AN ENGINEERING AND MANUFACTURING FACILITY
CORPORATE HEADQUARTERS FOR TECHNICARE CORPORATION
Thesis Report Submitted 4/15/81 Andy Kenney
TABLE OF CONTENTS
I. Introduction and History 1
II. Program and Relationships 4
III. Legal Parameters 14
IV. Site Information and Analysis 26
V. Concepts 36
Appendix I Bibliography 44
Appendix II Maps 46
Appendix III Slides 47
Appendix IV Climate 48
VII. Schematic Design Reductions and Narrative 58
VIII. Model Photos 69
LIST OF FIGURES
1. Vicinity Plan iii
2. Functional Relationships 7
3. Functional Relationships 11
4. Functional Relationships 12
5. Functional Relationships 13
6. Site Plan 1:500 32
7. Site Plan 1:125 33
8. Slopes and Drainage 1:125 34
9. Site Section 8 Scale Relationships 35
10. Development Plan with Circulation Â§ Uses 41
11. Schematic Site Plan 61
12. Garden Level Plan 62
13. First Floor Plan 63
14. Second Floor Plan 64
15. Schematics Structural/HVAC 65
16. Elevations 66
17. Building Sections 67
18. Perspectives 68
During the Fall 1980 semester I have been working with the Town of Morrison and John Prosser's Urban Design 700 studio to develop the schematic design of a Business Technical Park development. This development will provide the context of my Spring 1981 thesis design project for the Technicare Corporation.
In 1967 the founders of Unirad Corporation recognized the potential of ultrasound in diagnostic medicine and were among the very first commercial groups to design and manufacture clinical ultrasound systems. Ultrasound waves are vibrations of the same physical nature as sound but with frequencies above the range of human hearing. Most people understand the basics of radar and sonar. Ultrasound is more like the latter because sound waves travel very efficiently and rapidly in water (better than air) and are reflected as echoes when something is in their path. Since the human body is mostly water, it acts almost like a "body of water" to sound waves. As these "ultrasound" waves are transmitted from tiny crystals in a probe placed against the skin, different densities of tissues which make up the vital organs of the body cause some of the waves to be reflected back to the probe as "echoes." The amplitude of these echoes is directly related to the location and density of the tissues encountered by the
sound waves. The result is a picture on a TV screen of the area of the body under study. These "pictures" can be used to define tumors and cancerous tissue, to determine the position and sometimes sex of a fetus in the early stages of pregnancy, and to study the function of vital body organs. Diagnostic ultrasound has no known damaging effects to body tissues.
In 1969 Unirad became a part of Scientific Advances, Inc., which is the venture capital division of Ballelle Memorial Institute in Columbus, Ohio.
Acquired by Ohio-Nuclear, Incorporated, a subsidiary of Technicare, in October, 1976, Unirad joined a rapidly growing organization involved in producing other types of diagnostic imaging equipment -- nuclear medicine and advanced x-ray equipment known as Computed Axial Tomographic X-Ray Scanners called "CAT" Scanners.
In 1979 Technicare and its subsidiaries became a member of the Johnson and Johnson family of companies. The company moved from five leased buildings in northeast Denver to its current facility in Inverness Business Park.
The facility at Inverness is owned by Central Development Group, developers of Inverness Properties, Inc. It was designed by Michael Barber during his association with W. C. Muchow and Partners.
My thesis design will use the program for the Unirad-Technicare facility, relocating the project into the context of the Morrison Business Technical Park which will be described in the CONCEPTS section of this report under Land Use.
PROGRAM AND RELATIONSHIPS
The initial program for the project was provided by-Joseph Soloman, an architect with Central Development Group. This program was never formally expanded except through the design drawing process and as such, many requirements within the spaces were initially unknown.
Through interviews with the architects involved and the facilities manager, many of these requirements have been identified and more are related at every interview. The initial program is presented below and notes on requirements follow:
ENGINEERING AND MANUFACTURING FACILITY
Initial Size: 90,000 square feet Final Size: 120,000 square feet
ADMINISTRATION Initial area: 20,000 s.f.
Reception Lobby 500
President' s Office Â§ Assistant 450
10 Offices 6 180 1,800
10 Offices 6 150 1,500
Open Space for 10 Secretaries 300
Conference Room 300
900 Including Projection Room
Purchasing Department 1,600 Including 2 Offices Â§ 150
Sales Department 1,500 Including 2 Offices Â§ 150
Product Planning 1,000
Accounting 1,700 Including 1 Office g 180 $ 1 Office Â§ 150
Data* Processing 1,400
Personnel Department 1,200 Including 1 Office Â§ 150 Â§ 2 Small Conference Rooms Â§ 120
Toilets for 200 Persons per Code
Circulation as Required
ENGINEERING AND MANUFACTURING FACILITY
ENGINEERING Initial Area: 30,000 s. Expansion: 16,000 s.
5 Offices @ 180 900
12 Offices S 150 1,800
Secretarial and Clerical 800
Open Space Adjacent to Offices
Drafting Area 4,000
Blueprinting Area 1,200
Engineering Service 8,000 Including 4 Offices 8 150
Engineering Department 10,000
Open Landscape Design with Screen Partitions to Form Cubicle Offices 8' x 10', File Rooms, Conference Areas, Secretarial Â§ Clerical Space
Toilets for 300 persons per Code
Circulation as required
MANUFACTURING Initial Area: 40,000 s.f
Expansion: 14,000 s.f
2 Outside Loading Berths for Tractor Trailers 1 Space for Trash Compactor Loading Dock with Levelors
Receiving Receiving Inspection Material Review Stock Room Production Assembly ENGINEERING AND MANUFACTURING 1,250 2,000 1,000 5,000 10,000 FACILITY
Parts Storage 1,500
Assembly Inspection 1,200
Wood Shop 1,400
Model Shop 400
Paint Shop 300
Mechanical Assembly 2,000
Checking and Approval 4,000
Calibration Labs 600
Employee Entrance and Time Clock Toilets for 200 Persons
Switchgear Room 150
Telephone Equipment 150
Mechanical Equipment 800
1. Ceiling height for Office areas: 9 ft. (min.)
Ceiling height for Production Â§ Storage: 12 ft. (min.)
2. Some Administrative areas may be located on a second level if desired.
3. Purchasing and Sales Departments receive most outside visitors.
4. Product Planning Department works with engineering development.
5. Cafeteria serves all employees in shifts.
6. Accounting and Data Processing should be located with regard to privacy.
7. Engineering Department works with Administration and Production.
8. Future expansion of Engineering and Manufacturing should not disrupt Production or change location of Shipping and Receiving areas.
MATERIAL REVIEW -
SHOPI & -------
10. Parking Initial: 300 Employees
75 Visitors 30 Executives
*7 Expansion: 150 Employees
' Compact/Standard Ratio 50/50
Initial: 300 Employees
75 Visitors 30 Executives Expansion: 150 Employees
Compact/Standard Ratio = 50/50
A subsidiary of the Johnson Â§ Johnson Co., Technicare has expressed the desire to emphasize its relationship to the medical profession. Clients are largely made up of doctors who expect medical equipment to be produced in clean, sterile, and precise environments. Additionally, as a corporate headquarters, a "first-class" image was desired. Finally, the company would also like to express an awareness of the environment. In and out of the facility the corporation wants to encourage the growth and comfort of its employees, through the provision of pleasing, comfortable work environments, lunch and meeting rooms, and recreation facilities. The company also has a program where interaction among all levels within the corporate structure is encouraged, and training and advancement opportunities are provided.
Secur i ty
Security measures are necessary within the facility. Controlled areas include the shipping and receiving docks, employee entrance, outside storage areas, trash compactor,
and visitor's entrance. Inside the building, parts storage and some assembly functions require limited access and surveillance measures. Exterior security lighting is required at all entrances for parking.
Basic Mechanical Systems required for the facility are heating and ventilation, lighting, power, and compressed air.
Due to the electronic nature of the manufacturing process and the heat generated by lights and employees, cooling of the facility is required year round. The client desires a central HVAC system for hot and chilled water. Due to the requirements of the electronics manufacturing process, static electricity is unacceptable and, therefore, the facility must maintain a higher humidity level than that of outside air. Natural ventilation would be restricted, if used at all, to separate and sealed areas of the building.
The manufacturing process for Technicare requires extreme flexibility in the power access system. An electrical 'duct' grid is appropriate if not mandated. Hot water is used currently in the process and its use is expected to be expanded in the next few years. A system of solar hot-water heat Â§ recycling will require orientation and
mechanical provisions. Passive systems and design are encouraged where practical. A compressed air system for assembly and cleaning is required. Access for both power and compressed air is required from above.
Because this project operates under the premise that the Town of Morrison will annex lands and impose zoning, land use, and building restrictions, I have assumed the following probable conditions.
- The site will be zoned for office, research and development, light assembly and warehousing as well as commercial and recreational uses. Enforcement will be by the Town of Morrison and the City of Lakewood. Uses on site will be compatible with the scheme proposed in the CONCEPTS section of this report.
- Actual property development on site will conform to the following regulations on improvements.
No building or structure shall at any time be erected on any building site within fifty (50) feet from the boundary line of any street, rights of way adjoining the same, or within fifty (50) feet of any golf course boundary line, or within twenty-five (25) feet from the side boundary line of any building site, or within twenty-five (25) feet from the rear boundary line of any building site.
No parking shall be permitted on any street or at any place other than on the paved parking spaces provided for and described hereinbelow. Adequate off-street parking shall be provided by each owner and tenant for customers and visitors. The minimum standard shall be the total of the following:
A. One parking space for each 250 sq. ft. of gross floor area used for offices.
B. One parking space for each 1,000 sq. ft. of gross floor area used for warehouse purposes .
C. One parking space for each 600 sq. ft. of gross floor area used for light industrial purposes.
D. One parking space for each 250 sq. ft. of gross floor area used for other permitted purposes.
All off-street parking and access drives and loading areas shall be paved and properly graded to assure proper drainage. Parking shall not be permitted within twenty-five (25) feet of the golf course boundaries nor within fifty (50) feet of any street right of way. Proper visual screening must be provided between any parking lot and the golf course, as well as between any parking lot and any street.
3. Loading Areas.
Truck Loading and receiving areas shall not be permitted in the front yard of a building. Proper visual screening must be provided between any truck loading and receiving area and any street or the golf course.
4. Outside Storage
No materials, supplies, equipment, finished or semi-finished products or articles of any nature shall be stored or permitted to remain on any building site outside of the building. Waste and rubbish storage facilities shall be properly screened.
5. Utility Connections
All utility connections, including all electrical and telephone connections and installations of wires to buildings shall be made underground from the nearest available power source. No transformer, electric, gas
or other meter of any type or other apparatus shall be located on any power pole nor hung on the outside of any building, but the same shall be placed on or below the surface of the property and where placed on the surface shall be adequately screened and fenced.
6. Height Restrictions
No building or appurtenance, including, but not limited to, water towers, standpipes, penthouses, elevators or elevator equipment, stairways, ventilating fans or similar equipment required to operate and maintain any building, fire or parapet walls, skylights, tanks, cooling or other towers, wireless radio or television masts, or flagpoles shall exceed a height of 50 feet above the finished building grade.
7. On-Site Drainage
Each building site owner shall be required to provide adequate drainage facilities, including on-site ponds and metering of storm water runoff resulting from precipitation. The amount of ponding shall be at least equivalent to the estimated change in storm water runoff resulting from the placement of buildings and parking areas on building sites.
The change in storm water runoff between historical (undeveloped conditions) and developed conditions shall be measured as the increased flow resulting from changes in coefficient of storm water runoff and the time of concentration. Detention may be accomplished by providing ponding storage of storm water on roof tops, in parking areas, in the landscaped areas, in graded drainage swales and by such other methods.
Approval shall be based, among other things, on adequacy of building site dimensions, conformity and harmony of external design with neighboring structures, effect of location and use of improvements on neighboring
building sites, operations and uses; relation of topography, grade and finished ground elevation of the building site being improved to that of neighboring building sites; proper facing of main elevation with respect to nearby streets; and conformity of the plans and specifications to the purpose and general plan and intent of these restrictions. The Architectural Review Committee shall not arbitrarily or unreasonably withhold its approval of such plans and specifications.
- All building done on site will be in conformance with the 1979 edition of the Uniform Building Code. A preliminary code analysis follows:
Occupancy Group: The building contains Administrative
and Engineering offices (occupancy group B.2) and manufacturing facilities (Occupancy Group B.2 or B.4)
Type of Construction:
Since the bui lding has an area exceedi
90,000 sq. ft . in its initial phase, i
would b e nece ssary to separate the
structure int o two separate bu ildings
if Type II or Type III cons tru ct ion
were to be us ed. Functionally the
separat ion would b e undesirabl e, and
the min imum a dditi onal costs a s com-
pared to Type II c onst ruction f or
greater fire resis tance would indicate
Type I construction as desirable for this project. The following fire ratings are required in Type I construction :
From table no. 17-A, 1979 UBC:
Exterior Bearing Walls Interior Bearing Walls Exterior Nonbearing Walls Structural Frame Partitions Permanent Shaft Enclosures Floors Roofs
Exterior Doors and Windows
Noncombustible/Fire Resistive 4 hours, Sec. 1803(a)
4 hours, Sec. 1803(a)
2 hours 2 hours
2 hours, Sec. 1806 Sec. 1803(b)
Floor Area: Floor area is unlimited for Type I con-
Occupancy Fire resistance of exterior walls shall
be 1 hour less than 20' and openings in exterior walls not permitted less than 5 feet and protected less than 10 feet for B.2 uses. If manufacturing facilities fall within the B.4 classification
Occupancy Requirements (Continued):
the fire resistance of exterior walls in the facility are 1 hour less than 5 feet. Openings in exterior walls are not permitted less than 5 feet.
In Division 4 occupancies, fire protection of the underside of roof framing may be omitted in all types of construction .
Toilet facilities must have hard, smooth, non absorbent finishes. Each water closet stool shall be located in a clear space not less than 30" in width and have clearance in front of not less than 24". Compartments for handicapped persons (when required) require a clear space not less than 42" wide and 48" long in front of at least one stool. Entry shall have a clear width of 30" when stool is at the end of a compartment, 34" when located at the side. Doors shall not encroach the space in front of the stool and a clear unobstructed access not less than 44"
Occupancy Requirements (Continued):
wide shall be provided. Grab bars (42" long) on each side attached 32"-34" paralleled and above floor.
Lavatories for handicapped persons shall provide clear space 26" wide and 12" deep, excluding projection of bowl and waste piping.
At least one type of hand drying facility shall be provided in each toilet room facility. At least one mirror and one hand drying facility shall be installed within 40" of the floor.
At least one facility for each sex shall be provided.
The minimum distance of travel from any point to an exterior exit door, horizontal exit, exit passageway, or an enclosed stairway without sprinklers shall not exceed 150'. Main exits from buildings requiring egress by the
Exit Requirements (Continued): handicapped shall be usable by individuals in wheelchairs and shall be on a level that would make elevators accessible where provided. Door swings shall swing in the direction of exit travel when serving any hazardous area or occupant load of 50 or more. Corridors shall not be less than 44" wide. When more than one exit is required, exits shall be arranged so that it is possible to go in either direction from any point in a corridor to a separate exit, except for dead-end corridors not exceeding 20* in length.
When corridor walls are required to be one-hour fire-resistive construction, every interior door opening shall be protected by a smoke and draft control assembly having a fire protection rating of 20 minutes or more. Other
Exit interior openings, except ventilation
(Continued): louvers equipped with automatic fire
dampers, shall be 1/4 inch fixed wire glass set in metal frames. The total area of all openings, other than doors, in any portion of an interior corridor shall not exceed 25 percent of the area of the corridor wall of the room which it is separating from the corridor.
Stairways serving an occupant load of more than 50 shall be not less in width than 44".
The rise of every step in a stairway shall not exceed 7-1/2 inches and the run shall be not less than 10 inches. The largest tread width or riser height within any flight of stairs shall not exceed the smallest by more than 3/8 inch.
Every landing shall have a dimension measured in the direction of travel equal to the width of the stairway.
Exit Every interior stairway shall be
(Continued): enclosed as follows:
1. Enclosure Construction. Enclosure walls shall be of not less than two-hour fire-resistive construction.
2. Openings in Enclosures. There shall be no openings into exit enclosures except exit doorways and openings in exterior walls.
All exit doors in an exit enclosure shall be protected by a fire assembly having a fire-protection rating of not less than one and one-half hour where two-hour shaft construction is permitted. Doors shall be maintained self-closing or shall be automatic closing by means of products of combustion detectors other than heat.
3. Extent of Enclosure. Stairway enclosures shall include landings and parts of floors connecting
Exit stairway flights and shall also
(Continued): include a corridor on the ground
floor leading from the stairway to the exterior of the building. Enclosed corridors or passageways are not required from unenclosed stairways. Every opening into the corridor shall comply with the requirements of the above paragraph .
4. Use of Space Under Stair. There shall be no enclosed usable space under stairways in an exit enclosure, nor shall the open space under such stairways be used for any purpose.
Fire Extinguishing Automatic sprinkler systems shall
be required in every story, basement or cellar of all buildings except when floor area exceeds 1,500 square feet and there is not provided at least 20 square feet of opening entirely above the
adjoining ground level in each 50 lineal feet or fraction thereof of
Fire Extinguishing Systems (Continued):
exterior wall in the story, basement or cellar on at least two sides of the building. Openings shall have a minimum dimension of not less than 30 inches. Such openings shall be maintained readily accessible to the Fire Department and shall not be obstructed in a manner that fire fighting or rescue cannot be accomplished from the exterior.
SITE INFORMATION AND ANALYSIS
Since the site is located in a "basin" of sorts, the = major viewsheds are restricted to the local topographical features of Green Mountain, the Dakota Hogback, the ravines and arroyos of Rooney Gulch, and the generally rolling slopes and hills of the area. The visual character of the site is the dynamic convergence of the Rocky Mountains and the Great Plains; the transition of horizontal to vertical.
Within the study area there are a few small ranching operations, a poultry farm, an auto supply operation and residence and Bandimere Speedway. The ranch at the extreme south end of the site and the poultry farm will have to be relocated if C-470 is constructed along the alignment proposed by the Colorado Division of Highways. The auto supply operation and speedway would likely be undesirable in an industrial park setting. Finally, the small ranch house at the north end of the site, and the residence atop the hill further south could possibly be incorporated into the development as points of interest or service. A gravel mining operation at the south end of the site takes up approximately 50 acres.
Noise levels on site are usually below 40 decibels except near Rooney Road, Morrison Road, the Chieftain Claymine and the gravel quarry at the extreme south end of the side along Morrison road. Increases in noise levels are expected to accompany the suburban neighborhood development along the southern base of Green Mountain.
The site is located in the Denver Air Quality Control region and has been designated as a non-attainment area for carbon monoxide, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and particulates. Downslope winds which occur during the night and early morning will transport pollutants originating from this site toward the downtown Denver area.
An ecological evaluation of the site indicates the dominant plant life of the local ecosystem are gramma grass (Boutelova spp.) and buffalo grass (Buckbe dactyloides). In areas receiving moderate amounts of moisture, needle-and-thread grass (Stipa comata) and wheat grasses (Agropyran spp.) are predominant. Skunk brush (Rhus tridentata) is found in smaller numbers. In other
areas receiving the most moisture, Rooney Gulch and the other small arroyos on the site, cottonwoods (Populus sp.) willows (Salix sp.) and wild plums (Prunus americana) are found. Other species found on site include Spanish bayonet (Yucca glauca), rabbit brush, knotweed, four wings saltbrush, fringed sage, sinterfat, prickly pear cactus, hairy gold aster, cheatgrass, june grass and thistles.
"Irrigation ditches and fence row habitats play a significant role in supplying food and shelter for plains wildlife. These habitats provide cover for small mammals, including red fox, grey fox, racoon, skunk, black-tailed deer, prairie dogs, rabbits and small rodents ... whitetailed deer, mule deer, antelope, coyotes, cottontail rabbits and numerous songbirds are also present ... birds probably represent the largest and best-studied animal population ... Denver Field Ornithologists have documented over 200 species ... a herd of approximately 800 deer is associated with the Dakota Hogback between 1-70 and Chatfield Dam, and there is constant movement by these animals between the plains and mountains. Daily movements of these animals produce frequent deer vehicle accidents in the area of the Hogback and Colorado State Highway 285.nl No rare or otherwise endangered species have
1. Final Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Colorado-470 Project, Colorado Division of Highways, 1980.
been identified in this area.
The regional climate is considered a steppe climate, located in the "rain shadow" of the Rocky Mountains and the Pacific Maritime air masses. The winter weather is dominated by Continental polar air masses making this season dry and cold. Continental Tropical and some Maritime Tropical dominate the summer season which is hot and dry. The "rain shadow" refers to the diurnal rising and sinking of air masses between mountain and valley, and adiabatic changes from upslope to downslope winds. The warmest temperatures occur during the month of July and the coldest temperatures occur during January. Precipitation is greatest during May, while the driest month is generally December.
The microclimate of the site is represented by cooler temperatures than the surrounding region due to the elevation (approximately 5700') and local topography. Proximity to the mountains, where upslope conditions result in higher levels of precipitation, intensifies snowfall. At night, cold air from the higher elevations flows into the topographic "basin" and pools there. Finally, proximity to the mountains and the hogback result in earlier sunsets on site and thus an earlier evening cool-off than locations further east. The climatic factors which will
affect development of the area are sun angles, wind, and diurnal and seasonal temperature changes. This information is summarized on tables in Appendix IV.
The geology of the site is typical for many areas
which form the transition from the front range to the
short grass prairie of the great plains. The area of the
site has been described as consisting of alluvial gravels
overlaying steeply bedded clay stones and shales; ... with
brecciated areas throughout. The clays are high in expan-
sive characteristics and poor in drainage."
"Shale and sandstone rock strata have been tipped up in the mountain building processes, and eroded by streams. Here and there, the rivers also deposited a layer of relatively fine textured alluvium with sand and pebbles up to only a few inches in diameter. Larger rocks are rare ... These geological features are important in the ecology of the area because they affect the water available to plants and the processes of erosion."^
2. Davis C. Holder, "Engineering Report" Consultant Report, City of Lakewood, 1980.
3. John W. Marr, "Ecological Reconnaissance of the Mount Carbon Community Activity Center Area," Consultant Report, City of Lakewood, 1980.
The site was included in a geologic hazards assessment for Jefferson County in 1978.^ From that data, which includes assessment of erosion and sedimentation, expansive soil and rock, slope hazards, and geology, a hazards severity composite map summarizes the physical suitability for development.
The development is literally surrounded by recreational uses and opportunities. Directly north is the proposed Green Mountain Recreation Area. West of the site is the proposed Lakewood Hogback Park, the Rooney Ranch site, the Morrison Fossil Area, and the Morrison Historical District.
South of the development is the continuation of the Lakewood Hogback Park, the proposed Mt. Glennon/Soda Lakes Recreation Area, and the Bear Creek Dam Recreation Area. East of the development is a sportcycle park. Archaeological and paleontological sites can be found on all sides of the development. Recreational trail systems link the Bear Creek Recreation Area, Hogback Park, the Town of Morrison, Red Rocks Park and the Mount Falcon Castle Ruins. Existing 8 proposed trails through the development are found on maps 14 Â§ 15.
4. F. M. Fox 8 Associates. Geologic Hazards Assessment Green Mountain Area, Jefferson County,
Colorado. Consultant Report, City of Lakewood Â§ Jefferson County, Colorado, 1977.
COLOR XEROX-G. K. VETTER'S COPY ONLY
The State of Colorado has completed the Final Draft EIS (Environmental Impact Statement) on the Colorado-470 Parkway, a western bypass of the City of Denver, linking 1-70 north of Alameda Parkway and 1-25 south of County Line Road. The state has proposed that the bypass cross Morrison Road just east of the Dakota Hogback.
The Town of Morrison, anticipating increased patronage to local commercial interests, petitioned for and received a full diamond interchange at Morrison Road. The granting of the interchange has created new pressure for the development of nearby lands and the Town of Morrison has requested the University of Colorado to assess the suitability of certain development types.
The area's economy was evaluated for residential, commercial and industrial development compatability. Residential development was rejected because the cost of supplying services cannot be supported by property taxes. Commercial development was also undesirable at the location. Historically it can be seen that commercial development along bypass frontages and at interchanges has had crippling effects on the central business districts of nearby towns. An industrial park development was found to be the most attractive alternative for broadening the Town's economic base for a variety of reasons:
- The site is physically and regionally appropriate for clean, light industrial and office development.
- A business technical development does not offer services similar to those offered across the hogback in Morrison, thereby not negatively impacting patronage of the Town.
- While providing a stronger, more diverse tax base and a significant redefinition of the Town's economic viability, the physical separation of the development by the hogback preserves the essential qualities of the Town.
- The work force associated with the development will increase the patronage of many of the Town's businesses.
- The business park is also Morrison's opportunity to develop a positive economic and environmentally sensitive buffer area between the fragile ecology of the hogback and the oncoming residential development along the base of Green Mountain.
These factors combined with the physical context of the site, begin to suggest parameters to which the overall development must respond, and which must be reinforced by each individual buiding and improvement. Specific land use concepts follow.
Air quality requirements limit development to clean, non-polluting uses. Among the suitable uses are offices, research and development facilities, warehousing, and
light assembly operations. The site's solar orientation offers the opportunity to fully integrate passive or active solar design techniques in land planning and building construction.
As indicated earlier in this report, the site maintains a somewhat fragile ecology. This suggests that development should disturb the natural topography as little as possible. Hillsides and drainage ways should be developed as pedestrian, bicycle and equestrian trails, and open space which provides on-site recreational opportunities as well as linking offsite trail systems. Development will require careful engineering and design guidelines which address construction practices and setbacks from drainage-ways and steep slopes. Respect for the geological, ecological, and aesthetic character of the site will require that buildings be limited to low and medium rise heights.
To minimize erosion and remain consistent with the natural setting, plant materials and landscaping should be native or compatible to the area, requiring little subsidy. Building site allocation within the park must take into consideration the level of services required by any business or industry.
Development on the far western portion of the site between the hogback and Rooney Road is limited to an auto racing track. The long, narrow character and limited vehicular access to the speedway would suggest warehousing
and storage as uses more appropriate to the setting and complimentary to the eventual development of the area.
This arrangement is particularly suitable to warehousing and light assembly uses, as they are generally linear themselves as a function of distribution and production "line" processes. East of Rooney Road the site is more appropriate for office and re earch facilities, where the generally more "people-oriented" (as opposed to product-oriented) uses require more from the environment. The configuration and topography of this eastern side encourage more diversity and excitement. As this side will form the buffer to the residential development further east, the people to people transition is desirable.
Special emphasis should be placed on all areas of transition into residential neighborhoods and the undeveloped natural environment. In these areas of transition reductions in density, intensity, bulks, and heights are appropriate. Open space, trails, and green-ways should be used where possible to further ally different uses.
Development of the business and technical park near Morrison offers the town and the park many opportunities to share uses, services and amenities. The business park elements of parking and commons or conference facilities, might be utilized by the Town on weekends for art and
antique exhibitions. Permanent indoor and outdoor galleries on the site could exhibit work by Town artisans, expanding their exposure and market. Recreational and pedestrial trails which link areas and uses will benefit all parties and facilitate transition between uses.
Finally, the location of the proposed C-470 Parkway is a key element to the development of the area. With the exception of the trail improvements proposed, the parkway at the location proposed by the Colorado Division of Highways must be considered as disruptive to the integrated development of the site. As stated in an earlier section, topographic examination indicates the site's location is within a "basin" of sorts. The eastern edge of this basin, along the Public Service Company's transmission line corridor, appears to be a topographically suitable alternative alignment for the proposed parkway. This alternative would be superior from a land-use standpoint as it utilizes the natural features as land use separators, and would not require relocation of the Town's water treatment plant. For the purposes of this project, it will be assumed that the Colorado-470 Parkway will be constructed along the P.S.C. utilidor.
P l*gp \
Site planning for the facility must include the provision of lands suitable for building expansion with uninterrupted service access. Topography on site may be utilized for multi-level parking, or possibly roof parking. Site planning and building orientation should also respond to the passive and active energy opportunities of the Colorado climate. The building orientation should respond to the range of scales on the site, from the Dakota Hogback to the golf course.
The site's context suggests a "soft", informal approach to the massing of the building. Topography on site would dictate a low-profile approach to scale issues and solar orientation. Possible approaches to the problem could include some earth sheltered applications. Due to the environmental and social circumstances the expression of prestige and image should be subtle and internalized where possible. Corporate philosophy should be complimented through an open, interactive interior environment. Efforts to relate the corporate identification within the medical community may be internalized.
Massing, structure, mechanical systems, and disruption of existing functions must all be designed with the possibility of expansion of the facility in mind. This expansion will be dealt with schematically in my design with emphasis on the initial structure.
1. Urban Land Institute. Industrial Development Handbook. Washington, D.C. Urban Land Institute, 1975. references to Performance Standards, pp. 239-242; Identification and signage, pp. 243-246; Covenants, pp. 247-252; Inverness, pp. 22, 84, 201, 209; Engineering and Design, pps. 97-159.
2. Grube, O.W. Industrial Buildings and Factories, New York, Praeger Publishers, 1971.
3. Colorado Division of Highways, Centennial Parkway Project, IXFCU470-1(1). Denver, Colorado Division of Highways, 1980. references to project area, pp. 19-54.
4. Denver Regional Council of Governments.
Industrial Land and Development in the Denver Region. Denver, DRCOG, 1980.
5. Obiinger-Smith Corp. Master Plan Morrison,
Colorado. Denver, Oblinger-Smith, 1975.
6. Department of Community Development. Concept Lakewood: Mt. Carbon Community Activity Center. Lakewood, Colorado^ City of Lakewood, 1980.
7. Davis C. Holder. Engineering Report. Consultant Report, City of Lakewood, Colorado, 1980]
8. John W. Marr. Ecological Reconnaissance of the Mount Carbon Community Activity Center Area" Consultant Report, City of Lakewood, Colorado"] 1980.
9. F.M. Fox 8 Associates. Geologic Hazards Assessment Green Mountain Area, Jefferson County, Colorado. Consultant Report, City oT Lakewood "Â§ JeTFerson County, Colorado, 1977.
10. Technicare Corporation. Product 8 Corporate Information publications. Cleveland, Johnson 5 Johnson Co., 1980.
11. I.C.B.0. Uniform Building Code. Whittier, California, International Conference of Building Officials, 1979.
12. College of Environmental Design. Town of Morrison, Urban Design Study Draft, Denver, Univ. of Colorado, 1980.
1. Warehouse with Offices, Architectural Record, June
2. Hewlett-Packard Microelectronics Plant, Architectural Record, June 1977.
3. Windsor Winery, Architectural Record, June 1977.
4. Herman Miller Adminstration Â§ Manufacturing Building, Progressive Architecture, Dec. 1977.
5. Corporate Headquarters, Architectural Record,
6. Electronics Factory, Architectural Record, April
7. Johns-Manville, Corporate Headquarters, AIA Journal, May 1978.
1. Floor plans, Okland Building, previous location of Unirad Facilities.
2. Program Notes, Michael Barber Â§ Associates, Architects, Michael Barber.
1. Vicinity Plan, 1:24,000 (U.S.G.S. composite)
2. Development Plan, 1:500
3. Site Plan, 1:500
4. Site Plan, 1:100
5. Aerial Photograph, development, 1:500
6. Recreational Trails, 1:24,000
7. Cultural and Recreational Resources, 1:24,000
8. Erosion and Sedimentation, 1:500
9. Expansive Soils 8 Rock, 1:500
10. Slope Hazards, 1:500
11. Artificial Fill, 1:500
12. Geology, 1:500
13. Hazards Severity Composite, 1:500
14. Flood data, 1:2,000
15. Land Use and Zoning, 1:500
16. Logs of Test Holes, no scale
1-12 Panorama of Development, NE to SE
13-27 Panorama of Development, NW to SW
28-38 Views from site
39-50 Views into site
51-95 Inverness, Denver Tech Center, Denver West;
image, materials, building/topography relationships, service access 8 parking, strategies, relationships to open space Â§ golf course at Inverness.
Narrative Climatological Summary
Denver enjoys the did, sunny, semi-arid climate that preveils over much of the central Rocky Mountain region, without the extremely cold mornings of the high elevations and restricted mountain valleys during the cold part of the year, or the hot afternoons of suaner at lower altitudes. Extreaeiy warm or cold weather is usually of short duration.
Air masses from at least four different sources influence Denver's weather: arctic air from Canada and .laska; warn ncist air from the Gulf of Mexico; warn dry air from Mexico and the southwest; and Pacific air modified by its passage over coastal ranges and other mountains to the west.
The good climate results largely from Denver's location at the foot of the east slope of the Rocky Mountains in the belt of the prevailing westerlies. During most summer afternoons cumuliform clouds so shade the City that temperatures of 90* or over are reached on an average of only thirty-two days of the year, and in only one year in five does the mercury very briefly reach the 100* mark.
In the cold season the high altitude and the location of the mountains to the west combine to moderate temperatures. Invasions of cold air from the north, intensified by the high altitude, can be abrupt ar.d-severe. On the other hand, many of the-cold air masses that spread southward out of Canada over the plains never reach Denver's altitude and move off over the lower plains to the east. Surges of cold air from the west are usually moderated In their descent down the east face of the mountains, and Chinooks resulting from some of these westerly flows often raise the temperature far above that oxmally to be expected at this latitude in the cold season. These conditions result in a tempering of winter cold to an average temperature above that of other cities situated at the same latitude.
In spring when outbreaks of polar air are waning, they are often met by moist currents from the Gulf of Mexico. The Juxtaposition of these two currents produces the rainy season in Denver, which reaches its peak in May-.
Situated a long distance from any moisture source, and separated from the Pacific source by several high mountain barriers, Denver enjoys a low relative humidity, low average precipitation, and considerable sunshine.
Spring is the wettest, cloudiest, and windiest season. Much of the 37 percent of the annual total pxecipitation that occurs in spring falls as snow during the colder, earlier period of_ that season. Stormy periods are often interspersed by stretches of mild sunny weather that remove previous snow
5ucmer precipitation (about 32 percent of the annual total), particularly inJuly and August, usually falls mainly from scattered local thundershowers during the afternoon and evening. Mornings are usually clear and sunny. Clouds often form during early afternoon and cut off the sunshine at what wcuid otherwise be the hottest part of the day. Many afternoons have a cooling shower.
Autumn is the most pleasant season, bocal summer thunderstorms are mostly over and invasions of cold air and severe weather arc infrequent, so that there is less cloudiness and a greater percent of possible sunshine than at any other time of the year. Periods of unpleasant weather are generally brief. Precipitation amounts to about 20 percent of the annual total.
Winter has least precipitat ion accumulation, only about 11 percent of the ennual total, and almost all of It snow. Precipitation frequency, however,* is higher than in autumn. There is also more cloudiness and the relative humidity averages higher than in the autumn. Weather can' be quite severe, but s a general rule the severity doesn't last long. ,
f. AT .Of; A L OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION
/ ENVIRONMENTAL DATA AND / NATIONAL CLIMATIC CENTER / INFORMATION SERVICE / ASHEVILLE. N.C.
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INCHES INCHES DEGREES
DEGREES SOLAR AZIMUTH
PERSONS FACING IN THE DIRECTION OF THE SUNS RAYS WILL EXPERIENCE DIRECT SUNLIGHT PROPORTIONAL IN MAGNITUDE TO THE LENGTH OF ARROW.
CHART CONSIDERS DETRIMENTAL SUNLIGHT OCCURRING WHEN SOLAR ALTITUDE IS BELOW 45*.
SOLAR ALTITUDE and AZIMUTH
DECREES SOLAR AZIMUTH
PERSONS FACING IN THE DIRECTION OF THE SUNS RAYS WILL EXPERIENCE OIRECT SUNLIGHT PROPORTIONAL IN MAGNITUDE TO THE LENGTH OF ARROW.
CHART CONSIDERS DETRIMENTAL SUNLIGHT OCCURRING WHEN SOLAR ALTITUDE IS BELOW 43.
SOLAR ALTITUDE and AZIMU1
SPRING 40N | FIG. 45
DEGREES SOLAR AZIMUTH
PERSONS FACING' IN THE DIRECTION i OF THE SUNS RAYS WILL EXPERIENCE j
DIRECT SUNLIGHT PROPORTIONAL j
IN MAGNITUDE TO THE LENGTH OF ARROW.
CHART CONSIDERS DETRIMENTAL SUNLIGHT OCCURRING WHEN SOLAR ALTITUDE IS BELOW 45*.
SOLAR ALTITUDE and AZIMUTH
-40* DEGREES SOLAR ALTITUOE
Juna 22 [may 21 July 24 may I aug. 12 aprlt 16 aug. 2t
(aprll 3 apt. 10
PERSONS FACING IN THE DIRECTION OF THE SUNS RAYS WILL EXPERIENCE DIRECT SUNLIGHT PROPORTIONAL IN MAGNITUDE TO THE LENGTH OF ARROW.
CHART CONSIDERS DETRIMENTAL SUNLIGHT OCCURRING WHEN SOLAR ALTITUDE IS BELOW 49*.
SOLAR ALTITUDE and AZ1MU
PROJECT: Corporate Headquarters and Manufacturing Facility for Technicare Corporation.
INITIAL SIZE: 117,600 S.F.(gross).
FINAL BUILDOUT: 162,600 S.F. (gross).
STRUCTURE: Pre-cast and poured in place concrete.
MATERIALS: Jumbo brick.
H.V.A.C.: Four pipe system with modulated fan rooms, zonal recovery economiser air cycle,and perimeter fin tube heat.
CONCEPTS: Daylighting, Direct gain control.
Humanization of industrial environment.
Minimum site impact.
Low key image externally, internalized prestige statement SITE: Gently rolling topography, natural plant materials.
Since high flexability and expandability are two parameters of high priority, my approach was to develop a module which could be repeated. This was accomplished by dividing the square footage required at buildout by the amount required for expansion. To minimize both the visual impact of the facility and preserve land, I have placed the manufacturing area at garden level and introduced views and daylighting with courtyards, skylights and windows. Throughout the building, natural light is usually no more than thirty feet from any location.
Since security guards must be able to screen visitors and employees, access to the building was controlled--employees enter into employee and handicapped parking (in the parking structure underneath the administrative module) and enter at the garden level traveling either into manufacturing or up by stair or elevator to engineering or administration.
The relationship which exists between disciplines in the facility requires a good interface between manufacturing and engineering and between engineering and administration; but little actual contact is required between manufacturing and administration. This is reflected in the arrangement of spaces both horizontally and vertically.
Although a separation of function exists, my perspective is that maximum interaction between employees is desirable.
I have tried to emphasize this through the central lobby which is the focus of the building. It is mostly here that I have tried to express the prestige of the corporate image. I have provided many places where different levels of privacy can be achieved within the space and have tried to make it a place for informal conferences or private study.
Parking and drop-off are brought in from Dakota Drive.
Service is brought in from Rooney Road and drops down fifteen feet from grade to the loading dock and turn around. The trash compactor is also located here.
Structurally, I have tried to maximize flexibility through expanding the structural module from thirty feet to sixty feet in the central manufacturing area. This also maximizes flexibility in the office areas above.
Stairs, fan rooms and restrooms are centralized and provided for each module. The central mechanical room and building maintenance facilities are located in the garden level of the pivotal module.
Functional requirements of the facility are achieved through open landscape planning except in the administrative module where individual private offices are required in addition to open plan areas.
corporate headquarters and manufacturing facility
garden level plan 2
second floor plan
typical second floor office
employee entrance lobby