ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN AURARIA LIBRARY
HOHA/ THESIS PREPARATION
WHEAT RIDGE SATELLITE PROGRAM CENTER
environmental dfsign auraria library
Ridge Satellite Program in Arvada, Colorado t
"A Presentation in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Architecture."
The University of Colorado
College of Environmental Des
to my parents and fiancee for their love and encouragement
In appreciation for their time and efforts in helping me with information to prepare this document, I am grateful to:
Daniel K. Paulien
James Berschof, A.I.A.
Peter Martin Hohn August 14, 1981
This project is part of a two phase project implemented by the State of Colorado's institutional, Division for Developmental Disabilities, In response to revised federal standards, it was found that the Divisions existing facilities were out of compliance in several categories, among them, deficiency in needed space per client. Summarily a program was initiated to fulfill the new requirements, through remodeling of the institutional facilities and housing clients in group homes in each region operating a State Home and Training School. In all of Colorado there are three State Home and Training Schools, in Grand Junction, Pueblo, and Wheat Ridge in Jefferson County.
As a second phase to the group home project, the construction of a training facility within the community was to serve as a day program center for the residents of the group home. This document is the program description for the Wheat Ridge State Home and Training School satellite training facility.
The client program incorporated into this document is the joint effort of McOG-ARROWSTREET associated architects, the staff of Wheat Ridge State Home and Training School, and of personnel from the Division for Developmental Disabilities.
Peter Martin Hohn
August 14, 1981
1.1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.2 THE THESIS PROPOSAL
1.21 PROJECT DESCRIPTION c
1 .22 ISSUES ADDRESSED 5
1.23 GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 6
1.24 PERSONAL GOALS 6
1.25 PROJECT PRODUCT 6
1 .26 THESIS ADVISORY BOARD 7
1 .27 THESIS TIME SCHEDULE 7
2.1 SITE AN LALYS IS
2.11 LOCAL HISTORY 9
2.12 CONTEXT 10
2.2 TOPOGRAPHY-DRAINAGE-VEGETATION 13
2.3 UTILITI ES 13
2.4 VIEWS 14
2.5 SOILS 15
2.6 SITE ANALYSIS-SUMMARY 16
3.1 CLIMATE ANALYSIS
3.11 ARVADA CLIMATE SUMMARY 17
3.2 CLIMATE ANALYSIS: SUMMARY 21
3.3 CLIMATE DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS 21
CO DESIRABLE BUILDING RESPONSE 22
4.1 COMFORT ANALYSIS
BIOCLIMATIC CHART & COMFORT MATRIX
4.2 COMFORT CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE HANDICAPPED 25
5.1 CLIENT PROGRAM
5.11 CLIENT ISSUES 26
5.2 SUMMARY PROGRAM 29
5.3 SCHEMATIC PLAN 30
5.31 SCHEDULE 30
5.41 PROGRAM SPACE
5.411 PREVOCATIONAL TRAINING 32
5.412 EDUCATION 33
5.413 MUSIC 34
5.414 OCCUPATIONAL & PHYSICAL THERAPY 35
5.41 5 RECREATION THERAPY 37
5.41 6 DEAF BLIND CLASSROOMS 38
5.417 SPEECH THERAPY & OBSERVATION 39
5.42 GENERAL PROGRAM
5.421 GROOMING AND HOME MANAGEMENT 41
5.422 CLIENT LOUNGE 42
5.423 TIME OUT 43
5.424 CAFETERIA 44
5.43 ADMINISTRATION 45
5.431 CLINIC 46
5.44 MAINTENANCE AND GENERAL STORAGE
5.441 JANITORIAL- 47
5.442 MECHANICAL- 47
5.5 EXTERIOR FACILITIES
5.51 PLAYGROUNDS 43
5.52 PARKING 48
5.6 FUNCTIONAL AND SPACE RELATIONSHIPS
5.51 ACCESSIBILITY FOR BARRIER FREE DESIGN 49
5.62 ADJACENCY MATRIX 51
6.1 BUILDING CODE
6.2 REGULATIONS FOR HANDICAP DESIGN
6.3 COLORADO ENERGY CONSERVATION STANDARDS
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
BIBLIOGRAPHY: A PARTIAL LIST OF REFERENCES
The terms "disability and handicap" cover a wide range of physical and mental illnesses or defects. For centuries handicapped individuals have been objects of fear, pity and abuse. Today's attitudes are fortunately changing, and more and more, the handicapped have been able to come out of isolation to participate and to contribute to our society. Their efforts to function as normally as possible are often hampered by architectural barriers, and lack of good design to fit their particular needs. A curb too high, an exit too narrow, these are frustrating impediments to the disabled's growth and freedoms.
Various types of disabilities require various adaptations of the environment. The following list indicates some particular housing needs1 associated with a few classifications.
Constant care required
Institutionalization necessary, or special facilities when cared for at home
Some personal care and assistance, particularly out of the wheelchair
May be capable of complete independence, if barriers removed
May live in own home or apartment, if renovated or specially designed; or may live in residential group home
May live in normal housing context, with design modifications and full range of services available
In some cases, some Independent living personal care needed where personal care
available or residential group home
Central Housing and Mortgage Corporation, Housing the Handicapped, (Canada, 1977).
Complete independence possible
Usually complete dependence
Very few personal limitations
Normal range of housing options, with some special design features
Normal range of housing options where full services and some personal care available; perhaps residential group home as half-way house between hospital to home
Normal range of housing options; special design features desirable
There are several degrees of severity of disability. Our primary concern is with those people categorized as retarded individuals. Until recently, little information was available concerning the needs of mentally handicapped children. There was often no distinction made between the needs of children and of adult mental patients. Families in the past were left to struggle on their own resources without outside help. Today the institutions are capable of a greater variety of services to those in need.
The vast majority of retarded people are mildly retarded belonging to the higher functioning group. They can and do function in society, living at home or in apartments and going to jobs in sheltered workshops. They may only need help with certain skills such as managing money, and there are social services which can provide for these individual needs on a case worker type basis.
Statistics indicate roughly 95/o of retarded people fall into this category.
It is only in the past ten years that our institutions have
begun to extend special services to the severely or profoundly
retarded individual. This lower functioning category comprises the remainder of retarded persons. As one progresses lower on the scale of retardation, one also begins to encounter greater percentages of additional types of handicaps in the individual. These may include visual impairments, hearing impairments, cerebral palsy, deformationto name only a few (A further listing of broad classifications is included in the appendix.). Some bedridden patients are destined to remain institutionalized from their need for constant medical monitoring. For those with enough capacity for development to benefit from a change of environment, they are being placed into the program of' "normalization. This program provides living in the community in group homes, with day programs and activities provided for the clients in the satellite training facility. The program thus follows the model of a typical home to community school and workplace.
Treatment of these individuals is laborious with slow progress and often non-existent rewards. Great credit is due those who give their services to improve the conditions of the disabled. A difficult problem is the assessment of good facilities to aid in this treatment. The problem lies in the fact that the value of a 2
Interview Dan Paulien.
Interview Dee Maas.
building plan, room, or design feature at best, can only be determined by the results it gives. Knowledge within the field is constantly being extended. Investigation of new ideas of a particular facet of the total problem often leads to the posing of several different solutions. The subject is a tentative one, and points to design for the greatest degree of flexibility possible. The most effective environment is thus one which has proved itself effective in furthering the disableds development in realizing the fullest extent of their own potential.
In programming the Wheat Ridge satellite facility, due consideration needed to be given to the multiplicity of therapies that would be needed by the clients individual needs. Thus an integral part of the programming required an assessment of operational scheduling for a typical day. A schematic plan with an operational schedule, devised by the Wheat Ridge staff is therefore included with the client program.
The final solution for the Wheat Ridge satellite center seeks to provide a synthesis of the objectives of the client program with the issues of site, climate, energy, economics, light and aesthetics in a coherent design suited to its purpose.
THE THESIS PROPOSAL
1.2 THE THESIS PROPOSAL
1.21 PROJECT DESCRIPTION
1.22 ISSUES ADDRESSED
1.23 GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
1.24 PERSONAL GOALS
1.25 PROJECT PRODUCT
1.26 THESIS ADVISORY BOARD
1.27 THESIS TIME SCHEDULE
-.21 PROJECT DESCRIPTION:
The project is a Program Center for the handicapped in Arvada County that serves as a satellite facility to the Wheat Ridge Program Center campus, institution for the Colorado Division for Developmental Disabilities. It will offer day programs primarily for the handicapped residents of the houses being built within the community. The facility is planned to accommodate 112 clients and 31 staff with the capacity for providing a full range of services to meet varied handicap disabilities. Clients will also take advan
tage of existing facilities at the main campus such as infirmary,
pool, and gym, which could not be economically provided at the
satellite facility. 1.22 ISSUES ADDRESSED:
1. Site Restrictions
2. Climatic Influences
3. Energy Conservation
5. Circulation Types/Entry
7. Handicapped/Staff Needs
8. Facility Equipment
9. Environmental Control Systems
10. Program/Operational Use
11. Context Site/Neighborhood
16. Projected Growth
1.23 GOALS AND OBJECTIVES:
1. To develop an environment tailored to the specific needs of varied handicap disabilities.
2. To provide physical and psychological comfort for client and staff.
3. To achieve compatible scale and character within the neighborhood context.
4. To investigate as comprehensively as possible, the project issues through case studies, interviews, data development, technical studies for development and understanding of the program.
5. To study the feasibility of cost effective solar design within the scope of the project budget.
1.24 PERSONAL GOALS:
1. My Challenge; to design -co the parameters of the handicapped needs to maximize their possibilities for a better quality of life within their physical limitations.
2. To be more familiar with program-design iteration for progressive design synthesis.
3. To learn to tailor design to a budget.
4. To develop my confidence in handling a design through its total synthesis.
5. To improve on presentation skills.
APPROACH: Research, Data Collection, Categorization for Pre-
Design Schematic Analysis and Interpretation as per comprehensive programming objective.
1.25 PROJECT PRODUCT:
1 . 8y2" x 11" thesis document
2. Site Analysis
3. Functional/Operational Space Relationships
4. Neighborhood Context
PROJECT PRODUCT (Continued)
5. Site Plan
6. Floor Plans
8. Sections and Details
9. Structural Schematic
10. H.V.A.C. Schematic
11. Site and Building Model
THESIS ADVISORY BOARD:
1. J. Prosser Faculty design/program consultant
2. G. Long Faculty design/program consultant
3. D. Woolard Faculty energy design consultant
4. James Berschof Architect client/project advisor
of McOG Architects
1580 Lincoln, Denver, CO ph: 861-5704
THESIS TIME SCHEDULE:
Month Task Objectives
June wk. 2 Thesis Proposal
wk. 3 Research, Data Collection
wk. 4 Arrange Interviews
July wk. 1
wk. 3 Begin catagorization, schematic space relationships, operational scheduling for expected activities
wk. 4 Functional matrix and Diagramatic
August wk. 1 Manuscript draft and pasteup
wk. 2 Thesis Program submission
September wk. 1 Alternative design concepts
wk. 3 Preferred alternative selection
wk. 4 Design Development all systems
THESIS TIME SCHEDULE (Continued)
wk. 1 wk. 2 wk. 3 wk. 4
wk. 1 wk. 2
wk. 3 wk. 4
wk. 1 wk. 2
Dec. 16 27
Presentation Preparation slides, drawings, models
Final Details for Presentation Completion
Thesis presentation over headin' for home Gettin' hitched
2.1 SITE ANALYSIS
2.11 LOCAL HISTORY
2.6 SITE ANALYSIS-SUMMARY
2.11 LOCAL HISTORY:
"The discovery of gold along Ralston Creek provided the impetus for the birth of Arvada. By 1859, some fifty men were working the creek west of Arvada. In 1863,
Benjamin Wadsworth took a squatters claim on the piece of land which now comprises all of the land east of Wadsworth Boulevard. The City was named after Hiram Arvada Haskins. Early industry included a tannery, flour mill and a whiskey distillery. Arvada was incorporated in 1904 and Dr. Richard Russell began his eleven terms as Arvadas first mayor.
"Arvada is located in Jefferson and Adams Counties, and lies adjacent to the northwest boundary of the City and County of Denver. It is situated among gently rolling hills, and is in close proximity to the Rocky Mountains.
"The average elevation is 5,337 feet above sea level.
The City's most prominent topographic feature is Hackberry
Hill which rises to an elevation of 5,640 feet."r Development
"There are three basic periods of influence in Arvada's history: mining, agriculture and urban development. The
mining of gold is not really important except that it brought people into the area to settle and farm the land. Until the late 1940's Arvada was basically an agricultural community center. During this period the population tended
Arvada Chamber of Commerce, "Arvada Facts," p. 1.
to be of a permanent nature with an absence of high mobility. During the late forties and early fifties, the suburban growth that characterizes Arvada today had its origin.
The initial developments were north of the present downtown and southeast in the area known as Columbine.
"The growth that has occurred has generally been outward from the built-up urbanized area to the north and west. Subdivisions leapfroged existing development and has resulted in fragmented growth.
"Arvadas basic urban form is a radial pattern with the core formed by the "Old Downtown," "The Tri-Center Area," and the connecting corridor between them with transportation arteries radiating out from the center.
The lineal greenways follow similar patterns. A secondary core is currently forming around the intersection of West 80th Avenue and Wadsworth Boulevard. The City
moves in a grid pattern (major streets) to the north and
west of the Central Business District."
The site is a 2.9 acre parcel located in the vicinity of 62nd Avenue and Simms Street, in a neighborhood commonly known as Allendale (see aerial and zone map). This region was platted in 1958. Neighborhood and community facilities include Allendale and Vander-hoof Elementary Schools and Arvada West Senior High School. Also
Arvada Planning Commission, "City of Arvada Comprehensive Plan," (Arvada, 1973), p. 1.
fig. 2 ARVADA CITY MAP
fig. 3 AERIAL MAP
located just north of the site across 64th Avenue is Fremont Elementary School. Park areas include the facilities at Allendale, Vander-hoof and Arvada West Schools plus the Ralston Recreation Center which features an indoor pool and two baseball diamonds. Shopping areas nearest the site include Friendly Square, Ralston Plaza and Ralston Square. Together with the Supreme Office buildings, Ralston Creek Professional Center and Orchard Square Apartments, they line the arterial street of 64th Avenue.
The Allendale neighborhood land use having 687 acres is principally low density residential with 64% of the land area devoted to that use. Medium density residential receives five percent and high density residential only one percent. The remainder is divided into five percent school, seven percent park, and fifteen percent vacant land. The final three percent land area comprises commercial, professional and public and quasi-public land uses. A future professional office area is planned for the area of 64th and Simms.
Considering the clients desire for the program center to be located with convenient van-access to the satellite houses with access to community services for the staff and clients, the site seems well chosen. The site is nestled next to the quiet residential area and far enough from 64th Avenue such that noise and safety are not major concerns. Simms offers a relatively quiet street
boundary with between 1,500 to 2,000 vehicles per day in comparison
to 64th Avenue which carries upwards of 7,000 vehicles per day.
(See also level of service and traffic count map.)
^City of Arvada Traffic Department, "Vehicle Count Records,
A-l AN AGRICULTURAL DISTRICT, for the purpose of providing
an area of the city devoted to production of agricultural products.
3-2 A GENERAL BUSINESS DISTRICT, allowing general retail business, and personal commercial services as well as professional offices, but not intensive business activities.
R-I ONE AND TWO FAMILY RESIDENCE DISTRICT, is a small lot single and two family district.
R-L A RESIDENTIAL LOW DENSITY DISTRICT, for single family residences and other customary residential uses.
R-M A RESIDENTIAL MULTI-FAMILY DISTRICT, intended to provide a wide range of housing types including apartments, town-houses, and condominiums to meet the diverse needs of the housing market.
PUD-BP A PLANNED UNIT DEVELOPMENT BUSINESS DISTRICT, to provide for the construction of planned business and professional centers, or mixes thereof.
City of Arvada,
"Unofficial Zoning Map,
v A L E
[ Br2 pud,
h RfcMONT E..S
W 62 WD PL
< > - r - s
A CJ | 1 1 s
- Z j oj G
RALSTON RECREATION CENTER
| \ i- o z r
I AA/A 1
a r ya a a
EX 1ST IIMG LEVEL. OF SERVICE
level of description
A Freely flowing traffic, little or no Interference from other vehicles.
Umbmmmi Stable traffic flow,
some interference from other vehicles
C mm l mm mm | Stable traffic flow,
more Interference from other vehicles. Some restriction in u driver: ability to change lanes or speeds
O Approaching unstable
traffic flow. Temporary restrictions may cause considerably reduced speeds and some backups
E r m' t or. Volumes at or near
capacity of roadway. Even unslgnallzed roads may have momentary s toppages.
F Volumes at capacity.
Continual stop-and-gp traffic. Substantial driver delays.
s TRAFFIC MAP I
EXISTIWG TRAFFIC COUNTS
LEQEND-NUMQERO DENOTE VEHICLES PER DAY
LESS THAN 2,000
F IQ. 2
fig. 6 TRAFFIC MAP 2
The site is also conveniently located adjacent to the playground and outdoor areas of Arvada West Senior High School and the Ralston Recreation Center. Both afford additional outdoor and recreational activity opportunities.
The site is a vacant pie-shaped lot, with mildly rolling terrain from fill deposits. The topography slopes generally from the southwest corner of the lot to the northeast at an average slope of 1 foot per 28 feet. (See Site map.) There are no visible surface drainage channels on the site, so water will flow across the site as indicated on the site map, towards the north and northeast. One small lone poplar tree stands at about the center of the northern boundary at the edge of a five foot high thicket of thistles. There was no evidence of standing water on the site, although a shallow slough might account for the lush patch of thistles just north of the site boundary. Groundcover is well established, consisting of long brown grasses and a six inch round-leafed flowering plant which covers most of the site. Numerous two foot small-leafed schrubs also dot the site.
Available utilities include telephone, electricity, water and sewer. These are all indicated on the utility map. Additionally, a s.ixty-eight foot easement for an electrical transmission line, and a five foot utility easement for a power line cross the site on the west boundary to the Ralston 115 KV Substation. The substation sits at the northwest corner of the site surrounded by a high chain-link
fence with the electrical transformers partially hidden from view by coniferous trees. (The station and transmission lines are the sites worst feature.) There is no transmission tower on the site, but three power poles spaced roughly 150 feet apart do exist. Construction of the building in these easements is prohibited; however,
parking areas and outdoor activity areas could be placed there.
2.4 VIEWS: (See slide-key map)
At the southwest corner of the site looking out over the High School, one sees a panoramic view of the rolling hills of the City of Arvada. The grassy park and playgrounds of the School and the Ralston Recreation Center make the immediate east boundary of the site quite pleasant. The short view to the south displays well kept residential houses and garden-lawns. The short west view is of backyard residential with the length of the boundary partly fenced with six foot fences. One also notes the transmission lines and power poles across the site. To the north one looks across vacant land to the somewhat distant 54th Avenue and Friendly Square shopping center. One also gets a glimpse of the mountains past the transmission tower of the Ralston Substation. The northeast corner of the site on Simms, looking to the west offers a most spectacular view of the front-range Rocky Mountains, barring the partial interruption by the transmission lines and substation. Included with the vieitfs are slides of the nearby Friendly Square shopping center, the prominent Orchard Square apartment complex and the Ralston Recreation Center.
Interview James Berschof.
FIG. 7 SITE MAP
STATE- CE COLCRAPO
RALSTON STATION EILIMS HO. I LOT I
PUBLIC SERVICE COMPANY ELECTRICAL SUBSTATION
fig. 8 UTILITIES MAP
fig. 9 VIEWS SLIDE KEY MAP
15. ORCHARD SQUARE APARTMENT
16. RALSTON RECREATION CENTER
TEST HOLE LOCATION PLAN Job No: 1-1120-4811
Consulting Engineers and Geologists Date-. 7/1*6/80
f.g. 10 SOIL MAP
/S sr My/s /
v 96. S
-f2s^Aryass ~ 777 s^tst
[a^ TOPSOIL some man-made FILL
C^l CIAY, sandy, fine grained, stiff to very stiff, medium moist to moist, some medium KSJ plasticity, brown to dark brown (CL-CH)
VTA CLAY, sandy to very sandy, (fine to medium grained), stiff to very stiff, moist to very moist, slightly calcareous, light brown to brown (CL)
['/j CLAY, silty, medium stiff to stiff, very moist, light brown (CL)
ilU CLAYSTONf BEDROCK, firm, moist, calcareous, gray (CL-CII)
CLAYS1 ONE BEDROCK, medium hard to hard, moist, iron staining noted in fractures, gray
SANDSTONE BEDROCK, clayey, medium hard to hard, very moist, brown (SP-SC)
1. Test holes were drilled on July 1, 1980, with a A incli diameter, continuous flight auger.
2. (16/12) location of Standard Penetration Test; indicate that 16 blows witli a 140 pound hanmer, falling 30 inches, were required to drive a 2 inch diameter sampler 12 inches.
3. Elevations taken with a hand level and are approximate.
A. No free water was encountered in the test holes at the time of drilling.
CdHÂ£Â£ Indicates depth at which test holes were plugged 1 day after drilling.
fig ii SOIL LEGEND
A subsoil investigation report was conducted by Fox Consulting Engineers and Geologists of Wheat Ridge, Colorado. Their report indicates the soil conditions are highly variable and vary with depth. Two test holes were drilled, revealing 6 to 16 feet of topsoil, medium plasticity clay and silty sandy clay above bedrock. Claystone bedrock occurred at elevation 90.5 feet in Test hole 1 and clayey sandstone bedrock at elevation 76 feet in Test hole 2.
No water was encountered at the time of drilling, although Test hole 2 was very moist at elevation 89.5 at the time of drilling. The ground water is fairly deep and would not affect full basement construction. The medium plasticity clay and claystone bedrock pose moderate to high swelling potentials. The silty clay and sandstone bedrock are non-swelling. The consolidation varies considerably with sandstone bedrock supporting moderate to high loading; and the silty clay allowing only light loading conditions.
These factors greatly influence the type of foundation necessary, and causes the foundation to also vary with the location and depth of the excavation on site, and the type of soil or bedrock encountered at the foundation bearing depth. At Test hole 1, pier foundations would be required while at Test hole 2 a footing foundation would be feasible. The report further specifies that the most economic and safe method of determining the building's foundation is to require the foundation type appropriate to the type or group of soils encountered from inspection of the open excavation during construction.
The complete subsoil investigation report is included in the appendix. It covers in detail the requirements of each foundation
type, slab construction, and the importance of a drain system for the building perimeter. Controls are also emphasized for proper surface drainage and minimal lawn irrigation.
2.6 SITS ANALYSIS-SUMMARY:
- Convenient street access to major arterial (64th Avenue)
- Uninterrupted south exposure
- Proximity to commercial facilities, park and recreation areas
- Low street traffic
- Low noise
- Strong visual links with city panorama and possibilities for viewing western mountain range
- Site area offers adequate room for building, parking, and outdoor facilities in program
- Utilities available
- Fire hydrants at south corner of lot and the intersection of Allendale Drive and Simms Street
- Soil erratic in composition, puts restrictions on foundations and possible building location
- Best view of mountains cluttered with visual noise of transmission lines and towers of substation
- Expansive clay soil restricts type of landscaping, careful drainage system necessary
- Lack of existing shade trees
- Inadequate street lighting on site boundary
3.1 CLIMATE ANALYSIS
3.11 ARVADA CLIMATE SUMMARY CHARTS
- SUN ANGLES
- SITE PLAN
3.2 CLIMATE ANALYSIS: SUMMARY
3.3 CLIMATE DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
3.4 DESIRABLE BUILDING RESPONSE
3.11 ARVADA CLIMATE SUMMARY:
The following data is adopted from the NOAA, Local Climatological Data-Annual Summary with Comparative Data for Denver, Colorado. The information has been transferred to the following graphs and tables for analysis. The source document is included in the appendix.^
Metropolitan Denver hosts an arid, moderately cool continental climate. The climate is tempered by the influence of four world weather air mass patterns. The Arctic air from Canada and Alaska; warm, moist air off the Gulf of Mexico; warm dry air from Mexico and the Southwest and Pacific air altered by its movement over the western mountain ranges. These moderate Denver's climate creating mild and sunny winters with light snowfall and moderate temperatures Cold weather with heavy snowfall does occur but is usually shortlived. Summers are generally dry and cool with temperatures occasionally soaring to 100F. Spring and early summer comprise the wettest season wiuh 37/o of the annual precipitation usually falling as snow. Mid-summer receives an additional third of precipitation predominately occurring in July and August. Mornings receive the most sunshine with clouds and light showers moderating the hot after noon temperatures. August is the most pleasant month, and offers the greatest percentage of possible sunshine. Winds in Denver usually prevail from the south and southwest but the fastest winds come from the north and northwest. The winter months are windiest with the greater percentage of cloud cover.
^National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, "Local Climatological Data for Denver, Colorado," 1979.
Some wind barriers are required for protection from north and northwest winds in winter, with moderate protection from south winds. It should be noted however that south wind barriers would block beneficial southern breezes in summer.
Solar radiation is intense through the summer months requiring shading especially against glare at low sun altitudes. Winter months allow an average of 70% possible sunshine, making solar energy for heating an attractive and viable heat source.
(1940-1979) TABLE I (Annual)
See graphs for more definitive monthly analysis
Average Me an T emp e rature: 50.2
Average Annual Precipitation: 14.56"
Average Annual Snowfall: 59.9
Average Amount of Sunshine: 70 %
5 AM 67 0/ /0
11 AM 40 /o
5 PM 40 o/ /o
11 PM 61 c/o
It should be noted that the above annual statistics are poor indicators of actual conditions occurring over the year. A study of monthly and daily characteristics is a more accurate methodology of designing to climate conditions. The following graphic analysis helps to pinpoint periods during the year requiring specific design controls thereby making it possible to design the building to function in tune with its environment. This passive solar-climatic operation is summarized in the Comfort Analysis as comfort zones occurring over the year.
The following sun angles were chosen for the months having important seasonal characteristics for passive solar climatic design.
ALT. = ALTITUDE ANGLE OF SUN (DEGREES)
AZM. = AZIMUTH ANGLE OF SUN (DEGREES) (ADD 180 FOR AFTERNOON TIME) DEC. = DECLINATION OR ANGLE OF SUN RELATIVE TO THE EQUATOR (DEGREES) DAY = DAY OF YEAR FOR CALCULATION
FEB. 21 (OCT . 20) MAR. 21 (SEPT . 22)
DEC . II 1 -* 26 DEC . = -.45 o
DAY = 52 DAY = 80
TIME(HRS) ALT. AZM. TIME(HRS) ALT. AZM.
17, 7 3.95 108.27 18, 6 - .29 90.34
16, 8 14.48 118.69 17, 7 11.14 100.12
15, 9 23.94 130.64 16, 8 22.21 110.71
14,10 31.67 144.82 15, 9 32.45 123.07
13,11 36.88 161.49 14,10 41 .18 138.37
12 38.74 180.00 13,11 47.30 157.57
12 49.55 180.00
APR. 21 (AUG. 22) MAY 21 . (JULY 23)
DEC. = 11.54 o DEC . = 20. 065
DAY = 111 DAY = 141
TIME(HRS) ALT. AZM. TIME(HRS) ALT. AZM.
18, 6 7.39 81.11 19, 5 1.97 65.21
17, 7 18.83 90.59 18, 6 12.74 74.37
16, 8 30.25 100.78 17, 7 24.00 83.30
15, 9 41.24 112,86 16, 8 35.47 92.75
14,10 51.13 128.68 15, 9 46.83 103.88
13,11 58.60 150.87 14, 10 57.53 118.97
12 61.54 180.00 13, 11 66.29 142.81
12 70.06 180.00
tan' Fee- mar |apr. mr jun. jul aug. YaTccr. mofi pÂ£C.
FIG. 1 2
LATITUPP s 36 45 H. LDNGITUPE- 104 52 W. ELf:VAT|Oh 5263 FT
* STATION ? STAPLE-TON AIKPTPT
M O* T Ui SN -s| CO-C o
o oo oo OCJOOO o
NORMAL MONTHLY TEMPERATURE Y'
X ffX6\Wf- 5UH6KINE- [flffl
& SNOW CHI.)
TOTAL TYYclL pip
1 8 t g 8 1 S iI 8 8 Â§
Lr M I h* H
6> i Â§ Â§
AY^. TOTAL HORIZONTAL fWIATION
( fcn'u/pT z- lay )
FIG. 1 3
t7gNVglt CUliATK VA'Xh show winp, cwupcaveK
'HtiUV - ^VTlNvp
fig. 14 WIND ROSES
fig. 15 SOLAR PATH CHART
KONIGS^UftStK an., MANUAL CP TPOPiCAL AN17 PUIU71]sGl_
PA I NIPPON TONTIHCi CD, HON 6 KÂ£N
fig. 16 SITE MAP
.2 CLIMATE ANALYSIS: SUMMARY
Minimal skycover Low R. H.
Low precipitation Moderating chinook winds Altitude
Moderate average winter temperatures Early spring weather
Brief period cold north air masses Occasional wind gusts infiltration Pollution temperature inversions greatest occurrence
Assets: - Sunshine
- Afternoon cloudiness (during hottest hours)
- Afternoon cooling showers
- Prevailing south wind
- Evening ventilation
- Microclimate nearness to mountains
- Day-night temperature swing
Liabilities: - Sun overheating
- Brief thunderstorms, high wind gusts (spring and fall predominant)
3.3 CLIMATE DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS:
- Admit morning sun
- Passive heating (mass-trombe wall) storage
- Insulate night-time losses
- West exposure-severe glare
- Instantaneous time-lag for quick solar gain
- Shelter northern winds
- Exclude high altitude sun
- Use mass to moderate day temperatures (time-lag)
- Admit natural south ventilation
- Use day-night temperature swing for cooling advantage
- West exposure-high heat gain-severe glare
- Neighboring residential on west boundary may moderate period of heat gain to a degree
- Afternoon cloud cover in fall should moderate afternoon temperatures to a degree
3.4 DESIRABLE BUILDING RESPONSE:
- Admit morning light and heat (winter)
- Heat storage
- Shade low altitude heat and glare (summer)
- Open to quick heat gain and heat storage (v/inter)
- Insulate night radiation
- Shade heat gain (summer)
- Open to natural south wind ventilation
- Mass wall-shelter to wind infiltration
- Open to north lighting-shade glare of low altitude west sun
West Wall: - Shade solar gain and glare
- Use time lag-mass to reduce heat gain in daytime
- Open to winter heat gain
4.1 COMFORT ANALYSIS
- COMFORT INDICES
- BIOCLIMATIC CHART & COMFORT MATRIX
COMFORT CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE HANDICAPPED
FIG. 1 7
The two bands indicate the zome from comfort to the tolerance
10Adapted from Henry Dreyfuss, "The Measure of Man," 1966.
5- ^ UN
rb nr 7c
TO o 3 z:
^ 3 K
? I! =?
1 4 4- 4- l
1 4 4 4 I
1 4 4- 4- 1
1 4 4- 4- 1
1 4 4- 4- 1
4 4- 4- 4- 4
A- + 4- 1 4
4- 4 4- 1 4-
4 4 4* + 4
1 f 4- 4- 1
1 4 4- 4 1
1 4 4 4 1
m *7 < 5
XS 3 \\Y TO
C\FS \J ~ \ TO
O 75 73 IZ
PHY bulb temperature e
FIG. 18 BIOCLIMATIC CHART & COMFORT MATRIX
4.2 COMFORT CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE HANDICAPPED:
Point of view: 1) Comfort needs of children
2) Flexibility of control by staff
Space heating required is for general warmth and a comfortable atmosphere throughout the building. The temperature would normally be higher than that regarded as comfort in most buildings. Range: 65 to 70F (18 to 21C). Note: (Thermal controls should be
concealed, or of sufficient complexity that only staff may operate them. Heating system should be designed for flexibility of space layout.)
This higher temperature is a result of comfort needs for non-ambulant cases with their inability to move about. Also ambulant children may not be strong physically and would be susceptible to colds and draughts.
Wall and floor surfaces should be reasonably warm as the
children will use walls for support and spend time sitting on the
floors. Excessively cold floors can cause incontinence which can
be especially regrettable if it occurs when the child has attained
a consistent level of independent cleanliness habits.
Ventilation should be flexible, depending on: time of year, external weather conditions, indoor temperature, age and number of children and type of activity. Staff should be able to regulate ventilation and position of open windows over a wide range. Windows without opening lights would therefore be a negative feature.
n.T ...... T
wellist, I., pp. 72, 80.
"Planned Buildings for Handicapped Children,"
as prepared by
McOG-ARROWSTREET Associated Architects
5.11 CLIENT ISSUES;
The Program Center is conceived of as serving primarily the populations in the satellite houses. Presently each campus unit will have satellite houses for their clients in order to facilitate access to such community placement at all levels. House staffs will also be integrated with campus ones, keeping the houses from becoming "Outer Siberia" for personnel.
The Program Center may have staff of its own, separate from the campus unit teams, who will be responsible for the program areas. House staff from the units will accompany their residents to the center and then help in program activities there during the day.
The integration of campus and satellite staffs is not yet completely worked out; in addition it is likely that the policies will change over time. Hence, the Program Center should work for a variety of staffing patterns and relationships to the campus units.
Location and Appearance
The Program Center should be located centrally or by convenient road access to the satellite houses. It would also be desirable to have it located near a commercial center, so that staff and clients could readily use normal community services. If possible, it should also be near a public park for outdoor activity and on a relatively quiet street.
The building should be distinctive. Its character should be open, active, cheery, stimulating. It should not be stark. It
should have well-lit, short circulation in a pattern that is easy to learn. It can be broken into appropriate separately functioning areas; but clients should be able to go to any space with proper weather cover and without needing additional clothing. Classrooms and other spaces should provide for smaller scaled spaces and have character e.g. many nooks and crannies.
The building must be barrier free, including challenges, but with rails, danger markings, and other aids for the handicapped.
(See article from the journal Visual Impairment and Blindness,
December 1977 in the appendix.)
The outdoors should provide many recreational opportunities, including picnicking, group activities, sports. The program of 5/10/70 describes a developmental playground, an outdoor area for deaf-blind programs, an area for use in conjunction with recreation therapy, and needed parking services. (See appendix.)
1. The Program Center should be barrier free.
2. Carpeting should be included in programming areas unless otherwise noted.
3. Standard blackboards and bulletin boards should be part of the programming areas. The only exception is that the deaf/blind classroom should contain green, low-glare chalk boards.
4. Doors should be equipped with door handles not door knobs (similar to Summit Village.
Water fountains should be accessible to persons in wheelchairs.
6. The Center should have acoustical tile and rooms should be equipped with sound absorptive equipment.
7. The walls should not be constructed of* plaster board or any materials which may be easily damaged.
8. Coat hooks should be included in all program areas.
The Program Center will offer programming services from 9:00 -3:00 Monday through Friday. Since staff does not know if each client can tolerate a full day of programming, services may have to be adjusted individually for each client. Each client will start the day in one of the programming areas and this area will then serve as his home base.
Recreational areas can be used for week-end and leisure time activities. Each client will have a noon meal at the Center. The food will be delivered to the Center by Ridge personnel. Meals will be served in txvo shifts.
The committee recommended that a Horticulture Therapy Center be attached to the building. This passive solar system would be 36 x 18 or 648 square feet, and should have a southern orientation. This greenhouse could be located off the prevocational room and would not be considered part of the 17,000 square foot Program
The following is a summary of the areas (in square feet) required by the various programs. These figures are partly derived from program needs and partly to fit into a square foot budget.
The square foot budget was arrived at by assuming the cost to be $70/square foot and the total budget to be 1.2 million dollars.
5.41 Program Space
Prevocational Area Education Classrooms
Music & Movement
Occupational & Physical Therapy
Recreational Therapy Deaf-Blind Classrooms
Speech Therapy & Observation
5.42 General Program
Grooming & Home Management Area
Attached Toilet Room
Client Lounge X 1000
Time Out X 50
Cafeteria and Kitchen X 1500
Reception & Record Storage X 290
Offices Administrator X 120
Psychologist X 100
Social Worker X 100
Clinic X 240
Staff Lounge X 360
TA Tech Workspace and IMC X 400
Conference X 240
Maintenance and General Storage
First floor maintenance area X 1000
Basement area of 2500 sf counted @ Vz (not shown) 1250
Janitor's closets 50
Circulation and structure (approx.) 2000
5.3 SCHEMATIC PLAN:
A schematic plan has been drawn up to accomplish two purposes: to assure that the total square footage required by the program could be fit into the square foot budget and to begin a dialogue with the architects about the relative location of space especially to judge:
a) the location of each space in the whole
b) the repercussions of having toilets adjacent to many spaces
c) the usefulness of various spaces for general program activity.
The attached plan shows an initial arrangement which meets the
requirements. It should be considered an initial projection only to be used to initiate further questions and design ideas.
A key feature of the design is that the center of the building can be used as a set of separate spaces or one large space for major activities such as dances or assemblies. Just beyond the receptionist begins a high ceilinged, skylit area including lounges screened from a cafeteria dining space by a glass wall and a platform that can serve as a lounge, stage or bandstand open to the cafeteria and/or the recreation area.
Fourteen different group homes (8 clients, 1 staff) plus people from the institution, full time therapists, technician staff and a number of touring parents, universities and colleges will attend the facility.
Clients will be transported in vans from the group homes, or be bussed from campus to arrive at the center for the start of day
programs. At the close of the day they are returned to their community environment. It is a general desire to maintain as normal and stimulating an environment and routine as possible.
A major question during the design of the satellite center has been whether it could accommodate the projected 112 clients and 31 staff. The following plans indicate a possible distribution of clients and staff at two typical hours ox the day the first during a morning program hour and the second during one of the two lunch hours. (See the appendix for an initial set of scheduled space/ program distribution developed by State Home and Training School staff.)
fig. 19 SCHEMATIC SCHEDULE PLANS
5.41 PROGRAM SPACE
5.411 PREVOCATIONAL TRAINING
5.414 OCCUPATIONAL- AND PHYSICAL THERAPY
5.415 RECREATION THERAPY
5.415 DEAF-BLIND CLASSROOMS
5.417 SPEECH THERAPY AND OBSERVATION
5.411 PREVOCATIONAL TRAINING:
- Vocational training: more concentration on training than production; emphasis is on skill development. Production includes crafts (including ceramics) packaging, and simple assembly (assembly set ups for some contract work). Consider a greenhouse as an option, usable by handicapped, conceived of also as a therapeutic activity.
- 3-4 staff with 25-30 clients (50 people will use
- Used all day with program for clients ranging from one hour per day to most of the day.
- Schedule shows range from 4 staff for 30 clients to 1 staff for 14 clients.
- Essentially a workshop with the capability of setting up a single workline to 4 separate areas Should have lots of storage and movable dividers (can be storage units). Should include staff workshop, inventory storage, delivery area, acoustically separate space for 3-4 people to
wo r k.
- Approximately 2000 square feet: a greenhouse is a low priority option.
- Work spaces can be less than 60 x 30"; aisles should be 5' minimum.
- Should have delivery entrance with double doors and shipping dock.
- two restrooms immediately available.
- Floor resilient tile.
- Walls storage along all walls (therefore, high clerestory windows, also to cut distraction).
- Ceiling acoustically absorptive.
- Electrical many outlets 220V for kiln
- Plumbing several sinks and work counters
- Storage cabinets on walls and as dividers with pegboard and chalkboards on back.
- Work tables.
- Teachers desk in the space.
- Shop equipment in workspace for space (perhaps at delivery).
Features and Equipment:
- Teaching academic, preacademic, and self-help skills. Mostly for higher functioning population; the lower functioning clients have educational programs in home management and grooming areas. Higher functioning clients involved v/ith academic and independence training, including presocial, social, and preacademic activities, lower functioning clients are to be trained in self-help skills.
- one or two teachers with student teachers for six clients (max.). (Four clients preferred.)
- Need a room divisible into two rooms for four groups per day (in 1 Vz hour sessions).
- Schedule shows 1-2 teachers with 4-6 clients in two rooms. Rooms used by four groups per day, around one hour each lower functioning group and two hours for higher functioning.
- The rooms are essentially a classroom with perhaps four activity spaces, particularly for individual or small group activity. Much table top activity, including a grouping for six in each half of the classroom. Areas shown in the two rooms include teaching area, work table area, smaller work area, one kitchen area (with full-size equipment), a small grooming area, and open space for play, games, dancing, and music.
- The two rooms should be divided by a "soundproof" wall, v/hich can be operated to put both spaces together. (If no suitably quiet operating wall is available, connect the rooms by a door.)
- Tx\ro areas at approximately 3 60 square feet each.
- Direct access (or inclusion of) a bathroom for each room.
- Academic and preacademic.
- movie screen .
- chairs in teaching area.
- storage cupboards, perhaps as dividers and bookshelves for toys and educational equipment.
- teacher's desk and cupboards.
- sink and work counter.
- balance beam.
o.4l2 EDUCATION (Continued):
- Small Groominq area.
- vanity with sink and mirror for two people.
- clothes storage.
- adjacency toilet.
- Small Home Management area.
- kitchen area with full size domestic sink, range, refrigerator
- counter space and cupboards over
- dining area with table, chairs
- Features: floor resilient, cleanable surfaces.
- include possibility of mats.
walls include tack-up space and chalkboards.
- Music therapy and practice, including percussion and rhythmic instrument playing, and much movement (e.g. dancing).
- One staff for six clients (max.). Presently about 1/6 of the Ridge population has some.
- Schedule shows 1-2 staff for 3-6 clients.
- Room large enough for six people to dance, perhaps in two groups.
- Preferably one larger room than two small ones.
- A.coustically isolatable (for the sake of others) and with high absorption (although still somewhat reverberant for sound quality).
- 24' x 16' (including restroom) and could be smaller.
- Ceiling can be of normal height.
- Direct access to toilet area.
- Desk space.
- Storage (two closets at 6' x 2') for instruments, equipment (can share, particularly with RT).
- Suggests acoustically isolated location at end of building, buffered by storage and office.
5.413 MUSIC (Continued):
Features: Floor: suitable for dancing.
- Ceiling: acoustically lively, reverberant.
- Window: desirable.
Electrical: sufficient outlets for equipment (three per wall).
Equipment: Stereo equipment and speakers.
- Mirror from floor to 61.
- Hangers for floor mats.
- Sink for hand washing.
5.414 OCCUPATIONAL AND PHYSICAL THERAPY:
These two activities have been combined in one space which can be subdivided to be used as two activity areas. However the require ments are listed separately to preserve the needs of each. (See appendix for a combined eqiupment list.)
Activities: Learning special motor skills, particularly through gross motor, fine motor, and perceptual motor activities.
Capacity: One therapist works with 16 to 30 clients of the 112 in the programs.
- Generally works in 1:1 ratio.
Schedule shows two staff with three clients (morning only).
Character: A large room with much storage space and a floor that accommodates a lot of wheeled or pushed equipment; in general, accommodate much motor training.
Size: 350-400 square feet out of a shared 980.
High ceiling to keep people on ramp from bumping it.
Adjacencies: Eathroom (or in sight of one).
- Physical Therapy to share space.
OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY (Continued):
Features: - Floor resilient (to permit wheeled vehicles).
- Walls washable.
- blocking for equipment attachments.
- accommodate mat storage.
- v/indow preferred.
hook at least six feet from walls for hanging netting (See OT in Summit Village)
- Electrical protected lights.
- Plumbing sink in room.
- Teacher's desk and files in a glass enclosed office.
- Two cupboards 6' long to accommodate items from list in the appendix.
- Platform 5' wide, 3' high with 7' long ramp with 16' in front of it.
- Programs are primarily for motor development for those with motor, balance and coordination problems, including post-operative, post-trauma clients. Much training utilizing wheelchairs and in ambulation
- Each therapist treats 12 clients/day.
- Schedule shows two therapists with three clients each hour.
- Treatments range from 30 to 60 minutes.
- A large room with much equipment for ambulation and other motor activity, especially aided by equipment, rails, steps, ramps. Also, place for hydrotherapy.
- Part of shared space 350-400 sq. ft.
- Hydrotherapy space 52 sq. ft. (in a booth that can be curtained off) with drained tile floor and walls.
- Glassed-in office space.
Adj acencies: - Shared space with OT.
- Direct access to wheelchair, training bathroom with tub, exactly as in satellite homes.
- Direct access to challenges outside such as ramps (including 'wheelchair turnaround), curbs, grass.
Features: - Floor resilient (withstanding heavy wheelchair
use) and cushioned (no carpet).
- Walls tack strip, hooks on one wall, and bright
colors in simple shapes.
- windows (or skylight to ceiling) to see weather.
- Ceilings ceilings high enough to accommodate clients on platforms.
Equipment; - Training stairs (or stairs at the OT ramp) and
- Hydrotherapy equipment such as a low boy extremity whirlpool.
- Desk in a glass enclosed office.
- Storage: to store items in the list in the Appendix plus other items in combination with OT.
5.415 RECREATION THERAPY:
- Gross motor activities, games for lower functioning population, sports, small group dancing, balletic activity.
- Secondary uses may be scheduled such as assembly, social functions, and staff instruction.
- one staff for 8-10 clients: all clients have some.
- Schedule shows 3-4 staff and 12-22 clients.
- 110 maximum for movies, dance (perhaps combined with or using other spaces such as assembly places).
- Alternative location for related programs: gym and pool of Wheat Ridge State Home and Training School.
- Large room; capable of being divided.
- Not a gym; have a soft floor.
- Approximately 60' x 40*.
- High ceiling (12' to 16).
- Direct access to at least a single toilet, showers, lockers.
- Office space with glass to RT space.
- Outdoor play space.
- Access for people for assembly, social functions.
- Floor: rubberized, e.g., tartan turf preferred; resilient tile acceptable.
- Walls: durable, e.g., block.
- Ceilings: sound deadening.
- Lighting: shielded as in gymnasium.
- Adjustable basketball hoop.
- Attachment places on walls for exercise and other equipment.
- Room darkening devices.
.416 DEAF BLIND CLASSROOMS:
Activities: - Multiple activities take place in the same space.
Clients spend most of their day (around 5 hours) in the same classroom for all program activities and training for people with low vision, blind, deaf, blind and deaf' and other perceptual handicaps.
Capacity: - Seven clients with one to two staff in two
- Generally 14 out of the total population are programmed for this service.
- The schedule shows mostly two staff for seven clients each in two rooms, with a range of from 4-7 clients with 1-2 staff.
.Character: - Two rooms each a duplicate of each other and
capable of being used together, yet with acoustical separation.
- The middle of the room should be kept clear for activity.
- The room should have divisions to guide people and define separate activity areas (e.g., the use of storage elements, planters).
- The sketches show several areas including a work table, work counter area, and area with rug under a ceiling hook.
Two rooms at 440 square feet.
Adj acencies: - Direct access to one or two toilet spaces.
- Desk space should be in room.
- Multi-purpose room for gross motor activities.
- Need acoustical isolation from other rooms (acoustical properties of the room divider to be explored).
- Playground, their own, but not with direct access. A major issue is to train people to get around and to make much of the building accessible (see "standards" from Visual Impairment and Blindness, Dc. 1977).
Features and Equipment: - See diagram and list in Appendix.
- Need natural light.
- Flooring: resilient, low glare finish.
5.417 SPEECH THERAPY AND OBSERVATION:
Activities: - Speech therapy, acquisition of language skills including work both one on one and in small groups. Includes testing and observation.
Capacity: - 90% of the population gets speech therapy.
- 1-2 hours in groups three times/week, and individual therapy for 30 minutes, 4 times/week.
- Schedule shows two staff with three clients at most hours.
Character: - Need two rooms. One large one for group activity including a nook for one/one work. Second room has two way observation (one-way mirror with intercom both ways and controllable, with a priority for the small room being able to observe the larger). Teacher's desk in large room with high shelves to put things out of the way quickly.
Size: - 20 x 15' or larger for the large room.
- 10' x 6' or smaller for the small room.
Adj acencies: - Acoustical separation from noisier functions (including timeout room) important.
- Needs to be near to toilet; direct access not necessary.
- Consider access to conference room for groups of 4-5 clients.
Features: - Floor: resilient flooring in larger; carpet in
- Walls; mounting strip for pictures.
- Ceilings: acoustically absorptive, non-reverberant timed to emphasize speech qualities.
- Two way observation windows, with mirror from the floor to 18" up under the windows. Include two way earphone/'speaker system.
Equipment: - Sink for washing hands (teachers often put hands
on/in client mouths), in counter and usable by wheelchair clients.
- Counter on all wa11s.
- Teacher's desk and two shelves, one over 5' high for putting things out of clients' easy reach.
- 6' of closed storage closet with one shelf.
- Need a movable divider to make small spaces.
5.42 GENERAL PROGRAM
5.421 GROOMING & HOME MANAGEMENT
5.422 CLIENT LOUNGE
5.423 TIME OUT
5.421 GROOMING & HOME MANAGEMENT:
- Training in activities of daily living, especially for the programs of education for the lower functioning clients. The grooming area also will serve as an emergency shower area and place to change clothes.
- Several rooms to accommodate different groups, usually not more than 2-4 clients at a time with a single staff member.
- Schedule shows 1-2 staff and 4-6 clients in the whole space at one time.
- A kitchen and dining area similar to those in
the residences, in size, character and furnishings (with a washer and dryer in the kitchen area).
- A bedroom for practice in bed-making. This space will also double as a dressing area, and will contain a place to store a change of clothes for each client.
- A bathroom and grooming area, containing a 'wheelchair accessible shower, and a second with a tub-shower booth for emergency washing.
- The dining room and kitchen should be sized similar to the houses (380 square feet).
- The bedroom should allow wheelchair access on three sides of the bed and contain 1' x 11 cubbies for each client (160 square feet).
- Near the client lounge spaces, so that they can be used as living room areas for home management programs.
- The bathroom should be relatively central.
- Floor resilient tile (ceramic in the toilet).
- Electrical and plumbing similar to the residences.
- Bathroom, laundry, kitchen and dining similar to the residences.
- Bedroom to include 120 1* x 1' cubbies for storing clothes changes for clients.
.422 CLIENT LOUNGE: Activities:
- There will be various program activities that do not happen in designated spaces, including independent socializing, working in small groups with technicians and technical assistants, learning leisure time activities and basic skills. Also large group gatherings, including possibly frequent assemblies will take place.
- There will need to be space for 4-6 groups of 2-3 clients with an aide or for socializing without staff present.
- There will be a need for several assembly places -e.g. the recreation space and cafeteria. It will be helpful if these, or other spaces such as the hallways, recreation space, or client lounge can work together, for a large assembly and for social functions.
- The client lounge (and possible seating areas in the hallway, reception, home management, and other places in the building) should be usable for conversation and other socializing including some table top activity, story-telling, television viewing. These places, and particularly the client lounge should have normal seating furnishings and be of a friendly domestic character.
- The hallways should be well-lit, minimal in length, pleasant, and have areas usable as locker area both for clients and staff (T.A.s and Techs), located convenient to destinations and suitable for cloaking activity.
- The client lounge should hold 12 people (maximum) in 2-3 normal seating arrangements for 2-6 people.
- There should be other socializing spaces in the hallways, cafeteria, multi-purpose, reception, and home management spaces.
- There should be toilet rooms in central locations, including near the cafeteria, lounge, and accessible to used outdoor spaces.
- The client lounge should be convenient to snack facilities.
- The entry system should allow for most clients to arrive and leave at about the same time.
- The layout of the building should allow for the day to start in 1 or 2 major assemblies or as a homeroom system with the program spaces serving as homerooms.
.423 TIME OUT:
- Floors: carpet. Dirt collecting mats at each entrance.
- Walls: windows and curtains, particularly at the client lounge.
- Ceilings: acoustically absorptive.
- Vending machines, snacking provisions.
- The lounge area should have normal seating areas and stereo, television, tables, and provision for magazines.
- Display, especially products of the prevocational proj ects.
- Bulletin board.
- For placing clients for a brief period who are acting out, disturbing others, or self-damaging, in an environment where they will not be destructive to self or others.
- Usually occupied only by one person.
- Very simple with no distracting features, sturdy with no breakable elements, no self-damaging opportunities, soundproof, and very easy to clean.
- 7 x 7 .
- Should be in a central location to permit easy access for acting out client from any part of the building.
- Floor: resilient tile.
- Walls: plaster backed by V2" plywood or all plywood painted (no wall covering) with washable paint; do not use black.
- Ceiling: acoustically absorptive (whole room to be acoustically isolated).
- Mechanicals: well-lit and well ventilated; protected and recessed lights; light switch outside room only; no wall outlets.
no door handle; peephole in door.
Activities: - The cafeteria should be able to handle lunches for all clients, and some staff at two seatings.
- The cafeteria should serve as well for general program space, particularly for table top activities. It should also be usable as an assembly and social space, perhaps by using it in combination with other spaces and outdoor space.
- The food service should be capable of providing hot lunches perhaps through quick-chill food prepared at Wheat Ridge, delivered daily and retherma lized. Also consider sack lunches prepared at the satellite houses.
Capacity: - The critical size should be governed by being able to service lunch to all in two seatings; hence the capacity should be about 70 people (56 clients and 11 staff are shown on schedule).
- The food preparation process and area need further study; preference was stated for quick chill deliveries daily over refrigerator storage.
Features: - Floor resilient, washable in cafeteria.
Equipment: - Cafeteria seating to be at tables of from four to eight people. Tables to be movable.
- Kitchen to be designed in more detail in conjunction with a food service consultant.
Activities: - The staff spaces are primarily the administration
offices including reception; offices for technicians and technical assistants (professional staff will have office space in their program areas); staff lounge; and instructional materials center for preparation of program equipment and learning tools. The office space in program areas should not be separated from the room in every instance.
- Staff training and large meetings take place in Recreation Therapy or Cafeteria.
- Need space for receptionist, writing, including a switchboard.
- Need space for records and an administrative assistant.
- Need office for an administrator (10' x 12'),
social worker (8' x 10*), and psychologist (S' x 10'), each to accommodate staff and three others and suitable for testing.
- Need conference room (2 4 ^ x 12') divisible into two spaces.
- There should be a lounge with seating groupings,
O O O A O '
snack preparation, television and restrooms for staff.
- The lounge should include secure cloaking facilities for techs and T.A.s, perhaps to be taken care of as lockers in the hallways.
Instructional Materials Center and Desks for
T.A.1s: - To be used for preparing and storing instructional
materials and equipment and for technicians and technical assistants as a table work space including carrels to serve as a home base.
- Should have large work table for two people, accommodate three to four projector carts, contain storage along the walls, and have book storage shelving (including 6 lockable closet).
- Should have space for carrels with drawers.
- Should be approximately 400 square feet.
- Should have chalk board, tack space.
Activities: - The clinic is essentially a first aid station. It will be used for exaninations, emergency care (such as for seizures, lacerations needing stitches), and routine care (physicals, some medications).
Capacity: - It will be staffed part-time by one person.
Character: - The clinic should be two rooms, an outer area furnished as an office (with emergency equipment stored) and an examination room with examination table placed so that it is accessible on all sides. Room should be provided in the outer office for a portable cot.
Size: - 300 square feet or smaller, sufficient for the activities and furnishings.
Adj acencies: - Near the office area so that the receptionist or other administrative personnel can oversee it.
- Easy access to toilet.
Features: - Office desk and chairs (including waiting).
- portable cot (space for use).
- locked medicine cabinet and small refrigerator. Exam room examination table (room to work from all sides).
- counter for writing.
- Emergency storage oxygen/suction, resuscitator.
- emergency tray (including
5.44 MAINTENANCE AND GENERAL STORAGE
Features and Equipment:
Features and Ecruipment:
- Space should be provided for janitorial activities including desk work, storage of supplies and equipment, work bench for light repairs. In addition, closets with mop sinks should be located around the building according to OSHA standards, including mop sinks, hand washing sinks, vents.
- Workbench for repairing (e.g., scrubbers, buffers).
- Sink in floor.
- 10' x 2' storage wall with shelves for supply storage.
- Equipment storage.
- Room for two or three janitorial carts.
- Battery charger.
- Closets throughout building with mop sinks, hand sinks, room for storing cart, supplies.
- In halls, outlets at approx. 25' (110V).
- To accommodate the heating, ventilation, plumbing and electrical equipment, and other environmental maintenance and control equipment and operations. Workshop also needed.
- Estimated at 20' x 20' (for the boiler, heat exchange, hot water unit, and pumps; a/c condenser outside).
- Workshop estimated at 12' x 20.
- Workshop: some lumber storage.
- table saws, drill press, workbench with tool storage.
- Equipment storage including space for seasonal grounds equipment (lawn mower, salt, shovels, stage props, Christmas decorations).
- Other general storage.
5.5 EXTERIOR FACILITIES
- Locate a developmental playground behind the cafeteria. This area should be about a fourth of an acre. Some of the space could be utilized for a garden. The playground should contain large equipment such as "wheelchair swings, elevated sandboxes, wheelchair walkways, mini-fort and pavilion. Since playgrounds may be used by visually impaired clients, it is essential that boundary definitions be constructed around all apparatus.
(Refer to Handicapped Playground Plan).
- Locate a small outdoor area adjacent to the deaf/blind classrooms. This fenced area should be about 800 square feet in size. The area would contain a minimum of playground equipment but should be sodded for use for gross motor activities. The perimeters of the area should be in sand.
- Locate an open playground and small cement court off the recreational therapy area.
- The parking area should accommodate 50 vehicles.
- There should be parking within 200 feet of the building entrance.
- Some parking spaces should open on one side, allowing room for individuals in wheel chairs or on braces to get in and out of an automobile.
- It should be unnecessary for individuals in wheelchairs or those using braces or crutches to wheel or walk behind parked cars.
- Parking spaces should be located to allow persons to get in or out on a level surface.
- There should be a clear, level or ramped path from the parking-lot to the building entrance.
- Pedestrian and traffic patterns should not interfere.
.6 FUNCTIONAL AND SPACE RELATIONSHIPS
5.61 ACCESSIBILITY FOR BARRIER FREE
5.62 ADJACENCY MATRIX
ACCESSIBILITY FOR BARRIER FREE
Matrix: Exterior Accessibility
Site Elements* Frailly Walking Walking Wheel- Manual Sight Hearing Multiple Sen Orientat.on
quiring Consideration Endurance Impairment Aid chair Impairment Impairment Impairment sory Losses impairment
Paved Surfaces 0 O 0 0 0 0
Natural Surfaces 0 0 0 0 0 0
Curbs 0 0 0 0 0
Intersections 0 0 0 0 0 o
Obstruction at Grade 0 0 0 0 0 0
Vertical Obstructions 0 0 0
Ramps 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Stairs 0 0 0 0 O 0
Handrails O 0 0 0 0 0
Enclosures 0 0 0 O
Drop-off Zones 0 O 0 0 0
Parking Areas 0 0 0 0 0 0
Waiting Areas 0 0 o 0 0 0 0 0
Sitting Areas 0 0 0 0 0
Recreation Areas O 0 0 0 0
Planting 0 0 0 0
Lighting 0 0 0 0
Signs 0 0 0 0 0
Drinking Fountain 0 0 0 0 0 0
'Appropriate design solutions are those which satisfy each of these accessibility requirements
Canada Mortgage and Housin Design Guidelines," 1979
Corporation, pp. 48, 49.
"Nursing Home and
FIG. 2 1
Interior Elements Frailly/ Walking Walking Wheel- Manual Sight Hearing Multiple Sen Orientation
Requiring Consideration Endurance Impairment Aid chair Impairment Impairment Impairment sory Losses imp iirmenl
Horizontal Circulation 0 0 0 O 0
Vertical Circulation 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Floor Finishes 0 0 0 0 0 0
Wall Finishes 0 0 0 0 0 0
Living Spaces 0 0 0 0 0
Dining Spaces 0 0 0 0
Recreation Soaces 0 0 0 0 0 0 O 0 0
Bathing Facilities 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Toilet Facilities 0 0 0 0 0 0
Kitchens O 0 0 0 0 0 0
Storage Units 0 0 0 0 0 0
Exits 0 0 0 0 0 0 *
Vertical Obstructions 0 0 0 0 0
Intersections 0 0 0 j
Windows 0 0 0 0
Doors 0 0 0 0 0 0
Acoust ICS 0 0 0 0
Lighting 0 0 0
ht-ating O 0
Humidity Control O 0
Cooling 0 0 0
Water Temperature 0 . 0 0
Fire Alarms 0 0 0 0 0
Communication Systems 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
P..0I1C Address System
22 ADJACENCY MATRIX
.62 ADJACENCY MATRIX
23 BUBBLE DIAGRAM
6.1 BUILDING COD
CHAPTER 5 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
Total Estimated Floor Area: 17,100 square feet Use:
Area % of To
Assembly 4,500 26.3
Offices 2,850 16.7
Educational 8,450 49.4
Basement & General Storage 1,300 7.6
NOTE: Offices as minor use exceeds 10% of floor area
therefore qualifies for occupancy classification (Sec. 503a).
Table 5-A, Occupancy: Classification:
Assembly (less than 300) A-3 (Sec. 602)
Office B-2 (Sec. 702)
Educational* E-l (Sec. 802)
*3uilding is not a full time use (6-3 hours/day).
Table 5-B, Required Separation in Buildings of Mixed Occupancy
A-3 & 3-2 None
A-3 & E None
B-2 & E 1 Hour
(Sec. 503d.5) Exceptions: assembly rooms of not over 750 square
feet; administrative and clerical offices and similar rooms which in the aggregate do not exceed 25 percent of the floor area of the major use when not related to Group H, Div. 1 & 2 occupancies, need not be separated from the uses to which they are accessory.
TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION:
Sec. 1901 The structural elements of Type II one-hour or II-N
buildings shall be of noncombustible materials (steel, iron, concrete or masonry).
Sec. 2001 & Type III and Type IV buildings may be any material
Sec. 2101 permitted by code.
- Both Type II and Type III one-hour buildings require one-hour fire resistive construction throughout.
- Type IV buildings must conform to Heavy Timber Construction standards, although the structural frame may be other materials providing fire resistance
of not less than one-hour.
Sec. 505 Allowable Floor Areas:
(a) One-story areas, shall conform to Table 5-c except as provided in Sec. 506 for allowable area increases.
Table 5-C, Construction Type
II III IV
Basic Allowable Area 1 HR N 1 HR N H.T.
Occupancy: (.26) A-3 13,500 9,100 13,500 9,100 13,500
(.17) B-2 IS,000 12,000 18,000 12,000 18,000
(.49) E-l 20,200 13,000 20,200 13,500 20,200
from percentage: 16,535 11,066 16,535 11,066 16,535
Area Increase for Separ ation
on three sides (25H. @ 2.5%/ft.) 62 % 62% 62% 62% 62 c? /o
Total Allowable: 26,786 17,936 26,786 17,926 26,736
Estimated Floor Area: 17,100 square feet
Sec. 504b Fire Resistance of Walls: Table 5-A for Types II-l HR,
II-N buildings (Most restrictive of A-3, B-2, E occupancy).
Exterior Wall 2 hours less than 5 feet,
1 hour less than 10 feet
Openings in Exterior Not oermitted less than 5 feet, Walls
protected less than 10 feet Exceptions: Sec. 1903(a).1
Exterior non-bearing wails fronting on streets or yards having a width of 40 feet may be of unprotected noncombustible construction.