APOTHECA IN THE PARK
JEFFERSON COUNTY BRANCH LIBRARY
An architectural thesis presented to the College of Design and Planning, University of Colorado at Denver, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Architecture.
DENNIS HAWKINS SPRING 1985
The thesis of Dennis L. Hawkins is approved:
__________ Committee Chairman
__________ Principal Advisor
University of Colorado at Denver
TABLE OF CONTENTS
The Project................................................ 2
The Thesis................................................. 4
Site Analysis................................................... 7
Regional Map............................................... 8
Vicinity Map............................................... 9
Site Analysis Map......................................... 10
Topographic Map and Section............................... 11
Site Description.......................................... 12
Zoning Jefferson County................................. 13
Legal Description......................................... 14
Temperate-Cool Zone....................................... 21
Climate Clement Park Summary............................ 23
Climate Summary........................................... 24
Climate Design Characteristics............................ 25
Size of Library........................................... 28
Hours of Operation........................................ 30
Interlibrary Loan Services................................ 31
Library Without Walls..................................... 32
Circulation Services...................................... 33
Adult Collection.......................................... 34
Reference Collection...................................... 36
The Children's Library.................................... 37
Children's Programs....................................... 38
The Young Adult Collection................................ 40
Young Adult Programs...................................... 41
Staffing Requirements..................................... 42
Book Acquisition Flow.................................... 44
Return Book Flow......................................... 45
Adjacency Matrix......................................... 46
Bubble Diagram........................................... 47
Qualitative Considerations............................... 50
Space Requirements....................................... 52
Building Code............................................ 54
Handicap Code............................................ 59
H VAC.................................................... 64
Neighborhood Districts Data.............................. 67
Population Make-up by Age Group.......................... 68
Stack Area............................................... 69
"Institutions stem from the inspiration to live. This inspiration remains meekly expressed in our institutions today. The three great inspirations are the inspiration to learn, the inspiration to meet, and the inspiration for well-being. They all serve, really, the will to be, to express. This is, you might say, the reason for living." Louis Kahn
The Jefferson County Library System is in need of a new public branch library to serve the rapidly expanding southwest quadrant of Metropolitan Denver.
Columbine Library, the current branch library which is adjacent to the site, is serving both the Columbine High School and the public needs on a time share schedule. The Columbine Library's current volume number is 50,000 with a circulation of 80,356 people. Current projections indicate 207,000 volumes by the year 2000.
A new branch library will allow further expansion of Columbine High School by freeing the 4,600 square feet of currently used library space and will greatly improve and extend services to the rapidly expanding residences and businesses that are developing in the area. Also the incorporation of the library, park, and school create a welcome environment for learning.
The library will be sited on the Robert F. Clement Park that is currently being developed and constructed under a master plan developed by Land Plan Design Group of Englewood, Colorado. The property is under the stewardship of the Jefferson County Open Space Department. Jefferson County Open Space came into existence from the concern of Jefferson County citizens over the disappearance of open space. In 1972, the county voters approved a one-half percent sales tax to be spent planning, developing, maintaining, and preserving open space properties. Since 1972, the Open Space has acquired Means Meadow, Apex Gulch, the Hogback, Mt. Falcon, Hiwan Homestead, White Ranch, the Conference and Nature Center, and many more, with Clement Park being the most recent acquisition. Native land preservation and enhancement is the primary goal of Open Space.
Clement Park was purchased in 1982 from the Grant Ranch. The park consists of 216 acres of which 80 acres comprise the Johnson Reservoir. The park will encompass trails, wildlife habitat, ball parks, open fields, marina, and the library site. The library building site will be adjacent to a school, residential, commercial, and retail activities that will help support the library.
It is essential that a library reflect the essence of knowledge and the culture that supports it.
The library of Alexandria, which was begun in 300 B.C., was the first to seriously and systematically collect the knowledge of the world. At its demise some 700 years later it had over half a million handwritten papyrus scrolls. The library served as a foundation for some of the most productive and enlightened thought ever produced by man. Here was a community of scholars exploring physics, literature, medicine, astronomy, geography, philosophy, mathematics, biology, and engineering.
For centuries the library supported research and maintained a working environment for the best minds of the age. It contained ten large research halls, each devoted to a separate subject; fountains and colonnades; botanical gardens; a zoo; dissecting rooms; an observatory; and a great dining hall where the critical discussion of ideas was conducted at leisure.
The written word is man's most prodigious accomplishment. Carl Sagan states in Cosmos that "One glance at a book and you hear the voice of another person perhaps someone dead for thousands of years, across the millennia, the author is speaking, clearly and silently, inside your head, directly to you. Writing is perhaps the greatest of human inventions, binding together people, citizens of distant epochs, who never knew one another." It is this binding together, building upon each other's experience, that fuels society to advance. Libraries are the sum total of man's experiences and insight into his world.
This desire to gain insight or knowledge is one of three great desires as stated by Louis I. Kahn. Kahn defined desire as "the qualities of the not yet said and the not yet made is the reason for living." The other two great desires according to Kahn are the desire to meet together, and the desire for well-being.
Out of these desires came the beginning of Western thought and culture. Kahn states, "Acting through their common will, people sought to meet these desires, and they formed the first institutions: the school, the street, and the village green. All of our institutions today refer back to these beginnings."
In designing the library, it is hoped that the incorporation of these three desires as design goals will produce an artistically pleasing and functional building. The library as a learning institution needs to be used by the public and therefore must advertise itself by allowing visual access of the knowledge that will be housed inside.
The desire for well-being is approached on several levels of scale. The first is the overall sitting of building and park. The park is dominant in relation to the building. The site should retain as much of its identity as possible. The massing of the building will be kept low in order not to compete with the land. The well-being of the land in its natural state must be maintained in accordance with Open Space philosophy.
To achieve this desire on a human scale, the interior space should provide security as one approaches the entrance, the warmth provided by environmental controls once inside, the view as one passes through the library space, and the ease at using the library. The need for functionalism cannot be overemphasized. The library is an information handling organism, therefore, it should function as one. The placement of spaces in the plan can achieve all of these requirements. Material will play a large part in the psychological effect of well-being. The use of fabrics with their sound absorbing qualities, colors, and textures will provide necessary interest for the user.
The desire for meeting together is addressed on a large scale by the use of the park as a town green. It will be the collector of people going and coming. On a smaller scale the library will serve as a collector for people to gather. The interior passages should serve as the gallery spaces for cultural display and gathering. These will be the interior "streets" of the building. This space serves as a gathering of people for cultural intercourse. On a more artistic note, the
spaces provided can serve as massings that relay the thought of togetherness. This massing must reflect the hierarchy of corresponding spaces and their activities.
The desire for learning is addressed by the existence of the finished building on a large scale. The presence of the building and its architecture is the outcome of learning. On a human scale, the progression of approach, entering, and using the library is responsive to the learning process. Learning, the travel through time and space, will be architecturally addressed by the use of natural and artificial lighting systems to highlight and enhance the use of the library. Systems used for natural lighting, i.e., sunscoops, baffles, atriums, or skylights, should be assembled in order to emphasize the traffic and learning nodes within the building. If this is accomplished, light as an architectural tool will serve to enhance the desire of wellbeing by providing light and warmth, and hopefully provide the catalyst for the desire to gather in the gallery, streets, or corridors for cultural exchange.
"Everybody needs beauty as well as bread, places to play in and pray in, where nature may heal and cheer and give strength to body and soul alike." John Muir
M69 / lM0Zd
SOUTH PIERCE ST.
TOPOGRAPHIC MAP and SECTION
The Robert F. Clement Park is located in Jefferson County, Colorado. It comprises approximately 160 acres of ballfield parks, picnic areas, playing fields, informal fields, general use open space, wildlife habitat, and trails with the other 80 acres comprising Johnson Reservoir, which is dedicated to marine activities. Wadsworth Boulevard, which bounds the site on the west, is one of the primary transportation corridors that runs to the north and south. Bowles Avenue, which serves as a secondary transportation link, runs east and west and bounds the site on the north. Just north of Bowles is the Raccoon Creek Golf Course, which is using the existing Grant Ranch farm buildings as the club house and support facilities. Individual residences border both the east and south sides of the site with retail and commercial to the west of the site.
The site is relatively flat with slight sloping of land to the west which allows the viewer to relax and scan far and wide. It is sparse of trees with prairie grass predominant and can be considered to possess high degrees of contrast and diversity, some of which are:
1. The body of water, marshes, wet areas, and shoreline.
2. Areas of wildlife concentration.
3. Prominent ridgelines, mountain peaks, and steep slopes.
4. Contrast in form, color, and texture of tree and plant communities.
The viewer on the site looking out is surrounded and buffered by the open space far from the high traffic noise of Wadsworth and Bowles. The library building site has high visibility from both Wadsworth and Bowles that will allow high visual enforcement and advertisement of the library.
Zoning Jefferson County
Jefferson County Zoning
The site is currently zoned Agriculture Two (A-2) with Flood Plain zoning bounding Johnson Reservoir and its inlet and outlet flow. There are two planned developments that border the site to the west. These are the Swedish Hospital Health Park (45 acres) and Chanson Plaza Commercial/Retail Park (18 acres).
Library construction requires R-l zoning, however, since the park is master planned for a cultural center/library it is assumed that zoning would be approved.
Building setbacks are as follows:
Along South Wadsworth minimum 25 feet
Along West Bowles TT 25 feet
Along east property line rt 25 feet
Along south property line TT 25 feet
Along interior street TT 0 feet
Along Swedish Health Park TT 25 feet
Along flood plain TT 25 feet
Maximum height of structure 40 feet
Distance between buildings 15 feet
Maximum height of fence or signage 8 feet
A parcel of land in the North 1/2 of Section 23, Township 5 South, Range 69 West of the 6th Principal Meridian, more particularly described as follows:
Beginning at a point on the North line of the Northeast 1/4 of said Section 23, from which point the Northeast corner of said Section 23 bears N. 89 IT 41" E 40.00 feet;
Thence S. 00 03 50" W. along a line 40 feet West of and parallel with the East line of said Section 23 a distance of 2653.32 feet to a point on the South line of said North 1/2 of Section 23;
Thence S. 89 18' 15" W. along said South line 3,804.08 feet; Thence N. 18 39' 01" W. 233.88 feet;
Thence N. 16 14 51" W. 1,148.70 feet;
Thence N. 57 18' 12" W. 90.2 feet;
Thence N. 75 18' 09" W. 445.55 feet;
Thence N. 00 30' 30" W. 682.86 feet;
Thence N. 89 01' 03" E. 84.28 feet;
Thence N. 65 42' 52" E. 432.32 feet;
Thence N. 89 09' 19" E. 818.51 feet;
Thence N. 00 48' 16" W. 300.62 feet to a point on the North line of the Northwest 1/4 of said Section 23;
Thence N. 89 11' 44" E. along the North line of said Northwest 1/4 814.60 feet to the Northeast corner of said Northwest 1/4;
Thence N. 89 11' 41" E. along the North line of the Northeast 1/4 2,605.88 feet to the true point of beginning. Except the North 100.00 feet lying immediately adjacent to the North line of said Section 23 and except that parcel described in Book 2368 at Page 761, all in the County of Jefferson, State of Colorado. Containing 216.1 acres more or less.
Jefferson County Planning Department requires 1 car space per 300 G.S.F. of building area. This would give approximately 100 spaces required based on gross total area of 31,000 S.F. In order to maintain natural ambience, the site should be either partially sunk or bermed heavily and landscaped. Ease of access for handicapped should be part of the design solution. Return of books by auto should be as easy as possible and a continuous motion. The parking should be located on the outside perimeter of the site to buffer traffic noise and lessen impact on the site.
Roads should be limited for access to parking and service. The main access road will be off of Bowles Avenue. Roads should be on outside perimeter of the site to lessen impact on site. Road design falls under Jefferson County road standards maintain 25 foot widths and standard turning radius.
A soils and foundation investigation was prepared by Fox and Associates of Colorado, Inc. of Wheatridge in 1984 for the development of the park and construction of roads, maintenance buildings, picnic pads, and parking pads. The following is an excerpt from the report:
The subsoils are relatively uniform over the site varying with depth. Generally, slightly sandy to sandy, slightly silty clays cover the site. The consistency of the clays varied from medium stiff to hard. No bedrock was encountered in any of the test holes to 14 feet, the maximum depth explored.
The soils in the test holes exhibited non to moderate expansive potentials. The unconfined compressive strength of the clays are relatively high. The soils classified as A-6 and A-7 on the AASHTO Classification System.
Ground water was not encountered at the time of drilling nor when checked ten (10) days later.
The construction recommendation from the report is as follows:
Structures should be supported on grade beams and straight shaft piers drilled into structurally compacted fills and/or very stiff clays. All piers should have a minimum shaft length of 15 feet.
The piers may be designed for a maximum end bearing pressure of 8,000 pounds per square foot and side shear of 800 psf, for the portion of pier below depth 10 feet.
Dead load plus half live load of structure may be used for pier sizing. In addition, the piers should be loaded with a minimum dead load pressure of 15,000 psf.
Ten inch piers are recommended. Piers should be reinforced to prevent them from pulling apart by swelling soil, since this would considerately increase any damage to the structure.
A minimum 3 inch void space should be constructed under all grade beams, between piers.
The soils that will support slabs are stable at the natural moisture contents. However, the owner should realize that when wetted, the soils will swell. The slabs should have a positive separation from all bearing members and utility lines to allow their independent movements. Soil classifications indicate various pavement thicknesses and equivalent full depth asphalt sections should be considered for various areas.
The thicknesses recommended are as follows:
Area Parking areas
Entrance, Exits, and heavy use areas
2 inches ACS*
8 inches ABC**
3 inches ACS 10 inches ABC
Equivalent Full Depth Asphalt Section
5.5 inches ACS
6.5 inches ACS
* ACS = Asphaltic concrete surface ** ABC = Aggregate base course
Surface Grading A minimum slope of 1 foot in the first 10
feet away from all structures is recommended.
A utility survey has been done by York, Inc., an engineering consulting firm located in Denver, Colorado. All site utilities will be connected at South Pierce Street. Existing 8" water line runs north and south, 5 feet east of centerline of Pierce. Existing 2" gas line runs north and south, 5 feet west of centerline of Pierce. A new 36" sewer line runs the west edge of Pierce. The electrical utility is supplied from overhead line and is rated at 240 kv. There is no problem supplying the proposed library with adequate services.
"Air, like the sea, is constantly in motion and links all habitations, no matter how remote, into a world community." John Ormsbee Simonds, Earthscape.
Temperate Cool Zone
Denver can be classified as a cool-temperate zone for design purposes. Denver enjoys the mild, sunny, semiarid climate that prevails over much of the central Rocky Mountain region, without the extremely cold mornings of the high elevations and restricted mountain valleys during the cold part of the year, or the hot afternoons of summer at lower altitudes. Wind is lessened by the proximity of the mountains. Extremely warm or cold weather is usually of short duration. Air masses from at least four different sources influence Denver's weather: polar air from Canada and the far northwest; moist air from the Gulf of Mexico; warm dry air from Mexico and the southwest; and Pacific air modified by its passage overland.
The good climate results largely from Denver's location on the east slope of the Rocky Mountains in the belt of the prevailing westerlies. During summer afternoons cumulus clouds so shade the city that temperatures of 90 or over are reached on an average of only thirty five days of the year, and in only one year in five does the mercury very briefly reach the 100 mark. These short periods of high temperature occur when the winds aloft carry desert air from the southwest over Denver.
In the cold season this high altitude and the location of the mountains to the west combine to moderate temperatures. Invasions of cold air from the north, intensified by high altitude, can be abrupt and severe. On the other hand, many of the cold air masses that spread southward out of Canada over the plains are too shallow to reach Denver's altitude and move off over the lower plains to the east. Surges of cold air from the west are usually moderated in their descent down the east face of the mountains and Chinooks resulting from some of these westerly flows often raise the temperature far above that normally to be expected at this latitude in the cold season. These conditions result in a tempering of winter cold to an average temperature above that of other cities situated at the same latitude.
In the spring when the outbreaks of polar air are waning, they are met by moist currents from the Gulf of Mexico. The juxtaposition of these two currents produces the rainy season in Denver, which reaches its peak in May.
Situated a long distance from any moisture source, and separated from the Pacific source by a high mountain barrier, Denver enjoys a low relative humidity, low average precipitation, and considerable elear-sky sunshine.
The above information was found in The Weather Alamanac, Second Edition, 1977.
Climate Clement Park Summary
Latitude: 39 38' N
Longitude: 105 04' W
Mean Elevation: 5534.0'
Clement Park is located on the eastern edge of the foothills of the Rocky Mountain range, at an elevation of 5,540 feet. The climate is characterized by mild, sunny, semiarid weather. Average monthly temperatures range from 30 in January to 73 in July. The average annual temperature is 63. The extreme record low is -25. Outside design temperature is -10 degrees.
Annual precipitation averages 14.6 inches with 39 percent falling in the spring months, the wettest season of the year. Afternoon
thunderstorms are prevalent during the spring and summer months.
Winds are generally from the south, however, during the winter months the winds are northwesterly in direction. Average wind speed is 9 m.p.h. from the south with the fastest recorded wind of 56 m.p.h. from the southwest.
Climate Design Characteristics
The site is considered a cool-temperate zone where the primary ecodesign objectives are to maximize winter solar gain and to minimize heat losses caused by cold winter winds. Natural ventilation can often be used to eliminate the need for mechanical air condition. However, the use of air conditioning and humidity control must be incorporated in the design to allow for correct book storage condition.
South to southwest slope is available and possible for uninterrupted solar gain for the duration of the solar day. The location is next to Johnson Reservoir to make use of cool morning breezes during summer months. Berming on the north of the building reduces north facing walls. The south to southwest orientation optimizes solar gain. Shading the southwest during summer months is necessary. Controlled natural light must be maintained in order to reduce harsh detrimental sun light and interior solar hot spots.
Using a building's outside surface to capture solar energy leads from round or square shaped designs to elongated plans that permit more surface area to be heated by the winter sun. Length to width ratio of a maximum 1.5 to 1 should be maintained in order to exceed potential solar heat gain over heat loss.* The building plan should be low in elevation to reduce heat loss from winter winds. Exterior material should be in medium colors for solar gain and to limit reflection from the intense Colorado sunshine. Window glazing should be kept to a minimum on the north side to reduce heat loss and judiciously placed on the south to prevent solar hot spots and detrimental direct sunlight on stored material. Natural lighting can be introduced on the south side by use of light baffles and reflective shades. However, these light wells and baffles should be high in elevation and ventilated to reduce overheating of reading or work spaces.
* Designing and Building with Solar, Donald Watson, 1977.
1. Use general relationship 1.5 length to width to increase solar gain.
2. Low massing reduces loss from winter winds.
3. Material in medium colors for solar gain and limiting reflectance.
4. Window glazing limited on the north to prevent heat loss.
5. Use light baffles, light wells, or materials to control natural light.
"The wisdom for which all philosophers are in search is the knowledge of first principles and the causes of things." Aristotle
Size of Library
A demographic study area covered by a 5 mile radius circle centered at approximately Bowles and Wadsworth was established in 1975 by the Denver Regional Council of Governments (DRCOG). The area comprises twenty nine 1970 census tracts.
Current population is at 194,000 people with year 2000 population being 346,000 people.
Currently there are three public libraries serving this area: the Columbine Library, Littleton Bemis Library, and the Englewood Library. One library currently serves an average of 65,000 people with projected service of 115,000 people.
Based on Denver Public Library 1965 ratios of seating of .5% of population and 2.8 volumes per capital would produce 325 seats and 182,000 volumes currently needed to projected seating and volumes of 575 and 322,000, respectively.
However, with the advent of the home computer and access to computerized library files, seating could be reduced by at least one quarter. Volumes per capital could be reduced as volumes are entered in the library's computer files. Volumes per capital could be reduced to 1.8 volumes per capital with the remainder of 1 volume per capitol being retained in the computer files. These reduced ratios produce 244 seats and 117,000 volumes at building completion and projected expansion to 431 seats and 207,000 volumes in the year 2000. Based on average volumes per stack area, storage and access yields a minimum square footage of 9,800.*
Peak loading of library occurs during weekday nights with maximum loading on Saturdays or Sunday afternoons. During maximum loading approximately 70% of total seating is being used. This percentage produces an occupancy level of approximately 170 persons at any single moment at present to 300 persons in the year 2000.
* See Appendix.
From the Denver Regional Council of Government data, the population age dispersion will extend the whole range of the age spectrum. The library will serve the residential area as well as the fast growing commercial and industrial areas. The users will be the children, young adults, adults, and senior citizens of the region.
Hours of Operation
Monday Thursday, 9:00 a.m. 9:00 p.m. Friday, 9:00 a.m. 5:00 p.m.
Saturday, 10:00 a.m. 5:00 p.m.
Sunday, 1:00 p.m. 5:00 p.m.
Special opening on request.
Dial-a-Story Librarian Circulation Library Director Room Reservations
A Jefferson County Library card is free. To apply for a card, a person who wishes to use the library brings a document which verifies the person's current address, such as a driver's license, imprinted check or letter mailed to the person at his address. Children under 16 years of age must have a parent's signature on the application. The library card can be used at most public libraries in the Denver Metropolitan Area.
Interlibrary Loan Services
If the library does not own material that a patron needs, interlibrary loan will locate a library which does have it and borrow it for the patron's use. The same procedure also applies to items which must be photocopied. The patron may be asked to pay for any photocopy charges which are assessed; the material is then the patron's to keep. Material is borrowed on Interlibrary Loan through the Reference/Information Desk.
Who may Borrow?
Jefferson County Branch Library provides interlibrary loan services to any Denver Metropolitan Area resident who has a valid library card.
What may be Borrowed?
Any library material needed for research may be requested on loan or in photocopy form from another library, but the lending library will decide whether or not an item should be sent and if its use should be restricted. Usually, libraries will not send very inexpensive items which can be easily purchased; rare and costly materials; doctoral dissertations readily available on microfilm; and basic reference materials. Journal articles are normally photocopied.
How long does it take?
In most cases, at least three weeks is required to borrow material on interlibrary loan due to mailing procedures. Loans from other libraries within the Denver Metropolitan Area generally take just a few days.
Library Without Walls
Library Wihtout Walls is a program offered and corrdinated by the Jefferson Public Branch Library, which provides books to shut-ins, the handicapped and disabled, through the services of volunteers.
Each person requesting service receives a varied collection of books every month, or more often if desired, delivered by an assigned volunteer.
Volunteers will read to an individual when requested. They will go to private homes as well as nursing homes, retirement centers, and senior citizens apartments.
These collections have been selected from titles with proven wide appeal and include all types of fiction, non-fiction, and magazines. Magnifying glasses and book holders are available.
Material checked out from the Circulation Desk is returned to the book drop unless the borrower wants to renew it or pay a fine. If another public library is closer to the person's home, the books borrowed from Jefferson County Branch Library may be returned to that library. There is generally no limit to the number of books which may be borrowed.
Books, art prints, records, cassettes, and sculpture are due in three weeks. Best-sellers, films, pamphlets, and magazines are due in one week. All books are renewable unless reserved for use by another patron.
If a book a patron wants has been checked out, the librarian at the Reference/Information Desk can hold it for the patron when it is returned. He or she will be notified when the book is available.
Fines will be assessed on overdue books at the rate of $.05 per day. Fines for art prints and sculpture are $.25 per day. Fines never exceed one-half the price of the item. If a patron receives an overdue notice and thinks the book has been returned, he or she should call the Circulation Department.
The library will mail two courtesy overdue notices after a book is due. Failure to receive these notices in no way relieves the borrower of the obligation to return the library material by the date it is due. The person whose name appears on the circulation charge form is responsible for the return of the item checked out. If a library card is lost, it should be reported to the Circulation Desk at once.
The adult collection includes a wide variety of books, pamphlets, audio-visual materials, paperbacks, and periodicals. This material is arranged in the following special areas:
Fiction A large collection of popular titles with mysteries and science fiction shelved separately.
Non-fiction Over 50,000 titles arranged by subject.
Best sellers Called "FAST CATS" for fast cataloging.
Paperbacks Romances, westerns, mysteries, and science fiction.
Large print books Books with "easy-on-the-eyes" type-face.
Pamphlet file An extensive file of information ranging from travel tips to craft instruction.
Play file Popular plays arranged by title.
Magazines and newspapers Current magazines and newspapers are shelved in a spacious browsing and reading area on the lower level. Back issues of periodicals are available at the Circulation Desk or on microfilm. A microfilm reader-printer is located close to the microfilm files.
Films Entertaining films, in 8mm only, silent and sound.
Records Classical and popular music as well as instructional recordings.
Cassettes Spoken cassettes on a variety of subjects, shelved with the non-fiction collection.
Art prints Framed prints covering many different styles of art.
Sculpture Small pieces of sculpture ranging from the Egyptian to the modern period.
The librarians at the Reference/Information Desk can provide assistance in using the computer catalog or microfiche readers, and help locate materials on the shelf or at another library. Librarians will also give guided tours and book reviews for groups if arrangements are made at least one week in advance. Reference and information service is available during library hours either at the Reference/Information Desk or by phone.
The Reference Area contains a basic collection of research materials which must be used in the library. Included in the collection are dictionaries, encyclopedias, indexes, bibliographies, almanacs, atlases, biographical sources, and statistical yearbooks.
Business reference collection including national and local company directories.
Annual reports from the top companies in the region.
Telephone directories for major cities in the U.S. and all cities in Colorado.
Consumer information collection for locating product ratings and prices.
Mail-order catalogs from shops around the country.
Topographic and highway maps.
Littleton City Council minutes.
Special Western History Collection emphasizing Colorado history.
Genealogy collection with books, magazines, and census records for the researcher.
Whether the question is specific or general, common or uncommon, the librarians at the Reference Desk are prepared to find answers or to give basic instruction in the use of reference books and other materials. Reference service is available during library hours either at the Reference Desk or by phone.
The Children's Library
The collection contains books, art prints, and posters, records, cassettes, magazines, puppets and pamphlets for children pre-school through grade six.
Picture books, books for beginning readers, parenting materials, pamphlet file, and specialized book lists.
Books and cassettes No limit on number borrowed except for class assignments. Class assignments limited to two books per subject.
Records, magazines, and pamphlets Three per library card.
Art prints and posters One per library card.
Books, records, cassettes, art prints and posters, magazines, and pamphlets Three weeks.
Holiday materials One week.
Materials for certain class assignments One week.
The librarian can suggest good books, help to find answers to questions, and show how to use the children's library. The librarian will also borrow material from other libraries if the library doesn't have the material that is needed.
Preschool Story Time
Preschool story time meets weekly with admission by free ticket. Activities include read-aloud stories, puppetry, crafts, and creative dramatics. Children, ages 3-5, are eligible to attend.
These weekly classes are designed to develop motor skills, listening skills and other discretionary skills which are important for preparing a child to read. Each session runs for ten weeks. Children must be two years old and an adult must participate in each session with the child.
The Merry Minstrels
Once a week children in grades 3-6 meet at the library for storytelling, puppetry, creative dramatics, and crafts. Attendance is by free ticket.
Tfre Summer Reading Program
This annual program is designed to promote enjoyment of reading. Children in pre-school through grade six are eligible to participate. Special programs which relate to the central theme are offered. Activities include movies, guest performances, and storytelling. Awards and certificates are presented to participants.
Special programs are offered for Halloweeen, Christmas, Children's Book Week, Valentine's Day, American Library Week, and other special occasions. Activities include movies, puppet shows, and guest performances. Admission is usually by free ticket.
Tours, Speakers, Storytelling, and Book Talks
These services are available to groups of children and also to interested adult groups. Arrangements must be made at least one week in advance.
The Young Adult Collection
The collection contains paperback and hardcover fiction, the pamphlet and vocational files, some reference materials, and records for young adults grades 7-12.
Social Issues Resources Series (SIRS), Cliff Notes, pamphlet file, vocational file, and bibliographies.
Books No limit.
Records and pamphlets Three per library card.
Books, records, and pamphlets Three weeks.
Special or reserved materials One week.
The Young Adult Librarian will help locate materials and provide library use instruction upon request. Instruction on search techniques includes use of the microfiche and computer catalog, the reference area and its specialized tools, Reader's Guide, as well as the vocational and pamphlet files.
Young Adult Programs
This annual program is designed to encourage creativity. Jefferson County area students are eligible to participate. Workshop leaders have included poets as well as a journalist.
Young adult film programs are offered during the school year. Admission is by free ticket.
Tours, Speakers, and Book Talks
Book talks on both current fiction and nonfiction will be given in either the library or the classroom. At least one month's notice should be given. Call the Young Adult Librarian to arrange tours or talks.
Library Director 1
Librarian Assistant 1
Library Clerk II 5
Library Clerk I 4
TOTAL FULL TIME 20
Librarian (Part time) 2
Library Clerk (Part time) 5
TOTAL PART TIME 7
6**4fz& Tc? ^^fi'Kli c^lgejcT.
??c>. -vo p^ih*Uj^e~
j fe>K TZ?
Vuto iJv/cUtctcrr- ^T2t^/Wp-
BOOK ACQUISITION FLOW
RETURN BOOK FLOW
^l^lfUr^L ^^TALg^ U9(j4$iÂ£^ Krr^eKl n^aikH^Wv^
AUfcslC? ^feisUAC-^>MFUTlgfz. fg~^M
&&2sy^ ^u^iTokJ iJt^M^ate:
Oversized books (Quartos) are normally separated from the main collection. This is a source of confusion and frustration to patrons. These books should be integrated into the main collection. Having Q's shelved within the main collection results in a 12.5% increase above general shelving requirements.
Library graphics should be of a simple format, situated in obvious locations. They should be directional, informative, and communicate instantly. They should have timeless type face in order to reduce having to change them constantly. They should be easy to update and change.
I Administration - Should provide adequate space for business, finance, and administration. Low ceilings with plenty of artificial light. One large space with individual partitions. Should be visually accessible from entry.
Librarian - A space that is defined by counter, lofty space with plenty of natural light. In view of entrance for security. At least one person in charge at all time.
Technical Service - Space to handle ordering, cataloging, mending and disposal of books. Provide plenty of artificial light, storage, and ventilation. Provide for acoustical separation. Supervisor will be present at all times.
Circulation - A space that can be defined by counter. Lofty ceiling and plenty of natural light required. Interaction between sorting area, book collection, and interlibrary loan and reserve are required.
Lounge - Provide kitchenette and rest area with storage for staff. Quiet, reflective, and isolated space.
Stack and Reading-Area - Large lofty open spaces provided with natural lighting. Provide open flexible space for rearrangement of stacks.
Reference and Reading - Lofty space with views to lake and park. Provide natural light, warm colors and interior finishings to reduce noise.
Computer Card Catalog
Meeting Rooms/ Gallery
- Provide space for four computer terminals surrounded by carpeted walls to lessen noise. Provide task lighting at keyboard area with reduced lighting on readout screen. Easy access from entrance.
- Provide space for 50 people to gather. Space should be enclosed and isolated from rest of library. Use of audiovisual equipment is necessary. Gallery space can serve as circulation paths.
- Spaces throughout library for janitorial supplies. Should be isolated and hidden.
- Space for forced air or radiant heating plant. Space for air conditioning should be allowed for. Room required for elevator and elevator equipment should be considered.
- Space for public toilets. Can be isolated and hidden from view.
- Space provided for general storage, chair, and coat storage. Provide throughout building close to corresponding activity.
Technical Services/Receiving 1,400
Work Room 400
General Studies (Incl. non-book material) 3,500
Paperbacks/Large Print 200
Young Adult Fiction 900
Card Catalog 175
Audio and Visual 750
Computer Room 500
Computer Terminal Access 500
Meeting Room 1,000
1 Auto Space 200 FT2 300 G.S.F. Auto
Yt another shopping center falling to the bulldozer to make more farmland. Honestly, where will it all end?
L.A. Times Sync.
Jefferson County uses the Uniform Building Code, Uniform Mechanical Code, Uniform Plumbing Code, and the National Electrical Code. The library is composed of the Occupancy Group B division 2 as found in the Unified Building Code 1982 edition (Sec. 701). Buildings or portions of buildings having rooms used for educational purposes, beyond the twelfth grade, with less than 50 occupants in any room.
1. Floor Area
Construction type: I
Occupancy type: B2
Basic allowance area: Unlimited
Added stories increase: Unlimited
Total allowable area: Unlimited
2. Type I Fire Resistive Building
Sec. 1802 Structural framework shall be of structural
steel or iron, reinforced concrete, or reinforced masonry.
Sec. 1803(b) Openings in walls. All openings shall be protected by a fire assembly having a three-fourths hour fire protection rating when they are less than 20 feet from an adjacent property line.
Table No. 17-A
Type I Fire Resistive
Exterior bearing walls 4 hrs.
Interior bearing walls 3 hrs.
Exterior nonbearing walls 4 hrs.
Structural frame 3 hrs.
Partitions permanent 1 hr.
Shaft enclosure 2 hrs.
Floors 2 hrs.
Roofs 2 hrs.
Light, ventilation, and sanitation
Sec. 705 Natural light exterior glaze openings equal to
1/10 of total floor area.
Natural ventilation by means of exterior openings with an area not less than 1/20 of total floor area or shall be provided with artificial light and a mechanically operated ventilating system as specified in Section 605.
Sec. 605 Minimum of 5 cubic feet/min of outside air
with a total circulation of not less than 15 cubic feet/min/occupant in all portions of the building and such systems shall be kept continuously in operation during time building is occupied. Minimum velocity of air = 10 ft./sec.
Minimum Egress and Access Requirements
Sec. 3302 Table 33-A
Exit Doors Sec. 3303e
Minimum of two exits other than elevators are required where number of occupants is over
Access by means of a ramp or an elevator must be provided for the physically handicapped.
Total widths of exits in feet shall be not less than the total occupant load served divided by 50.
If two exits are required they shall be placed a distance apart equal to not less than one-half of the length of the maximum overall diagonal dimension of the building or area to be served measured in a straight line between exits.
Not less than 3 feet in width and not less than 6 feet 8 inches in height.
Sec. 3302d Maximum distance between exits is 150 feet, if sprinkled, 200 feet. Distance may be increased 100 feet when last 150 feet is within a corridor.
Sec. 3304b Serving an occupant load of 10 or more shall be not less in width than 44 inches.
Sec. 3304c Corridors and exterior exit balconies shall have a clear height of not less than 7 feet.
Stairways Sec. 3305b Stairways serving an occupant load of 50 or less may be 36 inches wide. Handrails may project into the required width a distance of 3 1/2 inches from each side of a stairway.
Sec. 3305j Handrails shall be placed not less than 30 inches nor more than 34 inches above the nosing or treads.
Ramps Sec. 3306b Width Width of ramps shall be as required for stairways.
Sec. 3306c Slope Ramps shall not exceed a slope of one vertical to twelve horizontal.
9. Exit Signs
Exit Illumination Exits shall be illuminated at any time that the building is occupied.
Exit Signs Required at every exit doorway.
Sec. 3312a 1 Sec. 3312b Sec. 3312c Exit Illumination Exits shall be illuminated at any time that the building is occupied. Exit Signs Required at every exit doorway. Illumination of Signs Exit signs serving occupant loads shall be lighted and on separate circuits.
10. Aisles Sec. 3313b Every aisle shall be not less than 3 feet wide if serving only one side and not less than 3 feet 6 inches wide if serving both sides.
11. Distances to Nearest Exit
Sec. 3313c The line of travel to an exit door by an aisle shall be not more than 150 feet.
12. Restrooms Women 4 W.C. 2 Sinks
Men 2 W.C. 2 Urinals
1. Parking and drop-off Adequate area
Special stalls with pedestrian access Access to building by level or ramped path
Continuous uninterrupted surface 48" minimum width
5% maximum gradient on principal walks Curb cuts at streets, driveways, parking lots
3. Ramps (exterior and interior)
8.33% (1:12) maximum gradient
Level approaches and landings at 30 ft. intervals
Handrails 32" high extend 12" beyond ramp
32" minimum width (clear opening)
Vestibules with 6'6" separation between doors
5. Corridors, Public Spaces, Work Area
Corridors 60" minimum width
Recessed doors when opening into corridors
42" minimum width 7" maximum riser
Handrails 32" high, 18" beyond top and bottom stairs Elevators
Accessible to each floor
Cab size minimum 60" x 60" or 63" x 56"
Door clear opening 32" minimum
Minimum one (1) per sex per floor
Compartment 36" x 56" with 32" clear opening
Wall hung W.C. 20" high
Lavatory with 29" clear space underneath
Urinal (where used) wall-mounted 19" or at floor level
Mirrors, shelves, dispensers usable from lavatory at 40"
Minimum one (1) per floor for handicapped Wall mounted, projecting basin at 30" to 36" height Alcoves 60" wide if used
Minimum one per bank accessible
Dial, hand set, and coin slot maximum 48" high
Alarms, switches, etc. maximum 48" high
Sec. 705 UBC. Exterior Glazing = or provided by artificial light. 10
Library on Task *
Reading Printed Material 30
Study and Note Taking 70
Conference Areas 30
Seminar Rooms 70
Book Stacks (30 in. above floor)
Active Stacks 30
Inactive Stacks 5
Book Repair and Binding 70
Card Files 100
Circulation Desks 70
Rare Book Rooms Archives
Storage Areas 30
Reading Areas 100
* Minimum on task at any time.
Foot Candles on Task *
Map, Picture, and Print Rooms
Storage Areas 30
Use Areas 100
Preparation Rooms 70
Viewing Rooms (Variable) 70
Television Receiving Room (Shield Viewing Screen) 70
Audio Listening Areas
For Note Taking 70
Record Inspection Table 100
Viewing Area 30
Accounting, Auditing 150
Regular Office Work 100
Corridors (not less than 1/5 the level
in ADV. areas) 30
Data from Illuminating Engineering Society Lighting Handbook, 5th Edition, 1972.
* Minimum on task at any time.
Natural Ventilation Exterior Openings = F-A-
Mechanical 5 ft /min. of outside air with a total circulation
of not less than 15 ft3/min/occupant in all portions of the building and such systems shall be kept continuously in operation during time building is occupied.
Minimum velocity of air = 10 ft/sec.
Air should be changed at least three times an hour more in summer to avoid stuffiness (Sec. 605 U.B.C.). 94% of the cooling season conditions are favorable for evaporative cooling. Cooling season is May through October. Only 1% of the cooling season requires mechanical air conditioning. 99% of the cooling season can be accommodated through natural ventilation. There are 625 cooling degree days.
The following was taken from the Parry Report*.
". solid particles of dirt, and liquid and gaseous forms of acids suspended in the atmosphere have a seriously deleterious effect on books and manuscripts resulting under the worst conditions in complete destruction of bindings, paper, and vellum. For this reason it is essential that for the best conditions for the preservation of books, the atmosphere should be free from dirt and acidity in gas or liquid form, and that temperature and humidity should be controlled; in fact these conditions are obtained only by the installation of full air conditioning plant."
* Thompson, Godfrey, "Parry Report", Planning and Design of Library Buildings, 1974, page 92.
Humidity should be kept between 45 percent to 55 percent to prevent drying out of the paper which can cause irreparable damage.
There are 6,016 heating degree days. 38% of the year (140 days) the average temperature is below 32 F. Books keep better at lower temperatures, so that in general the lowest acceptable level for humans is satisfactory for book preservation. In theory, the correct relationship of air temperature and surface temperature within a library can be obtained by a 25% radiation heat and 75% convection heat. For comfort of readers seated for long periods, feet should be warmer than heads and is best achieved by underfloor heating.* Heating can be combined with ventilation by bringing in heated air at low levels, through walls or hollow columns, and extracting it at a high level.
Thompson, Godfrey, Planning and Design of Library Buildings, 1974.
This decision lends itself to modular grid and columns. An interdependent network of open-plan areas with no internal loadbearing walls is needed to allow for flexibility and changing needs of the library.
Column unit contains structural column and HVAC duct. Column should not project beyond stack runs.
3 TfeS* 3 Mo
Uniform and concentrated loads (Table No. 23-A U.B.C.).
Uniform Load1 Concentrated Load
Libraries- Reading rooms 60 1000^
Stack rooms 125 1500^
2 See Section 2306 for live load reduction.
See Section (2304 (C), first paragraph, for area of load application.
Neighborhood Districts Data*
1980 1990 2000
Area Population 157,297 239,624 345,981
% Increase 52% 44%
Housing (Single, family and multiple family) 10,495 ac 15,063 ac 18,976 ac
% Increase 43% 25%
Commercial, Industrial, and Services Land 2,899 ac 3,732 ac 4,621 ac
% Increase 28% 23%
Road ways 4,942 ac 6,060 ac 7,044 ac
% Increase 22% 16%
Neighborhood Districts Data, Denver Regional Council of Governments, 1975.
Population Make-up by Age Group*
Age 1980 1990 2000
0-14 39,005 57,053 82,193
15 19 14,270 17,036 26,166
20 29 30,429 39,437 54,011
30 39 29,914 43,265 50,910
40 49 18,014 38,537 59,241
50 64 17,284 25,663 44,173
65 + 10,384 15,548 27,938
Neighborhood Districts Data, Denver Regional Council of Government, 1975.
Number of Books
Type Book* per 3 ft. Shelf
Childrens 30 to 36
Loan and fiction stocks in public libraries 24 to 25
Literature, History, Politics, and Economics 21
Science, Technology 18
Medicine, Public Documents, and Bound Periodicals 12
Each 3' long stack will have 6 shelves Each shelf is approximately 9" wide.
Each shelf will be loaded 75% of its length. Minimum access to stack is 1'- 10".
_________21 Volumes_________ ^6 shelves^
7.75 ft^ storage and access stack
(75% load) = 12
Volume at completion is 117,000.
r . 117,000 Vol nonn ,,2
Therefore minimum space = ----^vol--- = 98^ **
* Table from Planning and Design of Library Buildings, Godfrey
Thompson, 1974 Edition.
MAXIMUM REACH - 81"
MAX. SHELF HEIGHT--72
MIN. HEIGHT TO 24"
AVOID SQUATTING SQUATTING POSITION----12
All layout material from Planning- and Design of Library Buildings, 1974, Godfrey Thompson.
MAX. 30" OPT. 22
V 1"T~ T l( S\
rm t ii i/
1 _ JJ1LJUL! d?
i i I , l I
1 i . . '
P= r nrnrinrxii
L t ~t r ii r in i;
i li a I T1
ii i ii M ir
Jefferson County Open Space Department
Bill Heffington, P.E. York and Associates Englewood, Colorado 455-3467
Bemis Library Littleton, Colorado 795-3826
Columbine Library Littleton, Colorado 979-5124
Jefferson County Planning and Zoning Department
Jefferson County Mapping Department
Anderson, Grace. "Barton Myers proposes Warm, Lively Indoor Towns." Architectural Record. February 1983.
Bloomer, Kent C., and Charles W. Moore. Body, Memory, and Architecture. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1977.
Brenne, Douglas. "Dalton Community Library: Front Porch on Main Street." Architectural Record. May 1981.
Library Buildings Institute. Problems in Planning Library Facilities. Chicago: American Library Association, 1964.
Lobell, John. Between Silence and Light. Boulder: Shambhala, 1979.
McHarg, Ian L. Design with Nature. New York: Doubleday and Company, Inc., 1971.
Peters, Paul Hans. Libraries for Schools and Universities. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1972.
Sagan, Carl, Cosmos, New York: Random House Incorporated, 1980.
Saunders, Linda. Environmental Impact Statement. Golden: Jefferson County Open Space, 1983.
Seaton, Keith D. "Subsoil Investigation, a Portion of Robert F. Clement Park." Unpublished report by Fox & Associates of Colorado, Inc. to the Jefferson County Open Space.
Smith, Herbert L. Jr. "Libraries: The Dawn of the Information Age." Architectural Record. August 1983.
Thompson, Godfrey. Planning and Design of Library Buildings. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1974.
Wagner, Walter F. Jr. "Explorations: Four Projects by Gunnar Birkerts." Architectural Record. March 1983.
Watson, Donald, Designing and Building with Solar. Charlotte, Vermont: Garden Way Publishing, 1977.
ATRIUM TRANSVERSE SECTION
STACK LONGITUDINAL SECTION
"You don't really understand the project until it's finished." -
I initially began with four primary objectives as follows:
1. To provide the library with a statement of civic and cultural pride.
2. To design the library around what Louis Kahn calls the "Three Great Desires", these being: the desire to learn, the desire for well being, and the desire to gather.
3. To maintain Jefferson County Open Space's philosophy of native land preservation and enhancement.
4. To integrate the images of past and present into a singular form that represents a building in transition. This transition is based on the premise that the library, as a building type, is in transition from the book repository of the past to the information disseminator of today's computer age.
Identifying these four objectives enabled me, during the design process, to focus my energies and explore design alternatives within a structured framework. At the conclusion, they provide standards against which to measure the success of the project and the validity of the thesis.
In terms of providing a statement for civic and cultural pride, I used the Greek Doric vocabulary to express this image of public place. However, the objective was not to copy verbatim this Greek language, but to abstract the image by playing with the Doric forms and by the use of modern materials, colors, and textures.
The massing of the building was in direct response to Kahn's "Three Great Desires". The three "Athenian Temples" corresponds to these three desires or inspirations. In response to Kahn's inspirations, I interpreted the building type (library) as a symbol of his first desire, that of learning. The library as a building type has been part of every major culture since Alexandria of 300 B.C. Kahn states that the desire for well being evolved into city streets. This concept of
street is interpreted in the central corridor that serves both the stacks and reading areas. This corridor is the center for intellectual exchange which allows for individuals to meet as one, thus the feeling of well being. The plaza serves both as an enclosed, guarded, and warm space that reinforces the feelig of well being and as a public space that allows for the community to gather. This corresponds to Kahn's last desire.
The philosophy of Jefferson County Open Space of native land maintenance and enhancement was achieved by allowing the site to remain land dominant and also by making a non-building statement. This was accomplished by breaking down the large mass of a single building into the massing of smaller buildings pulled apart to allow interest. The underground berming of stack storage provides green spaces between individual buildings. Also, the elimination of the marina, as previously master planned, would allow complete and unbroken shoreline for native habitat.
Finally, the image of past and present is interpreted by using the Athenian temple entrance facade to represent the past and the glass fronted plaza to represent the new. The central wall is used as a transitional element to separate the past (books, book storage, knowledge) from the present(lively reading, study, learning).
In closing, I feel that the four objectives I chose were fulfilled both in the architectural sense and functional sense. What was proven through this thesis was that the use of symbolism, imagery, and functionalism all contribute to the making of good architecture.