Citation
Denver's downtown

Material Information

Title:
Denver's downtown an urban shopping place
Creator:
Gilstad, Peter
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
83 unnumbered leaves : illustrations (some color), folded maps, plans (some color, some folded) ; 28 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Central business districts -- Colorado -- Denver ( lcsh )
Urban renewal -- Colorado -- Denver ( lcsh )
Buildings ( fast )
Central business districts ( fast )
Urban renewal ( fast )
Buildings, structures, etc -- Designs and plans -- Denver (Colo.) ( lcsh )
Colorado -- Denver ( fast )
Genre:
Designs and plans. ( fast )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Designs and plans ( fast )

Notes

General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for a Master's degree in Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
Peter Gilstad.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
08677634 ( OCLC )
ocm08677634
Classification:
LD1190.A72 1981 .G53 ( lcc )

Full Text
Introduction Summary
Downtown Description
Area Description
Existing Site Description
Concepts
Design Criteria
Case Studies
Sixteenth Street Mall
Soil Conditions
Climate
Codes
Analysis
Problem Solution
table of contents


Project!
Location!
Program:
Purpose:
Goals:
Denver's Downtown: An Urban Shopping Place
Block 209, Downtown Denver, Colorado. 3ounded by Tremont and Court Places, and by Sixteenth and Seventeenth Street.
To provide a total of 250,000 sq. ft. of small specialty retail shops combined with a department store. An assumed existing office building is located on the site and its general location and its elevator core layout is taken as a given to the program.
To create additional retail shopping in the. downtown area.
To provide more of a people-oriented function to this part of downtown by providing retail shopping, restaurant facilities, and by creating outdoor and indoor gathering places for people.
To provide a successful urban shopping mall atmosphere for public shopping for downtown.
To help increase the use of downtown's shopping and other functions.
To tie together the intersection of Seventeenth Street and Broadway by creating a gathering point and main entrance into the retail shopping area.
To link the financial/office area of Seventeenth Street to the retail/ped-estrian transitway mall of the new Sixteenth Street wall by providing through-site circulation.
To provide a visual gate-way to the Sixteenth Street Mall from the new transfer complex at the end of the mall.
To have Seventeenth Street frontage.
To respond to the pedestrian/transitway mall on Sixteenth Street.
introduction summary


Denver's downtown consists of approximately 30 blocks, set up on a gridiron pattern at a ^5 angle to due north.
This pattern was set up to follow Cherry Creek, a small waterway on the downtown's edge.
The main arteries of downtown, the numbered streets (generally 14th to 20th Streets), run northwest to southeast. The secondary routes are the named streets, running northeast to southwest (generally Larimer to Broadway).
It is along the main arteries, the numbered streets, that the recent major growth of the downtown has taken place.
One streetin particular, is the heart of this linear growth, Seventeenth Street. Seventeenth Street is the financial core of downtown, with most major banking facilities and offices located on either side, along with some retail shopping. Seventeenth Street presently is equated to being the primary street of downtown. In addition, Seventeenth Street carries the majority of the traffic through the downtown area. Seventeenth Street is one of the two primary bus routes, and carries a major traffic load, not only vehicular, but also pesdestrian.
Sixteenth Street, another of downtown's main arteries, is presently closed and a new pedestrian/transitway
downtown description


Fourteenth Street,:
the periphery of the downtown core.
The streets of Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth
Streets are where the heart of downtown is slowly moving,toward.
This area, along with Seventeenth Street, is primarily office
use, with some street-level retail. The density in
this area is increasing steadily, but still in the
linear pattern.
The downtown area is set up on the angled grid pattern, but the rest of the city of Denver is set up on the straight north-south-east-west gridiron pattern. Where the two patterns meet, triangular intersections are formed.
The street that joins the two patterns is Broadway, another of the downtown's primary arteries into and out of town. Broadway runs north-south and carries a large amount of daily traffic from the north.
Three other identifiable sections that surround the downtown core are the State Capital Building and the Civic Center, Skyline Fark, and Lower Downtown. The Civic Center contains the State Capital, State Courts, the City and County Building, the U.S. Mint and other government buildings. Skyline Park is an area of urban redevelopment at the northwestern portion of the downtown area. Lower downtown, located at the northern edge of downtown, is an area of low-rise warehouse-type


mall will be completed in late 1932. This mall will serve as a bus shuttle route and a pedestian mall through downtown in addition to being the primary retail artery of downtown. The mall will be a tree-lined, paved pedestrian shopping mall along with the shuttle service. The mall will run from a new bus terminal/office complex at the southeast end of Sixteenth at Broadway to a new northwest terminal at Sixteenth and Market Streets. (See section on 16th street Mall.) The mall will be one of high-pedestrian priority, with high foot traffic to pass along this retail core.
Fifteenth Street is the other primary bus route through downtown. This is a mixture or retail and service-type functions along Fifteenth, and there is less pedestrian use than on Sixteenth or Seventeeth Streets. Fifteenth Street serves primarily as a way into town, with exclusive bus lanes for rapid movement of the mass transit use..
Fourteenth Street is even less developed than is Fifteeth Street. There is little or no substancial retail or service-type use, and the traffic load is light. The Denver Center for the Performing Arts is located on Fourteenth Street between Arapahoe and Champa Streets, but there are no additional functions for the pedestrian.
There is a large amount of open-air parking lots along














The areas surrounding the project site have a great deal of influence on the proposed project site. These areas are the adjacent corners and their respective uses that surround the project site: these are the corners of Seventeenth, Broadway and Court; Seventeenth and Tremont; Sixteenth and Court; and Sixteenth and Tremont.
The corners of Seventeenth and Broadway are the most important of all the corners, although all are highly influencial. This intersection is one of the triangular intersections that are formed by the skew of the two gridiron patterns. This intersection is highly important because of the functions along these two streets. A large volume of traffic passes through this crossing, Seventeenth to the east and Broadway to the south. These two arteries carry a large portion of the people having business in downtown, down from this intersection because of this daily passing. Visual contact is primarily made from the passing automobiles and bus traffic a high speed, short-span visual contact.
There is a high level of office use with the Great West Towers on the northeast corner right across Court Place; the Amoco Building to the northeast and across Broadway; and the United Bank Complex located' to the north-northeast
area description


across Braodway; hotel use with the historic Brown Palace to the north across Seventeenth Street; and a limited amount of retail use at streel levels.
This one area of mix:ed functions contain, a high level of employees which become pedestrians all at once at such times as lunch hour and at the end of the day.
Because 3roadway loosely defines the edge of the downtown area and because of the high amount of employees, there:is a strong pedestrian movement toward the center of downtown and the Sixteenth Street area (when the mall is completed, there will be a significant increase .inpedestrians moving toward this area) and to major banking and shopping areas. This movement is across the intersection of Seventeenth and Broadway. The two major cross-over points are located in front of the United Bank Building and its plaza over to the Brown Palace, and at the corner in front of the Amoco Building, bringing people up from Seventeenth Avenue and from more office areas.
The corners of Seventeenth and Tremont are probably the least important, but again every area surrounding the site has its own influences. Here there is the Brown Palace across Seventeenth with associated retail and service stores, the Brown Palace Tower diagonally across


Seventeenth, again with associated street level retail and service stores, and the if-10 Building across Tremont. There are cross-over points at all the corners, but the pedestrian traffic is a bit less than the crossing at Seventeenth and Broadway. There is still the large pedestrian traffic moving down from the Seventeenth Street banking and financial core.
The corners of Sixteenth and Tremont contain retail and banking functions along with the large pedestrian movement from the Sixteenth Street Mall retail core.
The May D&F retail pavilion across Sixteenth contains the majority of the immediate shoppers. Again, crossover points are at the corners, but all along Sixteenth Street Mall there will be the continuous cross-over for the whole width of the block. Thus, access to the site is not limited to the corners because of the mall design.
The corners of Sixteenth and Court contain special functions. May D&F department store and its plaza (special activities are held here for the public throughout the year) is across Sixteenth Street. This is a high pedestrian corner, and again access to the site is not limited to the corners. The Denver Hilton Hotel and associated retail and service stores are located


diagonally across Sixteenth. Hotel guests would tend to use the retail shopping mall on Sixteenth and the proposed project because of their limited staying time in the city. This corner is also close to the open-air parking lots located along Fourteenth Streeet. The corner across Tremont is the Great West Plaza, a large, open paved plaza. Here, however, the cross-over point is limited to the corner crosswalk.
Here again along Sixteenth Street Mall there is strong visual and physical contact with the site, but in this case it is low-speed (walking or in the slower moving shuttle buses), long-visual and physical contact. This is the exact opposite of the Seventeenth Street contact by the fast moving vehicles.
Two blocks further down Sixteenth toward the southeast is the new bus terminal/office complex and the State Capital beyond. The main pedestrian movement along Sixteenth in this area is away from these two centers toward the heart of the downtown core.


Existing on the block at present is the Republic Office Building (medical offices) with retail at street level, a parking garage, Duffy's restaurant and lounge,
Capital Federal 3ank, Western. Wear clothing store, various small retail stores, and a small amount of open-air parking spaces. The low-rise buildings of Duffy's, the bank, and the clothing store (3 stories) are located on Court Place in the middle of the block. The Republic Building (20 stories) and the parking garage take up the whole length of Seventeenth Street. Two story retail shops line the remaining length of Seventeenth. A service alley runs down the center of the block (Sixteenth to Seventeenth Streets) to service the retail stores and the office building.
existing site description


Denver's Downtown is located between two very important streets of downtown Denver. Seventeenth carries a heavy vehicular and pedestrian traffic load and is identified with tall buildings and is the primary downtown business street. Sixteenth is important because of the new pedestrian/transitway mall and its landscaping, the pedestrian traffic will carry, and the mall is identified as being the retail street of downtown.
The retail of downtown is the mainstay of the area excluding the coporate giants. So, it is important to bring as many potential shoppers as possible to the mall from the nearby neighborhoods and outlying suburbs. This is bing done by the transitway route through Sixteenth.
More locally, however, Denver's Downtown itself can be used to bring the pedestrian to Sixteenth from the various parts of the downtown. This can oe accomplished by having through-site circulation from.Seventeenth Street. Entrances onto the site from Seventeeth are at the corners. The corner of Seventeenth and Broadway is especially heavy with pedestrian traffic. The circulation could be diagonally through the site to any number of parts into the shopping area. By having
concepts


proper shopping anchors, the draw through would allow retail areas to be along this circulation pathway.
The shopping mall will have to be placed on multiple levels. Vertical circulation to upper levels is extremely important for these retail areas to succed. Also, by having multiple levels and by opening them up to a main level, this allows constant contact with a common point of reference. It also allows views of the various stores from many points of view which will add to the shopping experience.
Entrances to the site will be a strong factor to the layout of the retail complex. Access to the site is from the corners of Seventeenth Street and from Broadway, and access is unrestricted on Sixteenth.
The Seventeenth Street facade would be treated in response to the fast-moving, quicker paced movement, and Sixteenth would be treated for the slower paced pedestrian.
\
The office core and lobby could be placed out of the path of the public, or could be'included in the circulation pathway. These alternatives would have very different implications. Access to the lobby area could be completely isolated in the first instance, with access only from the street. The second alternative


would mean the placement of the lobby and elevator waiting area within the shopping mall complex. Hence, there would be no major separation of the two uses.
The quality of street-level retail is a key element of the downtown shopping experience. Every feasable area along the street should try to accomodate the access-ability of the shopping experience to the pedestrian. Thus, the project will include a continuous shopping experience along all facades where it is deemed feasabl This is most important along Sixteenth Street Mall to add to the quality of the mall theme. The corner of Sixteenth and Tremont, where the mall shopping comes to an end, will have an emphasis on the street-access shops. This idea of a continuous shopping experience will be carried through to the interior circulation from the main entrances, the mall entrance and the entrance from the important corner of Seventeenth and Broadwayc


Commercial-Shopping Malls Column Spacing
Significant dimension is along the mall as this involves the widths, or frontages, of stores. Often used spacings are 20', 25' and 30' with the latter the most flexible.
Store Depths
For one story stores in America, buildings' are usually.
120* to 140* deep, sometimes more to accommodate larger stores. In centers with many small stores, there is a problem in how to achieve shallow depth without incurring greater mall lengths. One often used and desirable device is to dog-leg or 'L* a larger store around a smaller store.
Clear Heights
These vary from 10' to 14' or more, with 12' a good average.Above the clear height the mechanical systems must be placed,
Ducts and Shafts
The shells of the building must be flexible enough to accomodate any reasonable tenant requirements.
Mechanical
A sufficient amount of floor area must be provided to serve the building shell, and must be located so that the length of runs are not too great. Mechanical could be placed below grade (which would necessitate
design criteria


below grade access) of could be placed in a separate structure.
Extericr
It has been found that the great majority of customers enter stores from the mall rather than directly from the street even though stores may front both street and mall. If a mall-type area is to, be produced, the majority of shops would front the mall pathway. But there still could be individual stores on the street, or at least store desplay windows, to enhance the street use of the pedestrians. The exterior of the mall, the street-scape, should be unified in visual quality. The interior mall fronts should be somewhat restricted, but be allowed to differenciate for each indiviual store. Tenant Mix
Tenant mix is the name for the plan relationship to each other of the various types of stores and facilities. Froper tenant mix exposes the customer to a varying sequence of differing types of merchandise.. If each store type is properly located in relation to every other store, it has been demonstrated that each store will recieve maximum sales volume. If the relationships are. not correct, many of the stores may not recieve their share of the customer's dollar. Generally, a mixed pattern of high and low prices, soft goods and hard goods, retail and services produces the best individual


sales volume.
The Mall
The pedestrian mall has the following characteristics:
a) The mall usually consists of the principal mall and one of more subsidiary approach malls or access routes connecting the main mall with the parking areas or adjacent streets.
b) With few exceptions, all stores have their principal entrances on the mall pathway.
c) The mall can be multiple-level, but the individual levels should avoid slopes or steps within its own walkways.
d) The mall can be open, with weather protection only, above each storefront, completely covered but open to the air, or completely enclosed necessitating heating and cooling. The trend has to have.the enclosed climatized mall except where ideal weather prevails.
Narrow malls facilitate back and forth comparison shopping from one side to the other and hence allows increased customer exposure to the merchandise. Large store courts or plazas at the ends of malls create anchors to draw the customer to them and create the passing by of the smaller stores.
In a multiple-level mail, it is virtually mandatory that each level be as important as every other level, other-


wise one level will become the main level and all stores will want to be on that level and the other levels will become second choice.
To achieve the equality of desirability, of customer appeal, and of rent balance, it is essential that all levels have:
a) Equally convenient accessibility from entrance points.
b) No mall dead-ends on any level without an anchor as its terminus.
c) Adequate vertical transportation between levels, escalators, elevators and stairs.
d) Visual inter-connection of levels through the use of open wells permitting maximum visibilty of one level of shops and customers from the other.
hall Amenities
Mall amenities generally include landscaping, seating groups and benches for resting, fountains, kiosks, sculpture, and hanging elements.
Mall lighting should be low-keyed and incandescent, should lend interest to dark or monotone areas, and allow the storefronts to be the main attraction. Natural light is used to give variety of effect.
Mall materials are of great importance. Generally speaking, they should reflect the quality level of the


project.be sturdy enough to resist vandalism, and require minimum maintenance.
Servicing
Servicing involves the delivery of goods to the various stores and also the removal of trash. There are various ways of handling the service, access:
a) Underground service area, connecting direclty with tenant service corridors which lead direcfly to the individual spaces.
b) Service courts on the periphery. They must be shielded from public view. The cost of these courts is low, but they occupy space that could be used for floor area use.
c) Direct street service: this is the cheapest and uses the least land, but it requires rigid enforcement of thedelivery of merchandise and removal of trashe
Generally, markets, department, stores, restaurants, and drug and variety stores have the greatest demand for adequate service facilities.
Parking ,
Though basement parking is the least desirable from the viewpoint of the shopper's normal psychology and is also least desirable from the construction cost point or view, it is a common arrangement. If customer parking is to be below grade, they must be brought up


to the main level or various levels in a location so
as to allow the rapid orientation to the mall and its functions by the individual.
SViall Magnets
A mall center with only one magnet, located at an extreme end of the mall reduces shopping traffic because of the lack of inter-change. A mall center with only one magnet but located at the center of the mall will improve the inter-change of shoppers and various stores. A mall center with two magnets placed at the ends produces the best inter-change and movement through-out the mall. The magnets are usually large department stores, but magnets can also be large courts, an exterior gathering point, or similar devices.


Shopping centers can be traced back to the earliest market days when individualcarts were set up along the sides of streets and in market places. These were mostly transitory places of shopping, and eventually these became permanent fixtures in an urban setting. Structures with shops with various functions above became the standard and soon large areas of streetscapes were lined with retail areas.
The idea of the shopping mall is a relatively new one.
The shopping mall has become a huge success, mainly because of the suburban sprawl. These shopping malls followed the outward spread, and usually were located at major highway intersections.
But the urban shopping malls have recently begun to make a strong comeback. Downtown shopping in a mall-type situation works well with the compactness that an urban context requires.
The Gallery at Market East, Philadelphia, Pa.
Architects: Bower and I^radly
Project: Main retail shopping street in the city core
Program: 205,000 so. ft. of selling area for 125
shops and restaurants. Included in the project is the existing department stores of Gimbils and Strawbridge and
case studies


Clothier used as anchors.
The total area contains $05,000 sq. ft.- of gross building area and has 205,000 sq. ft. of gross selling area.
A large part of the mall is enclosed with glass, both at street level and clerestory. There is only shopping space with no added office cr hotel blocks.
To support this style of mall there was needed 50.000 shoppers daily. This would have to come from the downtown, the city, and the suburbs. This shopping area recieves $250 per sq. ft. of retail space, which is way above the average of the $100 per sq. ft.
The mall has both suburban and urban amenities. It has on-site parking, underground truck access, unified architectural treatment, and other well-used amenities such as skylights, fountains, and plants.
The main space is a mammoth glass enclosed court surrounded by four levels of restaurants and shops. In this space there is a forest of $0' high trees planted into the ground, not in pets.
Because the project is in the city core and land was limited, the porject had to go up. In fact, the vertical-ality is emphasized, both in and out. The central elevator core is exposed, with the glass cabs landing in a pool of water.


At street level, there is much glazing opening the stores to the street. Since it is not a mall in the middle of a sea of asphalt and is in an urgan setting, the exterior is not a solid plane. And the below-grade main level is treated like a street (again relating to the surroundings with pavers and street-lined lighting. Natural light is used in the main areas to highlight the main anchors.
This urban shopping mall has been very successful. While only 40/o of the users enter with any intention to buy anything, 75% of those do buy and 50% eat. And there is a 23% usage from the suburbs and further away.
The Market at Citicorp, New York, NY.
Project: The Market, Citicorp Center, New York, NY.
Architects: Hugh Stubbins and Associates Program: Design 65,000 sq. ft. of leasable space for 20 restaurants and food shops aroung a 90" x 100'',
85'' high atrium. First 3 floors retail, top four floors office. Mall is part of total 1.3 million sq. ft. 59 story corporate headquarters complex. This proj.ect is in midtown Manhattan at 53*"d and Lexington:,, The lowest, main level is below grade one half level. This allows entry from the street to go down and entry from the subway one half level up. Because of the grade change, the second level is one level up from 53^d Avenue and on street level from Lexington,,


This retail area is mainly an international food and restaurant selling area to serve the public and to give the image of the international quality that the Citicorp Corporation has.
Water Tower Place, Chicago, Illinois Project: Water Tower Place. Shopping Mall
/
This project is located in the urban center, with a main entrance leading directly up to the second level by grand escalators. The project starts two floors above grade and has a total of seven floors of small and medium size stores. The main escalators, with planting and water flowing down the center, is splayed outward at the top to contadict the perspective and make the journey seem shorter. At the top of this escalator, one is confronted immediately with grand, central shaft of glass elevators. This acts as an anchor for a central atrium space that the smaller retail stores are located around. The elevator core and the central atrium space become the only constant in an otherwise irregular layout. Series of escalators shoot up the several levels of the retail levels. The vertical circulation elements are strongly shown to give the clear indication of upper and lower levels of shopping. Two major departments stores are included in the project, Lord and Taylor, and Marshall Field and Is. and take


up a majority of the floor space. The central atrium and smaller stores anre placed in between these two major elements.
r


The Kail is a major transportation project in downtown Denver designed to help alleviate traffic congestion in the Central Business District and improve bus service in the region while improving the pedestrian environment.
The Mall project includes six basic elements: a 13-block pedestrian/transitway mall on Sixteenth Street; two transfer facilities anchoring the ends of the Mall; a fleet of special shuttle vehiclest traffic engineering and street changes resulting from the closure of Sixteenth Street to vehicles; and the renovation of two buildings at the nortwest end of the Mall for P.TD administration offices.
Construction began in September 1979* The Mall and the northwest facility will be ready for use in late 1932.
Three blocks at .either end of the Mall, from Cheyene, Court and Tremont on the southeast end, and from Larimer, Lawrence and Araahoe on the northwest end, will be assymmetrical in layout, with a 35-foot wide sidewalk with landscaping on the east side of the street and two transit paths separated by a six-foot wide aisle.
The central seven blocks will be symmetrical, featuring 19-foot sidewalks, two transit paths and a center aisle 22 feet wide.
The Mall will be attractively landscaped with Honey
sixteenth street mall


Locust and Red Oak trees. Clear globe lights will illuminate the mall, and grey and red granite will form a unique design in both transit and pedestrian areas., Benches, fountains, planters ana other amenities will also be provided.
The transfer facilities will be located at each end of the Mall. They serve as transfer points for passengers between express and regional buses and the Mall's shuttle vehicles.
The southeast transfer facility will be located on the block bounded by Broadway, Lincoln, Colfax and Sixteenth. Adjacent to the facility on the same block will be an notel/office complex.


ons
Soil Conditi

oil test has not yet been done for block 202, so the following information is taken from another nearby downtown block.
The first 16' is largely artificial fill. There is of odd debris; brick, concrete, glass, and timber, oio "o as emend silts, clea
5 w CU i tr cm* :Q 3.11 C
46' down, but general 1;
s ano soundaoxons s ai. i, l
range
otner structures,
a majority It is from Clays and
aepoj
can range
. rorn
n t
CO
ranges from 2
:o 31
above mean sea level.
or at Ground
from about 17' to 2G'. Bedrock a general elevation of 5,180'
water starts al
around 27' to 30'
or 7 to 10' belo
The top soils te.
but the bedrock
other s tructures
nd to be one that have swell is substantial enough to sup The foundation structure
and shrink te: ndencies,
port high-rise and
mus t come down to
this layer,
starting
at 27', tms means be accommodated withou provide expensive water-proofing, pumping devices,
w Y.r 3. ~C 61
of beiov; rrade oarkinq;
a ~c only 2 1eve1s
having to
s, and ot: her
soil conditions


Clir.'.ate
I
The area that Denver is located within is designated semi-arid because of its low humidity, low rainfall, and large temperature range.
The s ur. mer mon thly ter.ro o v> v X ature rar ely re,
mark. The vTi n ter m on u i~i c; are cold U it J- D Li o "Cil1
below 4- O he 0 OlT x mark m hi s area is kno * x *
at ni r-1- > Cv nd thus has 15 4 days ou t of j_ o.
below n ree 2 ing . St rcng v; inter Chi nook \J
raisi nr oi . e te: :. i w 1 C ture c; ubstantia ny.
v-ind SD eed gre ct o -L incr ea ses, espe cial iy
nperarure rarely goes its rapid cooling
Foothills.
I
ifall is light, 4-V, one/ V.i oil Ob/i
;hs. 31% falls during t
'winter months.
1 area recieves approxim.
/j of the total coming in the spring
an average per year.
The annual mean temperature is approximately 5CF. The monthly mean temperatures are as follows:
January 30
March 37
June 66
September 63
December 32
climate


S0pOO


B-5 DISTRICT ZONING REGULATIONS
612.10 B-5 District.
.10-3(1) Uses by Right. The following uses may be operated as Uses by Right:
.10-3(1)(a). Sale at retail, sale at wholesale and warehousing: The sale at retail, the sale at wholesale or the ware-
housing of any commodity the fabrication or assembly of which is a Permitted Use in this district, beauty shop equipment and supplies; drugs; flowers; household furniture, furnishings and equipment; medical and hospital equipment and supplies; tobacco products.
.10-3(1)(c). Assembly, Without Fabrication: The assembly without fabrication of completely fabricated parts.
.10-3(1)(d). Office.
.10-3(1)(e). Repair, Rental and Servicing: The repair, rental and servicing of any article the sale, warehousing, fabrication or assembly of which article is permitted in this district.
.10-3(1)(g). Any use intended to provide amusement or entertainment on the payment of a fee or admission charge.
.10-3(1)(i) .10-3(1)(j) .10-3(1)(k). .10-3(1)(1) .10-3(1)(p). .10-3(1)(q). .10-3(1)(r). .10-3(1)(s) .10-3(1)(t) .10-3(1)(v). .10-3(1)(x). .10-3(1)(z). .10-3(1)(aa) .10-3(1)(bb)
Apparel and accessory store.
Appliance store.
Art gallery.
Auctioneer.
Bakery, retail.
Bank.
Barber shop.
Beauty shop.
Bicycle store.
Blueprinting.
Book store.
Business machines store.
Camera and photographic supply store, Candy, nut and confectionary store:
a. candy,
nut and confectionary store in which all manufacturing is permitted only as and subject to the limitations of an Accessory Use.
.10-3(1)(cc). Caterer.
.10-3(1)(ee). Collection and distribution station for laundry and dry cleaner.
.10-3(1)(hh). Crating service.
.10-3(1)(ii). Dairy products store.
.10-3(1)(kk). Delicatessen store.
.10-3(1)(nn). Drug store.
.10-3(1)(oo). Dry goods store.
.10-3(1)(pp). Eating place; need not be enclosed provided that any part of serving area located outside a completely enclosed structure shall comply with all of the specifications for maintenance for off-street parking space.
. 10-3(1) (w) Floral shop.
.10-3(1)(yy). Furniture store.


,10-3(aaa). Garden supplies store need not be enclosed;
(Ord. 204, Series 1959)
.10-3(1)(fff). Hardware store.
.10-3(1)(ggg). Hobby supply store.
.10-3(1)(hhh). Home furnishings store.
.10-3(1)(kkk). Interior decorator.
.10-3(1)(111). Jewelry store (including repairing of jewelry, watches and clocks).
.10-3(1)(ooo). Laundry.
.10-3(1)(qqq). Linen supply.
.10-3(1)(rrr). Liquor store (sale by package only).
.10-3(1)(sss). Locksmith.
.10-3(1)(ttt). Luggage store.
.10-3(1)(uuu). Mail order house.
.10-3(1)(www). Metal sharpening.
.10-3(1)(aaaa). Motorcycle store.
.10-3(1)(cccc). Music store.
.10-3(1)(dddd). Music, musical instruments and phonographic
record store.
.10-3(1)(jjjj). Paint and wallpaper store.
.10-3(1)(1111). Parking and/or commercial storage of vehicles, need not be enclosed, provided that any part of such use conducted outside a completely enclosed structure shall comply with all specifications for maintenance hereinafter required for off-street parking space. (Ord. 423, Series 1958)
.10-3(1)(nnnn). Pet store.
.10-3(1)(oooo). Photographic studio or picture processing, or both.
.10-3(1)(pppp)
.10-3(1)(qqqq)
.10-3(1)(uuuu). Printing, publishing and allied industries.
.10-3(1)(yyyy). Radio and television store and repair
Photostating.
Picture framing. Printing, publishing Radio and television
shop.
.10-3(1)(ddddd). Shoe repair shop.
.10-3(1)(eeeee). Shoe store.
.10-3(1)(ggggg). Sporting goods store.
.10-3(1)(hhhhh). Stationery store.
.10-3(1)(nnnnn). Tobacco store.
.10-3(1)(ooooo). Toy store.
.10-3(1)(rrrrr). Variety store.
. 10-3(1) (vww). Landing or take-off area for rotorcraft, not including maintenance, repair, fueling or hangar facilities. .10-3(1)(aaaaaa). Hearing aids store. (Ord. 197, Series
1958).
.10-3(1)(dddddd). Health equipment and supply store. (Ord. 429, Series 1958).
.10-3(1)(eeeeee). Savings and loan association, state or federally chartered. (Ord. 344, Series 1959).
.10-3(2)(e). Sale at retail of Christmas trees and wreaths; provided, however, that no permit shall be effective prior to the 15th day of November in each calendar year and no permit shall be valid for a period of more than 45 days; need not be enclosed.


.10-4. Permitted Structures.
.10-4(1). Zone Lot for Structures.
.10-4(1)(a). All Structures. A ground area, herein called the Zone Lot, shall be designated, provided and continuously maintained for all structures containing a Use by Right. Each Zone Lot shall have at least one front line and shall be occupied only by one or more structures each containing a Use by Right and an equal number of subordinate structures containing only accessory uses. (Ord. 45, Series 1963).
.10-4(1)(d). Amendment to Zone Lot. Upon application to and approval by the Department of Zoning Administration, the boundaries and area of a designated Zone Lot may be amended if full compliance with all requirements of this ordinance can be maintained. (Ord. 45, Series 1963).
.10-4(3). Maximum Gross Floor Area in Structures.
.10-4(3)(a). Basic Maximum Gross Floor Area. The sum total of the gross floor area of all structures on a Zone Lot, excluding parking space included within the structure and excluding any floor area where the ceiling thereover is less than four feet above grade at the nearest building line shall not be greater than ten times the area of the Zone Lot on which the structures are located. Also excluded is any floor area devoted to mechanical equipment serving the building, provided that the floor area of such use constitutes not less than 75 percent of the floor area of the total story on which located. (Sec. 1(B),
Ord. 233, Series 1961).
.10-4(3)(b)(b-1). Premium for Unenclosed Plaza. Twelve square feet of floor area for each square foot of unenclosed plaza area continuously open to the street. (Sec. 1(B), Ord.
233, Series 1961).
.10-4(3)(b)(b-2). Premium for Enclosed Plaza. Twelve square feet of floor area for each square foot of enclosed plaza area if at least one entrance has a width of 40 feet. Five square feet of floor area for each square foot of enclosed plaza area if at least one entrance has a width of less than 40 feet but not less than 20 feet. No premium if all entrances are less than 20 feet wide. The entrance may be directly upon a street or through an arcade of at least 20 feet clear height, opening directly upon the street, but if the latter is the case, the dimension for the width of the entrance shall be the minimum distance between the bounding building walls
.10-4(3)(b)(b-3). Premium for Unenclosed Arcade. Five square feet of floor area for each square foot of unenclosed arcade area continuously open to the street, provided that the following requirements are met:
(1) If the arcade has a depth of 12 feet or less, average height is not less than 12 feet;
(2) If the arcade is deeper than 12 feet but not more than 20 feet, the average height equals or exceeds the depth;
(3) If the arcade is deeper than 20 feet, the average height is 20 feet or more.
Two and one-half square feet of floor area for each square foot of unenclosed arcade area not meeting these requirements.


(Sec. 1 (B) Ord. 233, Series 1961).
.10-4(3)(b)(b-4). Premium for Enclosed Arcade. Two and one-half square feet of floor space for each square foot of enclosed arcade area, provided that all of the following requirements are met:
(1) It has at least two entrances opening directly to
the street or to a plaza at two different locations.
(2) The minimum width of each of at least two entrances is 20 feet.
(3) The minimum width between all bounding walls is 20 feet.
(4) The average minimum height is 12 feet.
If any one of these requirements is not met, no premium shall be given. (Sec. 1(B), Ord. 233, Series 1961).
.10-4(3)(b)(b-5). Premium for Low Level Light Area. Three square feet of floor space for each square foot of low level light area occurring between 0 and 40 feet above ground level and having at least 25 per cent of its perimeter open and unobstructed to the street or plaza. One and one-half square feet of floor space for each square foot of low level light area occurring more than 40 feet but not more than 80 feet above ground level, and having at least 25 per cent of its perimeter open and unobstructed to the street or plaza. No premium credit for any setback area occurring more than 80 feet above ground level. Two or more contiguous low level light areas occurring at different heights may be combined for'the purpose of perimete computation. No low level light area premium shall be given to any area for which a plaza premium or another low level light area premium has been given. (Sec. 1(B), Ord. 233, Series 1961)
.10-4(3)(b)(b-6). Premium for Atrium. Twelve square feet of floor area for each square foot of atrium. Premium area shall be based on the smallest horizontal area of the light well. (Ord. 73, Series 1977).
.10-5. Permitted Signs.
.10-6. Off-Street Parking Requirements.
.10-7. Off-Street Loading Requirements.
614-OFF-STREET PARKING REQUIREMENTS
.1. Scope of Regulations. The regulations herein set forth shall apply and govern in all zoning districts; provided, however, that the application of these regulations to the 0-2 and B-5 zoning districts shall be limited to 614.5.
.5. Use and Maintenance of Parking Space. Off-street parking space shall be maintained in accordance with the following specifications:
.5-1. In residential districts no truck exceeding six thousand pounds empty weight, no automobile trailer, bus or motorized recreational vehicle exceeding 22 feet in length, and no truck-tractor or semi-trailer shall be parked or stored on any Zone Lot. (Ord. 482, Series 1974).
.5-2. Shall not be used for the sale, repair, dismantling or servicing of any vehicles, equipment, materials or supplies.


.5-3. Shall be graded for proper drainage and provided with an all weather surface of asphalt, asphaltic concrete or concrete or any equivalent material except for single family homes existing on the date this ordinance is enacted.
.5-4. Shall be provided with screening of such dimensions that occupants of adjacent structures are not unreasonably disturbed, either by day or by night, by the movement of vehicles
.5-5. Shall be provided with entrances and exits so located as to minimize traffic congestion.
.5-5. Shall be provided with wheel guards or bumper guards so located that no part of parked vehicles will extend beyond the property line.
.5-7. Lighting facilities shall be so arranged that they neither unreasonably disturb occupants or adjacent residential properties nor interfere with traffic. Loud speaker systems shall not be used.
.5-8. Shall have not more than one attendant shelter building which shall conform to all setback requirements for structures in the district.
615-OFF-STREET LOADING REQUIREMENTS
.1. Scope of Regulations. The regulations herein set forth shall apply and govern in B-5 Zoning District.
.2 Duty to Provide Off-Street Loading Space. The duty to provide the off-street loading space herein required shall be the joint and several responsibility of the operator and owner of the structure or structures for which off-street loading space is required to be provided. No structure shall be designed, erected, altered, used or occupied unless the off-street loading space herein required is provided in at least the amount herein set forth.
.3. Location of Off-Street Loading Space. Off-street loading space shall be located on the same Zone Lot as the structure for which provided and shall be composed of one parcel.
.4. Amount of Off-Street Loading Space Required. At least the following amounts of off-street loading space shall be provided, plus an area or means adequate for maneuvering, ingress and egress: (Ord. 97, Series 1957).
.4-2. For structures containing 25,000 or more square feet of gross floor area, the number of berths specified in the following table. Each such berth shall be at least ten feet wide, thirty-five feet long and fourteen feet high.
Square Feet of Gross Floor Area Required Number of Berths
25.000 up to and including 40,000 1
40.001 up to and including 100,000 2
100.001 up to and including 160,000 3
160.001 up to and including 240,000 4
240.001 up to and including 320,000 5
320.001 up to and including 400,000 6
For each additional 90,00 over 400,000 1 additional


.5. Maintenance of Loading Space. All off-street loading space shall be maintained in compliance with the regulations for the maintenance of off-street parking space as herein established in Article 614. (Ord. 425, Series 1958).


UNIFORM BUILDING CODE 1979 EDITION
Requirements Based on Occupancy. (Chapter 5)
Location on Property.
Section 504. (a) General. Buildings shall adjoin or have access to a public space, yard or street on not less than one side.
The center line of an adjoining street or alley shall be considered an adjacent property line.
Eaves over required windows shall be not less than 30 inches from the side and rear property lines.
(b) Fire Resistance of Walls. Fire resistance and opening protection as set forth in Table No. 5-A, Part III, and in accordance with such additional provisions as are set forth in Part IV and Part VII.
Table No. 5-A: for type 1.
See Section 1803.
Section 1803. (a) Exterior Walls. Exterior walls and all structural members shall comply with the requirements specified in Section 504 and the fire-resistive provisions set forth in Table No. 17-A.
Table 17-A. Type 1 construction (structural elements in type 1 fire-resistive buildings shall be of steel, iron, concrete, or masonry. Walls and permanent partitions of noncombustible material of which no part will ignite and burn when subjected to fire, material having structural bases as above, with surfacing material not over 1/8" thick which has flame-spread-rating of 50 or less fire-resistive construction except that permanent nonbearing partitions of 1 hour or 2 hour fire-resistive construction, may have fire-retardant treated wood within the assembly).
BUILDING ELEMENT:
Exterior Bearing Walls 4 hours Section 1803(a)
Interior Bearing Walls 3 hours
Exterior Nonbearing Walls 4 hours Section 1803(a)
Structural Frame 3 hours
Partitions-Permanent 1 hour
Shaft Enclosures 2 hours
Floors 2 hours
Roofs 2 hours Section 1806
Exterior Doors & V/indows - Section 1803(b)
Exceptions: 1. Nonbearing walls fronting on streets or
yards having a width of at least 40 feet may be of unprotected (not sprinkled) noncombustible construction.
2. Exterior walls (bearing) may be of 2 hour fire-resistive noncombustible construction where openings are permitted.
3. Exterior nonbearing walls may be of 1 hour fire-resistive noncombustible construction where unprotected


openings are permitted and 2 hour fire-resistive noncombustible construction where fire protection of openings is required.
Section 1803. (b) Openings in Walls. All openings shall be protected by fire assembly having 3/4 hour fire-protection rating when they are less than 20' from adjacent property line (center line of street).
No openings in exterior walls less than 3' from property line.
Section 504. (b) Fire Resistance of Walls.
Projections beyond the exterior wall shall not extend beyond: l)a point 1/3 the distance to property line.
When openings in exterior walls are required to be protected due to distance from property line, the sum of the area of such openings shall not exceed 50% of the total area of the wall in each story.
Allowable Floor Areas
Section 505. (a) One-story Areas. Limits set in Table No. 5-C. Table No. 5-C: type 1 construction unlimited.
(c) Basements. A basement need not be included in total allowable area, provided it does not qualify as a story.
Maximum Height of Buildings and Increases
Section 507. Limints set in Table No. 5-D. Table No. 5-D: unlimited.
Arcades
Section 509. Walls of building adjoining arcades are finished with the same construction as required for exterior walls of the building, with no communicating openings between the arcades and building, except doors, and provided that the arcades are of not less than 1 hour fire-resistive construction or of noncombustible materials, fire-retardant treated wood or heavy construction with 2" nominal sheathing.
Requirements for Group B Occupancies. (Chapter 7)
Group B Occupancies Defined
Section 701. Division 2. Wholesale and retail stores, office buildings.
Construction, Height and Allowable Area
Section 702. Table No. 5-C, 5-D: unlimited.
Location on Property
Section 703. see section 504 and part IV.
Exit Facilities
Section 704. Specified in chapter 33.


Light, Ventilation and Sanitation
Section 705. Occupancies used by human beings shall be provided with area equal to 1/10 total floor area, and natural ventilation by means of exterior openings with an area not less than 1/20 of total floor area, or shall be provided with artificial light and mechanically operating ventilation system specified in Section 605.
Enclosed parking garage for autos under own power, ventilation shall be provided capable of exhausting a minimum of 1.5 cfm per square foot of gross floor area, or a minimum of 14,000 cfm for each operating vehicle.
Maximum CO of 50 ppm during any 8 hour period, maximum concentration not greater than 200 ppm for period not exceeding 1 hour.
Every building or portion thereof where persons are employed shall be provided with at least one water closet.
Separate facilities shall be provided when the number of employees exceeds four and both sexes are employed.
Shall be located in such building.
All water closet rooms shall have exterior window at least 3 square feet, fully openable; or a verticle duct not less than 100 square inches for first toilet facility, with added 50 square inches for each additional, or mechanically operated exhaust system, connected to light switch, change of air every 15 minutes. Vented to outside, and point of discharge at least 5' from any operable window.
For other requirements see Section 1711.
Shaft Enclosures
Section 706. Specified in Section 1706.
Sprinkler Systems
Section 707. Specified in Chpter 38.
(the following is from Denver Building Code 1976)
Table No. 5-E: Minimum Plumbing Facilities,
Water Closets fixtures/persons
Lavatories fixtures/persons
Drinking Fountains fixtures/persons
1 1-15 1 1-15 1 per 100
2 16 35 2 16-- 35 one additional
3 36 55 3 36-60 for each 200
4 55 80 4 61-90
5 81 110 5 91 125
6 111 150 1 additional for
1 additional for each 40 each 45
Section 509. Toilet (b) Ratio. 50/50 Facilities. Male/Female.
(c) Construction, ance in front 2)Compartments: of water closet. 30" wide, 24" clear-


HC Compartments: 36" wide, door access 32" wide, grabbars 24" long each side.
4) Lavatories. For handicapped: clear space 26" wide, 12" deep.
5) Mirror and Hand drying facility not more than 40" A.F.F.
(d) Special Requirements. At least 1 water closet and 1 lavatory shall be provided.
(the following is from Uniform Building Code 1979)
V/ater Closets Compartments and Showers
Section 1711. (b) Toilet Facilities. Each water closet stool shall be located in a clear space not less than 30" in width and have clear space in front not less than 24".
Must have at least one toilet facility for the physically handicapped. All doorways leading to such toilet rooms shall have clear and unobstructed width of not less than 30". Each such toilet room shall have the following:
1. A clear space of not less than 44 inches on each side of doors providing access to toilet rooms. Not more than one door may encroach into the 44" space.
2. Clear space within toilet room of sufficient size
to inscribe a circle with diameter not less than 60".
Doors in any position may encroach not more than 12".
3. Clear space not less than 42" wide and 48" long in
front of stool for use of the handicapped. Entry into compartment shall have clear width of 30" shen located at end
and clear width of 34" when located at side. Clear unob*-structed access not less than 44" in width shall be provided to toilet compartments for the handicapped.
4. Grab bars near each side or one side and the back of the toilet stool attached 32" to 34" above and parallel to floor. Shall be 42" long with the front end positioned 24" in front of water closet stool. Outside diameter not less than 1.25" nor more than 1.5" and have clearance of 1.5" between grab bar and wall.
Section 1711. (c) Toilet Room Facilities. Toilet room facilities shall be as follows:
1. Clear unobstructed space 26" in width, 27" in height and 12" in depth shall be provided under at least one lavatory.
2. Mirrors shall be installed so that bottom is within 40" of floor.
3. Towel and disposal fixtures at least one shall be within 40" of the floor.
(the following is from Denver Building Code 1976)
Section 509. (d) 8. B. Employee toilet in restaurant shall be provided separate and in addition to those required for public.


C. Retail and sholesale establishments with occupant load of 20 or less may provide one sater closet and one lavatory in enclosed room which may accomodate both sexes.
Section 1105. Light, Ventilation, Toilet Room Facilities.
(a) Light. All portions of building used by humans natural or artificial.
(b) Ventilation. See Chapter 52.
Section 5203. (g) Outside Openings. 1.Location; Outside air intake openings in exterior walls shall be located at least 10' from an}' plumbing vents, flues, vents, chimneys, and gas regulator vents.
2.Mounting Height: Outside air intake and exhaust openings at least 12" above the outside grade of roof.
Restrictions in Fire Zones
Section 1601. (a) Fire Zones Defined; 1.Located in Fire Zone #1.
Section 1602. (a) Fire Zone 1 Type I, II, III-H.T, III one hour, or IV one hour construction.
Section 1705. (c) Walls Fronting on Streets or Yards.
Certain elements fronting on streets or yards having width of 40' or more may be constructed as follows:
1)Bulkheads above and below show windows, show window frames, aprons, and showcases may be of combustible materials provided the height of their construction not greater than 20'.
Section 1706. (a) 2. Enclosures shall not be required for escalators protected with fire sprinklers as in Chapter 38.
(b) Protection of Openings. Every opening into vertical enclosure shall be protected by self-closing fire assembly conforming to the requirements of Chapter 43.
Section^1707. Openings in Exterior Walls. (b)Openings Not Permitted. Openings shall not be permitted in exterior walls located less than following setback distances from property line (center of street): 5' for groups A through H occupancies.
(c) Protection of Openings Required. All openings in exterior walls shall be protected by fire assembly having 3/4 hour fire-resistive rating where the walls located less than the setback distances from adjacent property line or center
line of street or alley as specified in Table 17-C.
Table 17-C
F-2 Zone 1 Type 1 20' Setback
Section 1709. Members Supporting Masonry or Concrete Walls. Shall be protected with at least 1 hour fire-resistive


protection.
Section 1710. (a) Parapets shall be provided on all exterior walls of buildings.
(b) Same degree of fire-resistance required for wall upon whick they are constructed.
Section 1715. Mezzanines. (a) Specified in Chapters 18,
19, 20, and 21.
(b) l.Not more than 2 mezzanine floors shall be located in any room of a building.
2. No mezzanine floor or floors shall cover more than 1/3 of the area of any room.
3. The clear height below mezzanine floor shall be at least 7'.
4. Mezzanine exits specified in Chapter 33.
Section 1804. (b) 1-hour fire-resistive noncombustible materials.
Section 1722. Vehicle Exit Facilities. Where ramps are provided for vehicle exiting from buildings, the ramps shall be within 2' of ground level at least 20' inside the property of building.
Section 1755. Emergency Vehicle Access. Every building shall be provided with access capable of sustaining load of emergency vehicles.
(the following is from Uniform Building Code 1979)
Stairs, Exits and Occupant Loads
Section 3301. (d) Determination of Occupant Load. Determined by dividing floor area assigned to that use by the square feet per occupant. See Table No. 33-A.
Table No. 33-A: Minimum Egress and Access Requirements.
4. Assembly areas, less-concentrated use
a) minimum 2 exits if occupant # is over 50
b) 15 square feet per occupant
c) ramp or elevator for handicapped 9. Garage, parking
a) minimum 2 exits if occupant # is over 30
b) 200 square feet per occupant
c) ramp or elevator for handicapped 17. Offices
a) minimum 2 exits if occupant # is over 30
b) -'100 square feet per occupant
c) ramp or elevator for handicapped


20. Stores, Retail Sales Rooms
Basement:
a) minimum 2 exits
b) 20 square feet per occupant
c) ramp or elevator for handicapped
Ground Floor:
a) Minimum 2 exits if occupant # is over 50
b) 30 square feet per occupant
c) ramp or elevator for handicapped
Upper Floors:
a) minimum 2 exits if occupant # is over 10
b) 50 square feet per occupant
c) ramp or elevator for handicapped
Section 3301. (h) More than One Purpose. Determined by occupant load which gives largest number of persons.
Exits Required
Section 3302. (a) Shall have not less than 2 exits.
Each mezzanine if greater than 2000 square feet or if more than 60' in any dimension, shall have 2 stairways to an adjacent floor.
Every story or portion thereof having occupant load of 501 to 1000 shall have not less than 3 exits.
Every story or portion thereof having occupant load of more than 1000 shall have not less than four exits.
The number of exits required from any story determined by using occupant load of that story plus the percentages of the occupant loads of floors which exit through the level under consideration as follows:
1. 50% of load in first adjacent story above (and first adjacent story below, when a story below exits through the level under consideration).
2. 25% of load in story immediately beyond the first adjacent story.
Stories above second story and basements shall have not less than 2 exits.
Section 3302. (b)Width. Total width of exits in feet not less than total occupant load served divided by 50.
Divided equally among separate exits.
Total exit width determined by using occupant load of that story plus percentages of the occupant loads of floors which exit through the level under consideration, as follows:
1. 50% of occupant load in first adjacent story above (and first adjacent story below, when story below exits through the level under construction).
2. 25% of load in story immediately beyond first adjacent story.
Section 3302. (c) Arrangement of Exits. If only 2 exits required: Placed distance apart = to not less than /2 of length of maximum overall diagonal dimension of building or area to be served measured in straight line between exits.


Section 3302. (d) Distance to Exits. Maximum distance of travel from any point to an exterior exit door, horizontal exit, exit passageway, or enclosed stairway shall not exceed 200' with sprinkler system throughout.
Distnaces increased 100' if last 150' is within corridor complying with Section 3304.
Section 3302. (e) Exits from rooms may open into adjoining or intervening room or area, provided such adjoining room is accessory to area served and provides direct means of egress... foyers, lobbies, and reception rooms constructed as required for corridors shall not be construed as intervening rooms.
Doors
Section 3303. (b) Swing. Shall swing in direction of travel when serving any hazardous area or when serving occupant load of 50 or more.
Double-acting doors shall not be used as exits serving a tributary occupancy of more than 100.
(c) Exit doors openab le from inside without use of key or any special knowledge or effort.
(d) Panic Hardware. When installed, activating member mounted not less than 30" or more than 44" above floor.
Unlatching force not to exceed 15 pounds when applied in direction of exit travel.
(e) Width and Height. Door not less than 3' x 6*8". Opening at least 90*. Clear width of exitway not less than 32".
(f) Ho leaf of exit door to exceed 4' in width.
(g) Revolving, sliding, and overhead doors not to be used as required exits. Power operated doors complying with U.B.C. Standard No. 33-1 may be used for exit.
(i) Floor or landing on each side of door. Not more than 1" lower. If open over landings, not less than 5'.
Except when opens into stair or smokeproof enclosure, need not to be 5' .
(j) Exit doors so marked that they are readily distinguishable from adjacent construction.
Corridors and Exterior Exit Balconies
Section 3304. (b) Every corridor not less than 44" in width.
(c) Clear height not less than 7'.


Section 3302. (d) Distance to Exits. Maximum distance of travel from any point to an exterior exit door, horizontal exit, exit passageway, or enclosed stairway shall not exceed 200' with sprinkler system throughout.
Distnaces increased 100' if last 150' is within corridor complying with Section 3304.
Section 3302. (e) Exits from rooms may open into adjoining or intervening room or area, provided such adjoining room is accessory to area served and provides direct means of egress... foyers, lobbies, and reception rooms constructed as required for corridors shall not be construed as intervening rooms.
Doors
Section 3303. (b) Swing. Shall swing in direction of travel when serving any hazardous area or when serving occupant load of 50 or more.
Double-acting doors shall not be used as exits serving a tributary occupancy of more than 100.
(c) Exit doors openab le from inside without use of key or any special knowledge or effort.
(d) Panic Hardware. When installed, activating member mounted not less than 30" or more than 44" above floor.
Unlatching force not to exceed 15 pounds when applied in direction of exit travel.
(e) Width and Height. Door not less than 3' x 6'8". Opening at least 90*. Clear width of exitway not less than 32".
(f) No leaf of exit door to exceed 4' in width.
(g) Revolving, sliding, and overhead doors not to be used as required exits. Power operated doors complying with U.B.C. Standard No. 33-1 may be used for exit.
(i) Floor or landing on each side of door. Not more than 1" lower. If open over landings, not less than 5'.
Except when opens into stair or smokeproof enclosure, need not to be 51.
(j) Exit doors so marked that they are readily distinguishable from adjacent construction.
Corridors and Exterior Exit Balconies
Section 3304. (b) Every corridor not less than 44" in width.
(c) Clear height not less than 7'.


(d) Handrails and doors, when fully open, shall not reduce required width by more than 7". Doors in any position shall not reduce required width by more than Vz.
(e) Exits so arranged that it is possible to go in either direction from any point in a corridor to a separate exit, except for dead ends not exceeding 20' in length.
(g) Construction. Walls not less than 1 hour fire-resistive construction ceilings not less than that required for 1 hour fire-resistive floor or roof system.
Stairways
Section 3305. (b) V/idth. Stairways serving occupant load of more than 50 shall be not less in width than 44". 50 or
less 36" wide.
Private stairway with load of 10 or less, 30" wide. Handrails may project inches from each side of stairway.
(c) Rise and Run. Rise of every step in stairway not less than 4" nor greater than 7^".
Run not less than 10" as measured horizontally between vertical planes of furthermost projection of adjacent tread.
Largest tread run in any flight shall not exceed smallest by more than 3/8".
Greatest riser height shall not exceed smallest by 3/8".
Exceptions: Private stairways to unoccupied roofs may
have 8" maximum rise and 9" minimum run.
(g) Every landing shall have same dimension in travel as width of stairway.
(h) Basement Stairways. Where basement stairway and stairway to upper story terminate in the same exit enclosure, approved barrier shall be provided to prevent persons from continuing on into basement.
(i) No more than 12' vertically between landings.
(j) Stairways shall have handrails on each side, and every stairway required to be more than 88" wide shall be provided with not less than one intermediate handrail for each 88" of required v/idth.
Handrails not placed less than 30" or more than 34" above nosing of treads. Continuous full length of stairs. Extend not less than 6" beyond top and bottom risers.
Shall be returned or shall terminate in newel posts or safety terminals.
Handrail projection space not less than lVz". sectional dimension of handrail: l3£" x 2".
Cross-


(m) Usable space under stair.
(n) Exterior Stairway Construction. Shall be of non-combustible material. Exterior Stairway shall not project into yards where protection of openings is required.
(o) In every building 4 or more stories, one stairway shall extend to roof surface.
(p) Headroom. Every required stairway headroom clearance not less than 6'6".
Ramps.
Section 3306. (b) Width of ramps shall be as required for stairways.
(c) Slope shall not exceed slope of 1 to 12 required by Table No. 33-A. (all required). Slope of all other not to exceed 1 to 8.
(d) Landings. Ramps having slopes greater than 1 to 15 landings at top and bottom, at least (1) intermediate landing for each 5' of rise.
Top and intermediate landings shall have dimension measured in direction of travel of not less than 5'. Landings at bottom of 6' in-direction of travel.
Doors in any position shall not reduce the minimum dimension of landing to less than 42" and shall not reduce required width by more than 3VZ" when fully open.
(e) Handrails. Ramps with slopes exceeding 1 to 15 shall have handrails as required for stairs. (not less than 30" or no more than 34" above ramp) Continuous full length of stair. Extend not less than 6" beyond top and shall return to wall or newel posts or safety terminals. Intermediate handrails not required.
(g) Surface of ramps shall be roughened or shall be of non-slip materials.
Exit Enclosures
Section 3308. Exception: Enclosure not required for stairway, ramp, or escalator serving only one adjacent floor and not connected with corridors or stairways serving other floors.
(b) Enclosure walls of 2 hour fire-resistive construction.
(c) Openings into Enclosures. There shall be no openings into exit enclosures except exit doorways and openings in exterior walls. All exit doors protected by fire assembly rating of 1VZ hours. Doors shall be maintained self-closing


or automatic closing.
(d) Extent of Enclosure. Stairway and ramp enclosures shall include landings and parts of floors connecting flights and shall also include a corridor on ground level leading from stairway to exterior of building.
Exception: Maximum of 50% of exits may discharge through
a street floor lobby, provided required exit width is free and unobstructed and entire floor is protected with automatic sprinkler system.
(e) A stairway in exit enclosure shall not continue below grade level exit unless an approved barrier is provided at the ground floor level to prevent persons from accidentally continuing into the basement.
(f) There shall be no enclosed usable space under stairways in an exit enclosure, nor shall the open space under such stairways be used for any purpose. (Example: Lee Hall stairway from grad tower on grade level vs. stairway
in enlosed stairway that opens into corridor protected)
Smokeproof Enclosures
Section 3309. (a) General. A smokeproof enclosure shall consist of a vestibule and continuous stairway enclosed from highest point- to lowest point by walls of 2 hour fire-resistive construction.
(b) Where Required. Where a floor of any story is located more than 75' above highest grade, one of required exits shall be a smokeproof enclosure. Shall extend to roof surface.
(c) Stairs non-combustible construction.
(d) Outlet. Shall exit into public way (open, unobstructed to sky, not less than 10'), or into an exit passageway leading to a public way. The exit passageway shall be without other openings and shall have walls, floors and ceilings of 2 hour resistance.
(e) Barrier. Same as 3308c (e).
(f) Access. Access to stairway shall be by way of a vestibule or by way of an open exterior balcony of non-combustible materials.
(h) 2. Vestibule minimum dimension of 44" in width and 72" in direction of exit travel. 3. Vestibule must have ventilation. 9. Emergency lighting shall be provided.
Exit Courts
Section 3310. (a) General. Every exit court shall


discharge into public way or exit passageway.
(b) Width. Minimum widths determined in accordance to provisions in Section 3302. Unobstructed height of 7', minimum width not less than 44".
(c) Number of Exits. Provided with exits as required in Section 3302.
Exit Passageways
Section 3311. (a) Discharge. Walls of exit passageways shall be without openings other than required exits and shall have same fire ratings (wal1s, floors, ceiling) as building being served. Walls 4 floors 2 ceiling 2.
Exit Signs and Illumination
Section 3312. (a) Exit Illumination. Exits shall be illuminated at any time the building is occupied with light, having an intensity of not less than one footcandle at floor level.
(b) Exit signs. Required at every doorway to indicate direction of egress.
Special Hazards
Section 3320. .(a) Boiler, furnace and incinerator rooms must provide two means of egress when both of the following conditions exist: greater than 500 square feet, and largest piece fuel-fired equipment exceeds 400,000 Btu per hour input capacity.
If two means of egress must be provided, one may be ladder. Must be separated by horizontal distance not less than 'Vz greatest horizontal dimension of room.
Penthouses and Roof Structures
Section 3601. (a) Height. No penthouse or other projection above the roof shall not extend more than 12*.
(b) Area. Aggregate area of all penthouses and other roof structures shall not exceed 33-1/3% of the area of the supporting roof.
(c) Prohibited Uses. No penthouse, bulkhead or any other similar projection above the roof shall be used for purposes other than shelter of mechanical equipment or shelter of vertical shaft openings in the roof.
Standpipes
Section 3803. (b) Where Required. Standpipe systems provide as set forth in Table No. 38-A.
Table 38-A. Standpipe Requirements
#2. Occupancies 4 stories or more but less than 150' height Class I Standpipe.


#5. Group B, Division 2 Occupancies less than 4 stories in height but greater than 20,000 square feet no standpipe required.
Section 3803. (c) Location of Class I Standpipes. A Class I outlet connection at every floor level landing of every required stairway and on each side of the wall adjacent to the exit opening of a horizontal exit.
There shall be a three-way outlet above roof line.


PROJECT: Block 209, Denver, Colorado.
APPLICABLE ZONING ORDINANCE: Zoning Ordinance, City and County of Denver (20)
APPLICABLE BUILDING CODE: Uniform Building Code (UBC), Denver Building Code (DBC).
ZONING CLASSIFICATION: B-5 (20)
FLOOR AREA RATION/BUILDING SQ. FT. LIMITS: (20) 612.10-4(3)
(a) Basic lOx zone lot area
(b) Premiums see detailed
BUILDING HEIGHT LIMITS: STORIES. FEET. (DBC) Table No. 5-5-D. Type 1 construction, no limits.
BUILDING SET-BACK AND YARD REQUIREMENTS: (DBC) Table No. 17 20' setback from property line (centerline of street) no yard requirements
OFF-STREET PARKING REQUIREMENTS: (20) 614.5-2 .5-8 none required
DRIVEWAY AND CURB CUT REQUIREMENTS: (DBC) Section 1722 ramps wirhin 2'- of ground level at least 20' inside property of the building (exceptions)
FIRE ZONE DESIGNATION: Zone 1 section 1601 (DBC)
OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION: (DBC) Section 1101 F-2, B-2, UBC Section 701.
CONSTRUCTION TYPE: type 1 sprinkled
EXTERIOR WALL FIRE RATINGS: (U5C) Table No. 17-A 4 hours
EXTERIOR WALL OPENINGS LIMITATIONS: (UBC) 1803.6
Openings shall conform to regulation in Section 504(b) and 3/4 hour fire-protection assembly when less than 20' from property line, no openings less than 3' from property line. 504(b). When openings are to be protected due to ais tance to property line, sum of openings shall not exceed 50% total area of wall in each storey.
FLOORS FIRE RATING: (UBC) Table No. 17-A 2 hours
ROOFS FIRE RATING: (UBC) Table No. 17-A 2 hours


PARTITIONS FIRE RATING: (UBC)'Table No. 17-A 1 hour
STRUCTURAL FRAME FIRE RATING: (UBC) Table No. 17-A 3 hours
MAXIMUM FLOOR AREA SPRINKLERED AND UNSPRINKLERED: (UBC)
1807 (a) Floors above 75* the lowest level of F.D. vehicle access, need sprinkler.
NUMBER OF EXITS REQUIRED: (UBC) 3302 (a) at least 2
3 if 501 to 1000 occupant load
4 if more than 1000
NUMBER OF STAIRS REQUIRED: (UBC) 3302 at least 2 stairways
DOOR WIDTH REQUIREMENTS: (UBC) 3302 (b)
not less than 3', no leaf greater than 4' in width, total exit width calculated with occupant laod requirements total width not less than total occupant load divided by 50.
STAIR WIDTH REQUIREMENTS: (UBC) 3305 (b)
more than 50 persons not less than 44"
50 or less 36" wide
private stairway with load of 10 or less 30"
STAIR LANDING REQUIREMENTS: (UBC) 3305 (g)
every landing shall have same dimension in travel as width of stairway.
CORRIDOR WIDTH REQUIREMENTS: (UBC) 3304 (b)
every corridor serving occupant load of 10 or more shall not be less than 44" in width.
TRAVEL DISTANCE LIMITS: (UBC) 3302 (d)
Distance to Exits---Maximum distance of travel from any
point to exterior exit door, horizontal exit, exit passageway or an enclosed stairway shall not exceed 150' unsprinkled and 200' sprinkled. Distances increased 100' when last 150' is within a corridor.
DEAD END CORRIDOR LIMITS: (UBC) 2304 (e)
20 feet
DOOR SWING REQUIREMENTS: (UBC) 3303 (b)
must swing in direction of emergency travel.
STAIR AND BALCONY RAIL REQUIREMENTS: (UBC) 3305 (j)
Stair handrails on each side


- stairways required to have more width than 88" shall have intermediate rail for each 88" required width.
- not placed less than 30" or more than 34" above nosing of treads.
- extend not less than 6" beyond top and bottom
users.
- shall be returned or have termination
- space between wall and rail not less than 1.5"
- cross sectional area 1%" x 2"
Balcony 42"


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