Citation
The house of choice

Material Information

Title:
The house of choice design determinants in two cultures
Creator:
Faris, Richard Lloyd
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
32 unnumbered leaves : illustrations, plans ; 28 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Architecture, Domestic -- United States ( lcsh )
Architecture, Domestic -- India ( lcsh )
Architecture, Domestic ( fast )
India ( fast )
United States ( fast )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 24-29).
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for a Master's degree in Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
Richard Lloyd Faris.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
08643389 ( OCLC )
ocm08643389
Classification:
LD1190.A72 1981 .F37 ( lcc )

Full Text
ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN AURARIA LIBRARY


THE HOUSE OF CHOICE Design Determinants in Two Cultures
Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the requirements of the Masters of Architecture degree
The College of Environmental Design The University of Colorado at Denver
Mr. Max Steele, advisor Mr. G.K. Vetter, advisor
Richard Lloyd Faris May 8, 1981


INTRODUCTION
This is a design exploration which attempts to facilitate house design by clarifying the relative importance of physical and human determinants. To identify any universalities in weightings, the exploration is conducted in two dissimilar cultures, the United States and India.
To display determinants, three houses are designed. One house is designed solely (to the extent possible) on the basis of climate response, and economic and construction limitations. This house would function in either culture if these are the only determinants.
A second house is created for a "typical" upper income client in the United States. This house displays the values determining house design for the culture. A third house is designed for an upper income client in India and reflects the determinants in this culture. These houses exhibit a depersonalized, average solution as opposed to an avant-garde, artful design.
Analysis of the differences between the "typical houses" and the "control house" point up the importance of human factors. The differences and similarities in the two "typical" houses determine the universalities of the determinant mix.
CONTENTS
Statement of the Study Physical Factors in House Design "The Control House"
Human Factors in house design in the United States "The House in the United States"
Human Factors in house design in India "The House in India"
Blank Modifiers sheet for reader conclusions Modifiers sheet displaying the author's conclusions Appendix-Re spondents Appendix-Bibliography


wmm: mum
THE BOUSE OF (HOKE?
ECONOMIC AND PHYSICAL FACTORS
CLIMATE EFFECTS IN FORM, MATERIALS, HUMAN COMFORT
ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS: OOSTS, FINANCING, REGULATIONS
TECHNOLOGY IN TERMS OF A/AILASIUTYOF MATERIALS, METHODS,CRAFTSMEN, ENERGY
HUMAN FACTORS
INDIVIDUAL AND ODL1ECTIVE VALUES: SECURITY PSYCHOLOGICAL COMFORT SFAT1AL ORDER, FAMILY STRUCTURE, TRADITION, RELIGION, POUTICS, SOCIAL (PATTERNS,
WORLD VIEW
EXFOSURE TO AN ARCHITECTURAL HERITAGE AND CONTEM FOR AFY FASHION
CHOICE
THE OPPORTUNITY TO WEIGH AND COMBINE FACTORS IN HOUSE DESIGN
ME SMMOME dW HIE HOUSE OF (IKHOF
A RESPONSIVE HOUSE...
... ADDRESSES ASPIRATIONS AS WELL AS NECESSITIES.
DESIGN CHOICE FOR OCCUPANTS OCCURS MAINLY ON HIGHER COST HOUSES (URBAN SITUATIONS) PRACTICALLY- DESIGNED, LOW COST HOUSING HAS OFTEN FAILED WHEN ASP RATIONS WERE UNATTENDED HIGH COST HOUSES ARE USUALLY THE SOURCE OF HOUSING ASRRATONS
EFFICIENT DESIGNS (DOMES, MODULES) HAVE BEEN UNSUCCESSFUL IN HIGH AND LOW COST HOUSING
AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF HUMAN FACTORS INHOUSES OF CHOICE'
CAN FACILITATE BETTER DESIGN FOR ALL HOUSING FINDINGS GOULD SUGGEST AN INTERNATIONAL FORMAT


STATEMENT
'ME ISWiMlIK
rCONCEPTl
TDSPOTIJGHT HUMAN FACTORS IN HOUSE DESIGN, DESIGN IS CONSIDERED IN TWO CULTURES,
THE UNITED STATES, AND INDIA
AS A BASIS FOR EXPLORATION A'OCNTFCL HOUSE', BASED ONLY ON ECONOMIC,TECHNOLOGICAL,
AND CLIMATE CONSIDERATIONS, HAS BEEN CREATED
FOR CLARITY, VARIABLES HAVE BEEN REDUCED
SIMILAR ECONOMIC PROGFRAM :___________________ ufper inceme home, usoosi: seo/sf.ieoo si
SIMILAR TECHNOGIES AVAILABLE:_________________ sited near major urban center, intern*iT1cn*l contacts
SIMILAR CUMATE AND SITE:______________________ suburban lot in warm -humid cumate
PROCEDURE
DATA SEARCH
FIELD RESEARCH INDIA
ARCHITBCTS .HOMBCWNERS CRITIQUE'CONTROLHOUSE' IN THE USA, INDIA THE HOUSE IN THE US. THE HOUSE IN INDIA. DE SIGNED
CULTURALLY- MODIFIED HOUSES EXAMINED FOR THE ROLE OF HUMAN FACTORS
toe nrawmiMS
ITS SUGGESTED...
THAT THE RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF ECONOMC, TECHNOLOGICAL,CLIMATIC,
AND HUMAN FACTORS IN'HOUSES OF CHOCE'MAY BE SIMILAR, FOR URBAN SITUATIONS, IN VERY DISSIMILAR BASECULTURES-ANDTHAT HUMAN CONSIDERATIONS MAY PLAY A DOMINANT ROLE.


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SINGLE FAMILY, DETACHED, RESIDENCE 4-6 OCCUPANTS SUBURBAN LOT (U.S. 1 ACRE) WARM-HUMID CLIMATE LOCATION: SOUTH,COASTALU.S.A.
SOUTH,COASTAL INDIA LIVING AREA: 1800 sf, 160 m2 BUDGET: $50/sf, Rs.1200/m2
USA
DECREASING NUMBER CAN AFFORD URBAN(DET) HOUSE
SIZE OF HOUSES DECREASING
INFLATION(10/o/yr) ENHANCES HOMECWNING
LABOR COSTS MAJOR FACTOR
ENERGY COSTS SIGNIFICANT, ESCALATING RAPIDLY
INDIA
VERY SMALL MINORITY SITUATION SIMILAR (20%/yr)
LOW LABOR COST ONLY FOR TRADITIONAL SKILLS NEARLY ALL OIL IMPORTED (WITH FOREIGN CURRENCY)
TOMTOMS
USA
SMALL % HOUSES HAVE INDIVIDUALIZED ARCHL DESIGN TYPICAL HOUSE CONSTRUCTION LABOR-INTENSIVE VARIETY OF CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AVAILABLE WOOD FRAME, BEARING MASONRY,COMMON ASPHALT TILE, ROOFING
EXPERIMENTAL TECHNOLOGIES EXIST: MODULES,FLASTICS, LOCATION REQUIRES TERMITE, TROP STORM,CONSTRUCTION LOW SEISMIC RISK
INDIA
AS IN U.S.
PREDCMINATLY HAND LABOR
BRICK,CONCRETE/CLAY BLOCK, REINFGONC, STEEL,WOOD, REINFORCED CONOR. (IN SITU) WITH BRICK INFILL TILE, POURED CONCRETE
DEVELOPMENTS IN BRICK SHELLS, FOAM CONCRETE AS IN U.S.
AS IN US.


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usa/i ndia
THE WEATHER
HUMAN RESPONSE
THE SUN
orient to prevailing wind clear site for airflow high on N.or£ slope tall trunk trees E.Wof hs.
open plan,single-banked roans, for airflow airflow volume cools structure efficient plan cuts human heatqain screen porch, not windows thermally isolate heat production areas thermally isolate airaonditioned space
reflective ext. surfaces roof overhang on N, £ tile roof ventilcrt.es sun allows solar hot water
EXTERIOR
/ l


ceiling fans cool humans transoms al lew vent.,privacy lew mass furniture light colors versus glare
INTERDR
low mas walls, roof elevatefor breeze, ht.remcval ventilate attic -A=
wing wall creates

SBOnCN
double wall, insulation,or sunbreak on E,W, walls elevated floor creates shaded court reflective insulation bottemcf roof, top of oeiling construct vs. termites, tropical storms


SfeHan
Ground Roor


THE CONTROL HOUSE
Section 'b* / Elevation


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I THE SOCIAL STRJCnjREllNOJJDES A LARGE MIDDLE INCOME CLASS GEOGRAPHIC AND BDCNCMlC MOBILITY ACCEPTED NUCLEAR FAMILY IS THE NORM
DAILY ACTIVITY PATTERNS PVERSE, LIMITED SHARED RITTJAL
SECURITYjORDERJ IS THE RESPONSIBILITY OF THE POUCE AND LEGAL SYSTEM
IREUGIOUS AND PHILOSOPHICAL FOSlfiONS] VARY GREATLY
RELIGIONS GENERALLY DO NOT REQUIRE DAILY OBSERVANCES, RfTUAUS
STRONG MEDIA INFLUENCE ON VALUES
IWORLP VIEWl TENDS TO REFLECT INSULAR GEOGRAPHY
CROSS-CULTURAL INTERACTION LIMITED TO SMALL MINORITY
lAESTHETICSl.TRADITIONALLY THE PURVIEW OF WEALTHY HAVE REFLECTED EUROPEAN STANDARDS MEDIA MERCHANDISING INFLUENCES CONTEMFOfRARY AESTHETICS
3-FRINTS, FAINT1NGS, POP PARAFHENALIA, DISPLAYED FOR DBTCfRATTONCRAS SOCIAL STATEMENT
TIME MUMlimUl
CVICANDCOMMERCIAL STRUCTURES TRADITIONALLY INOORPCRATED IMPORTED,REVVAL, STYLES PRAGMATIC,REGIONALIZED SOLUTIONS CHARACTERIZED[TRADITIONALl PCMESTCARCHITECTURE USE OF MANUFACTURED EOUIPMENT (STOVES ETC.) TRADITIONAL IN AMERICAN HOUSES ORGANIC STRUCTURE, FUNCTIONAL ORGANIZATION, BASES FOR HISTORIC HOUSES ECLECTICISM IN EXTERIOR AESTHETICS DEVELOPED WITH MOBILITY THE SUBURBAN RESIDENCElDEVELOPED WITH THE AUTOMOBILE
THE COUNTRY MANOR WfTH GROUNDS WAS THE VALUE BASIS FOR THE SUBURBAN HOUSE
EXTENSIVE TRAVEL TO AND FROM THE HOUSE RESULTED IN ATYRCAlIOUTSIDE-INICONCEPTUAUZATTON
AMMEN1TIES, AFPLIANCES, DEVELOPED AS FOCI IN FACE OF REPETITIVE HOUSES
FURNITURE AND INTERIOR DECOR ECLECTIC WITH BAS FOR HEAVY, UPHOLSTERED STYLES
CWt'ER INVOLVEMENT IN DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION GREATLY REDUCED
AUTOMOBILE, GARAGE, EXPRESSED IN STREET FACADE
LCW NOISE TOLERANCE PRIVACY STANDARDS, DICTATE 13NOE-PURPOSE ROCMSl
EXPENSIVE GLASS,OPEN FLOOR FLANS, OCNFUCT WITH FRIVACY AOOUSTC, REQUIREMENTS
(OIWiMWIMff MOTION
A WIDE RANGE OF FORMS AND MATERALS IN HOUSES CAN BE SEEN IN ALL REGIONS
THE [COUNTRY MANCRIIS STILL A DOMINANT AESTHETIC. EXPRESSED IN GEORGIAN,VILLA, RANCH. STYLES INTERNATIONAL, AND ECLECTIC, SYMBOLIC, POST-MODERN STYLES DO NOT ADDRESS ASPIRATIONS OF MOST CWNER-BUILT HOMES AREA VISIBLE BUT SMALL MINORITY
A NEW AESTHETIC AWARENESS IS DEVELOPING AROUND ISOLARAND OONSERNATlONlDESlGN BOLDNESSINNCVATION, ENJOTED IN PUBLIC,CCMMERCAL STRUCTURES
RESALE),DISCOMFORT WITH AESTHETICS, CHECK ARCH ITECTUAL EXPRESSION, IN HOUSES IN FROGRAM RANGE HOUSES AIM FOR A STYLE, NOT CHIC, FASHION



THE OOUNTRr'
THE REGION
THE REGIONAL CHARACTER
HISTORIC SPANISH,CARIBBEAN, INFLUENCES
TRANSPLANTED RESIDENTS MAGNIFY VARIETY, ECLECTICISM, AND SYMBOLISM IN ARCHITECTURE
COLOUR FALETTE EMPHASIZES -WHITE, SUNSET PINK, SEA/SKY BLUES
AlRCONDITIONING ACCEPTED CUMATE RESPONSE
SHADED EXTERIOR ROOM COMMON
large front lawn cb barrier street, fashdpset orientation near yard fenced outdoor social space at rear house sting strai^itfooAcrd major access for automobile
automobiles, equipment segregated (to sidecr near) internal and external hallwcys fcrcirculation privacy assumed for bedrooms, bath in cry loaatfon bedroom bath,at front door common kitchen often socid,activity, center elaborate bath arses
central arccrditioning equalizes areas for comfort
exterior exposes, denotes, function lew ranging exterior form white stucco, whiteroof tiles windows aodearth^VIe
plastered walls,temazzo floors sunry interiors all rooms ceiling/roof structure exposed furniture expresses room functicr partitiers, levels,define spaces
INTERIOR
concrete block wall
wood frame roof, oorrrete tiles
no insulation
large area in windows
airconditicning versus heat
SECTION
lew construction technolog/ sophistication in mcnufactued components floor slab on compacted soil


Site Plan
8
equator
8(25m) J___________________________56'(17m)


THE IK HE E\ IIIi: IKA
8'(2.5m)


HHDE fflM
|THE SOCIAL STRUCTURE1EXH1BITS WIDE DISPARITY IN EIXJCATION AND INCOME, SMALL MIDDLE CLASS STABILITY OF GEOGRAPHIC LOCATION, 03DUFATI0NAL FURSUIT, AND ECONOMIC STATUS, IS COMMON PATTERN EXTENDED FAMILY RESIDENCE IS NORM WTH SEVERAL GENERATIONS FRESENT DAILY ACTIVITY PATTERNS ARE RITUALIZED
PROTECTIVE MEASURES FOR WOMEN, ROLE OF SERVANTS, HAVE MAJOR EFFECT ON ACTIVITIES AND SPATIAL ORGANIZATION ACTIVITIES, SCHEDULING, AND FACE INFLUENCED STRONGLY EY HABITUAL RESFONSE TO CLIMATIC DISCCMFCRT I THE HINDU RELOONlAND TRADITION' IS PERVASIVE AND IMPACTS CN ALL CLASSES
I WORLD VIEW] DIFFERS GREATLY DEPENDING ON ECONOMIC FOSITTON AND (RELATED ACEE25TOFCF0GN EXPOSURE, EXPERIENCE WEALTHS CLASS IS ECONOMICALLY, SOCIALLY, AND PHGIGALLY(TERR1CRAL1Y) ISOLATED, WITH SJBCULTURAL VALLES.IAESTHETCSl POSTON OF UPPER CLASS RESULTS IN UNIQUE I TRANSPUT URAlWvARENESS AND CCNSOCUSNESS CF AE5THETC VALUES [ARflHAS HISTOFRr'OF SPONTANEOUS PRIMITIVE, SVMBOUC EXPRESSION IN VILLAGE SOCIETY; LIMITED LRBAN EXPRESSON CINEMA INFLUENCES VALUES, AESTHETICS, AT ALL LEVELS
ARTISTIC VALLES BIASD TO HARMONY, SI MPUCITX VERSUS TENSION, ABSTRACTION; ARTIST(AFCK) IS CRAFTSMAN LITTLE INDMDUALPRVACY, WITHIN FAMILY, LITTLE PERSONAL SPACE
HISICRC URBAN ARCHITECTURE WAS MONUMENTAL, PALATIAL DOMESTIC ARCHITECTURE HAS ROOTS IN THEVILLAGE
IFELIGIOUS TRADITIOnIdETEFMINED ORIENTATION. MATERIALS FORMS PLAN, COLOUR GRIDWASAN IMPORTANTOONCEPT UFFER CLASPS TRANSFERRED HCNEWfTHINfAMILY, HOUSE-UNK TO ANCESTORS LIMITED MOBILITY ISOLATION, RESULTED IN IiNSIDE-QUTIfORTRES. CDNCEFT CF HOME TRAgTIONIALlMULTIPLE-Ua: ROCMSlADJUSTED TO OOOJFANTLOAD. OCCASION. SEASON NO TRADITION CF AESTHETIC ATTENTON lO INTERDR DEOCRATION, FURNITURE
INSIDE-OUTOREMTAnON,URBAN DENSITY, FHRINACY WALLS, DECREASE I MFCRTANCE OF EXTERIOR AESTHETCS I COLONIAL CONCEFTI OF FETA4ANENCY PALATIAL ANTECEDENTS, 3J33ESY H5VY MASS STRUCTURES (DESPTTE CUMAE) COLONIAL CANTONMENTS INCUICATED SACIOUS SITING DESPITE INDtC^NCUS DENSITY
DAYTIME CUMATE DICTATES DARK INTERIORS, NIGHT SOCIALIZING SPACES AJsD PRCMSICN FOR OUTDOOR SLEEPING VILLAGE FALETTE WAS CDIOUR OF SOIL/SIONE, URBANEXTERDRSVEFE WHITEWASH,CLOTHING,'TEXT1ES-VIBRANTOOLCUR WTHOUT MECHANICAL HISTORY. GDNCEPTOF MAINTENANCE UNDEVELOPED SPACE, FERSE, HAS LITTLE SIGNIFICANCE, CARPETS DEMARCATE SPACE IN AMORPHOLS ROOMS
THElPOST-INDEPENDFNCE MOCERnIaRCHITECTURE FEATURED STONE. KAHN,CORBUSIER AND DISCIPLES EXTERIORS EXHBITED REINFOFCHC CONCRETE, EXFOSED ERICK lINDIGEhOJS-FOSTMOCERNlARCHITHCTURE DEVELOPING WITH INDIAN AROHTTBCTS INDIGENOUS CLIMATE RESPONSE INFLUENCING GOMFORT DESIGN EXFLJGT7 IMPLICIT HISTORIC, CULTUIRAL, REFERENCES IN NEW DESIGN MAJORITY OF NEW ARCHITECTURE DEVELOPED, PRODUCED BY BUREAUCRACIES LIMITED BUT REAL DEVELOPMENTS BY INDIVIDUAL DESIGNERS IN LCW COST HOUSING EXIST INDIFFERENTlINTERtOR DESIGnIGONTI NUES WITH A MINOR TREND TO FURNISHINGS BASEDON LOCAL GRAFTS ARCHITHCTUAL SYNGOUSM FOR HOUSES SIGNIFIES BXNCMCANDCLASSASFIRATDNS, POSTTICN PLAN, EXTERIOR SIZE, INTERIOR FINISH, OTHER ASPECTS WHICH ODULD EXPRESS WEALTH GHXED BY TAXES


HUMAN KViKHiS IMMA
THE OOUNTRY
THE REGON
THE REQONAL CHARACTER
VILLAGE MATERIALS;fTHAlCH,|F^EDS INTERNATIONAL ARCHITBCTUAL INFLUENCES; CQDNIAL, S.E. ASIA,CUE PORT LOCATION,
HINDU TRADITION STRONG, UN DILUTEE WITH MOSLEM EXPERIENCE
I COURTYARD iTRADITTON IN TAMIL HOUSES
TEAK WOOD AVAILABLE, BASS FOR CUAUTYCABINETS, INTERIOR FRAMING
COLOUR (ALETTE: WHITE YELLO/Y BASIELS
SHRINE ROOMS TYPICAL
stre?t,intenor; detr cnentotai outdccr social spaoe enclose compound obscure hOLise (trees etc) access to street vendor procession front yard,unirnpcrt.
SITE
ext. form, irtfunction unrelated exposed brick, plastered brick ext. 2-story, cubic forms reirf asm cverhangs, soffits, bakmes flat roof allcws vert.e IT ^ i |44
high ceiling preference structure masked on int.(&ct.) sit on floor; Icwlirnrture dark mtericrsy INTERIOR
FLOOR FLANS
women cnd/fcr servants segregated, protected circulaticn through rooms, tew halls long term food store, shrine space, near kitchen large social area; rocms link to outside strong family,guest, pud ic, zoning baths, kitchen, isolated
beanng trick, ccslab6,roof brick partitions no insulation,
25% ext .wall in windows fans, AG, sleep outside; versus heat
SECTION *
U
SECTION


3/16 r


10'(3m) J 10'(3m)
u IS^
ij (ii
Exterior
I roof terrace I

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1
Section 'a'
Section'b'/Elevation


MOTHERS-INDIA MODIFIERS- USA
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THE MODIFIERS




BIBLIOGRAPHY (1)
CLIMATE RESPONSE and other PHYSICAL FACTORS
Victor OLGYAY, Design with Climate, Princeton University Press, Princeton,
(1967)
O.H. KOENIGSBERGER, T.G. INGERSOLL, Alan MAYHEW, S.V. SZOKOLAY, Manual of Tropical Housing and Building, Part 1; Climatic Design, Longman Group Ltd., London, (1974)
Martin EVANS, Housing, Climate and Comfort, John Wiley and Sons, New York, (1980)
B. GIVONI, Man, Climate and Architecture, Elsevier Publishing, New York (1969)
George LIPPSMEIER, Tropenbau Building in the Tropics, Verlag Callwey, Munchen
Maxwell FRY and Jane DREW, Tropical Architecture in the Humid Zones, Reinhold Publishing, New York, (1956)
Maxwell FRY and Jane DREW, Tropical Architecture in the Dry and Humid Zones, Reinhold Publishing, New York, (1964)
T. KUSUDA and K. ISHII, Hourly Solar Radiation Data for Vertical and Horizontal Surfaces on Average Days in the United States and Canada, U.S. Department of Commerce, (1977)
Arthur BOWEN, "Some Historical Indicators for Building Design under Natural Conditions in Overheated Regions", in the handbook for the Passive Cooling Workshop, 5th National Passive Solar Heating and Cooling Conference, Amherst, (1980)
James LAMBETH, Solar Designing, published by the author, (1970)
Staff, "Solar Architecture", entire issue, Process Architecture, No. 6
Staff, "Experimental Low-Cost Housing, India", Structural Engineering Research Center, Madras
Zacharia, GEORGE, "Building and Housing Techniques Developed at the SERC".
Paper delivered at Hyderbad conference, 1977.
Zacharia, GEORGE, K. MANI, "Brick Shells on Moveable Forms for Single Story Buildings", Indian Concrete Journal, March 1978.
Suryakant MISRA, "Low Cost Housing in the Indian. Context", Overseas Building Notes, February 1977.
Staff, "Housing the Millions", Science Today, Bombay, April 1980.


BIBLIOGRAPHY (2)
U.S.A. and GENERAL
Christopher ALEXANDER, The Timeless Way of Building, Oxford University Press,
New York, (1979)
Christopher ALEXANDER, Notes on the Synthesis of Form, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, (1964)
Christopher ALEXANDER, Houses Generated by Patterns. Center for Environmental Structure, Berkeley, (1969)
Serge CHERMAYEFF, Christopher ALEXANDER, Community and Privacy, Toward a New Architecture of Humanism, Doubleday and Company, Garden City, (1963)
Charles MOORE, Gerald ALLEN, Donlyn LYNDON, The Place of Houses, Holt Rinehart, New York, (1974)
Kent BLOOMER and Charles MOORE, Body, Memory, and Architecture, Yale University Press, New Haven, (1977)
Peter F. SMITH, Architecture and the Human Dimension, Eastview Editions, Inc., Westfield (NJ), (1979)
Christian, NORBERG-SCHULTZ, Genius Loci, Towards a Phenomenology of Architecture, Rizzoli International Publications, Inc., New York, (1980)
Charles A. JENCKS, The Language of Post-Modern Architecture, Rizzoli International Publications, Inc., New York, (1977)
Olivier MARC, Psychology of the House (English edition), Thames and Hudson Ltd., London (1977)
Steen Eiler RASMUSSEN, Experiencing Architecture, M.I.T. Press, Cambridge,
(1959)
Kevin LYNCH, Site Planning, M.I.T. Press, Cambridge, (1962)
Robert VENTURI, Denise SCOTT-BROWN, and Steven IZENOUR, Learning from Las Vegas, M.I.T. Press, Cambridge, (1962)
Robert VENTURI, Complexity and Contradiction in Architecture, Museum of Modern Art, New York, (1966)
Amos RAPOPORT, House Form and Culture, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs (NJ), (1969)
Staff, New American Architecture 1979, AIA Journal, McGraw Hill, New York,
(1979)
Staff, Modem House in America, Process Architecture (#7)


BIBLIOGRAPHY (3)
Paul OLIVER, Shelter and Society, Praeger, New York, (1969)
Paul OLIVER, Shelter, Sign and Society, (1977)
Edward ALLEN (Edit.), The Responsive House, M.I.T. Press, Cambridge, (1972)
James Marston FITCH, American Building, I; The Historical Forces That Shaped It, 2nd Edition, Schocken Books, New York, (1973)
Sibyl MOHOLY-NAGY, Native Genius in Anonymous Architecture, Horizon Press,
New York, (1957)
Bernard RUDOFSKY, Architecture Without Architects, A Short Introduction to Non-Pedigreed Architecture, Doubleday & Company, Inc., New York, (1964)
Bernard RUDOFSKY, The Prodigious Builders, Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, New York, (1977) ~ '
Enrico GUIDONI, Primitive Architecture, Harry N. Abrams, Inc., New York, (1975)
A.J. DOWNING, The Architecture of Country Houses, Dover Publications, New York, (1969)
Ray FAULKNER, Sarah FAULKNER, Inside Today's Home, 4th Edition, Holt,
Rinehart and Winston, New York, (1975)
Paul RUDOLPH, The Architecture of Paul Rudolph, Praeger, New York, (1970)
Barbara D. HOFFSTOT, Landmark Architecture of Palm Beach, Oberpark Associates, Pittsburgh, (1974)
Tom PORTER and Byron MIKELLIDES, Color for Architecture, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, (1976)
Christopher ALEXANDER, "An Attempt to Derive the Nature of a Human Building System from First Principles", in The Responsive House, M.I.T. Press,
Cambridge, (1972)
Staff (Surveys), "What Consumers Want in Housing in 1979" (Dec. 78), "What 1980 Buyers Want in Housing" (Dec. 79), "15 Ways to do 1500-Sq. Ft." (Mar. 78), "12 Ways to Plan 1200 Sq. Ft." (Oct. 79), "Custom Homes" (Feb. 81), "This is the House that Women Built" (Jan. 78), Professional Builder, Apartment Business.
Staff, "Second Annual Awards, Innovations in Housing", Progressive Architec-ture, (1979)


BIBLIOGRAPHY (4)
INDIA
Lockwood DEFORREST, Indian Domestic Architecture, Unknown, (1885)
Mildred ARCHER, Indian Architecture and the British, RIBA (Drawing Series), London, (1969)
Fran P. HOSKEN, Kathmandu Valley Towns, Weatherhill, New York, (1974)
Cl~ude BATLEY, Design Development in Indian Architecture, Tiranti, London,
(1954)
Satish GROVER, Architecture of India, Buddhist, and Jain, Hindu, Vikas,
Sahibad (Ind.), (1980)
F. H. DAKHIL et al., Proceedings of the IAHS Conference on Housing Problems in Developing Countries, 1978, Vol. 2, Wiley, New York, (1978)
Vincent A. SMITH, A History of Fine Art in India and Ceylon, Taporvela Sons & Co., Delhi, (1962)
Shanti SWARUP, Arts and Crafts of India and Pakistan, Taporvela Sons & Co., Delhi, (1957)
Nelson I. WU, Chinese and Indian Art, Braziller, New York, (1963)
G. JOUVEAU-DUBREUIL, Dravidian Architecture, Bharat-Bharati, Varanasi, (1917/ 1972)
Francis WATSON, A Concise History of India, Scribners, New York, (1975)
Niharranjan RAY, An Approach to Indian Art, Punjab University, Chandigarh, (1974)
Jaya APPASAMY (Edit.), 25 Years of Indian Art, Painting, Sculpture and Graphics in the Post-Independence Era, Lalit Kala Acadamie, Delhi, (1972)
Ajit MOOKERJEE, Modern Art In India, Oxford Books, Delhi, (1956)
Andraes VOLWAHSEN, Living Architecture, Indian (English edit.), (1969)
Mario BUSSAGI, Oriental Architecture, (1979)
Percy BROWN, Indian Architecture, 2 Vols., Taporvela Sons & Co., Bombay
Rowland BENJAMIN, The Art and Architecture of India, Oxford, Hammondsworth, (1959)
Allan CAIN, Farroukh AFSHAR, John NORTON, Mohammad-REZA, various papers on indigenous housing, The Development Workshop, Tehran,
A.K. CHATTERLEE, Contemporary Urban Architecture, A Study of Bombay,
Macmillan of India, (1977)


BIBLIOGRAPHY (5)
John DONAT (Edit.)/ World Architecture 3, (1966)
C.P. KUKREJA, Tropical Architecture, Tata McGraw, New Delhi, (1980)
Staff, "India", Architectural Review, December 1971
Harry WEESE, "Bombay", Baumeister June 1974
Staff, "Urban Villages for India", "Ekistics", August 1967
Amos RAPOPORT, "Sacred Space in Primitive and Vernacular Architecture", Liturgical Arts, February 1968
David SOPHER, "Landscapes and Seasons, Man and Nature in India", Landscape, Spring 1964.
Sten NILSSON, "Europeisk Arkitektur i Indiskt Klimat", Arkitektur, No. 1,
1967, p. 23
Anthony KING, "The Bungalow", Parts 1 and 2, Architecture Association Quarterly, Vol. 3, No. 5 and 6, 1973
Amos RAPOPORT, "Some Perspectives on Human Use and Organization of Space", Architecture Association Quarterly, Vol. 3, No. 5, 1973, p. 27.
Nicolas LICCIARDELLO, Auroville in India, City of Continuous Childhood, (English Summary), Domus, Marzo, 1976
Subash CHAKRAVARTY, "Letter from Chandigarh", Architecture Plus, 1974
Romi KHOSLA, "Rebuilding a Village", Youth Times, February 3, 1978
William WURSTER, Catherine B. WURSTER, "Row House Vernacular and High Style Modern", Architectural Record, August 1958
Uttam C. JAIN, "Modern Architecture in India", Indian Institute of Architects Journal, January 1971
Charles CORREA, "3 in Ahmedabad", Indian Institute of Architects Journal,
July 1967
Staff, Work of Charles Correa, Architectural Record, September 1980 Staff, Charles CORREA, "Experience Indienne", Techniques and Architecture, Paris, (1976)
Hansal SHUKLA, "Indian Residential Architecture before the Islamic Period with Reference to Orientation and Modular Site Planning Systems", (1976) Diwakar SHARMA, "Space and its Use in Traditional and Contemporary Dwellings", (1976)
Habib N. CONTRACTOR, "A Study of Old Houses in Ahmedabad", (1968)
H.V. NAGENDRA, "Traditional Dwellings in Southern India", (1976)
Shalini CHHATPAR, "Individual Houses of Ahmedebad in the Last Decade, 1966-1976", (1977)


BIBLIOGRAPHY (6)
H.M. SIDHPURA, "Study of Open Spaces for Middle Size Housing", (1977) Shambubhai B. PATEL, "Study of Technology in Middle Size Housing", (1977)
Bipin R. DESAI, "Study of Spaces within a Dwelling and Their Design Process; for Middle Size Dwellings", (1977)
Rajan B. MEHTA, "Materials, Construction Techniques and Dwelling Form in Ahmedabad City", (1977)
Kautilya J. GANDHI, "An Assessment of House Form and Community Spaces", (1978)
(All above are the theses by students at the Center for Environmental Planning and Technology at Ahmedabad)
Staff, various articles, "Inside, Outside, The Indian Design Magazine",
Bombay


CONSULTANTS AND RESPONDENTS (1)
Many individuals gave advice, assistance and criticism for the study. Instructors at various universities in the U.S., Europe and India gave time and direction to the study. Many architects, designers, engineers and clients gave insight and allowed me to visit their works and their personal residences. Upon completion of the "Control House" design, a package was sent to individuals in the U.S., India, Sri, Lanka, and Indonesia. The package asked for critique of the "Control House" in terms of adaptation to the respondent's location. These responses were precise and timely and shaped the two "typical" designs.
U.S.A. and EUROPE
Mr. Max Steele, College of Environmental Design, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, U.S.A., Advisor
Mr. G.K. Vetter, College of Environmental Design, University of Colorado, Denver, Colorado, Advisor
Dr. Don Woolard, College of Environmental Design, University of Colorado, Denver, Colorado
Mr. Rudolph Bernier, School of Fine Arts, University of Colorado, Boulder Colorado
Mr. and Mrs. O.P. Rourke, Baton Rouge, Louisiana Lesha and Charles Boggs, Boulder, Colorado
Mr. Philip W. Fairey, architect, Florida Solar Energy Center, Cape Canaveral, Florida
Mr. Charles Cromer, Florida Solar Energy Center Mr. Leo Haskins, Jr., Coral Gables, Florida Mr. Rolland Hoverstock, Boulder, Colorado
Mr. Jon Lang, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Mr. William Richter, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas
Ms. Karen Longeteig, Department of State, Embassy, Djkarta
Mr. Michael Sizemore, Sizemore Floyd Architects, Atlanta, Georgia
Mr. Baba Mumtaz, Development Planning Unit, University College, London
Mrs. Janet Pott, London
Dr. Anwer Malik, Developing Countries Branch, Solar Energy Research Institute, Golden, Colorado
Mr. Robert Barlow, Passive Cooling Branch, SERI, Golden, Colorado


CONSULTANTS AND RESPONDENTS (2)
INDIA
Mr. Eric Mall, architect, New Deihi Mr. P.N. Thacker, architect, Bangalore
Mr. E.C. Lineberry, Jr., Foreign Buildings Officer, U.S. Embassy, New Delhi
Mr. B.V. Doshi, architect, Ahmedabad
Mr. H.C. Patel, architect, Ahmedabad
Mr. Kamal Mangaldas, architect, Ahmedabad
Mr. Arvind Pandya, Ahmedabad
Mr. H.V. Nagendra, architect, Ahmedabad
Mr. R. Vasavada, architect, Ahmedabad
Mr. K.C. Jain, architect, Ahmedabad
Mrs. Lavangika Ben Desai, librarian, CEPT, Ahmedabad
Mr. Jitendra Chocksi, architect, Ahmedabad
Mr. Charles Correa, architect, Bombay
Mr. Uttam C. Jain, architect, Bombay
Mr. Manohar Prabhu, engineer, Bangalore
Mrs. N.P. Chandavarkar, architect, Bangalore
Ms. Nalini Krishnamurthy, architect, Bangalore
Ms. Lalita Gamat, Bangalore
Mrs. Romola Chatterjee, Bangalore
Ms. Marcia Fentress, American Institute of Indian Studies, New Delhi
Mr. V.S. Natraj, architect, Madras
Ms. Shashi Ananthanarayan, architect, Madras
Mr. Basu John, engineer, Madras
Mr. V.S. Paremeswaran, engineer, Structural Engineering Research Center, Madras
Mr. and Mrs. M.V. Subbiah, Madras Mrs. D.B. Madan, Madras
Mr. David Noziglia, Program Officer, U.S. Consulate, Madras
Mr. and Mrs. Vasudev, Cholomandel Artists Village
Dr. C.L. Gupta, Tata Energy Research Institute, Pondicherry
Mr. Raj Rewal, architect, New Delhi
Mr. Romi Khosla, architect, New Delhi
Mr. Vasant Kamath, architect, New Delhi


CONSULTANTS AND RESPONDENTS (3)
Mr. Jasbir Sawhney, architect, Siroj Sawhney, New Delhi
Ms. Rosemary Sachdeva, Mr. Jasbir Sachdeva, architects, New Delhi
Mr. John Westley, Program Officer, Agency for International Development,
New Delhi
Mr. J.C. Kapoor, Solar Energy Society of India, New Delhi Mr. Robey Lai, architect, New Delhi
Mr. O.P. Sharma, School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi Mr. Vinod Gupta, School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi Mr. S.P. Bawa, Architect's Associates, Delhi Mr. Achyut Kanvinde, architect, New Delhi Mr. Laurie Baker, architect, Trivandrum
ELSEWHERE
Mr. Hasan-Uddin Khan, architect, Djkarta, Indonesia
Dr. R.H.B. Exell, Asian Institute of Technology, Bangkok, Thailand
Dr. Dennis Harang, Asian Institute of Technology, Bangkok
Mr. Valentine Gunasekera, architect, Colombo, Sri Lanka
Mr.,Andreas Bachmann, Swiss Association for Technical Assistance, Kathmandu Nepal
Mr. G.R. Shakya, BYS, Kathmandu, Nepal
Mr. David Dobreiner, architect, Kathnamdu, Nepal