& ARC lift
"BROOKLYN HEIGHTS TERMINUS"
BROOKLYN HEIGHTS COMMUNITY CENTER AN ARCHITECTURAL THESIS
THE COLLEGE OF DESIGN AND PLANNING
UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT DENVER
In partial ful-fi 11 ment o-f the requirements -for the Degree o-f Master o-f Architecture
VICTOR LIMJUCO GARCIA
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The thesis of VICTOR LIMJUCO GARCIA is approved.
UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT DENVER
TABLE DF CONTENTS:
# Personal Evolution
* Project Evolution 04
* History and Background 13
* Thesis Proposal in H
* Thesis Statement 23
THE PROGRAM: 27 92
* Program Size and Scope 27
* Needs Assessment 30
* Fopul at i on 44
* Cli mate 48
* Zoning 60
* Building Codes 66
THE DESIGN: 93 102
* Site Analysis 93
* The Design 94
THE CONCLUSION: 103 104
BIBLIOGRAPHY: 105 107
PERSONAL EVOLUTION: Allow me to be casual
"Mom, where were you when I needed you?"
I came across this thought ....oh sometime in the middle of the Fall Semester as I attempted to write up this Thesis Program. Believe me, this phrase came across many times before!
It seems as though, as one grows and furthers oneself within his or her own field(s) of interest(s), the more one is confronted with problems and solutions that seem to grow and further themselves as well, (a situation, when experienced, is not exactly comforting to one's nervous system).
A case in point: "Choosing a Thesis Project".
Although parts of my Thesis has long been pre-conceived, (ever since I first completed the first semester of Graduate School), that "queezy" feeling of making "a BIG DECISION" still tingled the surfaces of my spine.
* Peg, (my girlfriend), would be highly impressed if I were to finally finish the Program, (not necessarily "in flying colors");
* Sid, my personal blue-printer back home, (whom I owe a lot in helping me set up my portfolios for applying to Graduate School), would be gravely interested with the results as well;
t my Family in General, (including relatives both here and abroad, legal and illegal, "subversive" and "nonsubversive"), having bet nearly all they have on a "horse" they expect to give a good "show" in the end, would at least be "slightly" interested!;
* my farmer Emplayers/Recommenders, who have put. their reputations "on the line" in writing those
recommendations, would surely be as curious as the rest of the above, (except, none of them have the faintest idea as to what my Thesis Project is all about!);
:# (and finally), that a Thesis Project is basically:
- my last chance to have an "enjoyable" time in
"Academia", before I lay to rest in a more
"sedate" real world;
- the final "testing ground" for my personal abilities as a future Architect/Designer;
- probably one of a number of materials I will be presenting my future Employers/Recommenders;
Having all these in mind, I simply can not ingest the fact that I should be calling on my Mom for help!
But ser i ousl y,...................................
It is, indeed, a very difficult and awkward situation! However, I must approach the problem "appropriately", better yet, I must approach it in a mature and educated manner. Thus, I will conclude this Preface with this piece:
Mine is the pursuit of Architectural Design to its "Completeness". Given the Academic Backgound and other related factors, I am but challenged to bring about "Thoroughness" and "Intelligence" in my designs. With this, I a^m strongly urged to demonstrate my potential to be a furture Architect/Designer.
It seems appropriate to begin with a "thorough"
recollection of the past, (perhaps since that first "mechanical pencil" was sharpened, or beyond). This may require a "sorting out" of events as:
- those "oh so painful moments" of failure, d i ssat isfacti on, incomp1eteness, frustr at i on;
those "oh so glorious-euphoric moments" of success, satisfaction, completion, fun.
Fret not, however! I shall spare you the grief by not enumerating the whole "story board" of events. Nonethe less simply take note that this will serve as "basis"
for my formulation at the various criteria
for the creation of "good" Architecture......
a "good" thesis design.
The borough of Brooklyn, in the city of New York.
The Brooklyn Heights Community, in the 2nd District.
THE SITE: (see site map)
Although irregular in shape, compared to most city blocks, Tax Block 207, (otherwise known as Site E of the Cadman Plaza URA), is bounded by Cadman Plaza West, Henry, Poplar and Hicks Streets. The Area of the site is approximately 55,802 s.f., (1.28 Acres).
It is located just at the northern boundaries of the Brooklyn Heights Community, just across the street from the "anchors" of the great Brooklyn Bridge.
Interest in the site evolved many years ago when, as an undergraduate, I was introduced to a design problem using the same site, but with a different program.
It required the mere relocation of the existing Public School building, F'.S. 8 to the site with added public facilities, perhaps to enhance the fesibility of the project. The program also required the demolition of all existing buildings on the site, (see site map). (It seems Preservation was not a household word then). Due to the very limited time on the project, research on the area and its true characteristics were confined to a minimum.
Many years later, after freshly entering Graduate School, and realizing the growing possibilities of having to decide whta type of Thesis Project one ought to pusue, it dawned on me then that this might be an ideal site for my thesis proj ect.
The richness in History as well as the Character of the area predicated higher levels of enthusiasm.
Earlier visits were concentrated on observations:
* Understanding the existing buildings and their functions;
* Looking out for clues that show "movement"or "trends" that may seem to describe Zoning or Land Use i ntenti ons.
The discoveries were quite intriguing. Despite an obvious area characteristic of Residential/Commercial, (mixed-use), the site and its immediate proximitites seem to contain a range of "institutional" or Public Service types of facilities.
The Elementary School building P.S. 8 is just across the street from the site. Then on the same block, one finds former Police Precinct 84, (now only serving as a training facility for the New York City Police Department). Across Poplar Street, from P.S. 8, one finds the "Orphanage" building, built in the 1880s, perhaps typical age of existing buildings on the site. Two blocks furthe south from the site, one finds Engine Co. 205/Ladder Co. 118.
Although the location of the site may be a bit "decentralized", it may not be a bad location for a Community Center after all. In fact it may enhance a few good things for the community. For one, commercial traffic may increase along the commercial strips of Henry and Hicks Streets due to the Community Centers strategic location, acting as a "terminus". This will bring some increased revenue as well as social activities to a once isolated area due to its proximity from Montague Street, the main commercial spine of the community. The feed of commercial traffic from Montague Street will happen naturally since both Hicks and Henry Streets do intersect it. Thus there is great potential for a "natural" connection among focal points.
Furthermore, the Zoning resolution itself encourages the location of Community facilities in or around residential areas. With few exceptions, these uses need a residential environment to function most efficiently, (or vice versa?). Thus there is no problem with Zoning.
Further observations indicate that the Brooklyn Heights Community is in fact in need of a community facility. For one, recreational facilities are scattered all over. In
fact the YMCA an Joraleman Street has a minimal amount. o-f facilities that most of their recreational programs are held in di-f-ferent locations, ie. St.Francis College gymnasium for swimming, basketball, etc. Most community meetings are also scattered throughout the community and held in governmental/institutional buildings. So Why not offer them a specific place people can identify with as a symbol of their community?
Perhaps this possible "lack" of Community facilities is one of the major reasons why the local population has been declining in past few cencuses, (see Population). The lack of Community" image as well as recreational facilities may contributed to the passible decline of morale of the commun i ty.
The proposed Community Facility will serve the Brooklyn Heights Community for the most part. However, Some parts of the facility will serve tourists and other outside parties as will be seen in the F'ropsal The Proposal will indicate an ARCHIVAL/HISTOPIC DISPLAY facility which may entail an influx of non-residents in the area. Nonetheless, this facility will be isolated from the rest of the Community facilities which, by the way, also may attract nonresidents.
The proposed Community facility will serve the populace of the Brooklyn Heights Community, which is 22,646, with a projected "user" population of roughly 50% or 11,000.
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HISTORY AND BACKGROUND:
With the openning of terry service between Manhattan and Brooklyn in the early lBOO's, wealthy traders and shipowners seel"ing a change from the bustle of 1 ower Manhattan made Brooklyn Heights a "suburban retreat". The built large homes with expansive gardens. By 1890, there was scarcely a vacant lot remaining in the Heights. It was one of the wealthiest communities in the nation.
The openning of the Brooklyn Bridge and the new elevated transit service at the end of the century brought more residents to the area. But. it was not until 1908 with construction of the IRT, (Inter-borough Rapid Transit subway system), that a substantial migration occurred.
White-collar workers, discovering a pleasant haven just 10 minutes from downtown Manhattan offices, chose the Heights as a home. Successful writers and artists were also prominent citizens of Brooklyn Heights since the 1900's. The character of the neighborhood changed, but many old families remained.
As the neighborhood aged and other sections of the city grew, many Brooklyn Heights homes were converted into apartments, or rooming houses which attracted lower-income residents. After World War II, the area was re-discovered by the "upwardly mobile young adults" who rejected the suburbs and regarded Brooklyn Heights as a desirable alternative to Manhattan's scarce and expensive apartments.
They restored or remodeled old homes, and their enthusiasm
contributed to the areas sense of pride and prestige.
Dur i ng t.he 1960 s, wer r erievel oped
funded through the A t t he sa me time, c o n s t r u c t e d i n t h e
the streets north and east of the Heights with high-rise, middle-income housing City and Federal urban renewal programs.
several modern municipal buildings were Civic Center, also east of the Heights.
The desirability of the Heights is due to both its ambience and its excellent location. Subways link the Heights both with the east, and west sides of Manhattan and the rest. of Brooklyn. Major traffic. routes surround the Heights, insulating it as well as adding to its accessabi1ity. The result is a quiet residential enclave that is largely self-contained; virtually al1 shopping and household needs can be filled within the Heights.
Brooklyn Heights was designated as an Historic District. in 1965 by the Landmarks Preservation Commission. The intimate streets, the well maintained brownstones and the quiet charm of Brooklyn Heights foster a sense of community awareness, and well being. Residents keep close watch on new construction or renovation which might violate the neighborhood's Historic character.
Source: National Endowment for the Arts; Montague Street
Revitalization; New York, New York; Department, of City' Planning; 1976.
The city of New York invites development proposals -for Site E o-f the Cadman Plaza Urban Renewal Area. The Cadman Plaza URA is comprised o-f six <6) sites, A through F. Construction of new multifamily residences on Sites A through D, (see Exhibit B), has been completed, and Site F contains recently converted residential lo-fts.
Site E is a piartially cleared site with seven remaining buildings. The Redevelopment Plan calls -for new and
rehabilitated residential construction, a recreation area,
be enumerated in the intention to alter this propose, instead, a Community Center as a parts: a) Health and
and required parking, (as will following pages). However, it is my "original" Redevelopment Plan and Community Center in its place. The whole will contain four (4) basic Recreational Facility; b) Community Meeting Facility; c) Archival/Historic Display Facility; and d) Social Services Facility. Health and Recreational, Community Meeting, and Archi val/Hi stor i c E>isplay will predominantly be new
construction with possibly some existing buildings requiring their demolition due facility buildings may not satisfy.
Facilities will take place b u i 1 d i n g s.
spatial needs such While the Social in the remaining
ex 1sti ng Servi ce ex i sti ng
On the basis of proposals submitted, the city will select a developer to assume sole responsibility for the completion of the entire site, (Site E). All construction and rehabilitation' is to be privately financed without governmental rent subsidies.
The Development must conform to the provisions of the Urban Renewal Plan, and the Zoning Resolution. Ammendment of the Urban Renewal Plan to provide for this development. is subject for approval by the Board of Estimate. The boundaries of the Cadman F'laza URA are shown on the Land Use Plan, (Exhibit B).
The site is within the Brooklyn Heights Historic District. All plans for new and rehabilitated construction are subject to the approval of the Landmarks and Preservation Commission.
Site E of the Cadman Plaza URA, (Block 207), Cadman Plaza West, Henry, Poplar, and Hicks Area o-f the site? is approximately 55,802 s.-f., The site configuration and permitted uses are Site Plan, (Exhibit. A).
is bounded by Streets. The (1.28 Acres), shown on the
The Topography of the site is described as "sloping", with an approximated grade change of 8 to 10 feet from the highest to the lowest point, (from Poplar Street, which may be assumed to be the "highest." point, down to the corner of Hicks and Cadman Plaza West, which may be assumed to be the "lowest" point). (see Topiographic Survey Map for more accurate gradient data, which may be found under the heading: BASE MAPS).
A Soils Test. Report has not been acquired as of yet, but will be included in this report prior to the beginning of the Spring Semester.
SCOPE AND LIMITS OF THE PROJECT:
THE CRITERIA FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF SITE E ARE AS FOLLOWS:
A. UNIFIED DEVELOPMENT:
The entire block must be developed as an entire unit. Special emphasis will be based on this criterion. The developer will be required to complete all parts of the development within a specified period as described below as interrelated parts of an overall plan for devel op mien t.
It was originally requested by the Urban Renewal Plan that all existing buildings are to be rehabi1itated for residential use, and compatible uses permitted by the Zoning Resolution, (for Use Groups 2 and 3). A Community Facility falls under the "compatible uses" category thus deeming it compatible with respect to Zoning regulations. In the event that rehabilitation of these existing buildings takes place, no exterior enlargement, of these buildings will be permitted.
47-53 Poplar St. 5 Story Sri ck 777 >i 259 9845 s. f
57-61 Poplar St. 4 Story Br i c k 56 r. O o ***i 21,780 s. f
79 Poplar St. 4 Story Brick 75 x 80x 115 5188 s. f
03 Poplar St. 4 Story Bri ck 75x 80x 115 7030 s. f
100 Cadman Plaza* 5 Story Br i c k 75x 80x 115 7037 s. f
104 Cadman Plaza* 4 Story Br i c k 75x 80x 115 5744 s. f
106 Cadman Plaza* 4 Story Brie k 75x 80x 115 8316 s. f
* There may be plane to demolish these buildings in the event that -further Design Development requires such action, (primarily due to possible non conformity with the requirements of the facilities. Thus, new construction will take its place.
C. NEW CONSTRUCTION:
The Cadman Plaza LIRA requires new construction on Poplar Street, between the former "Orphanage", at 57-61 Poplar Street, to 79 Poplar Street. This construction is to form a continuous street frontage from 79 Poplar-Street to a point 30 feet from the "Orphanage", is to be built from close to the street line, and is not to be over 50 feet or 5 stories in height, whichever is less. However, due to Land Use alterations for this thesis project, such parameters may not be strictly enforced. Ammendments of the Urban Renewal Plan and of the Zoning Resolution may be required for this particular project, which I feel may not end up being a big issue at all. In fact, the following paragraphs do show that the IJRA seem receptive in terms of better ideas in approaching the problem.
If the developer feels that a different location is preferable, and alternate plan may be submitted in addition to his or her design for the required location, but the height limitation will apply and the total bulk must not be greater than that of the Poplar Stret?t conf ;i gurat ion.
The new buildings shall be of good contemporary design but must harmonize in scale, materials and character with the predominantly townhouse character o-f the vicinity. There is no limitation on total zoning rooms on the block, (both new and rehabilitated construction), other than the above bulk limits imposed by the Zoning Reso1ut i on.
Parking shall be in accordance with the requirements of the Zoning Resolution. All parking spaces shall be developed below the level of Poplar Street with access from the northern side of the block. The parking space should be covered with a landscaped deck. If it can be demonstrated that the deck is not feasible, the Housing and Preservation Development Board will consider as an alternative, complete screening over and around the parking area.
However, there is potential of using the park across Cadman Plaza West as an alternative parking area, if the Design Development merits it, specially when the Land Use program has recently been altered from Residential to a Community Center.
The developer is to provide and maintain a play area of at least 5000 s.f. at Hicks Street, accessible from Poplar Street, for Community and School use. The F'Lay area is to be designed for use of younger children, and is to be fenced and gated; it will remain open to the community during agreed daylight hours, but may be locked at night.
The retraining site area, other than that needed for circulation or any of the above mentioned uses, will be landscaped with ample planting. Screening with densely planted trees is necessary along the northern edge of the block.
CADMAN PLAZA URA-SiteE
Exhibit A: Site Di^gr arp
Scae in Feet 20 C~
the sum of its parts.
There are three major components. I -feel, are important to the development of "good" Architecture. They are:
It 'is absolutely important -for me to clearly project my architectural intentions in the project.
This could probably be best achieved by starting -from the outside, then working myself in.
The publics over-al1 perception of the project is primary, since it is, after-all, a Community Center an entity designed to facilitate the growing community needs. It is therefore important to project the character of the
community its "spirit" and "vitality".
The term "public building" or "public complex" is to be considered as well. For unlike other facilities in the vicinity that are more "exclusive" and more specialized", the entire development must maintain its imagery as a "welcoming" domain.
Due to limited services, however, it. should also be made clear that the Community Center is only limited to serve the local community. Thus it should still be "welcoming" but at the same time, somewhat selective.
This project, further entails a "multi-functional" complex. It is in fact a "diverse" piece of development. The "articulation" of the various activities may be successfully achieved through the appropriate use of "fragmentation". Yet one must still be conscious about maintaining that "unity among those "resultant" parts.
The positioning of all these parts is also important. It is inevitable to understand the important, factors that dictate their location as well as orientation, (be they Environmental, Human, or Physical); and to articulate that understanding through "cogent" architecture.
As Architects, the education at the public through our works should come natural. Thus the clear expression of the ^important issues that govern the design must be evident in the design.
It is my -firm belief that these important issues do dictate the over-all design of the project, (perhaps similar to the shapes and forms of nature that seemed to have designed for a function and, inorder to maintain that function ought be designed for the exterior forces that may affect it as wel 11
As soon as the functions have clearly been synthesized, then prioritized, the next task is to integrate all the parts into one cohesive whole.
It < ought. be expressed through Circulation and Processi on.
Circulation is what connects all functions together. It
is vital to the success of the over-all "schema" of the parts.
Once the fundamentals of Circulation is understood, and appropriately applied, then one attains a "working whole".
In a sense, Circulation is the "spine" of the whole devel opmerit.
It ought be expressed through level and height changes, volumes and surfaces, forms and light.
It creates rythmic variations causing curiosity and interest. It strengthens the medium of Circulation, (as long as its basic understanding is maintained and applied properly, thus strengthening the composition of the whole.
It. ought be? the integration of space function with its typology; and from there, the integration of the typology with its immediate surroundings.
Contextualism, with its proper understanding is vital at this point. It. is the understanding of what exists or may exist around you that affects one's decisions on matters such as: Contrast or Harmony; Dichotomy or Co-ex i stence.
Once a choice has been made, then one may get down to its parts. Through structure, fenestration,and other decorative elements, the understanding of Contextualism could be expressed. Their function, size, density, and intensity reflect either of the value judgements that could be made above. Thus the parts reflect the whole, while the whole reflects the Contextual character of the Area.
Understanding the "evolution" of a place, (its historical background), is essential for the proper integration of the project with the "macrocosm".
Most areas with a long line of history within them seem to present a firm base for "architectural vocabulary". There usually exists a "Vernacular" that. seems to set the parameters of the development. Its proper understanding and application is essential. The Community' and its character have to be understood as well; for it is "character^ that tends to be reflected in the over-all composition.
Thus, the Site must contain the "spirit" of the Area.
Once the project is in built form, it. is to reflect the "forces", (issues) with which it is exposed. There are? three factors essential to this process. They' are: Human Factors, Physical Factors and External Factors.
The Human and the Physical Factors are usually reflected in the interior composition of the project.
Where as the external -factors seem to be reflected in the exterior the over-all "massing" and composition of the development.
Thus, the Project must contain the "spirit" of the Site.
This is a direct, expression of the purpose of the facility, and the needs of its users. Their sizes and forms reflect the dgree and intensity of the demand, (Human Factors). Thus it is important to understand the relationship between them, (Physical Factors), direct or indirect. It is indeed a reflection of the system as a whole. Once clearly expressed, you have the beginnings of "good" architecture.
Thus, the Functions must contain the "spirit" of the Proj ect.
The parts, ie. structure,/fenestration, and other decorative elements, are connecting devices. They are the "words" with which the architect communicates. They reflect inner activity and intensity. They link the facility users to the whole complex.
Thus, the Parts must contain the "spirit" of the Whole.
PROGRAM SIZE AND SCOPE:
THIS THESIS PROJECT IS DIVIDED INTO TWO SEGMENTS:
* REHABILITATIVE CONSTRUCTION (FUTURE)
* NEW CONSTRUCTION (THESIS PROJECT)
I. REHABILITATIVE CONSTRUCTION (FUTURE):
A. Will pertain to existing structure that will be renovated for "adaptive re-use". Though previously designed as housing structures, (or their equivalent), these buildings will be dedicated to SOCIAL SERVICE ACTIVITIES.
B. The segment of REHABILITATIVE CONSTRUCTION however, will not be covered in this thesis project. Instead, a more "speculative user list" will be briefly enumerated to help pre-determine the "potential users" of the said segment.
C. The "potential users" are as follows:
* Day Care Center/Head Start
* Income Maintenance Center/Food Stamp Center
* Social Security
* Employment Training
* Income Assisted Population Programs such as:
- Aid to Dependent Children;
- Aid to Dependent Children with unemployed Heads of Household;
- Home Relief or Veterans Assistance;
- Supplementary Security Income.
II. NEW CONSTRUCTION (THESIS PROJECT):
A. Will pertain to structure that has not existed in the site prior to the selection of the site.
B. The segment of NEW CONSTRUCTION may also include
existing structures that will be integrated with NEW CONSTRUCTION, (or vice-versa), functionally,
structural 1y, as well as aesthetically.
C. The segment of NEW CONSTRUCTION will cover three activities:
1) HEALTH AND RECREATION
2) COMMUNITY MEETING
3) ARCHIVAL/HISTORIC DISPLAY
1)HEALTH AND RECREATION:
- Will be subdivided into three categories:
a) ATHLETIC FACILITIES
b) SUPPORT FACILITIES
c) ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICES
* Swimming Pool
* Basketbal1/Vol1eybal1 Crts. 7000 s.f.
* Running Track 4500 s.f.
% Locker Room/Showers M/F
# Sauna M/F
# Game Room
# Exercise Room ( Nautilus
600 s.f. 1000 s.f. 1000 s.f.
* Information/Reception Ctr 400 s. f
* Athletic Director 200 s. f
Secretary 100 s. f
* First Aid/Clinic 200 s. f
* 3 Offices for Facility
Directors, a> 150 s.f. 450 s. f
* Small Conference Rm. 200 s. f
* Lecture Rm. 400 s. f
# Restrooms M/F, S) 100 s.f. 200 s. f
* Mai ntenance/Storage 100 s. f
* Cateri ng/Vendi ng 500 s. f
Lecture Hall/Meeting Room Lobby Entrance/Display Over-flow Area/Lounge/Vending Restrooms M/F 5) 225 s.f.
Hall Mgr.s O-f-fice
4000 s.-f. 500 s.-f. 300 s.-f. 450 s.-f. 200 s.-f. 100 s.-f. 100 s.f.
SUB-TOTAL (2) 5650 s.-f.
* Ex hi bi tion/Lobby 2500 s. f
* Archival Director 225 s. f
If Assistant Director 150 s. f
* Archi ves/Readi ng 700 s. f
* Restrooms M/F 5) 100 s.f. 200 s. f
SUB-TOTAL (3) 4175 s.-f.
FACILITIES SUB-TOTAL 38,305 s.-f.
MECH/ELEC/CIRCULATI ON S> 157. 5745 s.-f.
BUILDINGS GRAND TOTAL 44,050 s.-f.
(for 20 cars) 4000 s.f.
IV. OUTDOOR RECREATION:
# Playground (as required by the URA, ie. for the
use of F'.S. 8). 5000 s.f.
COMMUNITY CENTER GRAND TOTAL 53,050 s.f
HEALTH AND RECREATION:
1 ) FUNCTION: (refer to PROGRAM sheets -for sizes) # Dedicated Rooms and Spaces -for
a) Swimming Pool (indoor)
b) Basketbal1/Vol1eybal1 Courts (indoor)
c) Running Track (indoor)
* Running Track may be physically integrated with Basketbal1/Vol1eybal1 Courts by change of elevation.
All three activities will have direct access to Locker Room/Showers.
* Vi si tor/Spectator facility areas to be provided for Basketbal1/Vol1eybal1 Courts and Swimming Pool.
* Clear environmental zone separation between Swimming and Basketbal1/Vol1eybal1-Running Track required, ie. Swimming Pool area to be an isolated environment with its own HVAC Systems.
* Spectator Stands (movable/storable)
* Volleyball Equipment (storable)
* Fixed Basketball fixtures
* Swimming Pool Equipment:
- Diving Boards
- Starting Blocks (storable)
- Floating Lines (storable)
- Life-Saving Equipment/Cleaning Equipment (storable)
# Daylighting for all activities important but not cruci al.
* Strict zone separation between Swimming Pool and Basketbal 1/Vol 1 eybal 1-Running Track, areas crucial!
* Access to First-Aid Clinic (-from 11 i mportant
* Security important
acti vi ti es)
t Accesses and Egresses (number and location) important
HEALTH AND RECREATION:
l)FUCTION:(refer to PROGRAM sheets for sizes) # Dedicated Rooms/Spaces for:
a) Locker Room/Showers M/F
b) Sauna M/F
c) Game Room
d) Exercise Room (Nautilus)
t Locker Room/Showers shall be the only access to athletic activities, (for facility users).
* Vi si tor/Spectator access through Information/Reception
t Information/Reception Area will serve as "screen" for Game Room facilities as well.
* No direct access from Exercise Room to Sauna, (and vi ce-versa).
* No direct access from Game Room to Locker Room/Shower, (and vice-versa)
* There may be direct access from Game Room to Catering/Vending, (and vice-versa).
* Locker Room/Showers Equipment (standard)
* Exercise Room Equipment (satndard)
* Sauna Equipment (standard)
* Game Room Equipment/Furniture (standard)
* Cater i ng/Vendi ng Equi pment./Furni ture (standard)
- Vending Machines
- Some tables/chairs
- Future capabilities for a "Kitchenette" with:
# Small Freezer/Refrigerator
# Micro-wave Overt, etc.
# Sma 11 Ki tc:hen sink .
* Game Roam and Cateri ng/Vending may be combined as a whole.
* There must be visual contact of Game Room and Catering/Vending from the Information/Reception Area.
* Game Room and Catering/Vending may be more frequently used as Public Restrooms, thus it be best to put them on the ground or lower/more accessible floor.
t More sanitary/hygenic to keep Sauna and Exercise Room inaccessible from one another.
* Security very important, specially in the Locker Room/ Shower Area.
* Sound Control between activities very important.
* Accesses and Egresses (location and Number) important.
* Energy efficiency an issue.
HEALTH AND RECREATION:
1)FUNCTION:(refer to PROGRAM sheets for sizes) Dedicated Rooms/Spaces for:
a.) Inf ormat i on/Recept i on Counter
b) Facility Director (office)
c) Administrative Assistant
d) Swimming Director
e) Basketbal1/Vol1eybal1 Director
f) Running Track Director
g) First-Aid Clinic
h> Small Conference Room
i) Lecture Room
j) Restrooms M/F
# Inf ormat i on/Recepti on Counter serves as main access t.o al 1 faci1iti es.
# Visual and physical control over incoming and outgoing
facility users, (be it Athletic, Support, or
Administration Offices), important for the
t The Administrative Secretary will serve as "screen for the Facility Director as well as the other three Athletic Directors, besides doing clerical work.
# Activity Directors will have frequent contact with the Facility Director.
# Restrooms and Leeture/Conference Rooms must be
accessible from Information/Reception Area
# Maintenance Room must be accessible to Information/Reception Area.
f r on
* Office Elquipment (standard)
- Computer Terminals
- Office? Furniture
- Photocopy Machine
- File Cabinets, etc.
* Maintenance Equipment
* Restroom Facilities
* Administration Offices will be requiring privacy. "Screening" may be required prior to entry of the area, (via the Admi ni strat. i ve Secretary) .
* Small Conference/Lecture Rooms to be accessible to the general public.
* Restrooms also to be accessible to the general public.
* Sound Control important between the Administrative Offices and the public areas.
* Handicapped Access an issue.
1)FUNCTIONS:(refer to PROGRAM sheets for sizes) # Dedicated Rooms/Spaces for:
a) Lecture Hall/Meeting Room
b) Lobby Entrance/Disp1 ay
c) Overflow Area/Lounge/Vending/Kitchenette
d) Restrooms M/F
e) Hall Manager (office)
f) Assistant Manager (office)
* Direct access to the Lecture Hall from the Lobby/Display Area.
% The Overflow Area may be openned or closed from the Lecture Hall/Meeting Room if needed. But a separate access from the Lobby/Display Area must be facilitated.
* Assistant Manager will serve as "screening device" from the1 public that may wish to see the Hall Manager.
* The Hall Managers Office will have direct access to the Lecture Hall/Meeting Room without going through the Lobby/Dispaly Area.
* Direct. access from the Lobby/Di spl ay Area to the Restrooms.
* Maintenance must be located close to the Restroom and Lobby/Disp1 ay Area.
# Lecture Hall Furniture (storable)
* Office Equipment, (standard)
* Restroom Equipment, (standard)
# Maintenance Equipment (standard)
>f! Kitchenette Facilities:
- Small Fiefrigerator
* Overflow Area may serve as: furniture storage, etc.
* Privacy required in Hall Managers Office.
* Accesses and Egresses important.
* Handicapped Access an issue.
* Sound Control an issue
* Overflow Area must have "kitchenette facilities". It must be a separate room from the Lecture Hal 1/Meeting Room but may be joined with it if needed.
1)FUNCTION:(refer to PROGRAM sheets for sizes) Dedicated Rooms/Bpaces -for:
a.) Ex h i b i t i on/Lobby
b) Archival Director (of f ice)
c) Assistant Director (office)
d) Archi ves/Reading
e) Observation Deck
f) Restrooms M/F
* Visual contact of Exhibition/Lobby from Assistant Director's Office important.
* The public will be "screened" before seeing the Archival Director by the Assistant Director.
* Access to Restroom from Exhibition/Lobby Area.
* Provide ample Reading Room in the Archives.
* Archives may be sparate from the Exhibition/Lobby Area.
* There will be direct access to the Observation Deck from the Exhibition/Lobby Area.
* Library Equipment (standard)
- Bookshelves (full height and crafted)
- Push Carts
-- Cabinets/Map Files, etc.
- Micro-film, etc.
* Office Equipment (standard)
- F'hotocopy Machine
* Daylighting an issue.
* Sound Control an issue, (specially -from the exterior)
* Handicapped access an issue.
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POPULATION TRENDS:(see chart 1)
* All data based on 1970 and 1975 Census.
# Despite an apparent increase i.n National Population, there has been a marked decrease in the State and Local scenes:
New York State as a whole having a o.97. decrease, (not so bad with respect, to the National Average).
- What is interesting is the significant decline with the "local" areas:
* The city of New York alone has a decline percentage of 3.57. (from 7.9 million to 7.6 million thus a migration of approximately
200.000 between the two census years).
# While the borough of Brooklyn has a decline
percentage of 4.77. (from 2.6 million to 2.5 million thus a migration of approximately
100.000 between the two census years).
As one boils down to the Brooklyn Heights
area, (otherwise known as Health Area No. 23, as well as Census Tract. No.'s 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9), population estimates show a considerable decline percentage of 6.3% (from 26,671 in 1975 down to approximately 25,000 by 1977).
DEMOGRAPHIC STUDY:(see chart 2)
* The breakdown of the Population Characteristics are as follows: (for definition of the Characteristics, see Appendix ).
- The borough of Brooklyn, with a population of approximately 2,602,012 has a breakdown of:
puerto rican: 117.
(Health Area No. 23, or Census Tract No.'s 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9 have the same percentage distribution).
with a population of
The. Brooklyn Heights area, 2,646 has a breakdown of:
non-whi te: 67.
puerto rican: 37.
The Breakdown in Age:
* borough of Brooklyn:
<5 yrs. 107.
5-12 yrs. 137.
13-37 yrs. 1/.
18-24 yrs. 97.
25-44 yrs. 277.
45-64 yrs. 247.
65+ yrs. 107.
* Brooklyn Heights: 7.
<5 yrs. 57.
5-12 yrs. 57.
13-17 yrs. 47.
18-24 yrs. 157.
25-44 yrs. 357.
45-64 yrs. 227.
65+ yrs. 147.
The Breakdown in Household Composition:
% borough of E
Primary Individuals: 227.
# Brooklyn Heights:
Brook 1yn: Brooklyn Hts.
Brooklyn: Efrooklyn Hts.
Brooklyn: Brooklyn Hts.
Brook1yn: Brooklyn Hts.
under $5K $5K-$1OK *10K-*15K 415K+
24% 33% 24% 19%
: 1 1 % 19% 25% 45%
Elementary H.S. College No-School
34% 49% 13% 4%
: 14% 32% 53% 1%
in Housing Occupancy:
Rent Occ. Owner Occ. Vacant
74% 23% 3%
: 84% 12% 4%
Clerical Pro-f. Mgr./fidm. Sales Other
28% 12% 6% 7% 46%
: 22% 45% 11 % 7% 15%
NARRATIVE CLIMATOLOGICAL SUMMARY:
New York City, in area exceeding 300 square miles, is loctaed on the Atlantic coastal plain at the mouth of the Hudson River. The terrain is diversified by numerous waterways; all but one of the citys five boroughs are situated on islands. Elevations range from less than 50 feet over most of Manhattan, Brooklyn and Queens to almost 300 feet in the northern Manhattan and the Bronx, and over 400 feet in Staten Island. Extensive suburban areas on Long Island and in Connecticut., New York State and New Jersey boarder the city on the east, north, and west. About 30 (rules to the west and northwest, hills rise to about 1500 feet and to the north in upper Westchester County to 800 feet. To the southwest and to the east, are low-lying land areas of the New Jersey coastal plain and of Long Island, whose south shore boarders on the Atlantic.
The New York Metropolitan area is close to the path of most frontal systems which move across the North American continent. Therefore, weather conditions affecting the city most often approach from a westerly direction. New York City can thus experience higher temperatures in summer and lower ones in winter than would otherwise be expected in a coastal area. However, the frequent passage of weather systems often helps reduce the length of both warm and cold spells, and is also a major factor in keeping periods of prolonged air stagnation to a minimum.
Although continental influence predominates, oceanic influence is by no means absent. During the summer, local sea breezes winds blowing onshore from the cool water surface often moderate the afternoon heat. As would be expected, the effect of the sea breeze diminishes inland. On winter mornings, ocean temperatures are often 10 to 20 degrees lower in thew inland suburbs than in the central city. The relatively warm water temperatures also delay the advent of winter snows and make heavy snowfalls rare before late December. Conversely the lag in warming of water temperatures keeps spring temperatures relatively cool. One year round measure of the oceans influence is the small average daily variation in temperature; another is the average length of the frost.-free season more than 200 days.
Frecipi tat i on is moderate and distributed -fairly evenly throughout the year. Most o+ the rainfall from May through October comes from thunderstorms. It is therefore usually of brief duration and sometimes intense. Heavy rains of long duration associated with tropical storms occur infrequently in late summer or fall. For the other months of the year, precipitation is more likely to be associated with widespread storm areas, so that day-long rain, snow or a mixture of both is more common. Precipitation accompanying winter storms sometimes starts as snow, later changes to rain most often in the fall and winter months, produce on occasion considerable amounts of precipi tation and have been resposible for record rains, snows, and high winds.
The Average annual precipitation is reasonably uniform within the city but is higher in the norhtern and western suburbs and less on eastern Long Island, reflecting the influence of the ocean waters. Relative humidity averages about the same over the metropolitan area except again that the immediate coastal area are more humid than inland 1ocations.
Source: NQAA, Local Cl i matol ogi cal Data: Annual Summary with Comparative Data.
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BLOCK 207 (SITE E):
Site E of the Cadman Plaza LIRA (Block 207) is bounded by Cadman Plaza West, Henry, Poplar, and Hicks Streets. The Area of the site is appro;; i matel y 55,802 s.f.,
ZONING DESIGNATION: R-B
USE DESIGNATION: RESIDENTIAL
PROPOSED DESIGNATION: COMMUNITY CENTER
High density apartments; 185 to 220 units per acre.
FAR: (Floor Area Ratio)
4.88 to 6.02 (appro;-: i matel y 2/3 greater than that allowed in R-7).
Provided for only 407. of the new dwelling units, (because these districts are served by mass transi t).
MINIMUM 0SR: (Open Space Ratio) 8.0 to 10.7
LOT AREA PER ROOM:
53 to 45 s.f.
ROOMS PER ACRE:
822 to 968 rooms/'acre
LOCAL COMMUNITY FACILITIES:
Perform services -for the neighborhoods surrounding them. Elementary and Secondary' Schools, Libraries, Health Centers, Medical Offices, Churches, Community Centers, Settlement Houses, and Non-Commercial Clubs provide essential services to residents and must be located near them in order to perform efficiently.
While some Schools, Churches, Clubs, and Libraries obviously serve more than the surrounding community, it is generally agreed that they exist primarily to enrich the residential community. Most of these facilities operate on a non-profit basi s.
SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR COMMUNITY FACILITIES:
The Zoning Resolution has generally encouraged the location of Community Facilities in Residential areas. With few exceptions, these uses need a residential environment to function most efficiently. They can usually be placed in residential community without creating objectionable conditions.
However, most Community Facilities would not be able to locate in most residential districts if the same size controls were imposed on them as on the residential buildings in the district. A School, Church, Hospital, or College must be a certain size to operate efficiently, even in low density, low bulk zones. Applying the Residential Floor Area Ratio would require Community Facilities to purchase significantly larger sites in most zones. Assembling large sites in New York City is both difficult and expensive, creating a hardship on institutions the city needs and wants. Also, since most Community Facilities are tax excempt governmental or voluntary institutions, larger sites would cause more land to be removed from tax rolls, raising taxes on all other property owners.
For these reasons, the 1961 Zoning Resolution the builder of a Community' Facility to erect a larger structure than a Residential developer in the same size zoning lot in the same zone. In Zoning language, Community Facilities receive a Floor Area Ratio Bonus:
COMMUNITY FAC. FAR
Highly complex Based on:
* Different establishments have different needs.
* The density of development.
* The availability of Mass Transportation
- The site is located in a high density, and low auto ownership area. This may also be qualified as a "congested central area" due to its proximity with Downtown Brooklyn. Thus Public Transportation to and from the area is not a problem. (see Appendix for Transportation information).
- But due to the size of the establishment. Auxiliary Parking may be inevitable. However, its regulation will be f1 ex i b1e.
- As for Facility Parking it will be proposed that. it be located in the park opposite the site, (across Cadman F'laza West, at the foot of the Brooklyn Bridge). The lot is currently being used for Highway Department Equipment, storage and parking.
Existing mid-bloc k development in Manhattan \ Upper East Side is zoned Rs Lok Buildings are Rfi in hulk
MULTI-USE FACILITY WITH OCCUPANCIES FOR:
OCCUPANCY GROUP CLASS TYPES
STORAGE B-2 Store Rooms Public Garages (Group 2)
BUSINESS E Civic Admi ni strati on Bui 1di ngs Nei ghborhood Family Care Centers
ASSEMBLY F-lb Lecture Halls Sports Arenas
ASSEMBLY F2 Grand Stands B1eachers
ASSEMBLY F3 Ex h i b i t i on Hal Is Gal 1eri es Gymnasi urns Museums
ASSEMBLY F4 Billiard Pariors Cateteri a Snack Bar
EDUCATIONAL G Li brari es
OCCUPANCY GROUP DESCRIPTION: GROUP B-2:
* Storage of non-combustible materials and materials that do not ordinarily burn rapidly.
* Classified as transacting business.
* For rendering professional services.
* For performing other commercial services that may incidentally involve the storage of limited quantities of stocks of goods for office use or purposes.
* For prosecuting public or civic services.
* During occupancy, the persons assembled or seated or otherwise passive audience to a performance or presentation, and have their
attraction focused in a common direction or at c.ommon subj ect..
* Buildings or spaces in which scenery and scenic elements are not used.
t Same as F-lb, except.: it must include outdoor spaces and structures.
* Buildings or spaces in which the person assembled are physically active and do not have a common center.
* Buildings or spaces in which persons assembled for dancing or -for the consumption of -food and drink, or -for any combination of dancing, eating, drinking, or entertainment.
t When persons occupy them for instruction or other educational purposes except those spaces occupied as aplace of assembly, ie. GROUP Fs.
* Buildings or spaces used for care or treatment of persons with physical limitations because of health or age, but does not include "full service" medical or dental faci1ities/offices.
t Temporary structures or the like.
% Minor occupancies not classified in any occupancy group.
CONSTRUCTION CLASS: (to be determined in later phases of
ANTICIPATED CONSTRUCTION CLASS: I-B (3-HR F.R.R.)
FIRE DEPARTMENT ACCESS:
* 8"/. o-f the total perimeter of the building
fronting directly upon the street or frontage space, (minimum).
a) "Above Grade"-Access from the outdoors to each story below a height of 100 feet., by at least one (1) window or readily identifiable access panel within each 50 feet of horizontal length of the frontage.
windows openable or breakable (inside-out ) ;
9 minimum openning: 24" W X 36" H; a) when openned, minimum openning: 32" W X 4B" H;
a) sill height Maximum: 36" above inside f1oor.
b) "Below Grade"- Access from the outdoors to first. basement or cellar story below grade within each 100 feet fraction thereof at the horisontal length of every wall that fronts on a street or frontage space.
- access by: stairs, doors, windows: must provide an openning of 48" H X 32" W
- sill height maximum: 36" above inside
c) Provide one access openning in each story to a stairway.
cl) If sprinkler system used, ignore a, b, c.
AREA/HEIGHT LIMITATIONS:(to be determined in later
phases of Design Development.)
ANTICIPATED CONSTRUCTION CLASS: I-B (3-HR F.R.R.)
* (refer to tables 4-1 and 4-2 in Appendix 2 in later Design Development phases).
* UNSPRINKLED BUILDINGS:
B-2 Area: 5000 s.f.
Height: no limit
E Area: no limit
Height: no limit.
F-lb Area: no limit
Height.: no limit
F-2 Area: no limit.
Height: no limit
F-3 Area: no limit
Height.: no limit.
F-4 Area: no limit.
Height.: no limit
G Area: no 1 i mi t
Height: no limit.
H-2 Area: 14,000 s.f.
* Due the site being in an URBAN RENEWAL AREA, the N.Y.C. URA will have code restrictions of its own for this site. They are as fo1 lows:
% No exterior enlargement of existing buildings will be allowed.
* Construction is required on Poplar Street between the "Orphanage" at 57-61 Poplar Street, to 79 Poplar Street.. This
construction is to form a continuous street frontage from 79 Poplar Street, to a point
30 feet from the "Orphanage", is to be built from close to the street line, to a depth of not over 60 feet from the street
line, and is not to be over 50 feet or 5
stories in height, whichever is less.
GENERAL PROJECTION LIMITATION:
* No permissible projection beyond street line.
* Ramps: None Beyond street line, except buildings
erected prior to December 6, 1969, with approval of the
commi ssi oner.
PERMISSIBLE STREET PROJECTION BEYOND STREET LINES:
* FIXED PROJECTIONS: (as an integral part of building)
The aggregate area of all fixed projections constructed to extend beyond the street line shall not exceed:
10 s.f. within any 100 s.f. of wall area, except that, a veneer may be applied to the entire facade of the building prior to the effective date above and does not project more than 4 inches beyond street line.
* ENTRANCE DETAILS:
Includes doors, steps, when fully opened may project no more than 18 inches.
steps projecting beyond street line must have railings on both ends or cheek pieces at least 3 feet high or by
members of the entrance detail.
* ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS:
Cornices, eaves, bases, sills, headers, band course, openrting frames, suncontrol devices, rustications, applied ornament or sculpture, grilles, windows when fully opened, air conditioning units, may project no more than 4 inches beyond street line when less than 10 feet above the ground or sidewalk level.
May project, no more than 10 inches beyond street line when more than 10 feet above ground or sidewalk level.
May project 22 inches beyond street, line when less than 10 feet above ground or sidewalk level.
Fire escapes that are part of the required exit may be constructed to project, no more than 4 feet 6 inches beyond street line provided no part, (including ladder, etc.), is lower than 10 feet above ground or sidewalk
May project no more than 2 feet beyond street line; no part of fixture is less than B feet above ground or si dewalk 1evel.
May project, no more than 12 inches beyond street line.
May project no more part of the fixture sidewalk level.
than 5 feet beyond street is less than B feet above
BRIDGES BETWEEN BUILDINGS:
Subject to approval by the Board of Estimate and the Department of Highways.
must be designated a higher construction class than the two buildings it is connecting.
PROJECTION BELOW GRADE:
Exterior wall/column -footings may project no more than 12 inches beyond street line; top of footing must be less than 8 feet below ground or sidewalk level.
May project no more than the permitted projection required for the projection it is supporting.
FIRE PROTECTION CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS:(to be determined in later phases of the Design Development).
MEANS OF EGRESS:
(for determination of exit requirements see Table 6-1 in Appendix ).
The exit requirements -tor the entire building shall be determined on the basis of the occupancy group having the strictest exit requirements, or the exit requirements for each building section shall be determined separately.
Shal1 be based on those of the occupancy group under which the building is classified but the access/exit requirements for the incidental occupancy shall be based on the occupancy group classification of the incidental occupancy.
MULTIPLE OCCUPANCY OR USE:
Where building floor or space is used for multiple purposes involving different activities at different times, the occupancy involving the greatest number of occupants shall be used in determining the exit requirements.
OCCUPANCY NET FLOOR AREA/OCCUPANT, (s.f.)
Billiard Rooms 50
Exhibition Spaces 10
Public Garages 250
Gymnasi urns 15
Kitchens (non-resident) 200
Li braries 25
Locker Rooms 12
Of f i ces 100
Storage Rooms 200
Seating Areas (audiences in places of assembly)
fixed seats D
movable seats 10
TRAVEL DISTANCE: (see table 6-1)
LOCATION OF EXITS:
Must, be clearly visible.
Must be clearly indicated.
Must be readily accessible and unobstructed at all ti mes.
NUMBER OF EXITS:
At least two door opennings, remote from each other and leading to exits, from every room or enclosed space in which the? total occupant load exceeds the number of
persons listed bel OCCUPANCY GROUP
LOAD, (with one d o u r) .
EXITS FROM FLOORS:
At least two independent exits, remote from each other from every floor of a building, except that, only one exit may be provided from floors in:
Buildings classified in Group E that are not. more than 60 feet in height, have a gross area of 2000 s.f. or less per floor, and have a maximum travel distance of 50 feet on any floor.
Readily accessible and unobstructed at all times.
Free of combustible contents except buildings with Occupancy Groups G, H-l, H-2; combustible contents may be stored in non-combustible lockers and combustible bulletin boards meeting the requirements of Table 5-4 may be permitted.
CAPACITY: (see Table 6-1 for determination of
Access/Exit requirements) .
Measured at narrowest points, ie. from edges of existing fixtures in corridors.
Clear height of 7 feet 6 inches for at least 75 V. of floor area with no less than 7 feet in height.
No projection below the ceiling shall be located so as to obstruct full view of exit signs.
Corridors subdivided into "smoke barriers" into the following lengths:
Gr oup G 300 feet
Group H-l, H-2 150 feet
CHANGES IN LEVEL:
If less than two risers, ramp it. Risers and treads shall comply with the requirements of Section C26-604.8(e).
Shall be rooted, have solid -floors, and drained.
May serve as -fire canopies.
To be protected along their outer side with guards or parapets at least 3 -feet 6 inches high.
Non-combustible construction, with a minimum o-f lhr.
DOOR OPENNING WIDTHS:
Exit/corridor door capacities listed in Table 61.
Door stop or jambs and door thickness when open shall not. reduce the required width by more than 3 inches -for every 22 inches o-f width.
Maximum width o-f any swinging door: 48 inches.
Minimum width of exit door/corridor door opennings: 36 inches except where openning is divided by mull ions into two or more door opennings, the minimum nominal width of each such openning shall be 22 inches.
The minimum nominal width of other door opennings:
- of habitable/occupiable rooms: 32 inches
- doors swinging in pairs, no mull ions: 48 inches
- door opennings to toilet rooms in buildings to which the public has free access: 32 inches
- door opennings giving access to all toilets, lavatories, and bathtubs or showers serving single room occupancies which are accessible to individuals in wheelchairs: 32 inches.
Exit and corridor doors: minimum nominal height: 6 -feet B inches.
Door jambs, stops, sills, and closers, shall not reduce the clear openning to less than 6 -feet 6 inches.
Corridor doors -from rooms required to have more than one door under provisions of Section 603.1 shall swing in the direction o-f exit travel, except.:
- doors -from classi-fied in Occupancy Load
rooms o-f instruction in buildings the Ooccupancy Group 6, having an o-f less than 75 persons.
The floor on both sides of all exit and corridor doors shall be essentially level and at the same elevation for a distance, perpendicular to the door openning, at least equal to the width of the door leaf.
Except that where door leads out of a building, the floor level inside may be 7-1/2 inches higher than the level outside.
AREA OF REFUGE:
From the area which they serve by construction having at least a 2hr. F.R.R.
A provision of a clear public space or space occupied by the same tenant or owner; at least 3 s.f. per person.
At least one exit per area of refuge.
INTERIOR STAIRS: (-for capacity see Table 6-1)
Shall be clear width newel ports, stair required width by no of the stair.
between walls, grilles, stringers may project more than two inches on
guards, or into the each side
No interior stair shall be reduced in width in the direction of exit travel.
Interior minimum width: 44 inches.
HEADROOM: (minimum of 7 feet)
To be provided at the head and foot of each flight of stai rs.
Minimum width of 1andings/platforms perpendicular to the direction of travel shall be equal to at least the width of the stairs, (that of the straight run stair).
The distance betweeen risers of upper and lower flights at intermediate 1andings/platforms need not be more than 44 inches.
The maximum vertical rise of a single flight, between floors; between landings or platforms shall not exceed 8 feet, in Occupancy F, H, and 12 feet in other occupancy groups.
No flight, of stairs shall have less than two risers.
Landi ngs/pl atf orms shall be enclosed on sides by: walls, grilles, or guards at least 3 feet high.
RISERS AMD TREADS: (see Table 6-4)
The sum of two risers plus one tread shall not be less than 24 inches, or more than 25-1/2 inches.
Riser height and tread width shall be constant in all flight of stairs from story to story.
"Winders" not permitted in required exit stairs except i n r esi dent i c*l .
Width of winder treads IB inches -from the narrower end shall at least be equal to the width of treads above or below the winding section.
Curving or skewed stairs may be used as exits in accordance with Table 6-4 when measured 18 inches from the narrow end of the tread.
No tread shall be more than inches wider at any point that inches in from the narrow end.
3 inches narrower or 3 the width established 18
GUARDS AND HANDRAILS:
Stairs shall have walls, grilles, or guards at the sides and have handrails on both sides, except stairs less than 44 inches wide may have a handrail on one side only.
Handrails shall have finger clearance of 1-1/2 inches from wal1.
Handrails shall project no more than 3-1/2 inches from wall.
Stairs more than 88 inches wide shall have intermediate handrails dividing the stairway into widths that maintain the nominal multiples of 22 inches, but the widths shall not. be greater than 88 inches nor less than 44 inches.
Heights of handrails above the nosing of treads shall not be more than 34 inches nor less than 30 inches.
Handrails shall be returned to walls and points when termi nated.
SPECIAL USES AND OCCUPANCIES:
Group 2 buildings or spaces for parking of vehicles having fuel tanks of 26 gallon capacity or less, and in which no repair, body work, or painting of vehicles is conducted, and in which no gasoline, oil or similar
products are dispensed. (Occupancy Group B--2)
At least two exits from each tier of parking; one of the two may be ramped exit used by motor vehicle, when not serving not more than on level below grade.
All vertical exits minimum width of 36 inches and enclosed by 2hr. F.R.R.
No point in any public garage shall be more than 100 feet from an exit, except that such distance may be increased to 150 feet when garage is fully sprinkled.
Vehicular ramps in public garages shall not exceed a gradient of 1 in 7 and their services shall be nonslip.
Minimum landing length: 20 feet provided at discharge point at street level, within the street line.
Walls of pools shall be vertical for at least 2 feet 6 inches below the normal water level.
Bottom of any portion of a pool where the water is less than 5 feet 6 inches deep shall have a maximum slope of 1 foot vertically for every 15 feet horizontally.
Ladders or steps with handrails at the deep end and at the shallow end.
Minimum width if 5 feet around the entire pool peri meter.
Shall meet the applicable requirements of Article 8 for Places of Assembly.
DIVING BOARDS AND TOWERS:
To be rigidly constructed and permanently anchored.
Minimum depth of water under diving board: 8 feet 6 inches, for 1 meter, (3.28 feet) or less above water.
For 3 meter, (9 feet 10 inches) above water, th minimum depth below the board shall be at least 1
For more than 3 meter, <9 feet 10 inches), above the water, the minimum depth below the board shall be 16 feet.
Indoor pools shall provide at least 12 feet overhead clearance above all diving boards.
Maximum height: 10 feet.
In residence districts, the maximum height, is 6 feet, except non-residence buildings, public playgrounds, the maximum height will be 15 feet.
Higher fences may be allowed with the approval of the
commissioner, ie. for playgrounds, schoolyards, parks, and similar public facilities.
PLACES OF ASSEMBLY: (BASIC REQUIREMENTS)
MEANS OF EGRESS:
A place of assembly located in a another Occupancy Group shall requirements -for this article, facilities of the building of means of egress from the bull din
building classified comply with the ex but may use the ex which it is a part 9-
1 n it i t as
If net floor area excluding the stage area is less than 8 s,f. per person, the chairs must be rigidly anchored.
No more than 12 movable chairs may be provided in a box or loge, (if separated from the main seating pattern by railings or other permanent construction.
If net floor area excluding the stage area is between 8 and 12 s.f. per person, movable chairs may be used, provided all chairs in a row between aisles are fastened or ganged together; no more than 12 chairs used in any row between aisles.
If net floor area excluding the stage area is more than 12 s.f. per person, individual movable chairs may be used.; no more than 12 chairs shall be used in a row between aisles.
All chairs placed on stepped platforms less than 4 feet wide shall be? anchored or fixed in place.
Minimum distance between centerlines of chairs in the same row shall be 19 inches.
Minimum distance between rows of chairs, (all parts of chairs considered), shall be: 12 inches.
14-1/2 inches between backedge of each seat and the front edge of the seat immediately behind it, (when measured between plumb lines.
No aisles for sections with less than 10 rows of seats.
If more than 10 rows of seats, aisles are to be provided at the end of seat rows:
- minimum spacing between seat rows shall be increased to 16 inches.
- required space between seat rows increased by 1/4 inches, (for every seat in excess of 7), that is necessary to reach an aisle.
- cross aisles to be provided at the bottom of each section of seating.
PLATFORM SEAT INO: (no chairs)
Individual seat space assumed IS inches.
At least 28 inches deep (front to back).
Platform depth shall be increased 1/4 inches, (for every seat in excess of 7), that is necessary to reach an aisle.
Aisles to be provided when the height between levels of platform seating exceeds 8 inches.
BENCH SEATING: (no backs)
Individual seat space assumed 18 inches.
Which food and beverages are consumed shall be attached to the floor.
Fixed stools may be provided.
Number of occupants based on one occupant for each IB
inches for chair or stall spaces.
AISLES AND CROSS-AISLES:
CAPACITY: (see Table 8-1)
- unit of exit width: 22 inches, seats not to project into aisles to lessen the aisle or cross-
aisle width more than 1 inch per unit exit width.
44 inches except, may be 36 inches it:
- space has capacity of not more than 300 occupants.
- when not more than number o-f persons permitted for one unit of exit width is served.
- when an aisle parallels and is along side an enclosure wall or partition, provided:
# that exit doors are spaced no more than 16 feet on centers.
* that such aisles serve only the rows of seats adjacent to it.
Egress provided only at one end of the aisle.
Egress is provided at both ends of the aisle, (enter by cross-aisles or exit doors).
Shall not be closer than 12 feet to a stage area using scenery or scenic elements.
AISLE GRADIENTS AND STEPPINGS:
Shall have a gradient of no more than 1 in B.
If greater gradient required:
- one riser between levels of platforms will have 8 inches minimum height.
- when more than one riser required, none shall
exceed 7-3/4 inches.
riser shall be less than 4 inches high.
- if risers are separated by a tread 17 inches or more, no riser should vary from the height of the riser immediately above or below.
- tread widths between platform levels shall be at least 9-1/2 inches but no more than 10-1/2 inches, (exclusive of nosings).
- treads in at the level of platforms and 17 inches or more in width may slope not more than 1/4 inches in 12 inches.
- no steps shall be used to enter rows of seats from an aisle unless an unobstructed floor space of at least 7 s.f. provided at the level of the aisles, (between the aisle and the steps).
TRAVEL DISTANCE: (see Table 8-1) EXIT 0PENNIN6: (see Table 8-1)
Opennings shall be at least 36 inches wide for single doors, at least 66 inches wide but no more than 88 inches wide for doors swinging in pairs; except that in assembly spaces having an occupant load of over 300 persons.
Single door opennings shall be at least 44 inches wide.
COLLECTING SAFE AREAS:
Shall be located 6 feet above or below the assembly
space nearest to grade.
Shall be the aggregate occupant, load of all exit opennings discharging directly into it; plus 507. of the occupant load of other safe areas discharging into it.