is a wonderful, tree-lined avenue with the performing arts center site to the left and Central Park to the right.
18


The preservation of historical buildings on the Mall gives a comfortable pedestrian scale and rich texture to the area.
The Boulder Theatre, located off the Mall on 14th Street, is a favorite local landmark.
19




CLIMATE ANALYSIS
Boulder is located on the eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains with an elevation of 5,420 feet. The semi-arid climate is characterized by light precipitation, surprisingly mild temperatures and light winds punctuated by occasional strong chinook winds. In the late fall to early spring, strong westerly winds come from the narrow canyons of the foothills producing gusts from 70 to 130 miles per hour. The average monthly temperature varies from 33F in January to 74F in July. Boulder averages more than 80 inches of snow annually, but prolonged snowcover is unusual due to exceptionally clear and sunny skies in the winter. The average annual precipitation is about 18 inches, with frequent thunderstorms occurring in the late spring and summer.
The performing arts center site is located downtown near the foothills. Because of fairly dense vegetation on the site and throughout the downtown area, the effect from the winds (northeast in winter, southwest in summer) is lessened. Boulder Creek and Left-hand Ditch run through the site causing temperatures to be somewhat cooler near their banks.
Solar access from the south and west is good due to the low and moderate heights of buildings in the area.
The following data summarizes significant climatic factors and information specific to this area.
The climatic data is from the National Weather Service Cooperative Observer Records.
20


MONTH
80'F 60* F 40* F 20* F
| JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC |
CLIMATE
TEMPATURE
MEAN MAX.-
MEAN MIN--
ANNUAL MEAN MAX. 87 9 ANNUAL MEAN MIN. 21.4
2 IN. 1 IN.
ANNUAL
RAINFALL
18.39 IN.
14 IN.
10 IN. 6 IN 2 IN.
SNOWFALL
ANNUAL 84 9 IN.
AM %
PM %
HUMIDITY
SW MPH
HEATING
COOLING
| ... 9.2 9.9 10 3 9.5 9 0 85 8.2 8.1 8.1 8.5 8.8 |

992 826 809 482 236 88 6 0 139 367 690 905
0 0 0 8 29 154 282 234 109 26 0 0
WIND
DEGREE DAYS
TOTAL HEATING 5540
TOTAL COOLING 842


SOLAR
SUMMER
altitude angles
JUN 21 SUMMER
MAR/SEP 21 SPRING/FALL
DEC 21
WINTER




SUMMARY OF THE PROGRAM AND AREA REQUIREMENTS
ACTIVITY AREA REQUIREMENTS
1. 250 -350 Thrust Theatre
a. Seating 0 8.5 sq. ft. = 3,000
b. Aisles and circulation 800
c. Stage (including back) 3,000
d. Media control 200
Sub-total 7,000 sq. ft.
2. 75- 200 "Black Box" Theatre
a. Seating area @ 12 sq. ft. = 2,400
b. Stage area 1,200
c. Media control 100
d. Storage 800
Sub-total 4,500 sq. ft.
3. 50- 100 Seat Rehearsal Space
a. Rehearsal space @2.5 stage = 3,000
b. Storage 150
Sub-total 3,150 sq. ft.
4. Scenery Workshop
a. Workshop area 750
b. Storage 250
Sub-total 1,000 sq. ft.
5. Costume Shop 1,000 sq. ft.
23


6.
Performers' Facilities
a. Dressing rooms (2 required) 1,200
b. Toilet rooms (2 required) 400
c. Private dressing rooms (2) 200
Sub-total 1,800 sq. ft
Green Room 400 sq. ft
Public Spaces
a. Foyer 500
b. Lobby @ 2.0/seat = 1,300
c. Concessions (2 required) 200
d. Public toilets (2 required) 600
e. Tickets 100
Sub-total 2,700 sq. ft
Administration Spaces
a. Waiting 275
b. Office area (5 @ 100 sq. ft. each) 500
c. Conference 150
d. Performing artists space 375
e. Storage 200
Sub-total 1,500 sq. ft
Restaurant/Cafe
a. Seating area 1,200
b. Kitchen 400
c. Public toilets (2 required) 400
Subtotal 2,000 sq. ft
24


11. Amphitheatre (outside) 3,500 sq. ft
12. Miscellaneous Spaces- unassigned @ 20% 6,000 sq. ft
GRAND TOTAL 34,850 sq. ft
25


ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY
The following estimates are of the capital costs, operating and maintenance expenses that were outlined in the "Boulder Performing and Visual Arts Center Proposal," 1979-1980. By 1984 standards,these estimates would be considered somewhat low. It was recommended at that time that funding for the capital costs be obtained through bonds. This method is still valid and funding for the performing arts center could be achieved by bonds issued in Spring 1985. In addition, a half-cent increase in city sales tax for 12-18 months would pay for the construction and first few months of operation. After that time, new funding alternatives would be explored.
Summary of Costs for Proposed Capital Expenditures
1. Thrust theatre, 250-350 seat, "Black Box" theatre, 75-200 seat, studio performance space, 50-100 capacity, and all support spaces
2. Boulder Theatre purchase and renovation for 600-800 seat Festival Theatre
3. Final renovation of studio and gallery spaces of the Boulder Center for Visual Arts
Sub-total
Total Costs
$4,536,000
1,600,000
300,000
$6,436,000
Summary of Income and Operating/Maintenance Expenses
Income
Small Performance Spaces 600-800 Seat Festival Theatre Art Center
$63,500
60,000
47,500
Total Income
$171,000
26


Expenses
Small Performance Spaces $68,000 600-800 Seat Festival Theatre 76,000 Art Center 57,000 General Administration Expense 96,000
Total Expenses* $297,000
*Note: These expenses do not include any debt service obligations due to funding of capital costs.
27


RELATIONSHIP DIAGRAM
Entry
Note:
28
Entry


I

FUNCTION/ACTIVITIES:
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29


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30


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    31


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    32


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    33


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    34


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    35


    36


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    ACTIVITY LEVEL: H-16H
    FUNCTION/ACTIVITIES: FURNITURE/TECHNICAL NEEDS:
    UdfFT PBN-sriuJpriOPi, m mum a l. Pm pi tipi L£d>, E>FPI iFoUI^C, l6>0 L/VT1BN T UtiFTIPlP
    QUALITATIVE REMARKS:
    ' 5>PajuBU6j EFFIPIEPIT 0MU6HT BUMP N/q ra&OP U<*HT.
    SPATIAL RELATIONSHIPS:
    38


    AREA: £2Z>TAO#ANT/ SPACES INCLUDED: MINIMUM AREA: 01,000 Or-
    nrrcPB/y, Pa eao
    pj=.ore.oo/v\o ACTIVITY LEVEL: rnaD&&#r&
    FUNCTION/ACTIVITIES: FURNITURE/TECHNICAL NEEDS:
    ' £PriVJO k PZimZlMO!
    pfrtctuwo PB-OPL& ' POP, boo THb
    P.irChbT^Pl BOaiP.
    > pcOB-OO! VO /UUV-DlcAPP&>
    QUALITATIVE REMARKS:
    ' / mtvmpte, /v/0£//i prmtopmpie with- diPoCT ooo TO OaTO/Dp. P& ^ IBLB L/PO t~£> LT&& X
    SPATIAL RELATIONSHIPS:
    RR
    RR
    Lobby
    Cone
    l-j--}
    To
    Outdoor
    Amphitheatre
    T
    X
    T.B.
    [Kitchen
    Foyer
    f
    Main Entry

    Cafe
    RR
    Entry
    39


    AREA: OtrrP&CfZ. PSfiPH-t THB&TKJE MAXIMUM OCCUPANCY: ROO
    SPACES INCLUDED: MINIMUM AREA: E>,SOO ^ r=-
    hhhhhhbk ACTIVITY LEVEL: moPEPATE-
    FUNCTION/ACTIVITIES: FURNITURE/TECHNICAL NEEDS:
    ' imPRamjpra ^>t£leeT PEAEOEPAPROEO PP * ftCOU^PtC eREll F/xeo peatircz
    /mm&, ppa^E, etc. * ACCESSt £>lE- TO
    OxzHT=-OdLBO EVE-RT^ rpux icAppe/d
    QUALITATIVE REMARKS:
    * OPEp, E>P/0P/POt> MPBrf E>AlEOPEJD TPP/Tl tPPFR (P.
    OPER TO Pro*#. £BrriN SPATIAL RELATIONSHIPS:
    40




    BUILDING CODE ANALYSIS
    The Uniform Building Code, 1982 Edition, will be adopted by reference as the City of Boulder Building Code in January 1985. Therefore, the 1982 Edition of the UBC will be used for this document. OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATIONS (TABLE 5-A) ~
    FIRE RESISTANCE OPENINGS IN
    GROUP DESCRIPTION OF EXT. WALLS EXT. WALLS
    A-2 Theatre (occupant load less than 1000 and a stage) 2 hrs less than 10', 1 hr elsewhere N.PT less than 5 Protected less than 10'
    A-3 Rehearsal space (occupant load less than 300 w/o stage) 2 hrs less than 5', 1 hr less than 40' N.P. less than 5 Protected less than 10'
    B-2 Drinking and dining establishment w/ occupant load less than 50, storage workshops, offices 1 hr less than 20' N.P. less than 5 Protected less than 10'
    *N.P.- non-protected
    LOCATION ON PROPERTY
    1. Buildings housing Group A Occupancies shall front directly upon or have access to a public street not less than 20 feet in width.
    2. The access to the public street shall be a minimum 20-foot-wide right-of-way, unobstructed and maintained only as access to the public street.
    3. The main entrance to the building shall be located on the public street or on the access way.
    41


    BASIC ALLOWABLE FLOOR AREA (1 story in height) (Table 5-C)
    Occupancy
    Type I F.R.
    A-2
    Unlimited
    A-3
    Uniimited
    B-2
    Uniimited
    ALLOWABLE FLOOR AREA INCREASES By Separation:
    Where public space, streets or yards more than 20 feet in width adjoin two sides of the building, increase at a rate of 1.25% per foot of separation exceeding 20 feet, up to 50% increase.
    If separated on three sides, increase at a rate of 2.5% per foot of separation exceeding 20 feet, up to 100%.
    If separated on four sides, increase at a rate of 5% per foot of separation exceeding 20 feet, up to 100%.
    By Automatic Sprinkler System:
    One Story Buildings: 3 x Basic Allowable Floor Area
    Two or More Stories: 2 x Basic Allowable Floor Area
    TOTAL ALLOWABLE FLOOR AREA
    Assume two or more stories, sprinkled, without separation allowances.
    Occupancy___________________Type I-F.R.
    A-2 Unlimited
    A-3
    Uniimited
    B-2
    Uniimited
    42


    MAXIMUM HEIGHT OF BUILDINGS Type I-F.R. Occupancy (Table 5-D) Maximum Height (in stories)
    A-2 Uniimi ted
    A-3 Uniimi ted
    B-2 Uniimi ted Maximum Height (in feet)
    Any Uniimited
    REQUIRED FIRE RATINGS BASED ON TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION (HOURS) Type I-F.R.
    Exterior Bearing Wall 4
    Interior Bearing Wall 3
    Exterior Non-Bearing Walls 4
    Structural Frame 3
    Paritions, Permanent 1
    Shaft Enclosures 2
    Floors 2
    Roofs 2
    Exterior Doors, Windows *
    * 3/4 hour protection, less than 20' from property line. No openings less than 5' from property line.
    43


    SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS FOR GROUP A OCCUPANCIES
    STAGES AND PLATFORMS CHAPTER 39
    GRIDIRONS (3902)
    Gridirons, fly galleries and pinrails shall be constructed of non-combustible materials, and fire protection of steel and iron may be omitted.
    ROOMS ACCESSORY TO STAGE (3903)
    In buildings having a stage, the dressing room sections, workshops and storerooms shall be located on the stage side of the proscenium wall and shall be separated from each other and from the stage by not less than a one-hour fire-resistive occupancy separation.
    STAGE FLOORS (3905)
    1. All parts of stage floors shall be of Type I construction, except the part of the stage extending back from and 6 feet beyond the full width of the proscenium opening at each side, which may be constructed of steel or heavy timbers covered with a wood floor of not less than 2-inch nominal thickness.
    2. No part of the combustible construction, except the floor finish, shall be carried through the proscenium opening.
    PLATFORMS (3906)
    1. Walls and ceiling of an enclosed platform in an assembly room shall be of not less than 1-hour fire-resistive construction.
    2. In buildings having an enclosed platform, the dressing room section, workshops, and storerooms shall be separated from each other and from the rest of the building by not less than 1-hour fire-resistive construction.
    SLOPE OF MAIN ASSEMBLY ROOM FLOOR (3307)
    When provided with fixed seating, the main floor of the assembly room may have a slope not steeper than 1 vertical to 5 horizontal.
    44


    GROUP A-3 PROVISIONS (602)
    1. Division 3 occupancies located in a basement or above the first story shall be of not less than 1-hour fire-resistive construction.
    2. Division 3 occupancies with an occupant load of 50 or more, which are located over usable space, shall be separated from such space by not less than 1-hour fire-resistive construction.
    EXIT REQUIREMENTS (Chapter 33)
    Use Sq. Ft. Occupant Load Minimum Number of Exits
    Theatre 1 7,000 350 2
    Theatre 2 4,500 200 2
    Lobby & Foyer 3,000 430 2
    Offices 1,600 15 2
    Rehearsal Studio 3,000 430 2
    Restaurant 2,000 133 2
    MULTIPLE STORY EXIT DETERMINATION- Occupant load of that story plus a percent of occupant loads of floors which exit through the level under consideration.
    1. 50% of occupant load of story above and below.
    2. 25% of occupant load in stories immediately above and below the first adjacent story.
    STAGE EXITS (3907)
    1. At least one exit not less than 36" wide shall be provided from each side of the stage opening directly or by means of a passageway not less than 36" in width to a street or exit court.
    2. An exit stair not less than 30" wide shall be provided for egress from each fly gallery.
    45


    EXIT REQUIREMENTS FOR A-2, A-3 OCCUPANCIES (3318)
    1. The main exit shall be of sufficient width to accommodate one-half of the total occupant load, but shall be not less than the total required width of all aisles, exit passageways and stairways leading thereto, and shall connect to a stairway or ramp leading to a public way.
    2. Every auditorium shall be provided with exits on each side, and exits shall be of sufficient width to accommodate 1/3 of the total occupant load served. Side exits shall open directly to a public way or exit court, approved stairway, exterior stairway or exit passageway leading to a public way. Side exits shall be accessible from a cross aisle.
    3. Every balcony having an occupant load of 11 or more shall be provided with a minimum of two exits. Balcony exits shall open directly onto an exterior stairway or ramp. Balcony exits shall be accessible from a cross aisle.
    DOORS (3304)
    1. Exit doors shall swing in the direction of exit travel when serving an area having an occupant load of 50 or more.
    2. Every exit doorway shall be of a size as to permit installation of a door not less than 3' wide and 6'8" high with a 32" clear width when open.
    3. Revolving, sliding, and overhead doors shall not be used as required exits.
    4. Regardless of the occupant load, there shall be a floor or landing on each side of a door. When doors open over landings, the landing shall have a length of not less than 5 feet.
    CORRIDORS (3305)
    1. Minimum Width 44" with no obstructions.
    2. Minimum Height 7'-0.
    3. When more than one exit is required, they shall go in either direction from any point in a corridor to a separate exit, except for dead ends not exceeding 20'.
    46


    4. When a corridor is accessible to handicapped, changes in elevation will be made by a ramp.
    5. Corridors serving an occupant load of 30 or more shall have wall and ceiling construction of 1-hour fire-resistive construction.
    6. Door openings shall have fire-protection rating of 20 minutes. The total area of all openings, other than doors, in any portion of an interior corridor shall not exceed 25% of the area of the corridor wall of the room which it is separating from the corridor.
    STAIRWAYS (3306)
    1. The minimum width of stairways shall be 44" for occupant loads of 50 or more, and 36" otherwise.
    2. Landing Depth should equal stair width. The distance between landings should not exceed 12' vertical.
    RAMPS (3307)
    1. The width of ramps shall be that of stairways.
    2. The maximum slope for required egress ramps is 1 vertical
    to 12 horizontal. All other ramps shall not be steeper than 1 vertical to 8 horizontal.
    3. Landings are required at the top and bottom of the ramp with one intermediate landing for every 5' of rise. The minimum depth of the landings is 5' at the top and intermediate and 6' at the bottom.
    AISLES (3315)
    1. In public areas of Group B-2 Occupancy and in assembly occupancies without fixed seating, the minimum clear aisle width shall be 36" where tables, counters, furnishings, merchandise or other similar obstructions are placed on one side of the aisle only and 44" when such obstructions are on both sides of the aisle.
    2. In assembly occupancies with fixed seats:
    a. With standard seating, every aisle shall be 3' when serving
    47


    seats on only one side and 42" wide when serving seats on both sides. Such minimum width shall be measured at the point farthest from an exit, cross aisle or foyer and shall be increased by 1-h" for each 5' in length toward the exit, cross aisle or foyer.
    b. With continental seating, as specified in Section 3316, side aisle shall be not less than 44" in width.
    3. In areas occupied by seats, the line of travel to an exit door by an aisle shall be not more than 150'. Such travel distance may be increased to 200' if the building is provided with an automatic sprinkler system.
    4. With standard seating, as specified in Section 3316, aisles shall be located that there will be not more than six intervening seats between any seat and the nearest aisle.
    5. With continental seating, the number of intervening seats may be increased, provided the seating configuration conforms with the requirement specified in Section 3316.
    6. Aisles shall terminate in a cross aisle, foyer or exit.
    The width of the cross aisle shall be not less than the sum of the required width of the widest aisle, plus 50% of the total required width of the remaining aisles leading thereto. Aisles shall not have a dead end greater than 20' in length.
    7. The slope portion of aisles shall be not steeper than 1 vertical in 8 horizontal.
    8. Steps shall not be used in an aisle when the change in elevation can be achieved by a slope. A single step or riser shall not
    be used in any aisle and any steps used shall extend across the full width of the aisle.
    SEAT SPACING (3316)
    1. With standard seating, the spacing of rows of seats shall provide space of not less than 12" from the back of one seat to the front of the most forward projection of the seat immediately behind it as measured horizontally between vertical planes.
    2. The number of seats per row of seats for continental seating may be increased subject to all of the following conditions:
    48


    a. The spacing of unoccupied seats shall provide a clear width between rows of seats measured horizontally as follows (automatic or self-rising seats shall be measured in the seat-up position, other seats shall be measured in the seat-down position):
    18" between rows for 1 to 18 seats 20" between rows for 19 to 35 seats
    21" between rows for 36 to 45 seats
    22" between rows for 46 to 59 seats
    24" between rows for 60 seats or more
    b. Exit doors shall be provided along each side aisle of the row of seats at the rate of one pair of doors for each five rows of seats.
    c. Each pair of exit doors shall provide a minimum clear width of 66" discharging into the foyer, lobby or the exterior of the building.
    d. There shall be no more than 5 seat rows between pairs of doors.
    TOILET ROOMS
    USE NO. OF PERSONS CLOSETS MALE FEMALE LAVATORIES
    Restaurant up to 100 1 1 1
    "Black Box" theatre 101 to 200 2 2 2
    Thrust theatre 201 to 400 3 3 3
    1. For Group A occupancies, there shall be privided at least one lavatory for each two water closets for each sex.
    2. For handicapped requirements of toilet rooms, see Handicap Code Analysis.
    49


    LIVE LOADS (TABLE 23-A)
    Category
    Uniform Concentrated
    load (psf)______load {2h sq. ft. area)
    Assembly
    Fixed seating areas 50 0
    Movable seating/other areas 100 0
    Stage area 125 0
    Exit Facilities 100 0
    Offices 50 2,000
    Storage
    Light 125 0
    Heavy 250 0
    Restrooms 50 0
    SPECIAL LOADS (TABLE 23-B)
    Category Vertical load Lateral
    (psf) (psf)
    Stage
    Gridiron, fly galleries 75 0
    Loft block wells 250 250
    Head block wells, sheave beams 250 250
    Ceiling Framing
    Over stage 20 0
    Other 10 0
    50


    HANDICAP CODE ANALYSIS
    American National Standard Specifications for Making Bui 1 dings and Facilities Accessible to, and Usable by, The Physically Handicapped, 1971, (ANSI) will be adapted by reference as a part of the City of Boulder Building Code in January 1985.
    WALKS
    1. Public walks should be 48" wide and have a gradient of not greater than 5%.
    2. Walks should have level platforms at the top for door swings at least 5' by 5' (also applies to ramp).
    PARKING LOTS
    1. Spaces should be accessible and identified for use by the handicapped.
    2. Spaces should be 12' wide when placed between conventional spaces.
    RAMPS
    1. Ramps shall not have a slope greater than 1' rise in 12' or a 8.33% grade.
    2. Each ramp shall have 6' of straight clearance.
    3. Ramps shall have level platforms at 30' intervals.
    ENTRANCES
    1. One primary entrance to each building shall be usable by handicapped in wheelchairs.
    2. One entrance shall be on level accessible to elevators.
    DOORS
    1. Doors shall have clear openings of 32" and operable by single effort.
    STAIRS- Conform to building code.
    FLOORS- Floors on given story shall be of common level throughout or connected by a ramp.
    51


    TOILET ROOMS
    1. Appropiate number of toilet rooms as determined by building code.
    2. Where toilet facilities are provided on any floor where access by the physically handicapped is required, at least one such facility for each sex shall comply with handicapped requirements.
    a. The average turning space required by a wheelchair in a toilet facility is 60" x 60".
    b. At least one toilet stall shall be 3' x 5' for wheelchairs.
    ELEVATORS
    1. Elevators shall be accessible to the physically handicapped on the level that they use to enter the building.
    2. Elevators shall allow for a turning space of 60" x 60".
    52


    I
    ZONING REGULATIONS

    f

    CLASSIFICATION
    RB-X: The Regional Business Area of the Boulder Valley where a wide range of retail, office, residential and public uses are permitted and in which many structures may be renovated or rehabilitated.
    BUILDING SETBACK REQUIREMENTS
    Front Yard 0
    Side Yard 78' from center line of highway
    Rear Yard 12'
    PARKING REQUIREMENTS
    No parking is required in the downtown parking area. However, underground parking on the site will be included in the program at one space for every three seats in theatres and restaurants.
    OFF-STREET LOADING
    One space 0 10' wide, 26' long, 14' high.
    MAXIMUM HEIGHT: 35'
    The 35' height limit may be modified only in certain areas to a maximum of 55'.
    MAXIMUM FLOOR AREA RATIO: 2:5:1
    *A special review may be applied for if variances in setbacks, heights and number of buildings on site is desired.
    I
    i
    53


    FLOODPLAIN REGULATIONS 1984
    DEFINITIONS
    1. "Floodplain" means the area that is inundated by a one-hundred year flood.
    2. "Area of special flood hazard" means land in the floodplain subject to a one percent or greater chance of flooding to
    a depth of over one foot in any single year.
    3. "Flood storage area" means those portions of the area of special flood hazard that are not in the floodway area.
    4. "Floodway area" means those portions of the area of special flood hazard required for passage of the one-hundred year flood in which waters will flow at significant depths and velocities.
    PERMITTED USES IN THE FLOODWAY AREA
    1. Recreational uses, including without limitations, open air theatres and parks.
    2. Parking lot, by permit.
    3. Change in watercourse (stream), by permit.
    4. Bridge structure, by permit.
    PERMITTED USES IN THE FLOOD STORAGE AREA
    1. Uses permitted in floodway area as outline in previous paragraph.
    2. Automobiles may be parked or located in the flood storage area without being located in a floodproofed storage area.
    3. All other uses allowed by the underlying zoning rf provisions for flood hazard reduction are met.
    PROVISIONS FOR FLOOD HAZARD REDUCTION
    1. New construction shall be anchored to prevent flotation, collapse or lateral movement of structure.
    2. New construction shall be constructed with materials and utility equipment resistant to flood damage.
    54


    3. New electrical, water and sewage systems shall be located in a manner designed to protect them from infiltration of flood water.
    4. New construction shall have lowest floor elevated to or above the flood protection elevation, which is 2' above maximum elevation of water surface of the one-hundred year flood.
    55






    ramp up
    Lm
    FLOOR PLANS


    PLAZA ELEVATION
    ENTRY ELEVATION
    Lri__]
    ELEVATIONS


    CANYON BOULEVARD ELEVATION
    c_n
    kD
    ! I
    - ^ k
    : / hsL\.

    u u u u * 'X'l k / K li. r ff VL rfj jdHk / TtuL '/ft *..
    FOURTEENTH STREET ELEVATION
    L_H__I
    ELEVATIONS


    EAST-WEST SECTION
    NORTH-SOUTH SECTION
    LM__J
    SECTIONS


    SOUTH


    STRUCTURAL FRAMING ROOF PLAN/ MECHANICAL SYSTEMS
    Lri__1
    STRUCTURE


    63


    CONCLUSION


    CONCLUSION
    The three design concepts set forth in my thesis statement were as follows:
    1. encourage interaction between audience and performers by providing quality spaces which promote this kind of informal interaction.
    2. retain the pedestrian scale of the Boulder Downtown area.
    3. identification of the center as a visible, public gathering place as well as conveying the image of a "theatre."
    In evaluating the effectiveness of my design in conjunction with these three concepts, certain elements were more successful than others. The outside areas of the pedestrian mall, the plaza and amphitheatre by the water seem to encourage the kind of informal interaction that I had intended. I feel these areas address that idea quite successfully. However, the inside lobby spaces do not work as well. Although spacious, they do not allow as many opportunities to "see and be seen" as I would have hoped. I do feel the two-level foyer space is an important and hopefully exciting space to be in.
    The overall design was successful in retaining the pedestrian scale so crucial to the area. By creating a loggia to offset the large masses of the two theatres, a more intimate, human scale could be expressed. The materials themselves, tile and glass, give a smoother, hi-tech quality than first envisioned. This curtain wall effect is in direct contrast to the other older masonry buildings in the area.
    64


    The image of a public building is apparent in the massing and the orientation to the park. It becomes a "background" building to the park instead of calling attention to the building itself as an object in space. Whether this building looks like a theatre or not is up for debate. I became increasingly sensitive to the site during the design phase and chose not to assert the building as an object, but rather as a backdrop for the park.
    Overall, I was pleased with the design and especially the massing of the theatres so as not to impose upon the park setting.
    65


    APPENDIX


    BASIC THEATRE CONFIGURATIONS
    There are many theatre forms in use today, and the nomenclature to describe each can be very confusing. Basic theatre types are shown below, with brief explanations to aid in distinguishing one type from another.
    PROSCENTUM STAGE
    PICTURE-FRAME STAGE
    The audience faces the performing area from one side only and a proscenium arch encloses the performing area. It is generally used for large productions (musicals, dance, drama) where scenic backdrops are desired.
    THRUST THEATRE THREE-SIDED ARENA OPEN STAGE THEATRE -ELIZABETHAN STAGE
    The audience faces the performing area from three adjacent sides. There is no arch and scenic props are limited. It can provide for more intimate theatre productions because the audience is nearer to the performers.
    THEATRE-IN-THE-ROUND ARENA STAGE
    The audience completely surrounds the performing area and intimacy is the main objective. Scenic props are very limited.
    66


    CENTER STAGE
    TWO-SIDED ARENA
    The audience faces the performing area from two opposite sides, again allowing intimacy between performers and the audience. Scenic props are very 1imi ted.
    EXPERIMENTAL "BLACK BOX" THEATRE
    MULTIFORM THEATRE FLEXIBLE THEATRE
    A theatre that can be rearranged into more than one type of stage layout. Some kind of movable seating is employed and the stage can be floor level.
    67


    ACOUSTICAL CONSIDERATIONS IN THEATRE DESIGN
    When designing a space that will accommodate verbal or musical performances the main concern is to achieve uniform distribution of sound throughout the hall. Sound should reach each seat with as little distortion and loss of intensity as possible. Reverberation time, the length of time it takes a sound wave to decay to 60 dB after the sound source has stopped is a critical concern. Community theatres such as these should be primarily designed for the spoken word. A short reverberation time is desired for speech to facilitate clarity. How sound is distributed throughout the hall and the length of reverberation time desired will govern the shape of the walls, ceilings and balconies.
    1. Noise from the exterior environment or the internal building components such as vibration from the mechanical and ventilating systems must be isolated from the theatre. There should be no background noise interference in the space.
    2. Reflected sounds with a delay of .058 seconds or more are perceived as echoes. To eliminate echoes and muddled tones, assure that the difference in distance of travel between direct and reflected sound is no more than 50'.
    3. The ceiling is the main sound distribution surface.
    4. Treatment of the rear wall is important in preventing echo, flutter and focusing effects. Some selected possible treatments include:
    a. Splaying the connection between ceiling and rear wall
    b. Using absorptive material on the rear wall
    c. Tilting the rear wall
    5. If a balcony is used it should be shallow and positioned high enough over the orchestra level to allow sound to get to the back rows. The depth of recess should not exceed twice the height of the balcony level.
    68


    6. Steeper raked seating, such as in a thrust theatre, eliminates the problem of sound being blocked out by the person in front. The steeper seating is also advantageous for site lines and in an amphitheatre helps reduce environmental noise.
    7. All wall, ceiling and balcony surfaces should be convex to produce diffuse wound distribution which is desired for a uniform sound effect.
    8. Avoid the use of parallel side walls to prevent "flutter echo."
    9. Keep the rear wall of the theatre to a minimum height.
    10. Sound-absorptive material should be used on seats, floors and walls to suppress long-delayed reflections of sound (echoes).
    69


    SIGHT LINES IN THEATRE DESIGN
    Good, uninterrupted viewing is usually achieved by a combination of horizontal and vertical sightlines in relation to the stage. The rake of the seating, the staggering of the seats and the height of the stage all affect the ability of the audience to see. The design of these elements should combine to provide an uninterrupted view of the entire performance area.
    1. The maximum horizontal viewing angle to the center line of the stage is approximately 60. Audiences will not choose locations beyond a line approximately 100 to the curtain.
    2. The vertical angle beyond which ability to recognize standard shapes is compromised is approximately 30.
    i
    JTASt
    70


    3. Good horizontal viewing is accomplished by staggering the seating so that each member of the audience is looking at the stage area between the heads of the two people in front of him.
    4. Straight radial aisles are better than aisles which curve or bend.
    i
    f
    71


    5. The floor slope depends on the curve of the row of seats with the whole row at the same elevation. The floor therefore is not a sloped plane, but a dished surface in which horizontal contours follow the seat row curve.
    6. For a thrust theatre, consider placing the floor of the acting area a maximum of one foot above floor on which the first row of seats is placed. This will cause a somewhat steeper slope for seating than is found in the proscenium theatre. (Please refer to Basic Theatre Configurations in the Appendix for description of theatres.)
    7. Maximum viewing distance is 50' from stage where it is important to see facial expressions.
    8. For dance productions, it is important that the audience be able to see the feet of the performers.
    9. The optimum seating pattern designs should keep at least 90% of seats within maximum viewing distance and within maximum top and bottom viewing angles.
    72


    BIBLIOGRAPHY


    BIBLIOGRAPHY
    American Theatre Planning Board. Theatre Check List. Middletown, Conn.: Wesleyan University Press, 1969.
    Athanasopulos, Christas. Contemporary Theatre: Evaluation and Design. New York, N.Y.: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1903.
    Burris-Meyer, Harold. Theatres and Auditoriums. New York, N.Y.:
    Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, 1964.
    City of Boulder. "Downtown Boulder Plan." April 1984.
    Festival Two Architects. "Boulder Performing and Visual Arts Center Proposal." 1979-1980.
    Festival Two Architects. "Site Selection Study for the New Facilities for the Smaller Performing Arts Facilities." February 1980.
    Fitzwilliam, Mark. "Auraria Performing Arts Center Thesis Proposal." May 1982.
    Jewell, Don. Public Assembly Facilities: Planning and Management.
    New York, N.Y.: John Wiley and Sons, 1978.
    Jordon, Vilhelm Lassen, PhD. Acoustical Design of Concert Halls and Theatre. London: Applied Science Publishers Ltd., 1980.
    Midyette, J Nold. "Boulder Cultural Arts Facilities Needs and Solutions Update." February 1984.
    Mielziner, Jo. The Shapes of Our Theatres. New York, N.Y.:
    Clarkson N. Potter, Inc., 1970.
    Palmer, Micky. The Architects Guide to Facility Programming.
    New York, N.Y.: McGraw-Hill, 1981.
    "Performing Arts Centers." Architectural Review. April 1984.
    Uniform Building Code. Whittier, California: International Conference of Building Officials, 1982.
    73