800 Water Street

Material Information

800 Water Street
Alternate title:
Eight Hundred Water Street
Gates, John S
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
121 leaves : illustrations (some color), charts, plans ; 28 cm

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Master's ( Master of Architecture)
Degree Grantor:
University of Colorado Denver
Degree Divisions:
College of Design and Planning, CU Denver
Degree Disciplines:
Committee Chair:
Kronewritter, Robert
Committee Co-Chair:
Hobbs, Kimble


Subjects / Keywords:
Real estate development -- Colorado -- Denver ( lcsh )
Joint occupancy of buildings -- Colorado -- Denver ( lcsh )
Joint occupancy of buildings ( fast )
Real estate development ( fast )
Colorado -- Denver ( fast )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )


Includes bibliographical references (leaves 120-121).
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
John S. Gates.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
12266074 ( OCLC )
LD1190.A72 1985 .G382 ( lcc )

Full Text
£ AT B
800 Water Street
An Architectural Thesis presented to the College of Design and Planning, University Of Colorado at Denver in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Architecture
John S. Gates
Spring 1985

The Thesis of John S. Gates is approved.
Robert Kronewritter, Committee Chairman
Kimble Hobbs, Principal Advisor
University of Colorado at Denver May 22, 1985

Table of Contents:
I. Introduction 7
II. Program
Site precepts 8
Site description 9
Maps 13
Climate 21
Assumptions 31
Site Imagery 34
Project description and Breakdown 36
Codes 37
Zoning 39
Spacial Programs
Site 45
Retail 46
Commercial 47
Dwellings 48
III. Design 50
IV. Conclusion 65
Appendix 67
Bibliography 119

My thanks to David Frieder, Joe Juhasz, and Steve Ternoey for their advice and help in this project.
My special thanks to Kimball Hobbs for his advice, criticism and encouragement.
And last but not least to Kite for companionship and keeping my toes

In the community regulated only by the laws of demands and supply, but protected from open violence, the persons who become RICH are, generally speaking, industrious, resolute, proud, covetous, prompt, methodical, sensible, unimaginative, insensitive, and ignorant. The persons who remain POOR are the entirely foolish, the entirely wise, the idle, the reckless, the humble, the thoughtful, the dull, the imaginative, the sensitive, the well informed, the improvident, the irregularity and impulsively wicked, the clumsy knave, the open thief, and the entirely merciful, just, and godly person.
-John Ruskin, 1862

Architecture, in its most utiliarian form, provides shelter for an activity. But even at this level, being a man made form and either viewed or used by people it will impart meaning. What meaning it has is based partly on its use, partly on its form, and significantly, on the interaction of the two. An observer will begin his own interpertation of a building based on the explicit information the building imparts to him. That is, what is familiar about the building, what associations can be made to the observers past experiences? Once these familar associations have been made then the observer will have certain expectations about the building and its use. These expectations of course may be either very general or very specific, there is a large range in between. And of course, there are many instances where the expectations are never achieved or even may be denied. Adaptive reuses, mixed methaphors, and misbegotten architectural intentions have made these unfilled expectations an all to often occurrence in our society.
With these anomalies aside, what are the intentions of buildings and will they meet, based on "familiar associations", the expectations of those using it. Once the architect has determined the intentions of a project then the task becomes one of providing the eiplicit data that passes those intentions from the architect through the building onto the user or observer. This assumes that they share the same cultural background and common memories and associations of man made objects. The most common memory for the expression of intention is by the representation of past buildings and environments into a new ones. Thus the user infers meaning by association with what has been previously experienced.
When a viewer fails to make the association, the meaning of the building is implicit, based on rules and orders that are not understandable except by the architect. The coding then, becomes too abstract to have shared

The use of 'familar association" is not a limiting factor. When expressed as patterns of use such as in Alexander's A Pattern Language it becomes the vocabulary and grammaric rules for humane buildings. When used more abstractly it aids in providing meaning and comprehension to what can be an otherwise chaotic world. It can further enhance not only the meaning of a single building but also reinforce what we know about the world as a whole while still providing a meaningful individual environment. As Graves writes;
"That's where I have difficultly in my own work because, of course, one is conscious of identifing the interests, myths and rituals of the culture by virtue of the elements being made and once one is aware of that, the composition starts to have its own internal laws."*
The Denver area and the overall Front Range has experienced a 44% increase in growtbr over the last two decades and that growth is still increasing. To provide housing, commercial space and retail centers for approximately two million people; great areas of former farms, ranches and pararie grasslands have been developed into housing, shoppping centers, and intustrial parks. The open lands at the times they were developed were inexpensive and the surrounding municipalities were eager to provide services at subsidized rates to increase their tai bases and populations. This unchecked growth has exacted its toll on the service systems and infrastructures of the metropolitan area. The traffic system is overburdened due to in large part the failure to provide planned growth. A consequence is the second worst air quality of any city in the United States. The water system must import water from across the Contenential Divide to provide for the area. The native grasslands are just a memory.
While it is easy to lament the loss of a pastorial Colorado and curse the

the growth, that does not help in resolving the problems that we have created, and until this time profitted from. Growth in the Denver area will continue, and if we are to believe the last census, it will increase. There are though, areas within the central Denver area that due to changing uses, ownerships and planning policies could provide at least an alternative to an expanding Denver. The lower downtown, Rio Grande and Burlington Northern Railroad properties, and Platte River Valley are redeveloping areas that give a chance for new opportunities in the urban fabric. These areas for the last 100 years were predominately industrial due to their proiimity to the South Platte River. Evolving industrial techniques, changing resource bases, and a desire on the part of Denver to have non-industrial uses in these areas has created open areas for new development.
There is a great desire in the city to have this area become one of miied uses. This diversity would help in part in establishing a continuity between the Central Business District and the neighborhoods to the northeast. With these goals in mind, 1 have chosen to work in a smaller area of the Central Platte Valley, a potential neighborhood bounded by Interstate-25, Speer Blvd., Seventh ST. and the Platte River Greenway. I chose a site on the north bank of the river as a project to investigate the possibilities in creating a mixed use building that could aid in the creation of a humane and diverse context in that developing area
The first consideration in this project is contrast between the different uses along the entire range of parameters. Housing and commercial uses are by their very natures juitaposed, but at the same time, either is a necessary part of the other. We have in our society a growing separation between these two aspects of our lives, we leave home to go to work. Early in this century, as the Industrial Revolution had begun to take hold, work

was away from home because the factory destroyed the quiet, health and safety of the neighborhood. Contemporary society are shifting the majority of our work to more sedate tasks. Still we still carry the notion of the separation of home and work, causing a breakdown in the connections between the family and the worker. Moreover, economic pressures are forcing more families to have at least two members in the work force. This causes more separation between children and parents and between couples themselves. A reorientation of the separation to providing work places close to the home is an appropriate response to these problems.
Work in the home requires a family that has high tolerance, and enough motivation to overcome the distractions of the home. The workable median solution is to provide working places that are within easy reach of home, a short walking distance. This enables the worker to go home for lunch, or to do errands, whatever. As well it allows the family access to the workplace and the people that the family is associated with through the worker. This provides children a view and understanding towards what is a important fraction of their parents lives. While I am not certain that everyone who would live in this project would work in it as well, at least the opportunity would be there.
There is another opportunity in this project to provide for the services needed to support it and to generate a neighborhood conteit surrounding it. Jane Jacobs4 has suggested and shown evidence that neighborhood oriented businesses can create nodes around which communities can develop. Since this project is creating a conteit surrounding it, I feel obliged to provide the opportunity and location for such nodes to be planted and see if they could grow. From Jacobs and Alexander, such nodes find fertile ground in small businesses such as groceries, delicatessens, cates, bars, dry cleaners, drugstores, bakeries, etc.. The common elements

being that they are frequently used, unpretentious still privately owned small businesses. A view of the community surrounding the site, such as it is, reveals that there is only the the Zang Brewery bar as a possible location for such a node. Thus I feel that it would not only be appropriate, but also desirable to provide spaces in this project for some of the nodes to find roots.
Alexander^ suggests that for a neighborhood grocery to exist, a population of approximately 1000 is the minimum needed. At a density of 40 people / acre in the blocks immediately surrounding the site, this number could be reached, this does not include the eiisting populations from Forney s north. I am assuming that other small businesses require a similar density.
The site and nature of this project were chosen with care towards achieving a certain statement about architecture. The site is one of the oldest and most historic in Denver, yet it stands abandoned. It is immediately adjacent to a dynamic urban park that provides a wonderful open space in the center of an urban area. It is as well, a part of what could be an equally dynamic neighborhood. The proposed project of a multiuse building with housing, commercial, and retail is hoped to be a catalyst to creating that urban neighborhood, with an understanding towards the historical, environmental, and social needs of the area.

1. Akin 0. & Weinel E. eds., Representation and Architecture. Silver Spring, Maryland: Information Dynamics, Inc., 1982. p. 56.
2. Edwards M., Colorado Dreaming." National Geographic (August 1984), p. 197.
3. "Essays on social housing." Progressive Architecture (July 1984), p. 84.
4. Jacobs, j The Death and Life of.great Americas Cities. (New York: Vintage, 1961), p.62.
5. Alexander C. etal, A Pattern Language (New York: Oiford University Press, 1977), p. 440.
6. "Energy design of office buildings," Progressive Architecture ( June 1982): p. 109-113.
7. Bazjanac, V.,"This is where and what," Progressive Architecture ( April 1982): p. 122.

Who could imagine livng on the banks of the Platte?
Paul Heath

800 Water St.
Legal Description:
Map 2333 Parcel 00-06
Area: 53,700.8 sqft.
1.23 acres
Floor Area Ratio:
Under B-4 zoning; 2 x site area -107,401.6 sqft.
No Required Setbacks
Current Owner:
Water St. Joint Venture c/o Richard F. Mauro Morrison & Foerster 1670 Broadway Suite 3100 Denver Co.
Site History:
The site is located on the west bank of the South Platte River in the Central Platte Valley just to the south of the confluence of Cherry Creek and the South Platte River. This location is just across the river from the original site of Denver City and Auraria. These two settlements grew

up around the confluence first, because of gold found in Cherry Creek and second to the proiimity to the river as a source for water and a mechanism for the removal of waste. The river has had a consistent history of use and abuse that follows the growth of the city.
Early paintings show that the site itself was not part of the early settlements due to its close proiimity to the river and flood plain. A city plan from 1874 and a later 1935 survey show no major structures on the site. The earliest tai record for the parcel is from 1952 to a Scientific Supply company that most likely used the property for a warehouse. They sold the property to KWAL Paints in 1978, who then sold to Realities Inc in 1981, then to the Water Street joint Venture again in 1981. This venture owns all the property in the immediate area and has plans to develop the area into office properties.
After the 1965 flood the city decided that the Platte River should be considered an amenity to the city rather than a sewer line. An investment of $ 680,000,000 was made in flood control and improvements to the river basin that included a series of urban parks that are linked by a greenbelt that runs neit to the river through the entire city. This greenway borders on the south side of the site as well as a future extension of the Fishbeck Landing park on the eastern border.
The following is from the soils report for the Denver Childrens Museum just to the southwest of the site. No soils report was available for the site directly.
Approximately 14 to 20 feet of man-made fill consisting of sand and gravel, with some coal, asphalt, wood and rubbish was encountered at depths 20, 17, 19.5 17, 17 and 14 feet... Four to ten feet of natural sand and gravel was encountered below the fill to depths 24, 22, 26, 19, 24,

and 24 feet... Claystone bedrock was encountered below the sand and gravel below depths 22 to 26 feet...
The fill soils are erratic in moisture, compaction and consistency. These soils exhibit widely varying consolidation characteristics.
The natural sand and gravels soils encountered in the test holes are non-swelling and will consolidate under moderate building loads. The claystone bedrock has a moderate swelling potential and has an unconfined compressive strength of 29,500 psf....
The man-made fill encountered at the building site is not suitable for supporting foundations. The building should be supported on grade beams and straight shaft piers (cassons) drilled a minimum of 5 feet into the medium hard claystone found below depths 22 to 26 feet. The piers may be designed for a maiimum end bearing pressure of 30,000 psf and side shear of 3,000 psf, for the portion of the pier in medium hard bedrock. In addition, the piers should be loaded with a minimum dead-load of 15,000 psf."
It is assumed that the water table is no more than 6 feet below the surface anywhere on the site.
The site is located on a flat plain immediately adjacent to the South Platte River. The site slopes at < 2% towards the river. There is strong evidence of poor drainage, by pools of standing water up to three days after percipatation. All sites to the east and west are similar. Across Water St. the land begins increasing in slope up to 4%. This causes drainage across the site, but effectively shields the site form visual contact with Interstate 25. A portion of the site is in the river floodplain, and will be a serious design consideration.
The normal flow of the S. Platte is around 300 cfs with normal runoff around 300 cfs. The 100 year flood in 1965 was rated at 150,000 cfs.
100 yr. Storm for Denver is 9.0"/hr for a 5 minute duration.

Existing Drainage:
1= t 35 grassy land A= 1.23 acres R= 9.0"
Qh= I A R
- 3.87 cfs Vegetation:
There is no significant vegetation on site other than weeds. Along the southern end of the site are a row of cottonwoods adjacent to the railroad right of way. Between the site and the Platte is a marshy, grassy, area with cattails and other marsh grasss.

i nd[

' ytjgBE-'v r^SjUMri* MBPlPSife Map
|t *v-j ? ^T- r va P* ciTW^SIb** PP^ i "=50 4* ^

1. View of the Centra] Business District
2. Water St. looking towards Speer Blvd.
3. The South Platte River looking from the site towards Confluence Park.

4. The South Platte River looking from the site towards Mile High Stadium.
5. The Platte River Greenway Path.

6. Looking across the site towards the Park Maintainence Facility.
7. Railroad right of way.
8. View erf the site from the C.B.D..

Views from the Center of


What shall we say.
Shall we call it by a name?
As well to count the angels Dancing on a pin.
Water cried as from the sky From which it came.
And the name was on the earth Takes it in.
We will not speak,
Gut stand inside the rain And listen to the thunder Shouting 1 am, I am, lam, lam.
-Grateful Dead

Fet> Mar Apr May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec
RH: %
Temperature: F<
Degree Days (65)
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Percioitation "/Mon
Monthly Climate Chart For Denver Colorado.
Lat 39 45 N Long 104 52 W El 5263'


7 16420 1092 7691 15366 14508
U 602(13 5103 20296 52134 56422
g 7604S 7625 12676 56067 71000
10 62340 9312 9312 46675 72953
11 06001 10314 10314 30307 66643
12 67015 10G4U 10640 10640 54443
13 06001 10314 10314 10314 36255
M 02346 B3I2 9312 9312 20114
IS 76045 7625 7625 7625 7625
1C 60203 5103 5103 5103 5103
17 IG420 1092 1092 1092 1092
0 41592 2771 9390 33138 39097
9 CU009 5556 5555 46145 63949
10 76311 72UU 7266 40299 69524
1 1 62673 0291 0291 26330 65255
12 03021 0622 0622 8622 54509
13 02673 0291 0291 8291 3974 4
14 7U311 7200 7200 7260 22040
16 C6009 5555 5555 5555 6545
16 4 1692 2771 2771 . 2771 2771
0 30736 1724 5273 221 18 27016
0 65152 4G06 4606 39903 57204
10 7/699 63C4 5364 36129 64746
1 1 U2U67 7372 7372 23604 61677
12 04325 7704 7704 7704 52136
13 Q20C7 7372 7372 7372 36438
14 77699 6364 6364 6364 22652
15 65152 4606 4606 4606 7367
16 307 30 1724 1724 1724 1724
6771 811 109 2809 1621 182
30640 2975 3060 21279 5950 5100
40922 3753 7069 38726 7506 11781
61951 4094 10256 52107 8187 17094
69902 4249 12407 60653 8497 20678
725U4 4294 12990 63541 8509 21663
69902 4249 12617 60653 8497 21029
61951 4094 10564 52187 8107 17607
40922 3753 71 13 30726 7506 1 I8S4
30640 2975 3060 21279 5950 5100
5771 an . 112 2809 1621 107
23777 1013 1167 9572 3627 1945
47546 2969 4775 25060 5937 7959
62292 3414 8058 30735 6828 13431
70011 3604 10214 46861 7209 17023
73629 3659 10968 49635 7318 18279
7081 I 3604 10214 46061 7209 17023
62292 3414 0058 30735 6820 13431
47546 2969 4775 251160 5937 7959
23777 1813 1 152 0572 3627 1920
17099 11U4 454 5396 2369 756
43U07 2511 3500 20956 5021 5833
59164 2994 6668 33703 59BG 11113
67739 3193 8005 41785 6386 14674
70541 3249 9572 44547 6499 15954
67739 3193 * 8840 41705 6306 14733
69164 2994 6724 33703 5088 11206
43607 2511 3562 20956 5021 6936
17090 1184 463 5396 2369 772

(LUX) ( LUX)
5 3358 1 194
6 43375 16914
7 63407 17097
0 73199 13002
9 70945 15143
to 81993 16665
1 1 83567 17500
JUL ti 84055 17095
13 03567 17586
14 01993 166*65
IS 7U945 15143
16 73499 13002
17 63407 17007
IB 43375 16914
19 3350 1194
b 35618 6049
7 57996 7924
B 71775 11100
9 78638 13394
O' u 10 03313 15003
1 1 04165 15973
AUG 13 04733 16290
13 U4I6S 15973
14 B3313 15003
IS 70630 13394
16 71775 1 1100
17 57996 7921
10 35610 6049
6 3U3 23
7 46547 4503
B 69301 7907
9 70927 10350
10 03674 12001
1 1 05964 12990
SEP 13 06653 13321
13 05964 12990
14 03674 12001
IS 70927 10356
16 692UI 7907
17 46547 4503
10 203 23
2306 2229 1000
40520 43900 25053
53015 64935 43943
51836 69975 64740
42296 65107 50649
20047 53360 56378
17508 36945 40683
17095 17895 36564
17508 17506 21306
16G65 16665 16065
15143 15143 15143
13002 13002 13002
101 16 101 16 10116
5971 5971 5971
276 276 276
22193 26295 16752
43929 50060 43953
43940 67626 * 50204
34636 63954 63654
30099 52425 62030
15973 357U0 54463
16208 16296 42135
15973 15973 26452
15003 15003 15003
13394 13394 13394
1 1 I0U II 100 1 1 108
7924 7924 7924
3002 3002 3002
211 200 209
29458 46010 39379
33417 64445 G240I
24026 62072 70955
12001 51369 70372
12990 33926 62816
13321 13321 49081
12990 12990 33209
12001 12001 14697
10356 10356 10356
7907 7907 7987
4503 4503 4503
22 22 22
(LUX) 1 (LUX) (LUX)
278 223 0
5971 4103 705
101 16 6259 3480
15056 7255 . 7123
26706 7792 10440
36133 8093 13357
42205 0249 15091
44297 8297 16230
42205 0249 15979
36133 8093 14090
26706 7792 11203
15056 7255 7391
10116 6259 3717
597 1 4 103 772
276 223 0
3002 2215 86
7941 5014 1920
21193 6205 5203
33913 6798 8520
44087 7116 1 1165
50599 7276 12771
52037 7325 13241
50599 7276 12640
44007 7116 10939
33913 6798 8372
21193 6205 5113
794 1 5014 1095
3002 2215 83
22 10 0
11510 2964 012
20402 4411 3923
43540 5025 7540
"55IU2 5327 10667
62519 5473 12319
G5024 6517 13120
62519 5473 12528
55182 5327 10667
43540 5025 7741
20402 4411 4021
11518 2964 812
22 18 0
532 446 0
17085 8366 1175
30575 12518 5799
57475 14510 1 IB72
73503 15585 17400
05721 16107 22261
93375 16497 25152
95982 16594 27051
93375 16497 26632
85721 161 87 23484
73503 15505 18672
57475 14510 12318
30575 12518 6195
17805 8366 1286
532 446 0
7070 4429 143
29101 10020 3201
49026 12410 8G72
65957 13597 14201
70072 14232 10609
06967 14552 21205
89724 14651 22068
86967 14552 21066
78872 14232 18232
65957 13597 13954
49026 12410 8522
29101 I002B 3159
7870 4429 138
37 30 0
15396 5927 1353
35762 8022 6538
53309 10050 12566
6G73B 10655 17778
75167 10946 20531
70040 11034 21867
75167 10946 20080
66730 10655 17778
53309 10050 12902
35762 8822 6702
15396 5927 1353
37 36 0

31063 7256 25045 30099 10450
6G3UI 7147 40016 65252 40452
00697 10143 46651 73415 63115
07654 12303 35691 60503 . 60441
91345 13996 20231 65353 66240
03098 14900 14900 36022 57712
03663 15312 15312 15312 44073
03096 14900 14900 14900 26823
01245 13996 13996 13996 13996
07554 12303 12303 12303 12303
00597 10143 10143 10143 10143
66361 7147 7147 7147 7147 .
31063 7256 2740 2740 2740
2260 1110 2213 2146 953
46710 17120 42006 46636 26376
69102 16500 56096 60290 4GOI0
79755 12207 53439 73100 57137
86400 14434 4301 1 67607 61055
00550 16903 20592 54960 5U506
00100 16926 16925 37475 50273
00603 17242 17242 17242 37394
90100 16925 16925 16925 2121 1
00568 15902 I59U3 15902 15902
85400 14434 *4434 14434 14434
79755 12207 12207 12207 12207
69102 16500 9454 9454 9454
46710 17120 5510 5510 5510
2260 1 1 16 224 224 224
0203 4062 0946 0414 3570
49244 20101 449U7 47311 25790
60200 19000 55060 64923 42251
77756 14050 53150 60035 5I90Q
02904 15271 43013 63774 65324
05949 16700 30U32 62303 52964
07490 17690 17690 36415 45404
07970 1U006 10006 10006 33737
07490 17C9U 17690 1 76911 10994
05949 16700 16700 16700 j 16700
U29U4 15271 15271 15271 15271
77756 14050 13173 13173 13173
6U2U0 19000 10407 10407 10407
49244 20101 6606 6606 6606
9203 4U63 1067 1067 1067
2740 1945 329 7947 3091 548
7455 4156 3561 29904 0312 5935
2 1 7B5 5048 0003 60950 10095 13338
35540 6403 12146 60995 I09C7 20241
46535 5715 15430 62017 11429 25717
63570 5031 17474 91497 11661 29123
55907 5066 10211k 94457 11732 30363
53570 5031 17441 91497 11661 29069
46535 5715 15370 82017 11429 25616
35540 54U3 12065 60995 10967 20109
21705 5048 7962 60950 10095 13270
7405 4158 3548 29904 8312 5914
2740 1945 329 7947 3891 548
224 101 Q 437 361 0
5510 3734 026 17760 7467 1377
9454 6530 4039 39230 11060 6731
14901 6375 0160 59117 12750 13613
27193 6027 12120 76072 13654 20200
37134 7079 14944 09034 14157 24907
43536 7200 16636 97166 14416 27728
45742 7240 17155 99937 14497 20592
43536 7200 16515 97166 14416 27525
37134 7079 14747 09034 14157 24579
27193 6827 I 1035 76072 13654 19726
14901 6375 0107 69117 12750 13646
9454 5530 4206 39230 11060 701 1
55 10 3734 040 17768 7467 1567
224 181 0 437 361 0
1067 034 6 2329 1667 10
6606 4461 1103 21452 0922 1971
10407 6105 4316 42210 12371 7194
13173 7044 7997 61295 14008 13328
2341 1 7517 11369 77539 15035 10940
32430 7706 13914 09944 15572 23190
30240 7926 15377 97722 15051 25629
40253 7069 16070 100372 15930 26796
3U24Q 7926 15099 9/722 15051 26499
32430 7706 14653 09944 15572 24422
2341 1 7517 1 I960 77539 15035 19933
13173 7044 0439 61295 14000 14065
10407 6IU5 4576 42210 12371 7627
6606 4461 1247 21452 8922 2079
1067 034 6 2329 1667 10

(LUX) (LUX) (LUX) (LUX) (LUX) (LUX) 1 (LUX) (LUX) (LUX) (LUX) (LUX)
0 46110 2792 10410 37329 44017 26555 1767 1541 10249 3533 2569
0 72906 6506 5506 60094 69500 51430 2793 5500 27131 5587 9300
to 83130 7235 7235 43184 74048 66905 3185 9034 40495 6370 15057
It 87482 8246 8248 27029 69913 75073 3352 1 1353 40930 6704 18921
<2 CB726 8582 8582 0582 68264 70043 3399 1 1908 51822 6799 1997 7
13 87482 6246 6246 0248 42210 75073 3352 1 1053 40930 6704 18422
14 63130 7235 7235 7235 24008 6G905 3105 8036 40495 6370 14728
IS 72906 5506 6508 6506 6451 51430 2793 5272 27131 5587 8787
16 461 10 2792 2792 2792 2792 26555 1767 1448 10249 3533 2413
7 230BI 1202 10314 20215 10970 7329 855 . 260 3473 1710 434
a 69727 4902 21744 56399 60000 32501 2502 4131 23196 5165 6085
B 05406 7347 12977 50U98 74622 50937 3166 0742 41812 6332 14570
10 92310 0042 9042 48403 75014 64110 3419 12460 56231 6838 20760
11 95404 10065 10065 31123 60875 72177 3533 14019 65315 7067 24699
13 9631 1 10409 10409 10409 66012 74901 3567 15665 68416 7134 26108
(3 05404 10065 10065 10065 39094 72177 3533 14069 653IS 7067 24781
14 62310 9042 0042 9042 20149 64110 3419 12498 56231 6838 20830
IS 85488 7347 7347 7347 7347 50937 3166 8692 41812 6332 14487
1C 69727 4902 4902 4902 4902 32581 2502 4045 23196 5165 6741
17 23001 1202 1202 . 1202 1202 7329 055 246 3473 1710 410
7 53605 4090 32257 52160 43905 12326 2518 1970 15719 503G 3296
0 77097 7303 34911 69197 67226 30153 3616 6724 3G070 7232 11206
9 0CG7U 0591 24076 66407 75455 45921 4065 11342 55253 8131 18903
10 91326 11221 11221 63550 74302 50102 4203 14981 69375 8567 24968
1 1 93553 12213 12213 34659 65960 65770 4360 17249 78252 8776 20749
12 94221 12547 12547 12547 62040 60390 4419 10102 61200 0830 30170
13 93553 12213 12213 12213 34217 65770 4386 17411 70252 8776 29019
14 91326 11221 11221 11221 14440 50102 4203 15178 69375 8567 25296
IS 86678 9591 9591 ' 9591 9591 45921 4065 1 1475 65253 8131 I912S
to 77097 7303 7303 7303 7303 30163 3610 6790 36070 7232 11317
17 63685 4000 4090 4090 4090 12326 2SI8 2004 15719 5036 3340

07:00-16:00 .705
07:00-17:00 .708
07:00-18:00 .649
07:00-19:00 .599
06:00-16:00 .784
08:00-17:00 .779
08:00-16:00 .708
08:00-19:00 .649
08:00-16:00 .804
09:00-17:00 .796
09:00-18:00 .717
09100-19:00 .652
644 .792 .732
652 .783 .722
610 .774 .716
564 .715 .678
700 .792 .730
703 .782 .719
653 .773 .712
598 .708 .672
709 .790 .726
711 .779 .715
655 .769 .707
596 .699 .663
MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC 758 .795 .843 .788 .842 .799 .683 .732 .760
746 .786 .827 .782 .834 .804 .690 .740 .756
735 .780 .821 .777 .829 .760 .632 .678 .730
726 .774 .819 .743 .765 .702 .584 .626 .691
753 .796 .837 .784 .842 .856 .759 .814 .787
740 .786 .820 .778 .832 ..856 .759 .814 .781
729 .779 .814 .773 .827 .803 .690 .740 .750
720 .772 .813 .736 .758 7J6 .632 .678 .708
748 .794 .828 .779 .844 .857 .763 .821 .788
735 .783 .810 .773 .833 .856 .762 .821 .781
723 .776 .804 .768 .827 .798 .686 .739 .747
714 .769 .804 .726 .752 .726 .624 .672 .700

, *" V M 1
*190-06:00 0.000 0.000 0.000
96:00-07:00 0.000 .140 .792
.621 .627 .005
00:00-09:00 .732 .642 .011
09100-10:00 .754 .670 .043
I0I00-1C00 .775 .750 .072
11:00-12:00 .010 .711 .029
12:00-13:00 .039 .721 .789
13:00-14:00 .054 .739 .745
w i 14>00-1S:00 .029 .716 .726
K> 15:00-16:00 .031 .715 .704
10:00-17:00 .730 .731 .693
17:00-10:00 0.000 .150 .679
10:00-19:00 0.000 0.000 0.000
MONTHLY AVERAGE .779 .610 .774
MONTHLY FRACTION .779 .610 .735
MONTHLY 7.0 7.3 9.3
sunlight availability
.339 .036 .702 .075 .376 0.000
,754 .004 .790 .894 .823 .049
761 .790 .610 .911 .824 .022
,755 .004 .BIB .913 .030 .831
750 .706 .021 .096 .836 .846
764 .792 .023 .877 .052 .071
766 .796 .037 .864 .791 .066
734 .758 .794 .079 .754 .059
707 .717 .769 .814 .752 .061
675 .684 .774 .741 .710 .021
649 .649 .715 .641 .711 .797
623 .627 .694 .662 .724 .740
639 .618 .712 .756 .710 .774
227 .610 .699 .796 .335 0.000
654 .734 .774 .023 .717 .629
654 .669 .677 .720 .713 .746
9.2 10.3 > 10.0 11.5 10.0 9.9
0.000 0.000 0.000 .537 98.3
.288 0.000 0.000 .672 187.5
.853 .729 .752 .777 283.5
.060 .749 .790 .797 290.8
.064 . .744 .772 .801 292.3
.051 .764 .704 .815 297.8
.847 .012 .610 .813 296.7
.052 .776 .022 .799 291.5
.060 .763 .045 .706 286.9
.854 * .740 .878 .764 278.7
.865 .747 .061 .741 270.3
.055 .760 .816 .723 263.8
.276 0.000 0.000 .502 162.4
0.000 0.000 0.000 .448 82.0
.760 .759 .914
.760 .721 .014
9.1 7.6 8.1

wind speed
4 >12mph
13*24mph lzh
>24mph rza
Strongest Wind from N.W. every month of the year N. and N.W. winds arctic air from Canada and Alaska N. and S. E. winds = warm, moist air form the Gulf of Mexico N. and S. W. winds = warm, dry air from Mexico
W. winds Pacific air modified by passage over Rocky Mountains, may be strong Chinooks
Primary Wind from S. every month of the year Secondary Winds from N. N. W. in winter from N.E. spring, summer from N. in fall

Site and Project Assumptions


1. The site is an actual parcel owned by the Water St. Joint Venture who owns all the privately held land in the vicinity. They are currently developing the property for the Water St. Center project. For this project, I am assuming that their project will not happen, and that the site I have selected is a single parcel in that block. As well, I am also assuming that future development around the site would be smaller developments similar to mine.
2.1 am assuming that the only building eiisting in the vicinity is the Zang Brewery at the corner of Water and Nineth. This suggests that the small warehouse on 7th. St. is to be removed. This is consistent with the Water St. Center plans, as well as what has been removed from the area to date.
3. The historical and current zoning for the site is 1-1 for light industrial uses. The area to the north across Water St. is currently zoned b-4 that allows a wide variety of miied uses. With the changing nature of vicinity to commercial / office uses I shall for this project assume that the site would be a Planned Unit Development under the Denver Zoning Statutes, and use B-4 guidelines for density, parking requirements and such. I conferred with the Denver Planning Office on this point, and their only reservation on this tact would be the possible denial of Federal funds for the project if it was in I-1, but they had no information on the matter if the site was a P.U.D.
4. In conjunction with the redevelopment and Greenway plans, I am assuming that the railroad tracks between the site and the river will be removed and that the bed will graded back to its original contours.
5. Since I do not have a specific client for this project, the commercial

portion of the project will be considered to be speculative tenant finish office suites oriented towards professions and small nonindustrial businesses. This is consistent with existing uses and newer developments surrounding Confluence Park. As well, I am assuming that this group is the most likely to find housing and work on one site desirable.

Site Imagery
The following is the image of the site, based on a cultural and biased view of the site. This image was developed in conversation with my advisor, Joseph Juhasz. It represents the feelings, attitudes, and hopes for this thesis project.
The first image of the site was a duck hunting lodge on the side of a marsh. The marsh has clumps of cattails with a slim edge of ice.
A slightly leaning building, built of weathered grey boards that were once whitewashed. The windows are covered with a number of layers of plastic, ripped here and there, that thump against the glass in the wind. The roof is coved with green and red speckled asphalt singles and is warped and bowed in every direction. There is a rusting bronze 65 New Yorker parked under the lean-to porch in front. As you enter through the vestibule there are hip waders sitting on the floor drying. The walls of the main room are fiberboard, painted white with some holes punched through here and there. On one side a propane open flame heater is on the wall is going full blast, and the wall is stained with black soot. The floor is a carpet of indiscriminate color, teiture and nape. The problem is that this is a very masculine environment. Woman aren't here, and there is no way to modify it because in our culture woman do go to marshes.
Change the image a scene on the banks of a river. Katherine Hepburn is a hard prairie scarred woman whose husband died sometime ago. She is traveling from St. Louis to somewhere to finish whatever task he was doing. Along the way she has run across and is traveling with Richard Chamberlain who is dressed in his Shogun outfit. They have stopped a this place because of the marshy area that provides a great place for hunting ducks. This is the first body of water they have come across in quite a while so they are selective in their choice of spots to settle down on for a break in their journey. It is important to note that from their point of view,

the mountains are not yet a significant feature or goal, their minds and feelings are still dominated by the grasslands. So anyway, Richard Chamberlain has been out in the marsh at the edge of the river duck hunting, meantime Katherine has decided to take a bath, since this is the first water she has seen since St. Louis. So in the lee of a giant boulder she takes off her clothes and bathes in the shallows of the river. Chamberlain climbs upon the boulder and sees her bathing, and there, sitting on the top of the boulder realizes for the first time that she is a woman capable of loving. The boulder itself is an usual occurrence of the river bank, commonly imaged as the one from Centennial with cottonwoods, tepees and Pasquinel paddling by in a canoe on his way back to St. Louis with his load of beaver pelts. The boulder is a very large focal point, it is grey granite with four sides. One faces onto the river, on the other Richard and Katherine have made camp. The boulder is split by a quartzite vein in the middle, separating two halves of the boulder. The haf facing the river, overlooking Katherine in the buff is the house side of the boulder, the other, facing the bluff above the river bottom is the commercial side. The quartz is the boundary/buffer between the two, suggesting a source of light into a interior atrium or glass lobby.

Breakdown by Square Footage
The space requirements for this project based on the amount of available parking. Based on the the location of the flood plain on the site, it has been advised that parking occupy the ground floor of the project and the other spaces be based above it. Following this method and based on 350 sqft. per parking space; and based on:
1.5 parking spaces/ dwelling unit 1 parking space/ 500 sq. ft. of commercial office space 1 parking space/ 200 sq. ft. of retail space
and a rule of thumb of 2 to 3 times commercial to dwelling as a minimum for a mixed use project of this type the allowable breakdown is:
Unit Type Dwelling Units Sq. Ft./ Unit # of Units Sq.Ft. Required Parking
1 Bedroom 850 8 6800 12
2 Bedroom 1100 12 13200 18
Office Suites 1000 45 45000 90
Retail 1200 4 4800 24
Total 69800 144
This gives 94% of the site to parking.

Applicable Codes:
Section Housing Commercial /Retail
Occupancy. Table 5-A Group H Div. 2 Group F Div. 2
Fire Type Sec. 1801 Type I Type I
Fire Seperation
Gr. H Div. 2 $ 1 hr.
Gr.FDiv.2 1 hr.
Gr. G Div. 3 2 hr 1 hr.
Light: >1/10 F.A.,> 10 sq. ft>l/10 FA.
Sec. 705,1205 (a)
Vent.: >1/20 F.A..>5sq.ft1>l/20F.A.2
Sec. 705.1205 (a)
Min Water Closets 1 /duelling unit2 2 by sex^
Other Req.: Kitchen v/ sink, tub or
Sec.1205(b) shower w/H/C water.
Yards Yard > 3 width 1' for
Sec.1206(b) every floor >2.
Room Dim: Ceiling: Min 76" over 50% F A.
Sec. 1207(a) Baths, kitchen, halls 7'0" min.
(b): One room 1 150 sq.ft.
others min 70 sq.ft*
minimum width(c): 70*
Heating Sec. 1211: 70'F. at 3 above floor
If building >75', see Sec. 1807
Floor Loads Tbl. 23-A 40 psf uniform
Snow Load
Sesimic Risk 23Fig. 1 Win Speed m 30' Occupancy^
Sec. 3303(a)
Exit Width Sec 3303(b): Distance to exit:
Stair Width Sec 3306(a):
30 psf 1
80 mph :10
50 psf uniform, 2000 con 30 psf 1
80 mph 30/5
Occupant load / 50 in feet
150' w/out sprinkler. 200' v/ sprinkler
< 50 occ. min. 36". >50 occ. 44" min.
Parking Group G Div. 3
2 hr.
1 hr.
65 psf
80 mph

Denver Fire Zone 3
see Sec. 38 for Fire Protection Systems
Parking: Type I construction allows unlimited area Must be open on two or more sides totalling not less than 40% of perimeter.
Occupancy is 200 sq.ft/person. Exits required: 2 other than elevators
Minimum ventilation requirements; Mech. system capable of exhausting 1.5 cfm/sq ft.
gross F. A..
All other relevant codes shall apply wheither stated or not.
1. A mechanical system may be used if it provides a minimum supply of 5 cfm outside air and > 15 cfm/occupant in all portions allduring the time the building is occupied.
2. A mechanical system may be used if it provides a minimum supply of 2 ACH using a min. of 1/5 outside air. Baths and laundries must have a min. of 5ACH.
3 Requires either a fully operable ext. window l 3 sq.ft, or a mech. system with min 4 ACH.
4 Kitchen may be smaller.
5 Min required for two exits other than elevators

and cloth covered structures exceeding 150 square feet in floor area subject to approval of the Department and may be erected for a of time not to exceed 120 days. In addition. Fire Department approval >e required prior to the issuance of a permit for a tent or cloth covered ure.
ION 1721. MOBILE HOMES OR TRAILERS. In addition to the re-
nents of Article 633 of the Revised Municipal Code, the following shall
"or the p hr pose of this Building Code, a mobile home or trailer shall be :onsidered a vehicle when it is mobile, equipped with wheels and is not :onnecte3 to a sewer or power supply.
Mobile homes or trailers shall be permitted for dwelling occupancies only when located in a trailer park as defined in Article 633 of the Revised Municipal Code, and when approved by the Zoning Administration.
Mobile homes or trailers shall not be permitted for any other occupancy unless meeting the requirements for buildings of this Building Code, and specifically approved by the Department.
EXCEPTION: Mobile homes or trailers used for temporary occupancy at construction sites.
TION 1722. VEHICLE EXIT FACILITIES. Where ramps are pro-1 for vehicle exitiing from buildings, the ramps shall be within 2 feet of p-ound level at least 20 feet inside the property line of the building.
All new buildings and additions to existing buildings hereafter erected in a Flood Plain District, as designated in Section 612.32 of the Revised Municipal Code, shall be located so that the lowest occupied level, including basements and cellars, is one foot above the level of the intermediate regional flood.
EXCEPTION: Buildings and additions to buildings of A, B, C, E, F, G and J Occupancies may be located below the level of the intermediate regional flood, provided and engineer certifies that the structure and utilities are adequately flood proofed to withstand flood depths, pressures, velocities, impact and uplift forces and other factors associated with flood waters to a level one foot above the level of the intermediate regional flood. No D Occupancy building or addition to an existing building shall be constructed in a Flood Plain District.
Water Supply and Sanitary Sewer System. New or replacement water supply and sanitary sewer systems shall be designed to minimize or eliminate infiltration of flood waters into the systems and discharges from the systems into the flood waters.
(c) Design. The proposed construction shall be designed and anchored to
prevent flotation, collapse, or lateral movement of the building or structure.
(d) Intermediate Regional Flood. A flood having a one percent annual probability or an average frequency of occurrence in the order of once in 100 years although the flood may occur in any year.
SECTION 1724. FIRE, SMOKE OR HEAT SHIELDS. In addition to the requirements in Chapter 52 for fire, smoke or heat shields, openings for these devices shall have a structural frame provided to carry the fire or smoke damper assembly. The fire rated material of the construction assembly shall be carried around this frame prior to the installation of the damper. See Chapter 52.
EXCEPTION: Masonry Walls.
SECTION 1725. EMERGENCY VEHICLE ACCESS. Every building shall
be provided with access capable of sustaining the load of emergency vehicles as approved by the Department and Fire Department. See Fire Code.

A substantial increase in sedimentation and/or erosion;
i) Any increase in flood levels during the occurrence of the hundred-year flood discharge caused by activities occurring within the floodway.
(b) Notwithstanding the provisions of sec-ion 59-22, no use shall be permitted in any iood plain district except for those uses ermitted in section 59-498.
Code 1950, § 612.32-1; Ord. No. 457, § 1, -15-80)
lee. 59-500. Technical information necessary to determine compliance.
In determining whether the uses will-comply with sections 59-498(1) and 59-499, he zoning administrator shall base his/her ecision on the maps adopted by the city ouncil, and may require the applicant to ubmit adequate technical information upon /hich a decision can be made. The zoning f ainistrator shall consult with the director v wastewater management division of the department of public works.
lees. 59-50159-510. Reserved.
Sec. 59-511. Generally.
The provisions of this division apply to all ands, uses and structures in PUD districts.
lec. 59-512. Description of district.
The PUD district is an alternative to onventional land use regulations, substi-uting procedural protections for the require-nents in this chapter. The PUD district is pecifically intended to encourage: diversifi-;ation in the use of land and flexibility in site iesign with respect to spacing, heights and lensity of buildings, open space and circula-;ion elements; innovation in residential de-/elopment that results in the availability of
adequate housing opportunities for varying income levels; more efficient use of land and energy through smaller utility and circulation networks; development patterns in harmony with the goals and objectives of the comprehensive plan for the city.
(Code 1950, § 612.33-1)
Sec. 59-513. Permitted uses.
A PUD district shall permit any use which is a permitted use in any zone district of the city when such use is provided for, enumerated, and approved in the PUD zone district plan and written stipulations.
(Code 1950, § 612.33-2)
Sec. 59-514. Preapplication conference.
Prior to filing an application for approved of a PUD district, the applicant shall make a formal request to the planning office for a preapplication conference. The planning office shall conduct the preapplication conference to discuss the PUD procedures.
(Code 1950, § 612.33-3)
Sec. 59-515. Application.
(a) Contents. Each application for approval of a PUD district shall be filed with the department of zoning administration by the owner or agent of the owner of the entire land area to be included within the project; shall contain such information and representations required by this chapter or deemed necessary by the department and shall include at least the following details:
(1) A legal description and map of the property drawn to scale which shall include: the land area within the PUD district, the use and present zone classification of the designated area, the zone classification and use of all abutting districts within two hundred (200) feet of the subject property, all public and private rights-of-way and easements bounding and intersecting the designated area which are proposed to be continued, created, relocated and/or abandoned.

| 59-516
(2) A district plan, drawn to scale, showing land use arrangements by type, at a scale of not less than one inch per two hundred (200) feet, of the proposed PUD concept; and the general location of major thoroughfares, and public and private open space.
(3) A written description of the proposed development stipulating the following:
a. The type and gross acreage of each land use;
b. Provisions for parking and loading;
c. Maximum height of structures by land use type;
d. Utilities;
e. Surface drainage;
f. Interior streets and drives;
g. Provisions for separation between streets, buildings and other features;
h. Easements;
i. Buffer areas and the timing of their development;
j. Boat, camper, trailer and recreation vehicle storage in residential and commercial areas;
k. Dedications and public improvements;
l. School sites;
m. Open space recreation areas;
n. Methods of dealing with sound, vibration and emission of heat, glare, radiation and fumes;
o. Restoration of natural terrain;
p. Land coverage of buildings and impervious surfaces by use area;
q. Maximum residential densities by housing type;
r. Method of sign treatment;
8. Outdoor storage; and
t. Maximum gross floor area for each land use.
(4) A written statement generally describing the proposed PUD and the market which it is intended to serve; its relationship to the comprehensive plan; and how the proposed PUD district is to relate to the use of neighboring property. Where the applicants objectives are not in substantial conformance with the comprehensive
plan, the statement shall include the changed or changing conditions that justify approval of the proposed PUD district.
(5) Other information as the department of zoning administration, planning office or a member of the city council may, within twenty-one (21) days after the submission of the application, request in writing of the applicant.
(b) Waiver of specific submissions. Any information required by subsection (a) may be waived by the joint action of the zoning administration and the director of planning on the basis that the information is not necessary to a review of the proposed PUD. Such waiver shall be in writing and shall specify the reasons for such waiver.
(c) Review:
(1) Upon receipt of a completed application, the department of zoning administration shall transmit a copy of such plan to the planning office, city council, public works and to such other agencies either public or private, as may be deemed by the department to have an interest.
(2) A planning board meeting at which parties and interested citizens shall have an opportunity to be heard shall be held within forty-five (45) days following the date on which the completed application was received from the department of zoning administration. The area for which the application for a change in zoning classification is being considered shall be posted for at least fifteen (15) days prior to the planning board meeting. The posted notices shall be in number, size and location as prescribed by the department of zoning administration and shall indicate the present zoning classification, the proposed zoning classification, the time and place of the planning board public meeting, and any other information prescribed by the department of zoning administration. Posted notices shall be removed by the

der stopping any or all work on the PUD does not comply with such plans, until ch time as any noncompliance iB remedied, ode 1950, § 612.33-8)
>c. 59-520. Adjustment and amendments.
All site plans registered and recorded reunder may only be amended pursuant to ,e same procedure and subject to the same nitations and requirements by which such ans were approved. The zoning administra-r, director of planning and manager of iblic works jointly may authorize minor ljustments to the approved PUD site plan aen such adjustments appear necessary in -,'ht of technical or engineering consider-ion. Such minor adjustments shall not be jrmitted if any of the following circum-ances are resultant:
) A change in the character of the developments;
) A change in the land uses as approved in f the district plan;
S An increase in the ratio of the gross floor areas of structures to the land area of the planned unit development;
) A reduction in the setbacks from property lines;
) An increase in ground coverage by structures;
) A reduction in the ratio of off-street parking and loading space to gross floor area in structures;
) A change in the limitations on the number, size or lighting of signs shown on the district or site plan;
) A change affecting public rights-of-way. 3ode 1950, § 612.33-9)
DIVISION 1. GENERALLY Sec. 59-536. Scope.
This article shall govern and control the erection, remodeling, enlarging, moving, operation and maintenance of all signs by permitted uses within all zoning districts established by this chapter. Nothing herein contained shall be deemed a waiver of the provisions of any other ordinance or regulation applicable to signs. Signs located in areas governed by several ordinances and/or applicable regulations shall comply with all such ordinances and regulations.
(Code 1950, § 613.1)
Sec. 59-537. Signs permitted in all dis tricts.
(a) Signs not subject to a permit. The following signs may be erected in all districts without a permit:
(1) Signs required or specifically authorized for a public purpose by any law, statute or ordinance; may be of any type, number, area, height above grade, location, illumination or animation, authorized by the law, statute or ordinance under which the signs are required or authorized;
(2) Signs limited in content to name of occupant and address of premises; signs of danger or a cautionary nature which are limited to: wall and ground signs; not more than two (2) per street front for each use by right, or two (2) for each dwelling unit; not more than four (4) square feet per sign in area; not more than ten (10)
*Cross referencesAdvertising, Ch. 3; signs generally, Ch. 46; regulations for signs permanently occupying public right-of-way, ( 49-436 et seq.
State law referenceOutdoor advertising, C.R.8. 1973, 43-1-401 et seq.
aca. 59-62159-535. Reserved.

{ 69-519
Sec. 59-518. Review of site plan.
(a) Development review committee. There shall be a development review committee consisting of the director of planning, the manager of public works, the zoning administrator, the chief of the fire department, the manager of parks and recreation, and the manager of the water board or their designated representatives. Additional public or private agencies and other interested persons or organizations may participate at their request.
(b) Site plan rules and regulations. The director of planning shall adopt PUD site plan rules and regulations establishing standards and procedures for its examinations. The PUD site plan rules and regulations shall be open to public inspection and shall make due provision for:
(1) Adequate design of grades, paving, gutters and drainage of private streets according to section 41-20;
(2) Proper arrangement of signs and lighting devices with respect to traffic-control devices and adjacent residential areas;
(3) Adequate amounts and safe locations of play areas for children and other recreational areas according to the concentration of occupancy in residential areas;
(4) Fences, walls or year-round natural screen planting and landscaping when necessary to shield adjacent residential areas from commercial, industrial and parking areas;
(5) Adequate amounts and safe and convenient location of pedestrian circulation facilities, mass transportation stops and shelters, facilities for waste facilities and illumination;
(6) Adequate treatment of drainage to handle storm waters, prevent erosion and minimize the formation of dust.
(c) Waiver of specific submissions. Any information required by the PUD site plan
rules and regulations may be waived by the action of the development review committee on the basis that the information is not necessary to review of the proposed PUD. Such waiver shall be in writing and shall specify the reasons for such waiver.
(d) Review of site plan. A site plan shall be reviewed by the development review committee. This committee shall have the authority to request additional information from the applicant when necessary to complete its review.
(e) Disposition. The development review committee shall evaluate the proposal for conformance with the approved district plan and according to its site plans rules and regulations; shall return one copy of the plans to the applicant, marked to show approval; denial or approval subject to modifications, which modifications shall be clearly and permanently marked on such plans; shall place a similarly marked set of plans in the files of the department of zoning administration; and shall, when the plans have been approved and accepted by the applicant, record a copy of such portions of the plans as may be appropriate in the office of the city clerk. The file shall reflect the reason for any modifications required by the development review committee or made by the applicant. No modifications may be made which conflict with the approved district plan.
(Code 1950, § 612.33-7)
Sec. 59-519. Effect and limitations on approval.
(a) A PUD site plan approved and recorded pursuant to these provisions shall, with the approved district plan, regulate the use and development of the subject property.
(b) The department of zoning administration shall review all permits issued and shall inspect the location of footings or foundations for each structure approved in the plan. If the department finds that development is not proceeding in accordance with the PUD plans as finally approved, it shall immediately issue

I 69-616
applicant from the subject area within fifteen (15) days after said public meeting has been held. Failure to do so shall constitute a violation of this chapter.
3) Within sixty (60) days following the date on which such completed applications were received from the department of zoning administration, the planning office and other agencies to which the plan has been submitted shall transmit to the department of zoning administration recommendations or comments, copies of which shall be forwarded by the zoning administration to the applicant. The failure of the planning office and other agencies to act within the time herein prescribed shall not be deemed a recommendation of the district as submitted.
(d) Disposition:
(1) The only provisions of article IX of this chapter which shall apply are: section 59-646 (declaration of public policy), section 59-647(7) (public hearing required, notice given), section 59-647(8) (effect of protests to amendments), section 59-647(9) (filing of proteststime limitationwithdrawal), and section 59-650 (disposition of applications).
;2) The complete application with all waivers, stipulations and other supporting material shall be presented to an appropriate committee of city council by the zoning administrator for preliminary review. The council committee may at that time require additional information from the applicant or from city agencies, including information previously waived under section 59-515(b).
(3) After review by the council committee, the zoning administrator shall file the complete application with such supporting material as designated by the council committee with the city clerk and shall cause a bill for an ordinance to be prepared which shall approve the creation of the PUD district as described in the city clerk filing.
(4) The decision of council shall be based on written findings of fact. The council shall, by resolution, adopt a check list of items of concern to be considered by the council in arriving at its findings. The written findings of fact need not make a finding on each item on the checklist.
(e) Registration and recording. All ap-
proved plans shall be registered and recorded with the city clerk by the department of zoning administration and the official map shall be amended to designate the area included in the approved plan as planned unit development district #____
(f) Successive applications. No application for the change of a zoning classification to a PUD district shall be made by a property owner or his agent concerning any land area, which land area or any portion thereof shall have been the subject of a public hearing conducted by council within the immediately preceding twelve (12) months period and which resulted in a rejection of the proposed PUD district.
(Code 1950, § 612.33-4)
Sec. 59-516. Amendment.
All plans registered and recorded under this division may be amended pursuant to the same procedure and subject to the same limitations and requirements by which such plans were approved, registered and recorded. (Code 1950, § 612.33-5)
Sec. 59-517. Filing of site plan for approval.
At any time after registration and recording of the district plan, the owner may submit a site plan to the director of planning. The site plan may include either the entire area or one or more stages. The site plan shall contain such information and documentation as shall be prescribed in the PUD site plan rules and regulations.
(Code 1950, § 612.33-6)

Site Requirements
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There are, in the creation of architecture, an infinite number of appropriate responses to any given problem. This statement suggests as well, that there are an infinite number of inappropriate responses. In this project, the normal frame work of an urban mixed use project has many different twists and turns.
In the development of the site diagram alone there were almost two dozen different partis. For example, the usual response of housing overlooking street life had a different response in this unique site. The more appropriate orientation for the housing was overlooking the river with access to the Platte River Greenway. This in itself generated a number of difficulties in the identification and circulation to the housing from the street. While this did create problems, it did as well serve as an interesting architectural problem.
The solution itself, weaves together the multiple uses of retail, office and housing with identifable familiar associations" and responsible energy management.
First, the site plan respects the nature and uses of the two different urban parks bordering the project as well as the site to the west that has unpredictable future use. The site diagram creates a strong privacy gradient from the public street side through strong circulation paths from the commercial through to the housing. All entrances are easily identifable and unique to each different use.
The commercial spaces are wrapped around an atrium, that provides an interesting entrance and circulation space as well as a source for interior daylighting to the spaces. It is hoped, that these features, while not adding a lot of eipense to the project would add an additional selling point to the project. The atrium, with the influx of sunlight, large light space, and glass

block walkways, offers a delightful space in which to travel from the outside to a work environment. The office sand retail spaces feature a daylighting system using light shelves that provide over the entire project 50 % of the required lighting while providing the users a continuous connection to the outside environment.
The 18 housing units offer spacious two bedroom units that are laid out in a manner so that there are no entrances above the second floor level. Each unit has an outside deck or patio of at least 90 square feet that over looks the river and park. The second level units all have large skylights and light wells that provide daylight into the center of the house. By having the units share common walls, the skin heat losses and gains have been reduced, and using energy conserving construction the energy consumption of the units is reduced to a reasonable level.
The project provides a energy system that takes advantage of the different energy requirements of the different uses. Eicess heat from the load dominated commercial building is transferred to a storage area where it may be used as energy for the the housing heat pumps or for cooling in the offices. As well, the steady temperature of the ground water is used as an energy source. The daylighting systems reduce the electric requirements over the entire project.
The most important aspect of the project is the use and manipulation of an architectural vocabulary that relates to people using or coming in contact with the project with familiar associations. A number of different needs generated the creation of secondary punched walls that wrap the
buildings. This brie' de soliel offers support and integration of the light
shelves, shading of view windows, pedestrian arcades, and support for some of the housing balconies while serving as the medium for an abstracted classical vocabulary that suggests an historical quality while giving the entire project a unique yet identifiable language of its own.

I have enjoyed working through the twists and turns that this project offered. While I do not feel that it is yet completed, the project demonstrates that the goals of this thesis may be reached in the realm of acceptable architectural responses. And in answer to the earliest design question of the thesis, yes I can imagine people living and working on the banks of the Platte.

Strings, mirrors.... what ever it takes to keep TinkerbeU up.
-David Frieder

Av#ray* E*cutiv* Reading Time: 7 min.
The Parameters of Office Building Design
A new urban look is being achieved in what might be called the sculptural generation of office buildings in downtown Chicago and elsewhere.
by James C. Allen vice president Perkins & Will Architects
SPACE EFFICIENCY and economics, more than anything else, have often dictated the shape of commercial high-rise buildings. Endless variations on square and rectangular boxes have been designedto the dismay of architectural critics, not to mention countless city dwellers. Certainly not all boxes are unattractive ones. Design philosophies such as those popularized by Mies van der Rohe and his followers have resulted in many striking, elegant buildings, with notable variations on a basic four-sided theme. Stated bluntly, however, too many boxes can add up to an unfortunate visual monotony.
What the latest generation of office buildings is proving is that they can be unique as well as efficient. The boxes are gradually giving way to more distinctive, sculptural shapes which appeal to both owners and tenants; they combine good looks and a sound investment. To understand how this balance has been reached, it helps to consider the building owners viewpoint.
Box Is Economical
Boxy high-rises are designed that way for a reason, and usually the reason is money. Speculative office buildings, planned and normally built before tenants are found, are created to turn a profit for their developers. They are, of necessity, geared to no particular tenant use. With relatively minor
changes such as in partitioning, a wide variety of users can occupy what is basically identical space. When one tenant moves out, another can take over the same space, in most cases with only minor modifications.
The square or rectangular shape evolves from certain parameters, proven rules of thumb which pertain to office building design. The platform size, or interior floor area, should stay within a certain range to assure viable efficient space. Small floors, of 20,000 sq. ft or loss in a tall building, lack efficiency Too much space is taken up by the core, which contains the elevator, stairways, and ancillary areas such as washrooms and mechanical equipment rooms On the other hand, large Hoot of more than 30,000 sq. ft may limit the exterior wall area available for pet nneter offices. Too much wm-dowless interior space is less desirable to many tenants, especially those seek -
ing the most for their money in todays rental market.
The center core surrounded by the rental area generally has proven the most economical way to handle an office building layout, as well as the most flexible. Ideally, between 35' and 50' should remain between the core and the outside wall; less space would mean insufficient depth for planning most office areas, and more would be difficult to divide into smaller tenant areas. Also, it would produce too much interior windowless space. The center core keeps the service points centralized, which means shorter duct runs and shorter conduit and piping lengths from the core to the tenant space. This, in turn, results in lower construction costs.
Generally, the ratio of exterior wall area to enclosed floor area is a logical measure of efficiency. If the area of the exterior enclosure represents 30of the floor area, it is considered quite efficient. The least amount of enclosure results in lower investment cost through savings in both wall costs and mechanical system costs. Operating expenses are also reduced, as the amount of exterior heat losses and gains is lowered. The more a building's height approaches its width, the more efficient its shape.
For the developer, one of the most important ratios is obviously the ratio of rentable area to gross area of the building. Keeping the percentage of rentable area high means more income for the least investment, the owner's primary concern. Added to those criteria. thanks to advancing structural technology, has been the development continued on page 174
November 1980

Office Building Design
continued /rom page ISO
of sophisticated structural systems allow concentration of the fram-at the service core and the exterior walls. The result is a very regular grid and floor plan, with large column-free interior spaces for maximum flexibility and rental dollars.
Luring the Tenants
Add up all of the above criteria, and the usual result is a box. What tempt-
ed developers to alter this tried and true formula? One clue can be found in the rental structure for commercial office space. The Chicago developers almost insatiable desire to build has at times produced a temporary oversupply of high-rises. This has resulted in a highly competitive, buyers market situation, with owners creating demand for their space by offering slightly lower rents.
More recently, the situation was reversed. A shortage of space drove rents up in office high-rises; currently,
Rendering of office building ot 101 North Waclter Drive.
rates average $14 to $15 per sq ft. in new downtown buildings, and some are able to get upwards of $20. This is a substantial increase over the rents of just two years ago, and buildings that are currently being planned or have just started construction will be renting for an average of $18-$20 per sq. ft.
To lure tenants from their older, existing space, developers are offering them more for their money by turning to buildings with unique architectural qualities. More sculptural forms such as curved walls, sawtooth facades or setback levels produce new architectural opportunities as well as a wider variety of interior spaces which seem to appeal to tenants.
Meeting the Needs
What might have been sacrificed in terms of traditional economies of space. is being recovered in higher rents and faster rent-up periods. For instance, a popular design trend involves creating interior atriums within an office building, providing interior views and increasing the amount of desirable perimeter area without necessarily increasing the exterior wall. This technique can break up what might have been considered overly large platforms, upwards of 35,000 sq. ft. in some cases.
The architect is often faced with particular tenant needs. Some may have space requirements that impose certain configuration constraints on the size and shape of the structure. Banks, for instance, require large open spaces on main floors for the public areas. It is possible in such cases to meet and, in fact, take advantage of these design needs without sacrificing appropriate space for other uses.
The First National Bank of Chicago, for example, provides large open areas for public banking at the structures base. Upper floors gradually slope inward, with larger platform areas accommodating administrative and other functions most effectively and providing the smaller rental floors at the top. Although in this case the buildings function dictated its form, it was nevertheless a forerunner of the sculptural look in commercial high-rises. The building's graceful shape has become a landmark on the skyline as well as at street level.
Varied Requirements
Other similar users have their needs met in different ways and for different

Minimum platform width, but requires additional site width for core projection.
Some ipace has no exterior exposure.
Loss of efficiency due to increased corridor.
Limits tenant flexibility by dividing floor into three parts.
Minimum platform width.
Some space has no exterior exposure.
Limits tenant flexibility by dividing floor into three parts.
Most efficient use of small narrow site.
continued on next page
reasons. A major downtown financial institution, exploring possibilities for expansion of its downtown headquarters, had to maximize a constrained urban site while providing flexibility for growth and change. The organization also wanted sufficient and appropriate income-producing space to make the project an attractive investment opportunity.
A feasibility study of various build-
Minimum platform width.
Some space has no exterior exposure.
Limits tenant flexibility by dividing floor into two parts.
Elevator operation probably not efficient except on large buildings.
Most efficient arrangement.
Complete exterior exposure all around, i
Provides maximum tenant flexibility.
Requires wider site.
ing configurations was conducted. Zoning requirements were incorporated to their best advantage, for optimum use of the site and for the best basic floor configuration. The institution found its needs were best met by a structure with a large base for public use and setbacks on upper floorsagain, giving the building an opportunity for a unique character yet allowing it to function most effectively.
One of the newest of the sculptural generation of office buildings is the 36-story high-rise being planned for 333 West Wacker Drive in downtown Chicago. This uniquely shaped structure will have a sweeping curve for the north face and a multifaceted south face with a several vertical niches and setbacks. It offers flexibility for tenants through a wide range of floor sizes and configurations, with floors ranging from 25,000 sq. ft. to as small as 6,000 sq. ft. in a penthouse. It is envisioned that the penthouse floors will be very attractive and well-suited to the specialized small tenant, while other floors will appeal to the larger users. The curve and facets of the building will provide a variety of views from the building as well as produce the opportunity for additional corner offices.
Groups of Tenants
Other equally effective design approaches can be reached in buildings with different types of tenants. For a developmental building in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, which will house government offices, a structure was designed as two separate yet connected units for maximum flexibility and efficiency.
Floor plan of 333 Wtt Wacltor offico building.

The building has a very efficient boxlike tower on one comer of its site. Administrative and clerical personnel will occupy 13 floors of 30,000 sq. ft. each in the tower. A multistory atrium connects it to the second, private sec-
s :
Various internal space arrangements indicate that usable tenant areas should be 30' to 40' deep, plus the building corridor.
The smaller the depth the more limiting it is to large tenants.
. The larger the depth the more limiting it is to small tenants.
Percentage comparisons indicote rations of interior exposure to exterior exposure for internal space arrangements of increav ing depth.
tor office component for smaller tenants. By use of a highly sculptural zigzag exterior wall, an otherwise common building is given greater character and provides a variety of views, with numerous corner offices on each floor. Each unit has its own elevator core to assure ease of access for both groups of tenants.
The Milwaukee building will use a limited amount of exterior glass for energy conservation. This is one design aspect not formerly of primary concern to speculative building developers, whose main interest is first cost rather than operating costs. This attitude is beginning to change in the development community; its overall effect on building materials has led to investigation of unique, yet cost-effective exteriors for new structures.
Th maximum space ratio it approximately 2:1 for any demised area.
Very deep spaces produce a disproportionate amount of interior space which may be undesirable to many tenants.
A 2:1 ratio can be considered maximum unless there are known users for larger amounts of interior spacebanks, insurance companies, exhibition, etc.
Milwaukee Federal Building, Milwaukee Wisconsin.
A careful balance must be strucl between saving energy and limitinj exterior views. Too few windows cat detract from a building's appeal t< tenants. The stick curtain wall, an economical standard for years, is showinj up with new variations such as reflective glass and multicolored energy-efficient glass. For example, 101 Nortl t Wacker Drive, nearing completion ir the Loop, is a forerunner of this trenc with its reflective glass and variec shades of spandrel glass at nonvisioi areas.
Return to Classic Approach
Many architects of the newer high-rises are rediscovering a classical design approach, namely that building: should have a clearly defined base middle and top. The base is in tune with a street-level scale; its whal drivers and pedestrians experience close up, and for many it is the onlj exterior building element they wil! ever experience. The middle portion i< perceived mainly from a distance and by those in neighboring buildings; il has a clearly different scale than the base. The top, which is best viewed from a skyline vantage point some distance away, requires a different scale and articulation as a termination. Whether it was concern for those perceptions that led to this rediscovery, or the new designs that led to the perceptions, is difficult to ascertain. In any event, the discreet use of these devices may well be a welcome relief from the modern urban building.
Tenants benefit from their location in more distinctive office space, which impresses occupants and clients and satisfies developers seeking maximum rental dollars. Preliminary indications are that the new generation of buildings is quite effective in luring firms which might otherwise have sough) space in a more traditional structure,
What effect will the trend towards architecturally unique office buildings have overall? Even though such space may not necessarily appeal to every type of user, the more developers give their tenants that something extra in terms of building design and character, the more difficult it will be for both to return to the basic box. As long as new approaches pay off financially and aesthetically, architects will be able to put their imaginations to work providing a new urban look. D

No rules in energy design
Many variables determine an energy system in high-rise buildings, from the owners purpose to forces of nature, making establishment of set criteria virtually impossible.
This conclusion was drawn by architects and engineers at a seminar in Chicago last week, Energy Use and Management in High-Rise Buildings, cosponsored by the Chicago Committee on High-rise Buildings and the Illinois chapter of the American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers (ashrae). Participants in the meeting examined five projects developed by corporate, commercial and government interests.
According to architect George Hays, senior vice president, Chicago-based Perkins & Will, which designed two such developers structures in Chicago, 2 North LaSalle St. and 101 N. Wacker Dr., energy systems were recognized as large cost savers, although return on investment was the top priority. Shape, size, materials, site and how well the building would relate to the environment all had to be considered before we thought about efficient mechanical systems, says Hays. As a result, tinted glass and insulated panels were used.
Although both buildings had the same goals maximum rental efficiency and economy101 N. Wacker had to take into account the Department of Energys (DOE) building temperature restrictions.
For One American Square, a corporate headquarters currently under construction in Indianapolis, a quirk of nature resulted in the structures ability to use an estimated 55% less energy than a conventional office building. It will be extremely energy efficient. Indianapolis sits on a huge sand and gravel bed, which is easily saturated with water. The design team decided to eliminate the potential below-grade water problem by pumping water out of the ground and, at the same time, end up with an efficient energy system that uses that water for heating and cooling. We found an ample water supply that is really a gold mine as an energy source," says architect Albert Cho, from Skidmore, Owings and Merrills Chicago office.
The State of Illinois set entirely different criteria for a government building, the State of Illinois Center, in Chicago. The main consideration was to arrive at a monumental architectural concept, says James Goettsch, project architect, Mur-phy/Jahn Associates. Goettsch admits that a more energy-efficient design than the all-glass structure under construction could otherwise have been chosen.
Even though the buildings exterior is entirely glass, Goettsch maintains that the building is basically efficient, since it is a low block-type building with large floors and has a low ratio of outside wall exposure to building floor area. Whatever negative effect the building enclosure would have has been minimized by the use of heat pumps, passive solar energy and automated controls, according to Goettsch.
At the Pershing Road Associates office
HIgh-rlae energy goals studied in Chicago.
project in Kansas City, Mo., a system of computer controls was placed throughout the building to maintain energy-efficient performance.
This article was reprinted from Engineering News-Record.
ENR/Jun 11, 1981

Push for Lower Energy Use Mandates Upgraded Image for Speculative Office Buildings
Despite modest intentions of builder, Chicagos Two North La Salle is not without striking glimpses of soaring grandeur.
Chicago. Until the dawning of the present age of energy consciousness, low first cost had always been uppermost in the design of "speculative or investment office buildings. Breaking ground with no or insufficient commitments from prospective tenants, the so-called spec builder moves ahead without guarantee of success. There is, thus, some temptation to minimize financial risk by placing price above performance in const ruel ion The result is that the image of the average spec building might sometimes be described as modest or "unpretentious. I tutor tunately, high oprerating cost and low energy efficiency are olten parts of the spree image also.
A new 27-story office building at 2 North La Salle Street hen-certainty qualifies as a speculative venture. Meet wood Kcali> Company, thedeveloprers, initiated the project bet trie a single ten ant lease had been signed. But the good-looking structure doesn't
quite lit the spec building mold because the architects and engineers were instructed to give energy conservation overriding consideration, t he distinctive exterior features a careful balance between smooth aluminum honeycomb panels and windows of tinted plate glass.
The building is heated and cooled year around by an electric 11V At system using vat i.ihlc ait volume and perimeter baseboard heating units IVtimelei heating is controlled by sophisticated feedback 01 closed loop iucuitiy that incorporates silicon continued teclilieis and indoor and outdoor temperature sensors. Ilits type ol < mu ml peimiis extremely accurate regulation of minimi onditious within the building. At the same time, designer, aie push, ling a .0 pcn ciil savings in energy measured against a V \V p. Mini tci buscbnaid system installed in an older building ol about the same size
On* of a ifriet oj reports giving rr, >gmin>n /.< ih, fr r< >i .
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Energy Management
Bad Rhyme. Although the builders did not enjoy the benefits of pre-signed tenants to lessen the speculative aspects of their undertaking, they did have a great location. As a matter of fact, if a local song writer hadnt gone for the easy rhyme many years ago, he might have named La Salle rather than State as that great street of his home town. Pop music would have provided the advantage of instant recognition and natives here would seldom need offer Wall Street of Chicago' in attempting to characterize the avenue for newcomers to the Loop.
No matter. La Salle Street is famous enough in its own right, having enjoyed quiet respect as a power center for business and financial interests in the Midwest. Sedate office buildings of solid traditional architecture line both sides of the avenue. Scores of major banking, brokerage and insurance firms have located there since before the turn of the century. So Fleet-wood Realty could bank on a prestige address with a strong appeal to prospective tenants when it decided to redevelop a holding on La Salle Street.
Retrofit Reject. The property involved was the old La Salle Hotel, once the grand hotel of the financial community and an elegant sample of baroque 1920s style and taste. In more recent times its fortunes began to fade badly as ultramodern accommodations became increasingly available in the area. By the time Fleetwood acquired the property in 1976 it was apparent that its operation as a hotel could no longer be sustained economically. The first thought was to retrofit the old hotel for use as office space.
We were prepared to invest in a massive rehabilitation effort, recalls Fleetwood Realty principal Art Wallin. We called on our architects and engineers
Fleetwood Realty principal Art Wallin thought at first he'd go the retrofit route, but then switched to a different tack.
to study the feasibility of doing it and the costs involved. As preliminary plans and estimates began to come in, we found immediately that we would be faced with compromises all the way down the line. There would, for example, be limitations in designing the mechanical and electrical systems needed to achieve our energy conservation objectives. As another example, we wanted to offer tenants unlimited freedom in arranging office space for efficient operation. But if we had to adhere to the structural format of the old hotel, floor planning flexibility would be greatly inhibited.
There were other compromises that weighed against the renovation concept, but the real clincher came when we found that rehabilitation would cost more (some $3 million) than a new facility custom built to our specifications from scratch.
Midwest realtor chooses quality architecture and superior HVAC as means for taking hold of spiraling operating costs in highly competitive investment building field.
The entire project was accomplished in a remarkably short time as a result of a carefully orchestrated team approach involving owner, architect, engineers and contractors. Exactly three years transpired from the time the old hotel was purchased until the new building was completed and occupied. The one leisurely phase in the otherwise quick-stepping process entailed selling off the contents of the old hotel. A three-month sale of antique furnishings and memorabilia realized almost enough
Architect Voy Madeyski had to transform an essentially simple box like structure into something quitedifferent.
to pay the costs of demolition.
Fleetwood Tack. After evaluating the data from the feasibility study, Fleetwood Realty veered away from retrofit and steered a course towards new construction. General design objectives were quickly set, benefiting to no small degree from the firms experience with several other office structures in thecity. Height of the new building would be 27 stories, a number delicately balancing the strength of the then-current market for office space against the amount of financing available. All of the mechanical systems including heating, ventilating and air conditioning would be powered by electricity.
We had used electric HVAC systems before for several reasons, says Art Wallin. They cost less to purchase and install and less to maintain than hydronic systems. A wet system in a building the size of No. 2 La Salle could easily entail a $50,000 annual payroll for operating engineers.
Another advantage of the all-electric HVAC system cited by Wallin is the flex-ibilty it provides for tailoring office space to the needs of new tenants. This is especially important for the kind of tenant we see today who demands versatile floor layouts to accommodate business machines, computers, data terminals, word processors, etc. Overall our experience has been so good that we probably wouldnt put up a building now that wasnt all electric.
Fleetwood Realtys interest in electric HVAC systems today goes beyond flexibility, first cost and engineers payrolls. Energy costs now loom very large in determining first-year base rents, the Figures prospective tenants must look at before deciding whether or not to lease. The firm had been able to gain some control of
Engineer Adam Gagala found in duct loops or donuts "an ideal recipe for saving on energy needed for fan operation.

1-Windows extending to ceilings make less glass area seem like more. 2-Heart of the feedback control is this electronic-pneumatic panel in mechancial room. 3-Gone but not forgotten is the old La Salle Hotel, once the grand hotel of Chicago's financial community. 4-New building stands out distinctly but quietly from its closely pressing neighbors. 5-Marble and glass sur faces add distinctive touches tc entrance lobby. 6-Welcome oasis. One of the street level retail shops, much needed to relieve the other wise formal tone of La Salle Street 7-Mechanical room has unclutter ed look, one of the fringe benefits of electric H VAC systems. 8-Mirror ed ceilings and reflective wall sur laces give a feeling of spaciousness to economically sired elevator lobby

Energy Management
energy costs with a certain type of HVAC system installed in their building at 200 West Monroe Street. Now they were being offered a later version of the same system, one that made the 200 W. Monroe setup look like a Model T and promised a 20 percent cut in energy consumption. That was one offer Fleetwood Realty couldnt refuse.
Mixed Blessing. Like many large U.S. cities, Chicago has mounted a laudable campaign encouraging builders to relieve congestion in downtown by providing open space around new office buildings. City planners trade incentives such as property tax abatement and zoning easements for setbacks and plaza. La Salle Street, however, was exempted from the space program on the basis of the reasoning that it was essential to preserve the aura of stability, strength and oxford gray formality surrounding what is primarily a financial and legal stronghold.
Valid or not, this premise is a blessing for developers who are free to build over the full width of lots on La Salle. Architects, on the other hand, have to work against the strong tendency for new buildings to become lost in the press of wall-to-wall neighbors. This tendency was certainly avoided by Perkins & Will designers who have given the building a strong identifiable image without jarring the ambience of the surroundings. The resulting high visibility, says Perkins & Will vice-president Voy Madeyski, has enhanced its marketability to tenants and made the abbreviated 2 La Salle a widely recognized address.
Long used in avionics and industrial controls, the feedback concept is applied here to a combination VAVperimeter baseboard system for projected 20 percent savings in energy use.
We worked with texture, color, materials and geometric patterns, says architect Madeyski, to give distinction to what is essentially a simple box-like structure. We chose a smooth envelope of approximately equal areas of glass and metal panels to contrast with the grainy masonry surfaces that predominate in the area. The facade presents a pattern of horizontal lines alternating dark tinted solar plate glass with light gray aluminum honeycomb sandwich panels. The horizontal layering makes the building look wider than it is. Corners are rounded to enhance
the smoothness of the skin.
The orderly layered pattern is interrupted at street level with large expanses of plate-glass display windows for the retail shops Hanking the main entrance. While no substitute for see-through lobbies or open plazas, the shops do offer relief from the often tedious vistas of the usual financial district. The main lobby is compact but with touches of class such as the mirrored ceilings and wall surfaces of black marble. Elevatoring is generous for a spec building with six elevators serving the lower floors and a second bank of six for the higher floors.
Baseboard units supplyjustenough heat to offset losses through outside walls.
HVAC System. The space conditioning for Two North La Salle is provided by an all-electric system, comprised of perimeter electric resistance baseboard radiation and an overhead variable-air-volume (VAV) ventilation and cooling system. A VAV system supplies constant temperature air (57 F) to the conditioned space and maintains the desired comfort conditions by varying the quantity (greater or lesser amounts) of air to the area.
The building is divided into two air zones: the low rise zone, which serves the mezzanine floor through the 12th floor, and a high rise zone which serves the 14th floor through the 26th floor. Each air zone is served by two fan systems; each fan
system is composed of two supply fans and two exhaust/recirculation fans, for a total of four supply fans per zone. Fans supply air to the individual floors through a conventional duct riser arrangement. The floors, however, have a duct loop (or the donut, as its affectionately termed by the project engineers).
The fan operation or the ventilating system of any structure consumes a large share of the HVAC energy budget, said project engineer Adam Gagala of Environmental Systems Design. The chillers account for only about nine percent of the total energy requirements, while the blowers use about 20 percent. With our duct donut or loop, we can run the fans in each half of the building all at once, singly, or in any combination, depending on the volume of air needed. Each floor, he said, is divided into 28 control zones through a VAV box, allowing for great flexibility in serving the needs of individual tenants. The number of zones can be increased simply by cutting in a new VAV box for areas such as conference rooms, copier rooms and so on, for air supply to new areas.
Fans running at or near their rated capacity are at their maximum energy efficiency, said Gagala. If we had just one large unit (fan), it would have to run continuously and at low capacity (possibly in surge) and efficiency (high power draw) when the zone was calling for minimum air.
Sensors in the distribution ducts react to fluctuations in air pressure and cause the fans to cycle on and off as needed. We have found periods during mild weather conditions, reported Gagala, that comfort levels could be maintained by operating only one of the four fans in each bank (zone). This leads not only to energy savings but also reduces wear of the motor fan bearings and belts. Cooling is provid-
Conservation the N.E.W. way
N.E.W. stands for National Energy Watch, a conservation program developed by the Edison Electric Institute to recognize the efforts of architects, engineers and owners who have designed or retrofitted their commercial or industrial buildings to meet specified energy efficiency guidelines. If your building qualifies, we would like to make you a member of The Watch and give you a pennant to fly as a symbol of your participation in the nations conservation effort.
If it doesn't qualify, we can tell you how it can. Call the N.E.W. representative or the Commercial/lndustrial customer T
relations manager at your local * / I
electric utility for details. > J v /

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A ttractive display windows fronting La Salle Street help open up a narrow canyon.
ed by two 1000-ton centrifugal chillers plus one smaller 350-ton unit that handles the retail spaces at street level.
Heat Ring. The inherent heat recovery capability of the ducted-air system provides bonus energy savings during some periods of the heating season. As in most office buildings, there is a marked difference between the conditioning requirements of the core and perimeter areas on each floor. Because of gains from lighting, people and machines, core zones almost always have an excess of heat which must be removed to maintain comfortable conditions within the space.
Heat drawn from the core areas can be circulated to the perimeter zones. On milder days of the heating season recovered heat is often sufficient to offset
that lost through exterior walls and windows so that no supplementary heating need be supplied.
The principal heating needed to offset losses through the exterior walls and windows is from rows of electric baseboard heating units ringing the perimeter areas. Such units are being used increasingly in conjunction with VAV concepts to provide flexible, economical overall systems.
The underlying appeal of baseboard heating in any applicationwhether commercial or residentialis its potential for providing a high degree of occupant comfort. A person can fee! comfortable in a room having an ambient temperature of 65 F or lower if the walls of the room are warm. Conversely a person in a space with an air temperature of 75 F or higher may
Energy Management
feel chills and drafts if the walls are cool.
Chilling is caused when the persons body loses heat by radiation to the cold wall surfaces. Down drafts are caused when warm room air comes in contact with the cold wall, whereupon the air becomes cooler, heavier and then drops. Baseboard heating works to prevent chills and drafts by eliminating their source, the cold wall. The level of comfort achieved in any particular application depends greatly on the accuracy and versatility of the method chosen to control the operation of the individual baseboard units.
Control is indeed the key if the full potential of baseboard heating is to be realized. The control scheme used in 2 La Salle is the present state of the art and the most sophisticated of several different methods evaluated by the designers. Control Objectives. The ideal control scheme would enable a baseboard heater to deliver precisely enough heat to maintain the average surface temperature of the wall above at some constant value. To accomplish this the output of the heating unit would have to precisely match the changing rate of heat flow through the building envelope.
The simplest type of control is known as straight indoor sensing and employs a thermostat mounted within the baseboard enclosure or on a nearby wall. Through a relay or magnetic contactor the thermostat controls the flow of a-c power to the baseboard heating unit. This scheme has several shortcomings. It is either full on or
Figure A shows the general layout for the integration of perimeter electric baseboard heating units with a central variable air-volume HVAC system Because heat gains in the typical oflice building are high, the main function of the VAV system is to cool; It heats" by ad milting less cooling air. The role of the perimeter heaters Is to counterbalance heat loss through walls and windows The SCR package converts incoming power from Ihe a c mains to controlled d c power for the baseboard the amount of power from the SCR circuit and, hence, the heat output from the baseboard is proportional to the value of a small d c signal from the feedback control.
The feedback control, Fig B, constantly compares signals from in door and outdoor sensors. The outdoor sensor measures temperature
while the Indoor sensor gives a constant indication of the instan taneous heat supplied by the baseboard resistance heating elements. The indoor and outdoor sensors are wired into a classical Wheatstone bridge circuit Any change in outdoor temperature is reflected in a cor responding change in the resistance of the outdoor sensor which un balances the bridge.
The unbalance voltage is amplified and used as input signal for the SCR package This leads to a change In the SCR output and to a cor responding change In the heat output of the baseboard When the Indoor sensor Indicates that heat output is sufficient to offset heat losses through the walls, the bridge is rebalanced The feedback ap proach provides the most accurate form of proportional control

Energy Management
full off; it responds only to changes in indoor air temperature and not directly to outdoor conditions; and it is difficult to integrate with the VAV system. Regarding the latter point, it is possible fora wasteful condition to exist whereby the baseboard is attempting to heat a space while the VAV system is trying to cool it.
A somewhat better approach to control employs an outdoor sensor to actuate the power relay, either with or without an indoor high-limit thermostat. This eliminates one of the objections to straight indoor sensing because it reacts directly to outdoor temperature and, thus, directly to the cause of the cold wall and occupant discomfort. The disadvantages of full on-full off operation and lack of positive integration with the VAV system remain.
SCR Approach. The full off-full on objection to the earlier forms of control can be overcome by substituting silicon controlled rectifiers (SCR) for the magnetic contactors. The SCR circuitry takes incoming power from the a-c mains and converts it to a d-c output. The magnitude of the d-c output can be modulated or varied over the full range from zero to maximum power in response to the changing value of a small electrical control signal.
The SCR power controller has been used in many buildings in the so-called open loop configuration. The open loop starts with the sensor, includes the SCR and ends with the baseboard heating unit (see box). A change in outdoor climatic conditions calls for a corresponding change in the unit power output of the heating element. The heat output is continuous varying from 25 percent to 100 percent of nameplate rating. There is little tendency for the control to overshoot or undershoot the temperature setpoints. Occupants are not as conscious of heater operation as they would be with magnetic contactors cycling full on-full off.
The accuracy of SCR control of heat output is vastly improved by "closing the loop; i.e., adding a feedback circuit as was done in the system for 2 La Salle. This involved the addition of an indoor sensor to measure the actual change in the power
output of the heating elements and continuously transit feedback to the proportional controller to precisely maintain the intended power output.
With a properly calibrated closed-loop control, baseboard units can be made to supply a heat output that closely matches the changing rate of heat flow through the buildings envelope. The closed-loop control, thus, reduces the possiblity of underheating and the resulting cold wall effects on comfort. It also reduces the possibility of overheating and the consequent energy waste that results when the VAV system acts to compensate for this overheating.
Unknown Comic. On July 19, 1979, President Carter issued an energy order mandating thermostat settings in public buildings. The order was said to involve 5 million buildings, everything but private residences, hospitals and elementary schools. The Department of Energy predicted that the measure, which had the full force of law with criminal and civil penalties possible, would save 400,000 barrels of oil or their equivalent a day. A temperature no higher than 65 F was given as the wintertime setting.
Came the cold winds of winter, however, and the worthy objectives of the White House began to waiver. Lawmakers and government agencies were besieged by complaints of discomfort, illnesses and hardship. DOE alone received over 55,000 complaints about the program. After a nine-month trial the law seemed in danger of being allowed to expire, overwhelmed by gripes from a suffering citizenry. A last-minute reprieve by the President, however, extended the order for nine months more.
What the good citizens were really complaining about, of course, is the matter of chills and drafts. These are the very types
Area: 770,000 sq It Volume: 9,240,000 cu ft Number of floors: 27 plus basement Types of areas: private and general offices, computer rooms, employee lounges, mechanical rooms, storage CONSTRUCTION DETAILS:
Glass: single solar gray Exterior walls: aluminum honeycomb sandwich panels, 2" loose fiber insulation (R-6), gypsum board; U-factor: 0.12 Roof and ceilings: built-up tar and gravel roof on 2" rigid insulation (R-6), concrete deck; U-factor: 0.15 Floors: concrete slab Gross exposed wall area: 220,000 sq ft Glass area: 110,000 sq ft
Heat loss Btuh: 23,000,000 Btuh Normal degree days: 6400 Ventilation requirements: 150,000 cfm Design conditions: 10F outdoors;
70 "F indoors Cooling:
Heat gain Btuh: 24,500,000 Btuh Ventilation requirements: 150,000 cfm Design conditions: 95F dbt, 75'F wbt outdoors: 78 F, 50% rh indoors LIGHTING:
Levels in footcandles: 50-75 Levels in watts/sq ft: 2-3 Type: Fluorescent
Heating & Cooling (2350 tons) 7,500 kw
Lighting 1,760kw
AirHandling 2,100kw
Elevators 750 kw
Other 1,000 kw
Owner: Fleetwood Realty Company Architect: The Perkins & Will Group, Inc. Consulting Engineers: Environmental Systems Design, Inc.
General Contractor: Crane Construction Co. Utility: Commonwealth Edison Company
of discomforts that occupants are less likely to encounter in tightly constructed buildings with good mechanical systems. So making an energy-saving 65 F wintertime temperature setting easier for the public to live with may be a matter of striving for better buildings. The architectural and engineering technology needed to do it is already available and being demonstrated at 2 North La Salle Street, Chicago.
In a faint attempt at the type of wry humor favored by engineers, one member of the design team is reported to have summed up what has been accomplished at No. 2 with, "We have closed the loop in the Loop. The group associated with this project are certainly deserving of much credit and some will no doubt be praised individually. But the punster shall remain nameless.
Edison Electric Institute
The association of electric companies
1111 19th Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20036
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Fast track to the finish line
Simple design and speedy construction bring in the first of Chicagos new round of office buildings ahead of the competition
Just as impressive as Chicagos commercial building boom itself has been the fast delivery of the booms first completed office building.
Completed in 17 months despite severe foundation and weather problems, the 69,750 square meter 2 N. LaSalle Building was brought in at a low $20.2 million, or about $290/m*. From the beginning of work on the first floor slab to topping out of the 27-story building took only 8 months.
Two months after substantial completion, the building was 95% leased at rates of $129 to $160/m*, or $21 to $107/m2 less than the rates that will be charged by other buildings now under construction.
The building was a catalyst for other i.ew construction in downtown Chica-
"Being first with a new office building didnt necessarily give us a competitive edge, said A1 Rubenstein,
senior partner with Fleetwood Realty Co. of Chicago, owner/developer of the building. "If it did, it was countered by our being the first to seek interim and permanent financing for new construction in the city. Construction had been pretty slow for a long time.
Fleetwood was no novice as a developer in downtown Chicago. The firm had already developed about 186,000 m* of office space in the last 11 years. It also was the previous owner of the property on which the Sears Tower, the worlds tallest building, now stands. But finding financing was a problem for the firm, which had no desire to joint venture with another developer.
"We had confidence in ourselves and in the way we do things, a way weve refined with the buildings weve done, Rubenstein said. "We had to convince the lenders there was a market for the building and that it could turn a
A Chicago bank, the Continental Illinois Bank & Trust Co., was convinced enough to provide construction financing. Permanent financing was supplied by the Equitable Life Assurance Co. of New York.
With construciton funds in hand, demolition work began on the old LaSalle Hotel, which occupied the site. Only the buildings caissons were left in place.
Fleetwood also began to assemble its design and construction team. It hired The Perkins & Will Group of Chicago as its architect and structual engineer.
"Perkins & Will was looking for some office space itself, Rubenstein
Conversions are approximate.
69,750 m* 750.000 square feet. $290'm* $27 per square foot.
$129 m* = $12 per square foot. $160/m* $15 per square foot.
$21 'm* = $2 per square foot. $107/m* $10 per square foot. 106,000 m* 2,000,000 square feet.

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Owner wanted leasable space rather than a plaza
Alternating ribbons of glass and wall panel set 2 N. LaSalle apart from ne:adboring buildings
said. "With the designer as a tenant, we felt it would take extra care in creating a building of which it could be proud.
At the time the designer was selected, Fleetwood helped to get the design process started by examining various options. "We invited in the designers and all the potential contractors and subcontractors to talk about the concept of the building, Rubenstein said. "Out of common experience, we decided what was desirable, workable and economically possible. We got a general feeling of what the building should be, and even a feeling for how it should look.
The building marks a return to the plaza-less office tower. Chicago office buildings completed in recent years have generally incorporated exterior plazas, which were encouraged by the granting of zoning variances. The 2 N. LaSalle Building, however, occupies its entire site, from lot line to lot line.
Canyon preserved
Use of the full site was partly due to the urging of the late Mayor Richard Daley. The building is located in the citys financial district, where all other buildings run to lot lines and create a canyon effect. "Daley wanted this preserved as part of the citys character, Rubenstein said.
The plaza-less design was also the result of Fleetwoods desire to secure its investment with leasable commercial space at grade level instead of non-income producing plaza or atrium space.
Fleetwoods observations indicated that retail space at grade level tends to keep people in the downtown area after work. Creating restaurant and store space below the speculative office space provided the proper blend for a well utilized commercial property, Rubenstein said.
"It would be an exaggeration to say the building was designed by a committee, said Larry Kettelson, project manager for Perkins & Will, "but Fleetwood had some well thought out ideas about the building and how it should be, with respect to bay size, module size, core location and other elements. They were quick to make, decisions and that helped the project all the way through design and construction.
Perkins & Wills design called for a 27-story structure averaging 2,600 m*
per floor. Bay size was 6.1 meters by 6.1 m or 6.1 m by 7.6 m, dicated by the old hotel caissons left beneath the building. Module size was 1,500 millimeters.
Concrete columns and flat plate floor slabs were used for the structural system for several reasons. Concrete was determined to be more economical than steel. The flat plate system, free of beams below floor level, also facilitated placement of mechanical ductwork while providing the rigidity of a monolithically cast struct lire.
"The biggest design problem was to put the building to the property line while still giving it an identity of it. own, said Vny I'ei kins \-Will vice president and principal in charge of design "We did I Ins bv using a simple, strong bori/onlal geometry to set the building off limn oldei buildings on the si reel
The geometry is (he lesnlt of alternating ribbons ol glass an.I
aluminum wall panels Originally planned for 33'.7 glass area, glazing was increased to 50'< at Fleetwoods suggestion to make the building more marketable. Although it comprises only half of the exterior -kin, the glass appears to tie 65'? of the building envelope from the inside This effect is created by dropped ceil ug-
Wall panels are made of a light aluminum honeycomb sandwiched between two aluminum sheets. Alt hough only ltl mm thick, the panels are rigid and become a structural element Panel- pan m between miilliotis. about twice ibo di lance ol t s panels
I herinofibei laudation wa added on site Im bind 1 tie panel ( osI lor I lie nhiminiiiii skin was a bon I $ II m'
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- Chicago, III. &?"
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4.6% . . ; 931,500
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Divers were called in to help solve water problem
Exterior smoothness emphasized
"The panels allowed us to emphasize the smoothness of the building skin, Madeyski said. "Windows are set flush with the panels, and building comers are rounded to emphasize the continuity of the skin. Its simple, but effective, and the building stands out from anything around it.
The buildings all-electric HVAC system was chosen because of uncertainty about the long term cost and availability of gas and oil, said Adam Gagala, project eningeer. At the time of the project, Gagala was with mechanical and electrical engineer Environmental Systems Design, Inc., Chicago, engineer of record on the job. He is now with Cosentini Associates, Inc., Chicago.
Perimeter heating is accomplished with resistance baseboard heaters controlled by solar compensated sensors mounted outside the building on all 4 sides. A heating coil in the central air handler is used to warm the building core when necessary. Air conditioning is by conventional chillers. Distribution allows for 28 temperature zones per floor.
Air distribution is handled through 4 fan systems, each having 2 individual fans. Two systems supply the upper floors and 2 feed the lower floors. Air monitoring stations throughout the building control fan use, starting only the needed number of fans to supply building air. The result, Gagala said, is a more efficient use of fan horsepower and reduced fan wear.
"We dont have much operating data yet, but we do have experience with a few particularly hot days, he said. "We expected all 4 fans in one of the paired systems to be running. Only 3 were needed to cool the space, and the systems eventually cycled down to 2 for maintaining the temperature.
Fleetwood estimates that operating costs for 2 N. LaSalle will be about 20% lower than for older buildings of comparable size.
Starting during the design phase, weekly meetings involved the owner, the designers, general contractor Crane Construction Co.of Northbrook, 111., and the various subcontractors. These meetings continued throughout the construction period.
The meetings identified and solved
Large window areas are a building feature, as shown here in the office of Perkins A Will. Although glass constitutes 50% of the building envelope, it appears as 65% of the wall from inside because ol drop ceilings.
problems before they had a chance to grow, Fleetwood's Rubenstuin said. They also allowed needed equipment to be selected and purchased in advance, at a cost savings and as a means to avoid delays
"Ive never had trouble with a Contractor or a sub," Rubi nstein said "Suppliers are another slorv. You cant be sure thev'll have what von want when you want It The sooner you have your equipment in band, the better Throughout the project, only one major crimp entitled in Meetwoods smooth running program It involved the placement nt caissons lor I lie new building
"We were hand digging some elliptical caissons near the old hotel caissons when we started getting water intrusion, said William Gardner, senior vice president with Crane Construction. "We didnt know where it was coming from, hut it was coming too fast to pump it out We couldnt jiour new caissons until we solved tla-water problem.
The problem, it was discovered, was caused h.v the old caissons themselves. Wood forms had been left around the caissons, which reached to bedrock. Water at bedrock level had leached through the wood and was (lowing into the excavation lor the new cai ons Io solve the |>rohlem. Crane cut divers to the bottom ol the new excavations to clean out water hoi no debris A mud and hmv mix vva. quo klv pumped into the excavations Its pressure kejit the watei liom

intruding. A concrete mix was then pumped below the slurry mix. As the concrete rose, the slurry was pumped off the top of the caisson form until the form was filled with concrete.
"We came in ahead of schedule, but we would have been further ahead had it not been for the water problem, (lordlier said.
'I'he benefit of the weekly meetings became apparent when construction lost another 21 days due to inclement weather.
Using steel gang forms and dovetailing the electrical and other trades on the job, Urane had been completing one floor every I days. Winter weather brought concrete pooling to a standstill.
"We identified tin1 problems and the need to make up the t ime at one of tbiweekly meetings with the stills, (lordlier said "We made up the time
by working overtime and on weekends on a selective basis. The subs themselves were involved in this decision, and that made the whole process work faster.
The process worked fast enough to bring in the project despite foundation and weather problems, about 2 months ahead of schedule and W7t under budget.
looking back at the job, the building team on 2 N LaSalle would do little differently if it were to do the project again. There is general agreement that the weekly meetings were one of the most effective ingredients in completing the building ahead of schedule.
"I would do a different foundation if we knew about the water problem in advance," said < Ira lie's tlanlner "Hut apart from that, tins job was ns smooth as could be " I |
Design Details 2 N. LaSalle Building
Chicago, III.
General Features Area: 69,750 m'.
Volume: 259,945 m\
Floors: 26, with basement and mechanical penthouse.
Type of space: General office, with mechanical and storage rooms.
Construction Details
Glass: 6mm single pane gray tinted. Tempered at building corners.
Metric U value 6.42.
Exterior wall: Light gray, lightweight
aluminum panel with vynilidlne fluoride
coating, backed with 50 mm thermo fiber
Insulation. Metric U value 0.56. Combined U value 3.40.
Roof: Built up tar and gravel with 50 mm foam Insulation.
Metric U value 0.56.
Structural system: Reinforced concrete
frame with flat plate floor slab. Bay size is 6.1 M by 6.1 m or 6.1 m by 7.6
Gross exposed wall area: 20,530 m*.
Glass area: 110,375 m*.
HVAC Design Heating:
Heat loss: 6,538,002 W
Normal metric degree days: 3,268 based on
Ventilation requirements: 3,752 m\ per minute.
Design conditions: -23C outside, 24C inside.
Heat gain: 8.909,544 W.
Ventilation requirements: 3,752 m5 per minute.
Design conditions: 35C dry bulb, 24C
wet bulb outside; 25C, 50%
relative humidity indoors.
Lux level: Variable Level In W/m*:
Type: fluorescent and incandescent
Connected loads
Lighting: 1,760 kW Elevators: 750kW.
Pumps, motors, miscellaneous: 1,150 kW Total: 3,660 kW.'
Corrv^r&kxv Mr* Mpproxlmate.
69.750 tv? 750.000 tquMre to*t 259.945 m* 9263,750 cubic fcef.
6 mm h inch.
Metric U value 6 42 U value 1.13 Metric U value 0 56 U value 0.10.
Metric U value 0.10 U value 0 01.
e.1 m 20 feet
7.6 m 25 feet.
20,530 rtf 220.750 equare feet.
10,265 m* 110.375 equare feet 6,536.002 W 23,314,000 Btuh.
3,752 m* 134,000 cubic feet.
3.266 metric degree daya 5,862 degree daya -23* C -1 24*C 75* Fahrenheit 6.009.544 W 30,406,000 Btuh.
36*C 05* Fahrenheit.
25*C 76* Fahrenheit.
43 Wfrrf 4 watte per square toot
P* Ir it if i* I (mm BUILDING DTSIGN A CONSTRUCTION September 19 79
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LIVING AREAS Planning Considerations
Through traffic should be separated from activity centers.
Openings should be located so as to give enough wall space for various furniture arrangements.
Convenient occess should be provided to doors, windows, electric outlets, thermostats, and supply grills.
Furniture Clearances
To assure adequate space for convenient use of furniture in the living area, not less than the following clearances should be observed.
60 in between facing seating 24 in where circulation occurs between furniture
30 in for use of desk 36 in for main traffic 60 in between television set and seating
Seating arranged around a 10-ft diameter circle (Fig. 1) makes a comfortable grouping for conversation. Figure 2 indicates clearances, circulation, and conversation areas.
To sleeping area and main entrance
To dining and k! tchen area
Fig. 1 Won. Source. "Monual of Acceptable Practices," Vol. 4, U.S. Dept, of Housing ond Urban Development, 1973.
Fig. 2 Minimum clearances, circulation and conversation erees fee living reams.

Often several compatible living functions can be combined advantageously in a single room. Some of the benefits of such arrangements ore that less space is used but it is used more intensively, its functions can be changed making it more flexible and serviceable space, it is adaptable to varied furniture arrangements, while visually it can be made more interesting and seem more gener-
ous than if the same functions were dispersed into separate rooms.
For adjacent spaces to be considered a combined room, the clear opening between them should permit common use of the spaces. This usually necessitates an opening of at least 8 ft. Figures 8 and 9 show combined living-dining rooms.
Fig. 8 Combined living-dining room.*
Fig. 9 Minimum clearances and circulation for combined living-dining areas.*
* From Housing for the Elderly Development Process," Michigan State Housing Development Authority, 1974.

Pvmltor* Clearances
To assure odequate space for convenient use of the dining area, not less than the following clearances from the edge of the dining table should be observed.
32 in for chairs plus occess thereto 38 in for chairs plus access and passage
42 in for serving from behind chair 24 in for passage only
48 in from table to base cabinet (in dining-kitchen)
Figures 4, 5, and 6 illustrate proper clearances. Various arrangements appear on the next page.
To kitchen
Wf 5 Dining room for t person, 4 bedroom living unit.*

Fig. 4 Minimum clearances for dining areas, (a) one end of table against wait; (b) serving from one end and one side a# table. Source. "Housing for the Elderly Development Process," Michigon Stote Housing Development Authority, 1974.
* From "Monual of Acceptable Practices, Vol. 4, U.S. Deportment of Housing ond Urbon Development, 1973.

A combination dining areo-kitchen is preferred by some occupants of small bouses and apartments. This arrangement minimizes housekeeping
chores and provides space which can be used as the family's day-to-day meeting place.
21" sink counter combined with 21" range counter
Fig. 10 Combined dining areo-kitchen, 2-bedroom living unit. Source: "Manual of Acceptable
Practices," Vol. 4, U.S. Dept, of Housing and Urban Development, 1973.
One of the primary functions of the kitchen has been to provide a place for informal or family eating. This is different than guest or formal dining in a separate dining room or area. The informal dining generally consists of breakfast, lunch,
snacks, or just serving coffee to a neighbor. This eating area should be clearly defined as a separate functional area.
A frequent and desirable arrangement is the combined kitchen-dining area. The following
sketches (Fig. 11) show the various possible arrangements. Another arrangement is the kitchen-family room.
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Fig. 11 Minimum clearances far dining area In kitchen. Source: "Housing for the Elderly Development Process," Michigon State Housing Development Authority, 1974..

Fig. 2 (), (b) Primary bedroom, (c) primary bad room without crib.*

36* to uta
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To assure odequote space for convenient use of furniture in the bedroom, not less than the following clearances should be observed (Figs. 2 and
42 in at one side or foot of bed for dressing 6 in between side of bed and side of dresser or chest
36 in in front of dresser, closet, and chest of drawers
24 in for major circulation path (door to closet, etc.)
22 in on one side of bed for circulation 12 in on least used side of double bed. The least-used side of a single or twin bed can
be placed against the woll except in bedrooms for the elderly (Fig. 4).
* From "Monuol of Acceptable Practices, Vol. 4, U.S. Deportment of Housing ond Urban Development, 1973.
The location of doors and windows should permit alternate furniture arrangements.

Fig. 3 {) Singl*-ocupncy b.droom, (b) dovbl*- 24

Fig- 4 Single-occuponcy btdroom for elderly; there it a 12-in allowance to moke the bed.*
Where at least two other sleeping spaces are provided, a dormitory is sometimes preferred by larger families (Fig. 5).*
* From "Manual of Acceptable Practices," Vol. 4, U.S. Department of Housing ond Urban Development, 1973.

The kitchen it not o specialized workroom, for it hot many utet. It it uted for preparation of meals, food preservation, storage of food ond utensils, ond also, in many cases, for eating, laundering, entertaining, ond child care. In it a woman uses her own labor and also makes full use of electric power, tap water, ond manufactured or bottled gas; she uses refrigerators, stoves, dishwashers, mixers, toasters, and garbage-disposal units, as well os various kinds of storage compartments ond work surfaces.
Since more time and effort are frequently spent in the kitchen than in any other area of the house, careful planning is especially important. This requires careful selection of appliances and storage units and convenient arrangement of the area. Some general planning guides are as follows:
It is important to keep the basic work area compact, even if the kitchen is of the large "living" type. Consideration should be given, however, to the possibility of more than one person working there. The arrangement will vary according to the size and shape of space available, but we should always keep in mind relationships among functions in different areas of the kitchen.
Traffic lanes
Traffic lanes through work areas should be avoided. Arrange the service entrance and access to the basement so that traffic not essential to food preparation, service, or storage can by-pass the area.
Housing Research Center, Cornell University Storage
Kitchen design should be functional in the sense of minimizing reaching ond stooping. Storage facilities should be no higher than a woman con reach with both feet flat on the floor. There should be sufficient space to store items so that they may be easily seen, reached, grasped, and taken down and put bock without excessive strain. With proper planning, stored items can be located close to where they are first used, and unattractive items can be kept out of sight. Storoge space should be sufficiently flexible to permit its adjustment to varying amounts, sizes, and kinds of food, supplies, and utensils. Shelving should be adjustable.
Counters and working surfaces
The height of counters and working surfaces should permit a comfortable working posture. The worker should be able to sit, if she wishes, while doing certain kitchen tasks, such as working at the sink. Continuous lines and surfaces permit ease of movement, and are easier to keep clean.
Servicing and replacement of appliances
Consideration should be given to ease of servicing and replacement of major
appliances, especially built-in units.
Materials and finishes that minimize
maintenance and cleaning should be used,
and they should be sufficiently light in color to create a pleasant work atmosphere.
Good lighting helps to prevent fatigue, as well as promoting safety and a pleasant atmosphere. Comfortable levels of light.
with a minimum of shadows, should be planned throughout the kitchen. Adequate doylight or artificial lighting makes the room more agreeable and attractive than a dark or poorly lighted room.
The kitchen should be well ventilated, with an exhaust fan to remove objectionable kitchen odors.
Burns, scalds, falls, and explosions should be "designed out" of the kitchen. Sharp corners, exposed handles, and control knobs on kitchen equipment should be avoided, and there should be safety catches on doors and drawers to limit the exploratory activities of young children.
There should be easy access to front and back doors, laundry area, telephone, and bathroom.
Color, texture, and decoration should be used to create on atmosphere that is attractive, cheerful, and restful.
Nonworking areas
Nonworking areas should be segregated from working areas. Avoid interruption of work areas by breakfast nooks, general storage closets, rest areas, and other areas not essential to normal food preparation activities.
Eating facilities
Most families want to eat some meals in the kitchen. Provision should be mode for this, if possible, even if a separate dining room is also provided.
Child's play
In younger families, especially, there is likely to be one or more children who want to be near their mother. Provision should be made for a play area out from underfoot, but where adequate supervision is possible. Storage space should be provided for toys ond games.
Infant care
It is a well-known fact that many kitchens are used for care of infants. If provision is not made in the bathroom for infant care ond related supplies, then it should be made in the kitchen.
Washing hands and some personal grooming frequently take place in the

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Space for one worker

CD !
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Space in front of drawer

o o 0
-RANGE O <3 l > COUNTER sHs \

Fig. 4 Minimum clearance*horizontal and vertical.


Ac jocent to sink
Minimum width of passages
The work center concept, favorably supported by a great deal of research data from many sources, emphasizes the planning of the kitchen in terms of its major centers of activity. These work centers, in turn, are planned in terms of their constituent parts, their proper functions, and their ideal relationships, one to another. The actual design of the work centers will vary with the size and shape of space available in each project. Four work centers must be considered: sink, range, mix, and serve. In addition, there is the refrigerator (which functions as a closely related storage center) and the oven, if it is not on integral port of the range.
Each work center should have three components: (1) Adequate storage space for the various items used there; (2) Adequate counter space for the work to be occomplished; and (3) Necessary utilities ond facilities, such as water at the sink, heat at the range, outlet and space for he mixer ot the mix center, and adequate lighting at each center.
Equip eoch work center for the storage of utensils, supplies, and dishes according o their frequency and order of use.
Tables 1-4 list the number of items and h spoce dimensions required for equip-m#nt on^ food supplies commonly stored
Table 1. Equipment and food supplies stored at range center
Number stored Storage spoce per item, in *
Item Side Front
to to
Limited Liberal side back Height
Potato masher i i 34 13 414
Knives, forks, spoons 3 3 314 13 3
Frying pan, lOVj-in. 1 1 11 1714 s,4
Frying pan, 9-in. 1 2 914 16 5
Frying pan, 6-in. 0 1 6 12 5
Pot lids 2 4 1014 10 4 1
Potholders 4 8 7 7 2t
Food supplies
Rice, ylb pkg. 1 1 214 4 *14
Spaghetti, 1 -lb pkg 1 1 214 1114 6
Coffee, Mb can 1 1 314 514 4
Oatmeal, jlb box Macaroni, 1-lb ftkg. 1 1 1 1 6 2 6 n 9
Tea, 8-oz pkg. 1 1 2% 414 7
uf Ike item (including till, if oily) ptue clearance fur handling.
fProridi a for atari of potholdera.

at each of the four contort. These lists represent the storage space roquiromonts for the average family, but they may be adapted to the needs of particular families. The storage space dimensions are based on the most recent information available.
The relative location of work centers should permit a continuity of kitchen activities as follows: (1) Storage (gathering materials needed for the performance of the task); (2) Cleaning and mixing (or initial preparation); (3) Cooking; (4) Serving, or storing for future use; and (5) Cleaning up. (See Fig. 5.)
In principle, any plan that interrupts this continuity with doors, or with nonworking areas or facilities, is faulty because extra steps are required every time the gap is crossed, and, consequently, convenience and working efficiency are reduced.
The actual plon may be U-shaped or l-shaped, or it may be of the corridor type.
The "U" arrangement affords the most compact work area. Frequently, however, this arrangement is impossible to achieve because of the necessity of having a door on one of the three walls. The resulting 'Broken U" arrangement still permits compactness, but traffic is allowed through the area. Therefore, special consideration should be given to the arrangement of the work centers in order to minimize the effect of through traffic.
The "L" arrangement is ideolly suited where space along two walls is sufficient to accommodate all of the necessary work areas. This arrangement has the advantage of concentrating the work area in one corner, thus minimizing travel, but it hos the disadvontoge of necessitating longer trips to the extremities of the "1."
The ''Corridor" arrangement is satisfactory where doors ore necessary at each end of the space. This arrangement frequently has the advantage of the parallel walls being closer together than in the typical "U," but the disadvantage of a greater distance olong the corridor.
An important factor in determining the location of specific work areas within any of these over-all arrangements is frequency of use, which in Fig. 6 is expressed as the percentage of trips to and from each areo.
Figures 7-9 provide floor plans illustrating some possible arrangements of the basic work centers within each of the plan types. If the spoce for the kitchen Is ol-Hy established, the number of possible factory arrangements obviously will be limited. If the spoce is being planned,
however, greater choice of arrangements is possible. In either event, the advantage of a shorter distance between some related areas must be balanced against the resulting increase in distance between other related areas. An end-to-end alignment or a right-angle arrangement between areas of close relationship can eliminate trips and reduce the over-all travel distances. Functional relationships between key wqrk centers are, of course, accommodated more ideally in some of the plans than others.
Total shelf areo: 50 sq ft minimum; not
1From Minimum'Property Standards for One and Two Living Units, Federal Housing Administration, Washington, D.C. (Revised, July 1959).
less than 20 sq ft in either wall or base cabinets.
Total countertop area: 11 sq ft minimum. Total drawer area: 11 sq ft minimum. (If a 39-in. range is provided, St may be counted as 4 sq ft of base cabinet shelf area and 2 sq ft of countertop area.)
Wall shelving: 74 in. maximum height. Countertop: 38 in. maximum height, 30 in. minimum height.
Height between wall cabinets and counter-top: 24 in. minimum over range and sink, 15 in. minimum elsewhere. (Shelving may be closer if it does not project beyond a line drawn from the front edge of the Nftrall cabinet at an angle of 60 deg to the'bottom of the cabinet.)
Depth of shehringt wall shelving4 in. minimum, 18 in. maximum; base shelving
Table 2. Equipment and food supplies stored at sink center
In addition to the items listed below, allow soap, soap powder, cleanser, paper towels),
space for hand tools (such as can opener, garbage and trash containers, and possibly
small vegetable brush, paring knives, rubber a stool for sitting, plate scraper), cleaning supplies (such as
Number stored Stor&ge spoce
per item, in.*
Item Limited Liberal Side to side Front to bock Height
Dishpans, nested 2 2 16i 18Vj 8
Dishdrainer 1 2 141,'. 18 V< 6
Double boiler 1 1 7 V 12 lO/j
Pressure saucepon 0 1 9 17 7Vl
Saucepan, 6-qt 0 2 101'. lO/j 9
Saucepan, 4-qt 1 1 9 11 7 Vi
Saucepan, 3-qt 2 2 BVj 15 8
Saucepan, 2-qt 1 1 71'. 14 7
Saucepan, 1-qt 1 1 % 13 6
Colander 1 1 11% 13 6
Coffee pot, 6-cup 1 1 6'fj 9 10
Dishtowels 8 12 12 11 5(8)
Hondtowels 8 12 12 10 5(8)
Aprons 4 6 11 10 5(4)
Dishcloths 6 12 8 8 4(6)
Food supplies
Potatoes, lb 10 10 9 11 8
Onions, lb 3 3 9 7 8
Fruit, lb 3 3 9 7% 5
Lentils and peas, 2-lb pkg. 1 1 3V, 5 9%
Dry beans, 2-lb pkg. 1 1 3% 5 8 Vi
Prunet, 1-lb pkg. 1 1 3 5 8
Conned food. No. 2 can 6 8 4 4 5Vj
^Dimensions include clearance for handling. tNumber in parentheses refers to number of items in stack for which storage space dimen-
ion is given.


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Bulletin No. 99, U.S. Deportment of Agriculture, WotHmgton, D.C., 1967.

By J. L. ORUZEN and J. J. KOSTER, Oruitn and Partners
At tha tima of this writing, it is antioipatad that within tha naxt 1 6 years in tha Unitad States it A
r "iiTC anAlySi* ^ f
will be necessary to construct as many new C P*0G*aw ttfVtldACWT- ^ c kA b~t ScUrW " J
\ V N
housing units as have bean constructed to data. I '"**" I F? I loraftStiael IcnPEjtfml rswAzn rsE i see
This naad for naw housing, considarad against a background of continuing urbanization, claarly indicatas that an increasing proportion of an expanding housing market will be devoted to multifamily types of housing or apartments. Tha inevitability of this trend contains a challenge to the architect to do more than merely meet a statistical demand. Ha must rsthar sddrasa, identify, and solve tha problems of multifamily building types as an attractive alternative to freestanding singlefamily buildings. This article will deal with multifamily living MrV Wrwi Controls Owtr Sutton Stardoms r^ten, S>t Pioor Shape and Choroctoristct Sue Utihtiet Burtd^vj Hergh* Large Scale Length and Development Wejtt- SteWing Types Wesd Bracing Bwikhng Oranto'ion Goner# u E leva tors GuWtaee Steel Egreee Procedure Limitations PSenbesg Systems Witttotng Heotmg end Coo*ng / G*sdW / TABLE 2 Comparative Program Elements-Markst Range
in general, with some additional attention to the problems of the medium- and high-rise Low Medium High
building type (i.e. building types which require a degree of vertical servicing). 6ENERAL Living unit
Living Minimum areas: combined living, dining and entry areas Larger room sizes: dining alcove, entry alcove Generous room sites: separate dining room, separate entry foyer
The process of designing sn apartment building may be graphically depicted in a general way as in Table 1. Thia article will be developed in the same sequence ss Table 1. It must be borne in mind that, as with any design develop- Kitchen.... Minimum counter top and storage; Standard appliances Additional counter top end storage; snack bar, better appliances, space for dishwasher Ample workspace, counter top, and storage; built-in appliances, wall oven, dishwasher, eat-in kitchen
design is not a sequential process but a process of continuing interaction, feedback, and reevaluation, and that the number and complexity of events will vary according to the Bedrooms. . Minimum closets Walk-in closets Dressing rooms, storage closets, built-in accessories
program, scope, and funding sources involved. The sequences shown sre labeled as program davalopmant, srta analysis, building planning, and building dasign. Program davalopmant is for the most part tect has rslatively little control but which shapes Beths Minimal bath with standard fixtures and accessories; minimum finishes Higher-quality fixtures, finishes, and accessories; extra half bath at entry or master bedroom Additional baths and half baths with custom cabinets and fixtures; stall showers, etc. powder room; luxury finishes
the project in a basic way. Sita analysis involves evaluation of physical data which must be recognized, identified, and weighed by the architect in making basic design decisions dealing with site use, allocation, and development. Support facilities
In apartment Few extras limited to security Intercom, door signal, balconies. unit air conditioners Doorman and telephone, large balconies, central elr conditioning, eervice entrance, servants' quartets
PROGRAM Market Analysis A market analysis and program formulation may precede the retention of an architect; however, to an increasing degree clients solicit the aid of an srohitect in these areas. An investigation of the potential market should consider existing market conditions and trends with regard to 1. Type of occupancy In building. . Laundry facilities, minimum lobby Laundry room, commercial space, community room, central storage Attended parking, convenience shopping, service elevators, doorman, closed-circuit TV security system, valet service, meeting rooms, health club, sheltered swimming facilities
a. Rental b. Cooperative c. Condominium 2. Price (rent, maintenance, etc.) 3. Amenities 4. Apartment size (area and number of rooms) Site Open parking, drying yard Secure open or sheltered perking, outdoor play and sitting area, swimming pool Gardens, recreation areas, country club amenities, swimming pool

machine for
EACH 15 TO 20
Fig. 26 Uwidry now diagram.
Fig. 27 CaanaaaitT reoai iaroat.
fig. 21
Fig. 26 Trpical rafusa coataiaan. Caaaak aad ca anliaata witk ratuta coliaction agaaqr la aaaara ac-captafailrtY af arataai ragardiag anight aad aha a( coataataa, ate.
Fig. 30 Baiac mom laraat
A rooftop location for either of thee# facilities provides an additional laval of amenity; however, H aleo involves additional expense.
Refuse disposal may be handled In a number of ways. The most widely used methods are by Incineration or preferably, by compaction, with the processed refuse hauled away by truck. Roth the Incinerator and oompsetor re* quire a storage area for waste containers, which should be nearby and should have easy acoeaa to the outdoors. The site of the con* tsiner storage area will depend upon the type of container employed, frequency of collection, end, in some oases, agenoy standards. The area required for the refuse chute st typical floors is relativaly small, ranging from 4 by 4 ft up to any sits -desired The area of the compact or room or incinerator room at s lower level Is quite large, and the refuse chute at the typioal floor should be located so as to avoid interference problems at the lower levels.