1190 AT 2 1985 K5lH
University of Colorado at Denver
An Architectural Thesis presented to the College of Design & Planning, University of Colorado at Denver in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Architecture.
Margaret Ann Kinsey Spring 1985
My sincere thanks go to the following people they know I couldn't have done it without them.
Clifford Hutton Karolyn Tregembo Daniel Tregembo Louis A. Ercolano
"Curiously, nowhere in our progress has anyone willingly broken all the rules. We seem still rather intent on building opulently traditional facilities for rather conventional music."
Sharon Lee Ryder
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION PACE S
Project Description 2
Hypo thesis 3
Historical Summary 5
Inventory of Facilities X
Personal History and Commitment 10
Site Description 14
Site Ana lysis 16
Surrounding Influences V i ews Climate
Circulation and Access
Pe r f o rme r 2 1
Management Policies 23
Space Requirements 24
Materials and Finishes 33
Equipment and Furnishings 34
Support Services 37
1 n t e r v i ews Proces s
My goal is to design a futuristic music arena, that will encourage a range of interdisciplinary research by both scientists and musicians into such subjects as psycho-acoustics, computer science, and the theory of sound perception. It will be used primarily to support the continued exploration into contemporary music, its composition and its performance.
This proposed project is a concert facility that features a 15,000 seat fully enveloping, variable volumn auditorium with electroacoustical envelopment and reinforcement. The "hall" is designed to envoke an intimacy between the audience and performer(s) despite a seating area of 70,600 square feet. The support areas and circulation encompass another 293,800 square feet for a total gross of 364,400 square feet.
This facility is intended to be a prototype.
Conceptually futuristic, it could act as a powerful catalyst for new growth in urban areas. That location in the Denver Metro Area is naturally the undeveloped Central Platte River Valley Project just north of the Central Business District.
Today we find ourselves in the midst of a revolution a radical change in the field of music and the performance of such. The changes in part are largely due to the influences "high tech" is having on the way we produce sound and visual images. In an age of electronic gadgetry where the computer and its endless capabilities has penetrated most aspects of our lives, it is no wonder that we took our one "universal language" music and redefined it. This new frontier is being explored and new discoveries made each day and yet one aspect of the field is lagging sadly behind the facilities in which to perform the music. Although through these new technologies we have the capability to bring a live performance into our living rooms via videos, I firmly believe there will never be a substitute for attending a "live" performance.
The "magic" (chemistry) that takes place between a performer and the audience provides a sense of enjoyment that little else can compete with. This is evidenced in the continuing fondness among the "young" for rock concerts, derived as much from the audiences sense of shared communion as from the performance itself. The larger the audience the more intense the pleasure of this shared participation. This social fact
mandates exceptionally large
auditoriums for these events. Therein lies the breakdown in our progress. Rather than design and build facilities
for this social phenomena and techinical progress, we are inclined instead to pack existing auditoriums, use multi-purpose sports arenas, or try to retrofit existing concert halls to
accomodate not only a tremendously large audience, but also a music form that shatters the space with
The lack of appropriate facilities has also forced the "popular" music
industry into developing their own portable sound and light shows. Because there are very few existing facilities capable of handling the
magnitude of their performances, they have accepted it as fact and learned to live with less than good
accommodations. As stated by a representative of "Feyline Productions" "It is something we have learned to live with and see no other
Because the quality of the sound at a "live" performance leaves a lot to be desired, most of the experimentation, research and development of new musical forms is being limited to and taking place in sound studios. Thus the product can only be received through recordings the audience receives the newest innovation via a "headset" -shared participation here!
I propose to go beyond faint imitations of past grandeurs designing a "new" traditional concert hall and instead design a space that conceptually is an instrument to be played, programmed and explored a concert facility that is limited only by the imagination of the users.
I suggest the key element in the success of this proposal is the use of our newest technologies. This facility must have the "built-in" capabilities to respond, as any instrument does, to the skill and sensitivities of the performer and in this case the audience as well. This will be accomplished by using a number of electronic and mechanical systems coordinated and controlled with computers.
I propose a prototype a building that itself will reflect our changing attitudes towards the music industry; a facility with acoustics the performer controls, not a facility that dictates the sound quality of a performance by virture of its static design.
The design of an arena for performances is one of the most complex an architect can be called upon to solve. Traditionally theater as building was the responsibility of the architect virtually working alone. He had to solve all problems associated with designing, structuring, seeing, hearing, seating, ventilating and lighting. History shows that the Greeks and Romans found out by empirical means that speech and hearing are essentially directional and are both straight line phenomena. It was therefore obvious that the performer and the audience had to be brought into as close and unrestricted relationship as possible. Thus the theater "in the round" developed. Through time the "performer" emerged as an entity apart from the audience, while the audiences became increasingly larger. The rite became formalized, away from the impromptu in-the-round form and became organized into a sophisticated form that became both predictable and repeatable performance.
Finally disciplined to high art, it automatically imposed order upon the design of both visual and aural systems of communication, which became absolutely essential if the passive spectors from positions of seated comfort were to see and hear the performers.
Modern theater design is concerned with manipulation of three basic geometries that control design. The originating system is the unified, essentially democratic one of the classical theater. The other two having their origins in the former, are (1) The horse shoe-shaped, fragmented, and vertically stratified system of the baroque and (2) the wedge (fan) shaped plan of the last 100 years. "Today there is virtually infinite variation both rectilinear and curvilinear within the parameters of these separate seating geometries.
PRINCIPAL WESTERN THEATER FORM OUTLINE PLANS a CHRONOLOGY
GREEK ARCHAIC (IKRlA)
ROMAN GRECO-ROMAN ODEUM
| RENAISSANCE I I 1550 1650 j
SINGLE VISTA STAGE (Strlio)
MULTIPLE VISTA STAGE (Palladio)
PROSCENIUM STAGE (Alllotti)
THEATER ol SHAKESPEARE
BAROQUE | NEO BAROQUE [ 1650 1S7Q J
HORSESHOE-SHAPED AUDITORIUM PROSCENIUM STAGE
THEATER OF THE RESTORATION
FAN-SHAPED AUDITORIUM PROSCENIUM STAGE
FAN-SHAPED AUDITORIUM PROSCENIUM, APRON. CALIPER STAGE
PARTIALLY ENVELOPING AUDITORIUM THRUST STAGE
FULLY ENVELOPING AUDITORIUM IN-THE-ROUND STAGE
CONTEMPORARY j L 1870 1970 J
(G.C. Izenour Archive)
Assembly Hall University of Illinois
Inventory of Facilities
As is the case of any new frontier town the building of a theater for performances became a symbol for the residents that civilization had indeed arrived. Though the audience didn't always act "civilized" it was nonetheless an opportunity to experience a bit of grandeur in the midst of the chaotic growth of a boom town. Denver had its share of "grand" opera (theater) houses, such as the Tabor Opera House and the Paramount.
At the beginning of the second half of the 20th century when the population of the metro area dictated the need for large scale stadiums for professional sports, two facilities were built Mile High Stadium and McNichols Arena. The natural acoustics of the Red Rocks area west of town also lead to the construction of the Red Rocks Amphitheater. (see Denver inventory)
Mile High Stadium
Denver's meeting facilities are new, modern, and strikingly designed. At its heart is the 2-block long Currigan Exhibition Hall. Inside it offers 100,800 sg. ft. of column-free space, made possible by a roof design featuring a space frame of repeating pyramid-shaped cones. The futuristic-looking building was used as a location in Woody Allen's science fiction movie SLEEPER. It can seat up to 14,000 persons theater style or 9,000 banguet style, can accommodate 600 booths, or can be divided into 2 sections of 50,000 sq. ft. each. Linked to Currigan by a covered bridge is the Auditorium Theater/Arena Complex which offers a 2,240-seat multi-purpose theater and a versatile 7,387-seat Arena. Double wall dividers on each floor enable the areas to be sectioned off into as many as 5 rooms with capacities of 135-410 persons. The Auditorium is attached to the new Denver Center for the Performing Arts by one of the world's largest glass arches. Other facilities in the city include McNichols Arena which can seat 16,500 with 17,000 sq. ft. of floor space; Mile High Stadium with a total seating of 75,000; and the Denver Coliseum, home of the Western Stock Show and a popular site for exhibitions and general convention assemblies. Denver's most unusual meeting facility is the 9,000-seat Red Rocks Amphitheater, an acoustically perfect open air theater nestled between huge red rock sandstone monuments overlooking the city.
At the heart of Denver's entertainment is the new $80 million Denver Performing Arts Center.
The center features the first symphony hal1-in-the-round in the country, 2 theaters, a shopping promenade, a film institute, and a screening room. Denver also has more than 1,000 restaurants, 30 theaters, 70 cinemas, and a whole array of nightspots, single bars, country and western dance halls, and discos.
Personal History & Commitment
At a very young age I was greatly influenced by "live" music as my parents were amateur musicians for the local community dances. The music came home too, with all of our bedtime stories told with an accompaniment on the piano. We didn't have a radio until I was 8 nor a television until I was 12. I started violin lessons at the age of 10 and played for 23 years in community orchestras.
The first "concert" I attended outside of school programs was an "Up with People" concert in the gymnasium at the University of New Mexico. The floor was covered with young people no seats provided. We spent the whole time on our feet, dancing, yelling, clapping, becoming totally involved in the performance until we became part of i t.
There was no need for mind bending drugs the music itself captured us mind, body and soul and sent us on a journey I will never forget.
It was at that concert that I realized music could be a powerful mover of the human spirit.
My love for that experience which can come only from the repore that develops between performer and audience at a "live" event has increased over the years to become one of my all time favorite forms of entertainment. Any well performed music type is to my liking, although I do tend to favor certain musical forms at times.
One aspect of contempory music performances that has deprived me of some of that joy is the seemingly uncontrolled use of amplification. Almost as if the "sound technician" was afraid you weren't going to receive the full impact of "those good sounds" they "crank" up the system and it literally damages the ears of the listeners. I believe it is just such events that have driven many people away from contempory music, depriving them of experiencing the wonderful new sounds and compositions that are being developed daily.
I am committed to the idea of designing a music arena that will allow the audience to receive the full impact of a powerful sound without ruptured eardrums. I also want to creat a space flexible enough to be explored by musician and composer allowing and encouraging the further development of music.
The Denver metropolitan area is one of the fastest growing metropolitan areas in the United States. The population increased over 30% from 1970 to 1980. Despite the growing population, the unemployment rate in Denver has traditionally been lower than the national average. Employment opportunities have been increasing because of the growing energy and high technology industries, as well as expanding industries and tourism. Its strategic location makes it a logical choice for regional headquarters and distribution centers for businesses serving the Rocky Mountain Region. Denver is the financial, administrative and government center for the Rocky Mountain Region.
The site is the railroad Station. It N.E. 1/4 of
located in the middle of yards northwest of Union is part of the N. 1/2 of Sec. 33 T. 3 S. R. 68 W.
It is bounded on the south by the presently vacated Delgany Street between 16th Street and 18th Street. The nearest Benchmark puts it at an elevation of 5,184 feet above sea level. The site is in the heart of the proposed redevelopment of the Central Platte River Valley. The City Planning Office is putting together a proposed master plan and land use guidelines for the area. At the time that plan is adopted the area will be "zoned". Currently the Planning Office is leaning towards small scale projects which would include residential, retail, small commercial, and cultural, plus a.strong "green" link to the present regional Greenway System. That link would most likely happen west of the project site, excellent landscape for a piece of sculpture a
providing the display music arena.
The site is well situated with respect to downtown Denver's activity centers.
Located between the city's historic
birthplace and its future it is an ideal location for a catalyst of
activity. To the south is the proposed Union Station redevelopment and convention complex which itself
"directly faces the city's low scale, pedestrian oriented historic district and the taller Skyline Urban Renewal Area. The northern edge of the site faces the undeveloped railroad property and the Platte River."
For a project of this scale which would contain no windows to frame the popular views from Denver, one must instead consider looking at it as an object a piece of the rich, dense urban fabric. Whether this object is to be sculptural or contextual is a design issue. The view one would have of the facility while approaching Denver from any direction would be clear due to the access via Highways 1-70 and 1-25.
Denver enjoys a mild, sunny, semi-arid climate resulting from its location on the eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains in a belt of prevailing westerly winds. During the summer, cumulus clouds provide shade or afternoon showers, keeping temperatures below 90 degrees. In the winter, the city's high altitude and mountains moderate temperatures. These conditions allow year-round utilization of outdoor spaces for public activities and provide the opportunity to incorporate energy conserving strategies into the building design.
Circulation and Access
The Union Station area has tremendous potential for integration with public transportation plans; particularly since the Regional Transportation District (RTD) hopes to implement a mass transit system.
The Union Station site is served by a network of streets which provide both access and connection to primary traffic systems. Interstate 25 is the major automobile link to the other regional centers, and is directly accessed from the viaduct system, particularly the Lawrence/Larimer pair, Speer Boulevard, and the 23rd Street Viaduct. Access from the south is available either from the Interstate and viaduct system or from the
1 Fronf Pork
2 Pojquinel s loading
0 RuOy Hill Pork
4 Overload Pond
5 Vondertklr Pork
6 HoOifor Pork
7 VoiverdePork ft Frog Hollow
9 Weir Gulch Marino
10 Zuni Whireworer Chore
11 LoKewood Gulch/ Rude Pork
12 Gores Crescent Pork
13 Cenienmol Pork
14 Fishtxxk Landing
15 Confluence Pork
16 Cherry Creek Pork
1 7 Riverfront Pork
16 GioOeville Landing
The Greenwoy Foundation 1421 Coun Ptoce Denver Colorodo 60202 (303)623-2252
Broadway/Lincoln pair to the south, and the Santa Fe/Kalamath pair to the southwest.
The design could promote the dispersal of traffic to local streets such as the 15th and 16th Street Viaducts which are under-utilized compared to the 23rd Street Viaduct and Speer Boulevard. Improvements may also occur at the 20th Street Viaduct and 1-25 interchange, as well as the south ramping system of Speer Boulevard.
The proposed site is close to many major pedestrian destinations in lower downtown. It is also highly accessible to major generators of pedestrian traffic, particularly the 16th Street Transitway Mall and the 17th Street business and fiancial district. The possibility of linking Union Station to the RTD Transitway Mall by extending the Mall's landscaping, paving, and light fixtures is anticipated as an area for further discussion and study.
South Phi tie Hirer liitershile 25 Smith Ktihiwulh
South Smite I'e
Bmtduny Lincoln Street
Design and construction of a building is a collaborative enterprise among the client-owner, the architect and his engineering collaborators, the
consultants and the users, who may or may not be the owners. The user's needs and requirements in terms of ultimate function must be considered above all else especially if the building is for a particular public use, such as this proposed music facility.
"In recent years during the summer months a series of Rug Concerts,
started by Boulez, were held at
Philharmonic Hall. Seats were removed, rugs and cushions put in their place. The orchestra was moved out into the middle of the hall and the stage given over to the audience. Not only were
the concerts a sell out, a good proportion of which were given over to contemporary music, but the enthusiasm
and response of the audience was electrifying."
(Sharon Lee Ryder)
This same kind of audience response is also present here in Denver during the summer months, when the Denver Symphony does their "Concerts in the Parks". The crowds are large and the "good feelings" dance on the summer evenings like music. The performers too respond to the bond that develops between them and the people who come to share in these special events.
It is this kind of energy exchange between the performer and the audience that I believe is a vital part of a successful event. To create an environment which would facilitate such interaction takes a lot of rethinking of the traditional rules by which concert facilities are designed. One needs to first understand and then accept the changes that have taken place in the music industry before embarking on such a design journey.
Numerous questions need answers which then generate more questions. For example: Where do people like to sit
in an auditorium? Why? What kind of seating works best? What sound intensity is maximum? How do the "new" instruments create music? How are these instruments played? Why do people like to watch a "singer" sing? Why not just listen? How do people feel about a crowded space during a performance versus distinct seating and no crowding? Does it have a lot to do with the music form being performed?
All of these and many more questions need answers. This is a continuing process, not to be cut off at a given point, but allowed to continue well into the design phase of the project. This facility as an instrument has many parts that will respoond to the users in an infinite number of ways. The design of the facility must allow that flexibility.
Space (Appropriateness of Design)
As we approach the end of the twentieth century, it is no wonder that we are beginning to consider the possibilities of allowing traditional theater design to evolve towards a philosophy that fully embraces current technology. Due to the necessity of building multi-purpose halls with variable volume, seating and acoustics, to solve the initial problem of funding a new building, it has become a way to resolve the intricacies of accomodating these variations.
The technologies envolved are in their infancy as far as development is concerned and thus to spend a great deal of time speculating on the direction of their progress, it is best to concentrate on what can be termed kinetic design a combination of contextural design and the principles of modular design.
Modular design, in contrast to contextural design, offers full play to the totality of contemporary engineering practice and industrial fabrication processes and can be applied to both committed and uncommitted architectural spaces. The ancient art of contextural design applied to committed spaces is based on conventional static historical solutions to the problems of "theater" design.
Electro-electronic combination with
design solves geometries, and executing and heretofore properties of
of the systems engineering
static acoustical and seating
provides the means of further exploiting the unrealized kinetic
a modern performance by George Izenour, belief engineering control of lighting, of stage
arena. As "It is my
electro-electronic applied to the mechanical, structural, acoustical properties
that as the and and
auditorium space, coupled with the ability of modern instrumentation to monitor and measure their physical manifestations, has been and continues to be the dominating influence bringing about the basic changes differentiating nineteenth- from twentieth-century
theater design. It is no longer architecture alone, but the interplay as equals among theater
engineering, and architectural design that is decisive."
It is this combination of architecture, acoustical engineering and structural-mechanical engineering that should be very evident in the total form of the proposed project.
The design itself would encourage the exploration of musical forms, the music would be a response to the spaces. It is in this sense that the facility becomes an instrument. The space should never be conceived as a completed, finite object, but more as a tool for the process and evolution of ideas.
When dealing with a facility of such magnitude as well as diversity of use, the management of such becomes a critical issue. The potential users range all the way from academic related organizations and individuals envolved in research and exploration; to the agencies that bring "attractions" to the city.
As can be speculated the promotional agencies that contribute the large bulk of the revenue will try to assume control over the facility. This would indeed be most unfortunate. This would push the facility towards static tenure and the potential might be lost. What is needed is the combination of the individual and his search for the unknown (having use of an entire sound and visual "canvas") to the
professional performer who is using the versitility of the space to its full potential.
Early in the organization of the management and organizational policies, this philosophy must be understood and implemented. This would probably mean that the management would have to be futuristic in its thinking.
This concept in management would extend into such areas as parking. For example, the audience members would come to accept the idea of going to a concert via some form of mass transit. This transportation to the arena could be part of the ticket price. In other words, the management policies of this
facility would be encouraging the healthy development of a denser population core adjacent to the CBD, rather than allowing the scale of the project and the subsequent use by thousands of people to become a blight on the landscape (surrounded by immense parking structures.)
Ideally this is a facility that will encourage the participation of people towards the common goal of creating "new" music together. The management will work towards this goal its objectives and guidelines, changing as does the development of music forms -given the uncharted potential of this performance arena.
Arena Spaces Net Areas
Seating Area (on 2 levels) 90,000
Lobby promenade 20,000
Public Toilets 4,000
Staqe (including pit & wings) 4,000
Total Square feet 120,000
Support Spaces (Performers)
Dressing Room (single) Dressing Room (multi) Rehersal and warm-up Performer Lounge 1,000 2,000 3,000 500
Total Square feet 6,500
Support Spaces (Technical)
Lighting (control booth) Sound (control booth) Technical Manager Crew Lounge and Lockers Touring and Production Office 700 1,000 300 500 200
Total Square Feet 2,700
Loading Dock Truck Area Receiving and Equipment Tickets and Programs Concession 1,000 1,500 1,000 100 1,000
Total Square Feet 4,600
Box Office General Manager Assistant Manager Business Manager Seeretary/Work Conference Storage
Ushers Locker Room
Engineer ing Computer Security Office and Lockers
Total Square Feet
Total Net Square Feet
Total Gross Square Feet
600 200 150 200 500 200 150 1,000 1,000 500 500 5,000
HtURE 10.4 Sound reflective, modulated and damped metal surfaces. |G. C. Isenour Archival
Because this facility will virtually become an instrument, the systems involved to accomplish this task will be very complex state of the art. Early in design, consultants must be involved who are not only familiar with what exists today but are also willing to go beyond the known and explore the potential the facility holds.
The latest revolution in acoustics has been electronic systems methods that use microphones, amplifiers, time delays, and speakers to alter the reflective and reverberant qualities of concert halls. "Since the introduction of electronic acoustics in the 1960's, advances in other fields have made the concept even more compelling. Pyscho-acoustic research, which studies our subjective response to sound, has shown that electronic reflections can improve people's perception of acoustically deficient halls.
This has led to a paradoxical situation: some people prefer electronic acoustics in a concert hall because of its potentially greater fidelity to recorded music.
Two electronic acoustic systems now exist: Electronic Reflected Energy Systems (ERES) developed by Christopher Jaffe in Norwalk, Ct, and Assisted Resonance, developed by Peter Parkin
and Manufactured by the Investigations and
Organization Ltd. in England. The two systems each other with each different acoustical problems
Along with warmth, body and clarity,intimacy is a prized subtle acoustical attribute. For intimacy to be present, early lateral reflections need to reach the listener about 20 milliseconds after the direct sound. To provide an electronic replacement for close in "side walls" or overhead saucer like reflections, Jaffe turned to ERES. With ERES strategically located loudspeakers are fed an electrical signal, originating from a single microphone in the shell over the performers which is amplified and delayed electronically so that it reaches the listener at the same time as would natural reflections. The ERES system provides augmented sound in the broad range of 250 to 6,000 cycles.
To add reverberation to a hall electronically, Jaffe puts in an Assisted Resonance System.
Basically, reverberation is merely the decay of sound energy. For
reverberation time to be lengthened, sound energy has to be added over the frequency range of importance, 63 to 1,200 Hz (cycles). The principle of Assisted Resonance simply is to place a loudspeaker at a peak in the acoustic pressure response of the room and a microphone at another peak, to connect them with an amplifier, and to adjust the loop thus formed to be in phase so that an increase in amplifier gain will increase the reverberation time stopping somewhat short of the point
that results in feedback "howl". The loops, referred to as channels, are frequency selective so that any number of "channels" with a designed frequency separation could be used to modify the reverberation characteristics over a given range." (Robert E. Fischer, "Engineering"). The combination of the systems produces a versatility that allows the building to actually be programmed for the desired sound the performers specify.
HARO MASSIVE REFLECTIVE SURFACE
KICUKF 18 The reflected hearing line |G. C Izenour Archivej
100% ABSORPTION THROUGH OPENING
PARTIAL ABSORPTION BY
SOFT POROUS ABSORPTIVE SURFACE ^
VISUAL & SPECIAL EFFECTS
With an increased interest in videos, light shows and lazer light technology (project of images in space) a facility of this nature would benefit tremendously in providing the equipment and space necessary to create such shows.
Maximum viewing for all members of the audience would be further facilitated by the use of a round stage that slowly rotated during a performance.
Thus the arena stage, surrounded by seats, would be potentially controversial by traditional stage standards and challenge users to experiment with the repore between performer and audience.
envelopment systems for performing arts
MttJM 2.127 Modular wall paoal lyalatn. manually oparalod monorail froo-form. |G. C. laanour Archival
A special system for this facility would be that which allowed the adjustment of the space volumns for a variety of performances and audience size. A system to consider is a movable ceiling. One such ceiling was designed by architects Belluschi, Catalano & Westermann, with Olaf Soot acting as engineering consultant for "The Juilliard Theater at the Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts, New York. The ceiling in this facility adjusts to three positions in a 7-ft. range of vertical travel and was designed to change the acoustical characteristics of the space by increasing or decreasing its volumn and by changing the angle of the reflection of sound.
The structure must be a logical response to the
architecturally-conceived shape and the consequent load carrying requirements. It should have an elegant simplicity that in itself becomes sculptural. The form of the building should grow from the specific functional and practical requirements of the facility and the desire to make it a structural monument.
A variety of structural systems should be explored. The following is a survey and analysis of various systems that have been used for large structures as well as music facilities.
The Blossom Music Center, summer home of the Cleveland Symphony Orchestra is designed to accomodate 15,000 people. The shape was derived from seating plans, acoustical-volume and sight line requirements. "The hundreds of tubular members of the roof trusses act as micro diffusers of sound waves."
Some of the early structural approaches were: A) the space frame which would
have provided an elegant structure, but required heavy articulation of members at the supports, creating visual barriers. B) The double-cable
structure was ruled out because the structural engineer feared that temperature change might create a noise problem. C) Space trusses were seriously considered, but had to be abandoned due to short construction time. Because of this complexity of
fabrication, the approach was changed to single plane pipe trusses.
Poplar Creek Music Theater near Chicago can accommodate an auidience of 20,000 7,000 of them under roof, 13,000 more on the sloping lawn. As for any auditorium, unobstructed sight lines were considered essential, a
requirement met by a 60,000 sq. ft. steel space frame.
Steel-tube space frame charts were shipped in 50 ft lengths to the site, where diagonals were field bolted to form 50 by 80 ft sections that were hoisted by crane. The structure, with a depth of 8 ft, consists of beams on inverted 8 ft pyramidal space frame sections, which in turn bear an concrete columns 42 inches in diameter. The patented space frame uses square tubes of varying sizes, 4 inch for chords, 3 inch for diagonals and 5 or 6 inch for the pyramids.
Blossom music center
MATERIALS & FINISHES
The selection of appropriate materials with which to execute the kinds of interior "room" surfaces, structures, and volumns to be fabricated, moved, and controlled is critical to the success of this project.
Basic to variable room acoustics are two extremes hard, massive reflective surfaces with large volume; and reduced volume and/or addition of acoustically absorptive surfaces. Between these two extremes are certain set degrees of massive overall adjustability to which an acoustical energy field subtly reacts.
All materials must first satisfy the basic acoustical requirement of unit mass as a working surface; second, they must possess the additional characteristics of 1) stability of dimension over a extended period of time (longevity); 2) ease of fabrication; 3) structural strength; and 4) compatibility with a great variety of finishes. With these criteria in mind G. C. Izenour recommends the use of "mild" steel. It is universally available in sheets, tubes, rods and an almost limitless selection of cross sections and weights in rolled beams, channels and angles.
Steel is also most appropriate for interior movable secondary structures with visual as well as acousticals surfaces (substructures). The primary structures can be a combination of
steel and a concrete poured-in-place reinforced, prestressed and postressd reinforced or steel post and beam, truss or cable spanned spaces with the steel left all natural or covered with plaster. Various modern finishes applied to basic substructures and surfaces include anodizing, synthetic paints lacquers, synthetic coverings and wood veneer backed with linen.
Adjustable portions of the arena should be a combination of acoustically reflective modulated surfaces and acoustically trans-sondent (transparent) surfaces.
(Trans-sondent materials are available in a variety of two general types: perforated or expanded steel sheet and woven steel mesh.
Equipment And Furnishings
For this particular facility the equipment and furnishings are of upmost importance in that they will be a part of the instrument.
The specification of auditorium stadium arena seating involves seven basic areas of concern: acoustics,
comfort, design, durability,
maintenance, safety, and visibility.
acoustics - The sound
absorptive/reflective properties of auditorium seating (whether the seating is heavily padded and upholstered or made of uncovered molded plywood or plastic) is one of the most important contributing factors in creating the desired acoustics of a "hall". Since a concert hall contains thousands of seats, they become the dominant
physical factor in sound dispersal.
comfor t User responsiveness to an auditorium can effectively center around how comfortable it is to sit through a performance. To European theater designers, American auditorium seating has long been thought to be too comfortable, in the sense of providing a potentially soporific setting at the expense of keeping the audience
mentally alert. The fact is that
seating comfort comes not from padding but from structure. "Auditioning" seats in various installations is the best way to become familiar with this subjective aspect of specification.
design The choices are wide and preferences are personal.
durability The life of an auditorium seat can be guessed by the potential audience. Except for the most protracted abuse the vast majority of seats available are amazingly durable. This is important to the life of the facility.
maintenance The expected upkeep capability of the client must be kept in mind, as well as the traffic estimates for the facility.
safety Flammability tests are performed on seating to determine the fire resistance of fabrics, interlining padding and frames. Ease of exit from rows of seats during an emergency is another important consideration.
visibility Staggering rows of seats, using seats of slightly varying widths, raking the angle of the floor are all effective methods of insuring good sight lines for members of an audience.
Keeping these seven major specification criteria in mind, the design of the seating for this arena must also consider creating an intimate atmosphere in a large space. An important aspect of contemporary concerts is the relationship that develops between audience and performer and audience to audience. A "young-at-heart" audience literally gets involved in the performance which means standing up, jumping, dancing, singing along, yelling, hand clapping,
foot stomping, etc. A space must be allowed for such activity, yet not allow the individual seats to become distant from ane another. The seating that has worked fairly well in this respect is that at Red Rocks Amphitheater, Morrison, Colorado. For this project it is recommended that 6 sq.ft. per person be allowed rather than the typical 7 1/2 sq.ft. per
BASIC SEATING DATA
Construction and Finish Upholstery variations include spring-edge seats (most luxurious, more expensive); box-spring (nearly as comfortable); spring-back; and padded-back.
Veneer-back seating is suitable only for conditions subject to hard usage, as in schools. Acoustical control is more satisfactory with upholstered types.
Sizes Seats are disignated by width, the depth front-to-back varying only slightly.
Pitch of Back This will vary according to the vertical angle of vision to the center of interest. In general, greater pitches are used for front portions of orchestra floors and more nearly vertical banks such as balconies.
Clearances Coves at intersection of floor and walls (or risers) should be kept small (1 1/2 in. radius) to permit close fitting and leveling of seat standards. Balcony risers cause
cramped knee-room when 12 in. high unless back-to-back seat spacing is increased. End clearances in balconies should be increased to 2 1/2 in. Pitch of back greater than average also requires increased back-to-back spacing.
Aisles These may be straight or curved, parallel or radial. Aisles should run at right angles to rows to eliminate "pockets."
Code Requirements These govern (1) maximum number of seats in a bank, (2) aisle width, (3) crossovers (not uniform). Usual requirements are: (1) no seat more than seven seats from an aisle, (2) min. aisle width of 3 ft. increasing by varying factors in relation to length of aisles. (3) Requirements for crossovers, not uniformly subject to codes, vary. Consult local authorities. (Refer to Code in Appendices)
MINIMUM SPACINGS FOR VARYING FLOOR
Based on stock s/jes w/tn 5'*' pitch back
Due to the scale of this facility the stage must be very special in order to provide every member of the audience the opportunity to "see" the performer/performance. To keep the critical visual distance between each audience member and the performers under 200 ft. and yet keep the over all demensions of the facility as small as possible the stage must be relatively small. This would also include all of the support spaces that must accompany the main stage area. In order to accomplish this the stage could be on a different level than the accompanying support spaces. Thus the stage would be mechanically raised for a performance; taking up only the minimum space needed for performing. After the performance the stage would be lowered to become adjacent to support spaces and provide exit into for the performances.
A primary reason for the selection of
this particular site for Denver's prototype was its accessability to
other large facilities and their subsequent parking facilities. With the use of shuttle service from
existing parking at Mile High Stadium, McNicholas Arena, downtown parking garages and the proposed Convention Center, the parking measurement at the facility itself would be minimal. Due to the flood plain in that area, it would be advisable to go down only two levels beneath grade. This would provide additional parking for
approximately 500 cars. Since this is minimal and the project will promote the use of existing parking and mass transit.
City services are easily accessible due to its immediate proximity to the CBD and the Convention Center.
Directly accessible to the stage support facilities and the storage areas there should be a loading dock area. The design objectives should be such that the service systems don't interfer with pedestrian or automobile circulation.
"Where then is our art, if concert hall architecture only panders to the taste of audiences whose musical preference don't include much composed after 1920.
1 Union Station
2 Convention Center
5 Delgo ny
8 16th Street Mali
9 17th Street 0 18th Street
2 Colfax Aoe.
4 S. Santa Fe/S. Kalamath
5 Speer Blvd.
6 Broadway /Lincoln
7 Larimer I Lawrence
8 RTD Transitway Mall
9 Champa /Stout
10 Proposed Mass Transit
11 Sports Complex
12 Central Platte River Valley
14 Central Business District
15 Civic Center
16 Mall Retail
18 DUR A.
20 South Platte River
21 Cherry Creek
22 Platte River Greenway
23 Confluence Park
24 Proposed Fhrk & Link
. ]i j
nn ii in [ ][ ]
Stage Rerhrrner ,
Drop-all Reformer Lounge Single Dressing Mechanical & Electrical Storage
Receiving & Staging Area Storage
Truck Dock Office
Reversal & Sound Studio Dressing (Women) Dressing (Men)
Fbrkra (Derfomrer Buses) Thck Dock Service Elevator Ekmdicapp Forking Transformer Vault Mechanical
0 6 O JO 30 *0 SO
3 Computer Boom
4 Sound Control & Lighting Control
5 Technical Engineers (Office)
6 Restroom (Men)
7 Restroom (Women)
9 Fire Command Center X Management Offices fl Ticketing Office
12 Touring & Production Office
13 Ushers Lounge H Locker Rooms
6 Technical Crew Lounge
16 Public Phones
17 Drinking Fountains Water Wall
Ramp 20 Entry Ramps
Skyway Plan ------ 0
3 Restroom (Men)
4 Restroom (Women)
6 Public Phones
7 Drinking Fountains
Balcony Plans 0
1 Upper Balcony
2 Vomitory Type A
3 Lower Balcony
4 Vomitory Type B
The structure of this project is a logical response to the
architecturally-conceived shape and the consequent load carrying requirements. The elegant simplicity of the primary members become sculptural as well as lending a look of static stability to an arena of this scale.
The shape was derived from the location of the stage and the seating plan. The use of a compression ring in the center, reinforced the location of the stage and its importance to the function of the form.
The primary long span members then became "tilted" built-up structural steel trusses pinned at both ends producing moment at the peak of the truss. Lateral stability is provided by steel members forming "X" bracing at the roof and in the inner arena walls.
The catwalks, ceiling panels, lighting, mechanical ducts and diffusers as well as the roof would all be carried by these primary steel trusses, often referred to as the "spider" during schematic design. The "flying" balcony and arena walls would be supported by the "inner-spider" that penetrates these forms.
A secondary structural system would carry most of the loads in the actual arena including the inner curtain wall and seating. This system would be a
steel frame with steel decking and light-weight concrete.
The one below-grade level would include a masonry perimeter wall and an 8" concrete slab on grade.
The building frame would rest on caissons (48"-60") in diameter. These caissons would extend through the upper 1/2 of the weathered claystone and penetrate the underlying blue shale bedrock a minimum of 6 feet. The caissons could then be designed using a maximum end pressure of 60,000 psf and a skin friction of 6,000 psf. (see soils report).
1 Control Consol
2 Microphones on Stage
3 Undelayed Signal
4 Signal Delay Unit
5 Single Channel
6 Reverberation Plate
7 Isolation Amplifer
8 Reverberation Delay Unit
10 Cooling Pond
11 Mechanical Equipment
12 Supply & Return
13 Mechanical Shaft
14 Utility Lines
The electrical service would enter through the facility's electrical vault. It could then be distributed through switch gear to electrical substation panels where needed and determined to be the most efficient. The building lighting lamp types and lighting levels would vary according to the specific requirements of each space or function. Stand by power would have to be incorporated and sized to operate fire protection and life safety systems in the event of a power outage. The circuiting would have to be quite extensive in order to accomodate the load involved in running computer equipment of the magnitude proposed in this project. An expert in the field would definitely have to become involved in the later design stages.
The lighting levels would vary according to location and function. For instance the recommended footcandles for the lobby is 20 while the promenade areas would be only 5, allowing the introduction of neon and/or laser light shows. As the audience is entering the arena proper, the footcandles would then be decreased to 0.1 during the performance.
The primary lighting load (at approximately 50,000 volt-ampers/40.25 per sq. ft.) v.s. 2.5 volt-ampers per sq. ft. for the arena, is on the stage. Most of the stage lighting and power would be housed in the cylindrical element located in the
center of the arena ceiling. It down toward the stage at the beg of a performance. This would provide a surface for light
moves inning also shows.
Mechanical & Ventilation
Plumbing & Fire Protection
The mechanical system for this structure would be designed to be an intregral part of the total building form and function. Rather than considering traditional means of dealing with the large cooling loads and ventilation, a mechanical engineer would work towards developing a system that uses state-of-the-art equipment and controls, plus a method of distribution that would enhance the architectural form.
Part of that concept would include the use of a "cooling pond" rather than a cooling tower. This pond would surround the building with 6" of constantly moving water. At some points jets would be used to facilitate this movement and encourage evaporation.
The pond would interface the building perimeter which then dictates putting the mechanical equipment along that perimeter in the below grade level.
The distribution of cool air to the ceiling to be "dumped" into the arena would occur at 8 locations around the arena. The mechanical shafts are architecturally part of the spiral stairs.
The return air would be collected at the bottom of the arena in the seating and returned to the mechanical rooms via plenums that occur around the arena (above the offices).
PLUMBING & FIRE PROTECTION
All of the utilities including the plumbing lines would enter the building on the south in a utility vault that would run parallel to and under the red glass-block entrance ramp.
Once inside, the distribution would be relatively straight-forward since the restroom facilities surround the seating arena in an organized manner. (See floor plans)
To meet code requirements for a project of this scale, it would be necessary to sprinkle all levels, except for the main seating arena. The exiting distance to a "safe" area is no more than 200 ft. from anywhere in the arena.
eecTion <- ^uiLun^ -<3Â£ade level-
This arena is a structure for festive occasions. It is an object in space, a static form that comes to life only when in use; just as the music remains static until performed and heard. When the users come together under this roof it is to communicate.
Early in Schematic Design, it became evident that the building scale dictated by the program would dominate. In dealing with a building of this size, I decided quickly to design an object in space. That followed my firmly held belief that strong and successful architecture can take but two directions. It must either become a sculptural object in space dominating that space and speaking clearly to its intent, or deal sensitively to its context, whether by imitation or contrast. To "ride the fence" leds only to mediocre buildings that have no clear direction. My project makes a statement, a strong, bold statement through scale as well as form. It is a piece of sculpture that one either understands and enjoys or dislikes a purely subjective reaction.
As a sculptural element, it rests in a hard urban park, silent, except for the sound of the water surrounding it as it moves rythmically, imitating sound waves. By day that is all it is an object tentively waiting for the night.
It is at night, when the "show" begins, that it takes on a different character. It is the presense of the performers and the audience that brings to life this static form. As the lobby and promenade lights go on, the reflective glass becomes transparent, revealing the movement of 15,000 people as they make their way into the arena and to their seats. Dancing in the crowd are lights (neon and laser)
creating a design of their own on the reflective stainless steel walls. The quiet water also comes to life with the play of lighted fountains; and then follows the arriving audience into the lobby.
As the audience members enter the arena they are greeted with a totally
encompassing sea of people and seats surrounding a non-existant stage. Despite its scale one would feel a sense of intimacy with fellow members of the audience.
As the show begins, the house lights dim and the stage emerges from its pit at the heart of the arena, revolving slowly and carrying with it the performers. From that point on the music dictates.
The true success of such a project could only be determined once it was
built and used. Realistically it is a dream (too costly) but one that every concert goer would like to live. With completely controlled electronic
acoustics, one would know the pleasures of a live performance as well as the
sound of music as it should be heard.
REQUIREMENTS FOR GROUP A OCCUPANCIES
SECTION 601. GROUP A OCCUPANCIES DEFINED. Group A occu
pancy shall be an assembly building with a stage and an occupant load of
1000 or more.
SECTION 602. CONSTRUCTION, HEIGHT, ALLOWABLE AREA.
(a) General. Buildings or portions of buildings classified in Group A because of the use or character of the occupancy shall conform to the types of construction, area, and height requirements specified in Chapter 5
(b) Special Provisions.
1. Stages and enclosed platforms shall be constructed in accordance with the requirements of Chapter 39.
2. The slope of the main floor of the assembly room shall not exceed one foot in eight.
3. See Chapters 17, 25, and 32 for attic space partitions and draft
(c) Occupancy Loads and Separations. See Chapter 33 for occupant loads. See Chapter 5 for occupancy separation requirements.
SECTION 603. LOCATION.
(a) In City. Buildings shall not be limited in location within fire zones.
(b) On Property. Buildings shall front directly upon or have access to a public street at least 20 feet in width. The access to a public street shall be at least 20 feet in width. The access to a public street shall be a 20 foot minimum width right-of-way maintained solely as access to the public street. The main entrance to the building shall be located on the public street or the access. See Chapter 17 and Zoning Regulations for property setbacks.
(c) Exterior Walls and Opening Protection. See Chapters 17 and 18 for fire resistive protection of exterior walls and openings, as determined by location on the property. See Chapter 5 for regulating adjacent buildings on the same property.
SECTION 604. EXIT FACILITIES. See Chapter 33.
SECTION 605. LIGHT, VENTILATION, TOILET ROOM
(a) Light. All portions of the building used by human occupants shall be provided with either natural or artificial light. Lighting in all portions of the building used by human occupants shall be on a circuit separate
from the stage lighting, and shall be controlled from the box office.
(b) Ventilation. See Chapter 52.
(c) Toilet Room Facilities. See Chapter 5.
SECTION 606. ENCLOSURE OF VERTICAL OPENINGS.
(a) Exits. See Chapter 33.
(b) Shafts. See Chapter 17.
SECTION 607. FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS. See Chapter 38. SECTION 608. SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS.
(a) Chimneys and Heating Apparatus. See Chapters 37, 51, 52, and 58.
(b) Motion Picture Machine Booths. See Chapter 40.
(c) Heating or Equipment Rooms. See Chapters 17 and 33.
TABLE NO. 5-C
BASIC ALLOWABLE FLOOR AREA (IN SQ. FT.) FOR BUILDINGS ONE STORY IN HEIGHT IN FIRE ZONES No. 1 AND No. 2. FOR BUILDINGS LOCATED IN FIRE ZONE No. 3, THE BASIC AREA MAY BE INCREASED 33 1/3 PERCENT.
Occupancy TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION
I ii III IV V
1 Hour or H T N 1-Hour-N 1-Hour N
A Unlimited 22,500 NP NP NP NP NP NP
B 1 Unlimited 22,500 10,200 NP 10,200 NP 7,800 NP
B 2 Unlimited 22,500 10,200 NP 10,200 NP 7,800 NP
B 3 Unlimited 22,500 10.200 6,900 10,200 6,900 7,800 1,500
B 4 Unlimited 22,500 10,200 6,900 10,200 6,900 7,800 4,500
Cl Unlimited 33.000 15,300 10,200 15,300 10.200 11,700 1,200
C 2 Unlimited 15.000 15,300 3.000 6,000 3,000 4,800 600
D 1 Unlimited 12.000 NP NP NP NP NP NP
D 2 Unlimited 12,000 5,100 SR 6,100 SR 3,900 SK
E 1 20.000 9,000 4,200 2,700 4,200 2,700 3,300 1,200
E 2 35,000 9,000 4,200 2,700 4,200 2,700 3,300 1,200
E 3 Unlimited 18,000 8,400 5,700 8.400 5,700 6.600 3,800
E-4 Unlimited 18,000 8,400 6.700 8,400 5,700 6,600 3,800
E-5 Unlimited 33,000 25,000 15,000 25,000 15,000 6,600 3.800
FI Unlimited 18,000 13,500 9.000 13,500 9,000 10,500 6,000
F 2 Unlimited 30,000 13,500 9,000 13,500 9,000 10,500 6,000
G 1 Unlimited 45,000 13,500 9,000 13,500 9,000 10,500 6,000
G 2 Unlimited 45,000 20.400 13,500 20,400 13,500 15,900 9,000
G-3 Unlimited 45.000 13.500 9,000 13,600 9,000 10,500 6,000
HI Unlimited 24.000 10,200 6,900 9,000 6,900 7,800 NP
H 2 Unlimited 24,000 10,200 6.900 10,200 6.900 7,800 NP
H 3 Unlimited
J 1 See Chapter 15
J 2 See Chapter 15
SR = Special requirements Refer to Occupancy Chapter for special provisions.
NP = Not Permitted
N=Non Fire-resistive construction
NOTE: See Section 505 and 506 for additional information on allowable floor area and floor area increases. For open parking structures, see Chapter 12.
TABLE NO. 8*A
GROUPS OP OC CUPANCY
CROUP DIVISION DESCRIPTION OF OCCUPANCY CHAPTER REFERENCE
A An assembly building with a stage and an occupant load of 1,000 or more. 6
B 1 An asaembly building with a stage and an occupant load of leas than 1.000
2 An assembly building without a stage and an occupant load of 300 or more
3 An assembly building without a stage gnd an occupant load of less than 300. and which is not classified as g Group F occupancy. 7
4 Stadiums, grandstands, bleachers, reviewing stands, and amusement park structures not included within Group A or Group B Division 1. 2. 3 occupancies
C 1 A building used for educational purposes by 20 or more persons al the twelfth grade level or below, such aa nurseries, kindergartens, preschools, dance schools, day care centers, schools for manual arts, elementary schools, junior high schools, etc 8
2 A building used for educational purposes by fewer than 20 persons at the 12th grade level or below, such as nurseries, kindergartens, preschools, dance schools, day care centers, schools for manual arts, elementary schools, junior high schools, high schools, etc.
D 1 Buildings used for mental hospitals, menial sanitariums, jails, prisons, houses of correction, or buildings where personal liberties of the inmates are restrained
2 Buildings used for hospitals, sanitariums, homes for the retarded, homes for the handicapped, nursing homes, orphanages, rehabilitation centers, and similar uses, and which accomodate 5 or more patients or residents. 9
E 1 Buildings storing or handling hazardoua matenalnjNFPA classed flammable liquids; highly flammable solids; explosive materials; flammable compressed gases, or similar material, including hazardous chemicals as defined in the Fire Code 10
2 Buildings storing or handling hazardous materials NFPA classed combustible fluids such as diesel fuel, fuel oil. printers ink. animal fat. combustible dry cleaning fluids or similar to any listed in this 9eclion.
3 A building storing or handling materials for processing or manufacturing, where combustible residue is produoed or generated
4 Repair facilities where gasoline, diesel fuel, gas and simitar fueled equipment is housed. Automobile service stations.
5 Aircraft repair hangers and aircraft storage hangers
F l Drinking and dining establishments, recreational buildings and other assembly buildings without fixed theater type seating, and with an occupant load of less than ISO persons 11
2 Stores for wholesale or retail sales. ofTice buildings, medical or dental office buildings, and dimes, veterinary clinics and hospitals, police and fire stations, universities, colleges, and adult aducation facilities in which each class room has an occupant load of leas than 30 persona
G 2 3 Manufacturing plants, factories, or workshops utilizing no* combustible non explosive or not highly com boat I We materials and sales iw-m incidental to their operation. A building storing non explosive material*, noneombuatibi# or not highly combuatibla materials and salesrooms incidental to their operation Automobile parking garages 13
TABLE NO. 17-C
SET-BACKS REQUIRING PROTECTION OF OPENINGS IN EXTERIOR WALLS
(See Section 1707)
Occupancy Fire Zone Type of Construction Set-Backs in Feet
A 1,2,3 I 20
1,2,3 II,III,IV,V NP
B 1 1,2,3 I,II,III 20
B 2 1 IV,V 20
B 3 2,3 IV,V 10
Cl 1,2,3 I.II.III 20
C 2 1 IV,V 20
2,3 IV,V 10
D 1 1,2,3 1,11 20
1,2,3 III,IV,V NP
D 2 1,2,3 1,11,111 20
1 IV,V 20
2,3 IV,V 10
El 1,2 I,II,III,IV,V NP
3 1,11,111,IV,V 20
E 2, E 3, E 4 1,2,3 I,II,III,IV,V 20
E 5 1.2 I,II,III,IV,V NP
3 I,II,III,IV,V 60 (See Chapter 10)
FI 1,2,3 I.II.III 20
F 2 1 IV,V 20
2,3 IV,V 10
G 1 1,2,3 I.II.III 20
G 2 1 IV,V 20
G 3 2,3 IV,V 10
HI 1,2,3 I,II 20
H 2 1 III,IV,V 20
H 3 2 III,IV,V 10
3 III,IV,V 5
I 1,2,3 I.II.III 20
1 IV,V 20
2 IV,V 10
3 IV,V N
J 1,2,3 I.II.III 20
1 IV,V 20
2 IV,V 10
3 IV,V N
NP Type of Construction not permitted N No protection required beyond 3 feet.
TABLE NO 33 A
AVAILABLE 8QUARE FEET PER OCCUPANT AND EGRES8 FACILITIES
USE Rooms S or More Exits Req Whan Occ. Load Exceeds Square Feet per Occupant Buildings Floors Rooms
Aircraft Hangers (No Repair) 30 500
Aircraft Hangers (Repair) 10 300
Assembly (Concentrated Uae) Auditoriums Bowling Alleys (Assembly Areas) Churches and Chapels Dance Floors. Halls and Banquet Rooms Lodge Rooms Meeting Rooms Reviewing Stands Theatres Stadiums: 50 7
t'ield Houses Gyms (Seating Areas) 60 7
Field Houses Gyms (Other Areas) 50 60
Assembly (Medium Concentrated Use) 60 10
Assembly (Low Concentrated Use) Conference Rooms Dining Rooms Exhibit Rooms Lounges Skating Rinks Stages 50 15
Childrens Homes 6 80
Classrooms 25 20
Dormitories 20 20
Dwellings 10 300
Factories 10 200
Garages (No Repair) so 800
Garages (Repair) 10 150
Greenhouses 30 600
Group E Occupancies 5 100
Hospitals Sanitariums Homes for the Aged Nursing Homes Personal Care Boarding Homes 5 80
Hotels and Apartments 10 200
Kitchens (Commercial) 30 200
Libraries and Reading Rooms 60 60
Locker Rooms 30 50
* Refer to Sections 3315 through 3323 for other specific requirements.
MINIMUM PLUMBING FACILITIES (a) (Fixtures per Occupants Except where Noted)
TABLE NO. U8E WATER CLOSETS .. IL - MALE UR1NAL& <0 FOUNTAINS
MALE FEMALE MALE FEMALE
5 El Places of 1 1 100 1 1 75 1 1 100 1 1 250 1 1 200 1 per floor
Assembly (c 2 101 600 2 76 200 2 101 600 2 251 600 2 201 600
3 601 950 3 201 400 3 601 950 3 601 775 3 601 1100
Add 1 fixture for each
Add 1 fixture for each Add 1 fixture for additional 500 males
additional 500 males and each additional and 1 for each 600
1 for each 200 femalles 200 males females
5 E 2 Industrial. 1 1 30 1 1 10 0 1 10 1 1 30 1 1 30 1 per 75 with
ofTice, 2 31 60 2 11 30 1 11 60 2-31 60 2 31 80 1 per floor
retail. A 3 61 90 3 31 60 2 61 120 3 61 120 3-81 120 minimum
Buildings For additional occupants For additional For additional occupants
1 per 30 1 per 20 1 per 60 1 per 40 1 per 40
5 E 3 Taverns 1 1 30 1 1 30 1 1 30 1 1 60 1 1 60 1 per floor
and 2 31 90 2 31 60 2 31 60 2 61 120 2 61 120
Lounges 3 91 150 3 61 90 3 61 90 3 121 180 3 121 180
For additional occupants For additional For additional occupants
1 per 60 1 per 30 1 per 30 1 per 60 1 per 60
5 E 4 Schools 1 per 100 1 per 45 1 per 30 1 per 2 water closets 1 per 100
Bern. A and/or urinals with 1 per
Jr High floor minimum
5 E4 All others 1 per 100 1 per 45 1 per 30 1 per 2 water 1 per 100 with
closets and/or urinals 1 per floor
5 E 5 Dormitories 'gl 1 per 10 1 per 8 1 per 25 1 per 12 1 per 12 1 per 75 with
over 150 1 per floor
1 per 50
See Section f>09 and for additional requirement*
The plumbing facilities shown are for the number of persons indicated or
any fraction thereof
Provide one shower for each 5 pupils of a gym or pool class.
Preliminary iillnilri mi based upon the Rule of Thumb which la sufficiently accurate for rough sketches.
Tobies. For such purposes as financing, working drawings, etc., follow method sutllned in Examples A. B. C and D. Variations between the two methods are to be expected.
RULE of THUMB for SEATING AREA:
Allow 7sq. ft per Seat, including Aisles and Cross-overs.
This is sufficiently accurate for preliminary planning.
- S 24
EXAMPLE A: Given auditorium area = l7-0" i 5*'-S" or 4900 -+- sq. ft., how many 20" teats, 34" bock to bock?
1. Ro*i: In Table I. 36 col., at
87-0 depth. No. 'Owt =
st croti-overt (I row at front.
4 at rear) =
Ro*i available for seats
2. Aides: Table II. increase in attle
w.dth par row 0.7S: 0.75 24 =
Total increase =
Min. aitle =
Mat. aitle rr
3. Seating Schama: Select enfarive tenama: 2 utlat. 2 daad-and vaat banks. I canlar bank. Prom Npical coda. deed-end rows may ba 7 nai| lonq, cantar rowt 14
laati. in Table IV 1420" teats = 23'- 7 720 seats = ll'-ll" 720 teats = I I'-l I" From (2| above. 2 aisles ~ 9'- 0
Total width = S6'- 5
Seats par row = 28
4. Total No. of Seats: (Table III) t ,7-
EXAMPLE I: Give* capacity of 472 seats, whof are auditorium dimensions?
Thu problem >s rhe converse of A. EXAMPLE C: What It radlut of any row?
To radius of back of first-row seats add desired
EXAMPLE 0: How many and what site* of seats can be used in rows shortened by curved or radial aisles? See TsOle IV
Table I Depth Dimensions I Ft.-In.) for Various Spacing*
Overall Depth for Seat Spacing I Back-to-back) of:
Row* 32" 33' 34" 35" 36" 37" 38 39 * 40 41" 42 "
1 2-8 2 9 2 10 2 11 3 0 3- 1 3 2 3 3 3 4 3 5 3 6
2 5-4 5 6 5 8 5 10 6 0 6- 2 6 4 6 6 6 3 6 10 7 0
3 8-0 8 3 8 6 8 9 9 0 9- 3 9 6 9 9 10 0 10 3 10 6
4 10-8 11 0 11 4 11 8 12 0 12- 4 12 3 13 0 13 4 13 8 14 0
5 13-4 13 9 14 2 14 7 15 0 15- 5 IS 10 16 3 16 3 17 1 17 6
6 16-0 16 6 17 0 17 6 13 0 18- 6 19 0 19 6 20 0 20 6 21 0
7 18-8 19 3 19 10 20 5 21 0 21- 7 22 2 22 9 23 4 23 11 24 s
8 21-4 22 0 22 8 23 4 24 0 24- 8 25 4 26 0 26 3 27 4 28 0
9 24-0 24 9 25 6 26 3 27 0 27- 9 28 6 29 3 30 0 30 9 31 6
10 26-3 27 6 28 4 29 2 30 0 30- 10 31 3 32 6 33 4 34 2 35 0
u 29-4 30 3 31 2 32 l 33 0 33- 11 34 10 35 9 36 8 37 7 38 6
12 32-0 33 0 34 0 35 0 36 0 37- 0 38 0 39 0 40 0 41 0 42 0
13 34-8 35 9 36 10 37 11 39 0 40- 1 41 2 42 3 43 4 44 5 45
14 37-4 38 6 39 8 40 10 42 0 43- 2 44 4 45 6 46 8 47 10 49 0
- 15 40-0 41 3 42 6 43 9 45 0 46- 3 47 6 48 9 50 0 51 3 52 6
16 42-8 44 3 45 4 46 3 48 0 49- 4 50 3 52 0 53 4 54 3 55 0
17 45-4 46 9 48 2 49 7 51 0 52- 5 53 10 55 3 56 3 53 1 59 6
18 48-0 49 6 51 0 52 6 54 0 55- 6 57 0 58 6 60 0 61 6 63 0
19 50-8 52 3 53 10 55 5 57 0 58- 7 60 2 61 9 53 4 64 11 66 6
20 53-4 55 0 56 3 58 4 60 0 61- 8 63 4 65 0 66 8 68 4 70 0
21 56-0 57 9 59 6 61 3 63 0 64- 9 66 6 68 3 70 0 71 9 73 6
22 53-8 60 6 52 4 64 2 66 0 57- 10 69 3 71 6 73 4 75 2 77 0
23 61-4 63 3 65 2 67 1 69 0 70- 11 72 10 74 9 76 3 78 7 30 6
24 64-0 66 0 68 0 70 0 72 0 74- 0 76 0 78 0 80 0 32 0 84 0
25 66-3 68 9 70 10 72 11 75 0 77- 1 79 2 31 3 83 4 85 5 37 6
26 69-4 71 6 73 3 75 10 78 0 30- 2 82 4 34 6 86 8 38 10 91 0
27 72-0 74 3 76 6 78 9 81 0 S3- 3 85 6 87 9 90 0 92 3 94 6
-28 74-8 77 0 79 4 81 3 84 0 36- 4 88 3 91 0 93 4 95 3 98 0
23 77-4 79 9 32 2 84 7 87 0 39- 5 91 10 94 3 96 3 99 1 131 6
30 30-0 32 6 35 0 87 6 90 0 92- 6 95 0 97 6 100 0 102 6 105 0
31 82-8 35 3 87 10 90 5 93 0 95- 7 98 2 100 9 103 4 105 11 108 5
32 85-4 38 0 90 3 93 4 96 0 98- 8 101 4 104 0 106 3 109 4 112 0
Table II Aisle Width Increase (in inches) Per Row of Length
Table III Seating Capacities, 1-32 Rows
Seek Spacing 3ck-to- 8eck Fire Underwriters Cade: 3 -0* plue per i -O* N.Y. Gty Code: J'-O* plus l^'pec 3 -0* No. of Rows 7 Seat. 14 Seat* 28 Seats No. of Rows 7 Seats 14 Seats 28 Seat*
32' 0.67 080 1 7 14 28 17 119 238 478
2 14 28 56 18 126 252 504
33" 0 69 0 83 3 21 42 84 19 133 266 532
34" 0.71 0.86 4 28 ss 112 20 140 230 560
35' 0.73 088 5 35 70 140 21 147 294 538
36' 0.75 0.90 6 42 84 168 22 154 308 S16
37' 0.77 0.93 7 49 98 196 23 161 322 644
38" 0.79 0.95 3 56 112 224 24 168 336 672
39" 081 0 98 9 63 126 252 25 175 350 700
40' 083 100 10 70 140 280 26 182 364 728
41" 0.85 103 11 77 154 308 27 189 378 756
12 84 168 336 28 196 392 784
42' 0 38
13 91 182 364 29 203 406 312
Proper factor no of 'OwS 14 98 196 392 30 210 420 840
coral increase >n inches. IS 105 210 420 31 217 434 368
Add to 3"- O* minimum tie width 16 112 224 448 32 224 448 896
After obtaining some vital statics from Mr. Stoffel such as how many people attend concerts in the Metro area, our conversation turned to the realities of the "concert business". Although he thought my hypothesis was very interesting and had some merit for the future, it was very unrealistic from his point of view for the present.
He based his opinion on the nature of the concert industry today and how it functions. For instance, each performer literally carries their show with them. That includes all the equipment needed for sound amplification as well as light shows. This is a necessity at the present because there are no halls in the country that are set up to handle most of the "groups"now touring. They have designed their equipment to work as best as possible under less than good conditions. "They" wouldn't know what to do if the facility were designed with amplification in mind. The very nature of the business would change.
City Planning Office Gordon Appell
Mr. Appell talked at lenght about the ideas the City Planning Office has concerning the proposed development of the Central Platte River Valley. Because it is such a unique area in terms of its location and how that relates to the Metro area and especially the "heart" of Denver, it has been thought about and planned for for many years. The Planning Office is in the process of developing a "master plan" for the entire area. This will contain certain guidelines for the proposed development, some of which he shared with me but as of yet aren't public information. Mr. Appell felt that my proposed project would be a very strong and appealing addition to the development. His comments about parking & the circulation problems in and around the site strenghtened my suggestions to use exisiting parking rather than creating new parking and encouraging more traffic in the downtown area.
llll \ll H IlfMI.N
Acoustical Design in the Hill Memorial Auditorium, University of Michigan
BY HUGH TALLANT
(From The Britkbuihler, voi 22, No. H, Auguut JilJj)
Pari oj ihn papa is quoted here with figures renumlsered lo suit this work Figures (a), half plan, and (b), set I ton, slune resolution of room geometry and dimensions as applied lo inter 101 room art Immure These dimensions established the plan and sea ion shoien in Figures a and b (These are the same as Figs 2.122 and 2.123.)
The particular stupe to which the search-light owes its efficiency is, of course, the surface known in geometry as the paraboloid of revolution It is the surface obtained by revolving a parabola about its axis In the diagrams accompanying the present article this surface will be represented by the parabola resulting from its intersection by a plane passing through its axis Thus in figure (c) the paraboloid is represented by the parabola BAC, although the real surface would be obtained by spinning the parabola about its axis AX
The property upon which the search-light is based is the fact that every ray of light emanating from the foc us f, figure (c) is reflected m a direction parallel to the axis AX. Thus rays such as TV and FR are reflected in the directions PQ and RS, parallel to AX. Applying the same principle to the reflection of a sound-wave, it follows that any small part of the wave (which, for convenience, will Ik* called a SINC 1 I: SOUND) will be similarly reflected m a direction parallel to the axis In this way the natural tendency of the sound-wave to expand as it recedes from the starting point is entirely checked so far as the reflected portion of the wave is concerned, and this portion will, therefore, produce an effect at Q just as loud as
at P and an effect at S just as loud as at R .* This fact very much simplifies all the calculations lor loudness In figure (d) the paraboloid is again represented by the parabola BAC. For the present purpose it may be assumed that the sound-wave originates in the form of a spherical surface of compressed air of which the focus F is the center This spherical surface is represented by the circle PQR
Figure (e) shows what happens when the wave has spread tar enough from its starting point to strike against the inner surface of the paraboloid The part of the wave which has struck the paraboloid is reflected in the form of a plane surface represented by the line YZ. The remainder of the wave still continues to expand in the form of a spherical surface as represented by the arc YRZ of which F is the center and FR the radius The relative intensity of the sound at diflcrcui points of the wave is indicated by the thickness of the lines which represent the wave front on the diagram Thus the flat part of the wave is shown thickest at its center because the sound is more intense at this point On the other hand the spherical portion of the wave is represented by a uniform line because' the intensity of the sound is the same at all points on the spherical surface.
Figure (f) shows the shape of the wave a little later on, when the reflected portion has passed beyond the focus F Under these circumstances a man standing at the point f. will hear first the direct or spherical portion of the wave Yl.RZ and next the reflected or flat portion of YQZ. It the flat portion of the wave reaches him less than one-fifteenth of a second after the spherical portionif, in other words, the distance QL is 75 feet or lesshe will perceive the two portions of the
* An uiiiinporoiii inodilu jnon of iIicm conditions usulis lioin the ndrwjysmovement or dilfrjetton ol tin sound-svjve
wave in the form of a single sensation of hearing each louder than the effect which cither part of the wave would have produced alone
In applying this principle to the Hill Memorial Hall the first problem was to adjust the parabolic surface to the requirements of architectural design and decorative effect As a matter of geometry the paraboloid was first limited by surfaces corresponding to the side and rear walls, the ceiling and the floor. The resulting shape w hich the auditorium thus assumed is shown in plan in figure (g) and in vertical section in figure (h). In figure (g) the side walls are indicated in plan by the lines EB and DC and in figure (h) their intersection with the paraboloid is indic ated by the parabola HIJ. The intersection of the ceiling with the paraboloid is similarly represented in figure (g) by the parabola EGD and in figure (h) by the horizontal line OHK. The rear wall is represented in figure (i) by the curve EMD and in figure (h) by the vertical line OP Finally the main floor is represented ui figure (h) by line PNJL.
The influence of the wall and ceiling surfaces upon the shape of the sound-wave is shown in figure (i). If there had been no side walls the wave would have taken the form of the spherical surface SN, of which the center is an P symmetrical to F with reference to the line DH. The loose end N of this wave also spieads out still further by diffraction as shown by the arc NO of which C is the center. Under these circumstances a man standing at L w ill hear in succession three sound-waves, namely: the direct spherical wave RLS, the flat reflected wave IQG, and the reflected spherical wave SNO, and if these- three waves reach him within the same sixteenth of a second he will perceive all three as a single sensation of hearing In exactly the same way a still further portion of the wave is reflec ted down from the ceiling so that people in the extreme rear of the auditorium hear this fourth portion in addition to the other three.
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the discomfort of seat X in Fig 1. The maximum lateral movement for Y, which is now located in the curved area, is about 45 Also. tne ime perpendicular to the seat falls much nearer to the center of the floor or the average center of activity for most events
Straight Rows and Sides with Diagonal Corners This pigr configuration, also quite common, has all the advantages and disadvantages described in Fic 1 Only those seats in the diagonal corners nave relief from the lateral heed-movement problem inherent in the side seats- In terms of construction economy it is the least costly of any configuration with full-perimeter seating, lending itself to precasting or other methods repetitive trend/riser fabrication
Circular Seating wrth Straight Rows at Side Lines
Upon quick examination it would appear that a circular plan would be the optimum arena seating configuration This might be true if all arena events were the size of a boxing ring and
seating could radiate outward and upward from a small central floor area However, the introduction of an 85 X 200 ft hockey rink into the scheme brings with it almost irresolvable problems In order to clear the ends of the hockey rink the innermost full circular row of seats must have a radius of about 110 ft The height above the floor of this first circular row can be set no greater than 3 to 4 ft if spectators in the end seats are to see the near goal Thus if this 4 ft height is followed around the row to the center point of the sidelines, a seat at this point will be 58 ft away from the dasher with only 4 ft of elevation The seats along the sidelines within the space formed by the hockey dasher and the first circular roip pose the dilemma There is space for about 18 straight rows of seats, but with only 4 ft of elevation at the rear row of this group each riser could be only 2,'h in. This would be too low for adequate viewing by spectators in otherwise prime seats If the reverse approach is taken and the height of the first circular row is established at an elevation appropriate for the sideline
seats the height will be about 10 ft (18 rows
at 7 in.).
Following thi6 10 ft height around to the end of the rink would result in the first row end seats being 10 ft behind and 10 ft above the dasher much too high for these spectators and those in the rows behind them to see the near goal About the only possible way to employ this configuration is to omit the sections of straight-row seating along the aide-lines and set the circular bulkhead at the low elevation This has bean done in e few arenas, the Palazzo dello Sport in Rome being one. but is not likely to be adopted in a commercial arena due to the large loss of prime revenue-producing seats There is in addition a loss of intimacy between spectators and the game activity, which is very desirable to maintain, whan such a large void exists between them.
Elliotical-Row Setting (Fig 8) This configuration as illustrated for the Forum in Inglewood. California, and also used at Madison Square Garden in New York City has proved to be an
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optimum plan shape for this type of multiuse arena It is the best possible adaptation of a curved-row configuration, desirable to minimize lateral head movement to the governing size of an ice hockey rink. In both examples noted above, the outer perimeter of seating was carried to a circular outer wall line. This being done primarily to take advantage of the structural economies of a cable-suspended roof system. The intersection of the elliptical seating form and the circular outer wail generate an undulating line at the perimeter The high point of this undulation, and thus the maximum number of rows, occurs along the sidelines, and the low point with minimum seating occurs at the ends of the arena. The radius of the outer circular wall was held to approximately 200 ft to stay within the practical limits of spectator visual acuity as discussed earlier The elliptical seating form was developed from circular arcs on a 4-center point system. Radius points for the two broader sideline curves fall 200 ft above and below the center line for the tighter end curves They are 61 ft left and right of center.
Madison Square Garden seating differs from the Forum in one respect the addition of a balcony (Fig. 9). As mentioned above, the mam
body of seating has an undulating intersection with the outer wall with a low point at the arena ends Above these low end seats, space develops which can accommodate balcony seating Madison Square Garden takes advantage of this option to gam maximum capacity The balcony is given a circular configuration seven rows deep following the outer wall line For a portion of the sideline areas the balcony blends with the mam body of seating rising from below but is kept separated by a continuous circumferential bulkhead
Seating and Sight Lines
The study of spectator sight lines in section should proceed simultaneously with development of the arena plan configuration. Sections should be developed at both the arena axis and several intermediate points in any curved plan configuration to verify the arrival point of sight for the maximum number of seats.
The Picket Fence Effect" it is impractical to provide riser heights sufficient for spectators to see over the heads of persons in the row immediately in front. It is assumed view will be between heads of persons one row in front and
over the heads of those two rows in front. Looking straight ahead, a spectator will have a reasonable wide angle of vision between two heads immediately in front. However, the further one looks to the left or right following players action on the arena floor, the more this cone of vision between heads diminishes. It is the same effect as one gets standing a few feet m front of a picket fence. Looking straight ahead between pickets the view is little impaired. but as the eye moves left or right, the pickets gradually appear to move together until at some point they appear to form a solid surface. It is for this reason as mentioned in discussing alternate plan configurations that the curved-row plans are preferred over straight-row seating as they minimize the lateral viewing angle and thus the picket fence effect.
Two-Row Vision When plotting graphically or calculating sight-line sections, assume a spectator s seated eye level at 3 ft 11 in. above tread elevation and 5 in. from eye level to top of head. In most arena situations the hockey floor size will be the most restrictive in determining proper sight-line profiles. If sight lines can be made to work for hockey, they will be more than adequate for all other smaller floor size events.
80' Above Center of Arena But Never Less Than Horizontal
To A.P S. of Balcony Ideally Should Coincide With Top of Dasher Behind Goal
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Pip* rail m lieu ot solid not to raatrict view
Croat a lata
** 10 Vomitory Type A.
The arrival point of sight should be made to fall tt the top edge of the near hockey dasher (3 ft 6 m above floor level). To graphically plot a *erie6 of sight lines, begin by assuming a ^'ght above the floor for the first row of fixed taau This should be as low as possible to still accommodate temporary seating which will between the playing surface and the first fi*ed seats. Next extend a line from the arrival point of sight (APS) to the top of head of the first row spectator (tread height + 4 ft 4 in.), f you continue this line up and to the rear the Pittance of two rows, you will set the eye level or the third row of spectators The trend height for this row will then be found by subtracting 3 ft 1 1 in. Tread heights are now established for the first and third rows: the second row will be midpoint between them. This procedure should be repeated for each succes-*ve row working from the bottom up. When a full section of seating is plotted in this manner *'th all sight lines meeting the same APS, the action profile will have a slightly dished or towl effect, with each riser height being a free-lion of an inch greater then the one below For
the sake of construction economy, risers are grouped in sections of four or five of the same height before an increase is made. Several trials may need to be made to keep the overall profile within desired limits. Changes can be made in the original assumptions of first tread elevation and tread width which can alter the cross section as successive rows are plotted For instance, if too high an elevation is selected as the lower row starting point, the upper rows may develop riser heights which exceed code limits, or the overall building height might prove too great
Tnid and Riur Dimensions Treed width of rows should vary between 32 and 36 in The wider dimension is generally used in the lower tiers of seats which are of shallow slope and where the extra comfort is commensurate with their premium cost. Any tread width below 32 in. should be avoided if possible especially if upholstered seats are used. In addition to sacrificing spectator comfort, narrower rows inhibit travel to concessions at intermissions and prove more time-consuming tor mainte-
nance personnel to clean Riser heights will vary from 3 or 4 in. to 22'/: in. Generally risers can go up to 7'/. in. before an additional step must be added in the aisle Risers over 15 in will require two steps and to accommodate the two steps the tread must be at least 36 in wide These tread and riser dimensions are accepted good practice but should be checked against local codes for specific situations.
Aisle Width and Spacing Recommended aisle width is 3 ft 0 in. Spacing of aisles is usually every 14 to 15 seats Where seating sections abut a wall or railing, the dead-end distance should not exceed 7 seats Where aisles are radial to one another in curved configurations, each seating section cannot exceed the maximum allowable width at its upper or wide end Thus some inefficiencies develop as at the lower end of these sections only 7 or 8 seats may separate aisles
Crossoven Width end Spacing Crossover aisles will be needed at one or more locations which run horizontally parallel to the seating rows and connect the vertical aisles with vomitories leading under the seating to exits and promenades Again local codes should be consulted for specific requirements. However, crossover width should be between 4 and 6 ft depending upon spacing of vomitories. It should be kept in mind that a bulkhead will be required at the rear side of the crossover and the tread of the first row behind it raised to a height to allow sight lines not to be interrupted by the lower seats. Where site conditions permit, it is ideal to have both a lobby/promenade and a crossover aisle at or near grade level The seating can then be split with approximately one-half below grade and one-half above, which very much simplifies exiting problems Crossovers at the top of balconies should generally serve not more than seven rows of seats Aisles running up from a crossover and dead-ending at a wall or bulkhead should not serve more than 18 to 20 rows.
Vomitories As stated earlier vomitory width and spacing will be governed by local code conditions. When they are used in connection with horizontal crossovers, stairs will be required to reach the first row to the rear of the crossover which must be elevated 4 to 5 ft. Two types of vomitories are illustrated.
Vomitory Type A (Fig. 10). Here a stair leading to the upper seating flanks either side of the vomitory passage These stairs are entered at their lower end before reaching the crossover and thus minimize crowd congestion. Two
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Pip* rail in liau of solid not to rastrict viaw.
Fig. 11 Vomitory Type B.
poaaibia elevation* exist for tha croasovar relative to tha seating tread levels. It can either be flush with the last row of seats on its front side or be one riser above this last row. The crossover at the lower level minimizes visual interference for spectators in the upper seating from those walking the crossover and is the preferred alternative. The other option does reduce the height of the bulkhead and thus the number of steps required to reach the upper seating. Railings on these stairs and bulkheads should be solid for their lower portions with open pipe rail above. The total height should be kept as low as allowable to prevent sight line interference.
Vomitory Type B (Fig. 11). This detail may be used either as part of a full vomitory or as a stair access only to upper seating tiers. It is not as desirable as Type A in a vomitory situation, as the stairs empty into the traffic path between crossover and vomitory and can cause excessive congestion.
Truck Access. Access to the playing floor surfaca for large trucks will be required at one or more points. Vomitories at least 10 ft
wide and 14 ft high should be provided at one end of the playing floor. Two are preferred in those arenas expecting to book circus performances to allow for the promenade of animals and performers out one and in the other. Temporary treads and risers can be placed over these large vomitories to gain seating capacity when they are not in use. It also follows from the exterior to this floor level by some means as well as to the loading/receiving area of the building. Additional vomitories will be needed to give spectator access to and from the temporary floor seating setups. Also required will be an opening or vomitory at one end of the arena floor to allow for the overrun for indoor track dash events. At least 20 yards should be available past the finish line of the 60-yard dashes for this purpose.
Temporary Seating For most events some amount of temporary seating must be set up to fill in the gap between the fixed seating and the size of the playing surfaca or performance area. This will in some cases be flat on the floor or on shallow riser platforms.
To minimize labor cost for setups, the largest amount possible of this seating should be on platforms which telescope out from the periphery of the fixed bulkhead line. Where riser heights are sufficient to permit it, these seats can be left attached to the platforms and folded flat to allow stands to be pushed against the bulkhead wall. Where this is not practical, the seating and/or the platforms will have to be disassembled, stacked, and moved to storage areas in other parts of the building.
Great care should be taken in the design/plan-ning process to avoid building in situations which will inhibit the smooth flow of spectators through the public circulation spaces and to and from the seating areas. This should be true for normel traffic situations or avoiding panic in emergencies. Activities which involve spectators waiting in lines must have sufficient room so that circulation is not blocked behind them. Toilet rooms must be laid out so that peak usage at intermissions is handled
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as fast ae possible to avoid backups within the rooms and the corridors Shallow pitch ramps should be used wherever possible in heu of stairs at floor level changes If escalators are used, ample room must be provided a' their landings Blockages must not occur and force dangerous situations at more spectators are forced into the space as they are Delivered by the moving escalator The general pattern of circulation must be clear, orderly, and easily comprehensible by the spectators Graphic aids will help as discussed later, but they cannot overcome built-in planning flaws
Code requirements relating to arena planning will be primarily concerned with exiting and seating circulation. It will be found that where they exist at all. regulations will vary widely trom one locality to another Many codes do not have any references to arenas at all. and interpolations must be made between specifications for theaters and outdoor stadiums When this is the case, the designer s assumptions should be checked at an early stage with local building officials to avoid changes after final drawings are complete
SPECTATOR REQUIREMENTS Seating
Most arenas now being built are employing theater-type upholstered seats. The minimum recommended width is 19 in., and they should vary up to 23 in center to canter for the prime areas In the wedge-shaped sections in curved rows, a mix of widths is usually used to make the end6 of each row come out as flush as possible Where risers are 5 in. or over, seat stanchions should be riser-mounted to facilitate cleaning Seats should be self-rising with perforated acoustical treatment on the seat bottoms
Concession stands for food, beverages, souvenirs. and coat checking should be provided at convenient locations in the promenade areas. Counter areas should be as long as practical and if possible recessed in alcoves to prevent backup of patrons into circulation spaces. Storage space should be provided immediately adjacent to each counter area so that food items can be restocked to the sales area during a game or performance without a trip to the central supply point. If it is contemplated by the arena management that an outside concession firm be brought in to run the operation, it should be selected as early as possible and participate in the planning process If the firm s an experienced national operation, it will have strong points of view on counter locations. size, visibility, snd utility requirements among others. If not built into the original building, the concessionaire s desires will likely prevail at a later date and unsightly and costly additions result.
Sets of men's and women's rest rooms should be provided at one or more locations on each public level. Their layout must provide for peak loads during the 15- to 20-minute intermission periods when hundreds of patrons will pass through each room. It is ideal if a one-way traffic flow can be developed with an in and out doorway separated by some distance. With-
in. the space should be divided with the water closets and urinals located near the entrance and the lavatories in a space near the exit. Also it is desirable if possible to design each toilet room so that half of the space can be closed off by some means during events of small attendance This will save a good deal of operating cost for cleaning Plumbing-line capacity should be studied carefully for peak use and generous pipe spaces with good access provided
A good graphics and signing control program is important not only for an attractive appearance. but for controlling and expediting crowd movement Signing can help establish a clear pattern of movement which can easily be comprehended by the patrons Seat colors in the arena can be keyed to ticket colors to identify the various areas or categories of seating. Thi6 can be done on a horizontal basis with rings of seat6 changing color as they change from one price category to another. Or the arena can be divided into quadrants each with its own color key In cases where the arena sits within a large parking field, this color system may even extend to the exterior and guide patrons to the proper entrance as they park and approach the building. Within the seating area, signs designating sections, rows, seats, etc., should be large, clear, and located in easily read places Signs for rest rooms, concessions. telephones, etc., should also be of good size and clear and consistent in style. In the lobby ticketing area, space must be provided for coming attraction signs, current-event pricing, and seating plans for various event setups. It has proved successful also to have a scale model of the arena seating including colors and section identification within the ticket sales area to assist patrons with their ticket purchases
Two basic types of scoreboards are in common use. The center-hung 4-sided type is one. wall-mounted single-faced the other The central type is usually on a drop cable system which allows it to be lowered to the floor for maintenance. The central speaker cluster can also be combined with this type scoreboard, but it should be checked early whether the same suspension height is appropriate for both score-board visibility and sound distribution. When the wall-mounted type is used, at least two units will be required so that all spectators will have a proper view. Very often the building management will arrange for advertising display to be incorporated into the scoreboard design as a revenue-producing device. If so, the decision should come as early as possible, as it will have obvious effect on size and detailing The boards, of whichever type, must have provisions for the major sports that are likely to use the arena and have a portable control console that can operate from several positions depending on the sport involved.
Most new arenas will include a club or restaurant facility. These are often tied to the purchase of season tickets and their use restricted to these patrons. Capacity might vary from 150 to 300 people. This facility should be located within easy reach of the seating area and also be accassible to patrons at hours other than when the building is open to the general public for events. If an outside con-
cessionaire is involved for the arena, it will also likely manage this club A typical commercial kitchen will probably be required and should be so located as to be easily serviced trom the central trucking/receiving area This kitchen may also serve to cater food to other parts of the building such as the owner s suite and press lounge
OPERATING REQUIREMENTS Administrative Offices
Areas for the building manager, accounting, personnel, booking, publicity, and engineer are generally provided within the building In addition, office space may be required tor the various teams who use the building, whether they are only tenants or are owned by the arena owner Additionally, office space should be available for use by shows booked into the arena for an extended period (circus, ice shows, etc.). Also, the owner of the arena, if it is a private venture, will usually require a suite of rooms including his office, private bath, and a conference/meeting room suitable for entertaining dignitaries Food may be catered to this area from the central club kitchen: thus it should be within easy access. It is possible in some instances that a portion of the offices mentioned could be located in other space remote trom the arena This decision and a full program of office requirements should be developed at an early stage of the design/planmng process
This area will vary depending upon the intended scope of events to be booked. However, in most situations, ticket booths will be required in the lobby area or an outer lobby They should be accessible to the public during non-event periods without losing security to the remainder of the building. Madison Squsre Garden has 25 booths, the Forum, 20. Immediately to the rear of the booths should be a large ticket room for storage and sorting advance sale tickets. Also required will be a money room with vault, group sales office, ticket manager s office, and a work area for storing event posters and making up ticket pricing boards
Large bulk storage areas will be needed for a variety of uses The temporary seating setups for the arena floor will require spaae to store both chairs and riser platforms. These are usually stacked on metal pipe racks as high as ceilings will permit and handled with forklift trucks. Space for storing the hockey dasher boards and glass, basketball floor snd goals, and indoor track must also be provided. All of these should be so located relative to the arena floor as to minimize time and cost for the setting up of each event.
Locker and Drawing Rooms
If the arena is the permanent home of two professional teams (hockey and basketball, for example), a pair of aaparate home team dressing rooms will be required (Fig. 12). As illustrated, the teams can share toilets, shower room, a training area, and the trainer s office The hockey dressing area should be somewhat larger than that for the basketball dressing area because of larger teem size and more cumbersome equipment. A pair of rooms for visiting teams somewhat smaliar than the rooms for home
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Fig. 12 Dressing rooms.
Camera locations for hockey and basketball should all be from the same side of the playing floor with one position high at center ice (at Madison Square Garden it is 64 ft above the floor and 1 20 ft back from the near dasher) and other positions at low level covering center ice and each goal. Space will also be needed for the station s remote truck, preferably at the building truck area, or a permanent TV monitor room. Any cables from the various camera positions will terminate at this point whether built-in or separately laid for each event. A built-in cable system which can be used by any station s crew is obviously desirable. as it prevents the unsightly view of large bundles of cable as well as avoids interference with circulation at the cross aisles and vomitories.
teams, can be located adjacent to or nearby with home team rooms as shown. Several smaller dressing and interview rooms should be planned m this area. Some can be for individual use. others for four to six people, and each with appropriate toilet facilities. All these spaces should be located at arena floor level with convenient vomitory access to the playing floor Public exiting traffic should be routed away from the dressing area corridors.
A press workroom with ad)acent Teletype room and toilet should be located near the lower seating area. It is also desirable to include a lounge in this group with facilities to set up a small bar and food service from the main concession kitchen. A small photographer s work area and darkroom should also be provided at the arena floor level. Location of the press seating varies widely. Many arenas which have been built with elaborate press booths high above the floor have discovered them unused, reporters preferring to sit at court-side near the action. Radio and TV announcers, however, usually prefer to sit high for an overall view of the action. Booths for this purpose can be located over vomitory openings or suspended from the ceiling or balcony structure.
Large bulk storage areas will be required for the concessionaires supp lies of dry food goods, beverages, meat, general supplies, souvenirs and programs. This may include walk-in refrigerator space and cold rooms as specified by
the operator. Also needed will be a concession manager s office, a security area for counting money and a vault. Ample vendors stations will be needed at several points around the arena. They must be located within easy reach of the seating and be laid out to allow fast refill of the seat vendor s stock. Separated in-out doors are helpful.
As seen from the following space allocation summary, several categories of employee spaces will be necessary. General cleaning and maintenance help, ushers, and concession employees each need separate toilet/locker facilities. As local conditions might warrant, space may also be needed for security guards and parking lot employees. Definitive space needs for each group will depend upon a management analysis of the numbers of staff required.
Facilities appropriate for the telecasting of events are an important ingredient of all new arenas. Consensus as to number, location, height, and angle of camera positions is hard to find, especially if several networks or local stations are likely to be working out of the building at various times. However, an attempt should be made during the design/planning stage to meet with those broadcasting groups most likely to use the building and build in as much as possible such items as camera platforms and cable runs. Primary use of television in any arena will be for sporting events rather than stage or performance-type shows
The following space allocations for the Forum in Inglewood. California, an arena of 18.424 seats, can serve as a planning guide and checklist of required facilities:
1. Plav floor surface Area, sq ft 26,900
2. Lobby promenade 20.000
3. Concession stands 2.500
4 Public toilets 4.800
5 Home team lockers/toilets 4.300
6. Visiting team lockers/toilets 2.100
7 Dressing/interview rooms 1,200
8 Press work area 600
9 Darkroom 150
10 Men employee toilets/lockers . 1,200
11 Women employee toilets/lockers . 700
12. Men ushers toilets/lockers 400
13 Women usherettes' toilets/lockers. 600
14 Men concession toilets/lockers . 350
15. Women concession toilets/lockers. 500
16 Truck dock 4,500
17 Receiving area 1.300
18 Storage-bulk 8.800
19 Storage concessions/vendors . 6.000'
20 Storage temporary seating 6,600
21 Storage dasher glass 250
22 Ice machine 250
23. Administrative offices 9,000
24 Ticketing facilities 7.000
25. 26 Private club dining and kitchen P8Y telephones 22 booths
CHIEH SHOU SPORTS PARK
In 1974, Skidmore, Owings & Merrill completed the master plan for the Chieh Shou Sports Park, a national sports complex for physical education and activities to be located on a 65-hectare site northwest of Taipei, Taiwan. The first phase of construction is an arena seating 15,000 spectators for track & field, ice hockey, basketball, boxing, wrestling or gymnastics. The arena has been situated in a prominent location, adjacent to the access road to the complex, so as to provide a visual landmark for the Sports Park. The arena structure gives a dramatic sense of strength and excitement through a roof system consisting of radial structural steel trusses.
Ichibankan in 1969, and Nibankan in 1970. Like abstract paintings, the building names translate simply to "Building number one" and "Building number two."
Both structures are geometric, bold, and .bstract, exhibiting the influence of his years with Noguchi. Yet they are also a parody of high art. Like Isozaki, whose roots are in Kyushu, Japan's southem-j most island, Takeyama remains a third-generation child of Hokkaido, doubting the intellectualism of urban Tokyo and
architectural principles. The truncated building profile of Ichibankan follows the silhouette of the Tokyo zoning laws, while the high central circulation space Takeyama claims is a vertical extension of the street. The building department ruled that this portion of the structure came under the jurisdiction of the J.I.S. (Japan Industrial Standards) and therefore required stripes to warn low-flying aircraft of its presence. In response to this requirement, Takeyama covered the entire surface with a layer cake of stripes, claiming he was,
u Kiuoiwi n~> i m vnuwwiuic iium me Uiau u~
ate School of Design at Harvard in 1954. Subsequently, he worked for Skidmore, Owings and Merrill in New York and for Serf, Jackson Associates in Cambridge. From 1956-1958 he was an assistant pro-ssor at Washington University's School Architecture, and from 1958-1960 he traveled the Middle East, Europe and Asia on a grant from the Graham Foundation. He returned to Japan in 1960, where he served for a short time in Tange's office before opening his own consulting firm. Otaka, at 37, was the senior member of the group. He had graduated from Tange's
yu&i-yiduudie piogram ai i oxyo university 11 years previously, and had been one of the key designers in Kunio Maekawas office ever since. He eventually opened his own office the following year, in 1961.
In a sense, the publication of Metabolism 1960 was an exploration into variations and alternative solutions to the megastructure principal set forth in Tange's Plan for Tokyo. Tange's megaform developed from the belief that certain elements of the urban environment change or require replacement at a much higher frequency than other elements. He explained that:
snon-iivea nems are Decoming more and more short-lived, and the cycle is shrinking at a corresponding rate. On the other hand, the accumulation of capital has made it possible to build in large scale operations. Reformations of natural topography: dams, harbors, and highways are of a size and scope that involve long cycles of time, and these are the manmade works that tend to divide the overall system of the age. The two tendencies toward shorter cycles and toward longer cyclesare both necessary to modern life and to humanity itself."22
Sho-Hondo, Kimio Yokoyama, 1972: At the base of Mt. Fuji, this imposing structure is the main sanctuary and symbolic heart of the Sokagakkai, a sect of Buddhism claiming a following of nearly eight million families 181.
Main Gate, Sho-Hondo: The post-tension, precast concrete elements imitate the traditional temple gate.
BUILDING FOR THE ARTS; Editors, ARCHITECTURAL RECORD (McGraw-Hill, 1978)
DENVER URBAN DESIGN SOURCEBOOK: (Denver Planning Office, 1982)
IZENOUR, GEORGE C.: THEATER DESIGN
MCGUINNESS, STEIN AND REYNOLDS: MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT FOR BUILDINGS (John Wiley and Sons, 1980 -6th Ed.)
ROSS, MICHAEL FRANKLIN; AIA: BEYOND
METABOLISM THE NEW JAPANESE ARCHITECTURE (McGraw-Hill, 1978
THE UNIFORM BUILDING CODE - 1982
(International Conference of Building Officials
ACOUSTICS, NOISE AND BUILDINGS
ARCHITECTURAL ACOUSTICS HAND-BOOKS AND MANUALS
Burris and Meyer: AUDITORIUMS____-
ELECTRONIC SOUND CONTROL
HANDBOOK OF PUBLIC ADDRESS SYSTEMS
HOUGHTON, NORRIS: HARDY, HOLZMAN, PFEIFFER AND ASSOC. HHPA'S USA (PROGRESSIVE ARCHITECTURE 2/75)
INTERIOR ARCHITECTURE: MUSICAL ACOUSTICS SOME SOUND ADVICE (PROGRESSIVE ARCHITECTURE 11/75)
INTRODUCTION TO AND PYSCHOPHYSICS OF MUSIC
KNUDSEN, VERN 0., Ph.d: ROOM ACOUISTICS
NEWMAN, ROBERT B.: ACOUSTICS OF
ROSSING, THOMAS D.: THE SCIENCE OF SOUND
SEAR, WALTER: THE NEW WORLD OF
SOUND TRACT-ELECTRONIC ACOUSTICS: (PROGRESSIVE ARCHITECTURE, 2/83)
THOMAS, ROSE : ACOUSTICS GOVERN DESIGN OF ORCHESTRA HALL (BUILDING DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION, JAN. 1980)
AN ARTS CENTER by I.M. PEI THE PAUL MELLON CENTER FOR THE ARTS (ARCH. RECORD)
BOMBAY THEATER, NATIONAL CENTER FOR THE PERFORMING ARTS (PROGRESSIVE ARCH., 3/81)
CULTURAL COLOSSI: KENNEDY CENTER AT 10 (AIA JOURNAL 9/81)
C.W. POST CENTER, LONG ISLAND (PROGRESSIVE ARCH., 8/82)
HULT CENTER FOR THE PERFORMING ARTS -EUGENE OREGON HHPA w/ JAFFE AS
KAHN, LOUIS YALE CENTER FOR BRITISH ART (PROGRESSIVE ARCH., 5/78)
NATIONAL GYMNASIUM TOKYO, KEMZO, TANGE AND URTEC (1964)
RALPH RAPSON AND ASSOC. INC MULTI-PURPOSE COLISEUM, WASH. STATE
UNIVERSITY (PROGRESSIVE ARCHITECTURE)
TWO SPLENDID ARTS CENTERS, by ROCHE, DINKELOO AND ASSOC.
UNIVERSITY CENTRE, UNI. OF VICTORIA,
BRITISH COLUMBIA: ARCHITECTS THE WADE WILLIAMS PARTNERSHIP (THE CANADIAN ARCHITECT, 9/78)
PERFORMING ARTS CENTER (4/81)
WEESE, HARRY: ARENA STAGE I
(WACHINGTON, D.C., 1962)
ANDERSON, WARREN: THE PERKINS AND WILL PARTNERSHIP: THEATER SIGHT LINE AND
RETURNING TO THEIR SEATS (PROGRESSIVE ARCHITECTURE 12/78)