environmental de au^r/a l/brarT
SENIOR HOUSING I I I I
An Architectural Thesis presented to the College of Design and Planning, University of Colorado at Denver in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Architecture
Kathryn A. McNally
The Thesis of Kathryn A. McNally is approved.
Duane Erickson, A.I.A., Principal Advisor
University of Colorado at Denver
To Jim, Stephanie, Jennifer and Amy
This project attempts to address the need of the elderly to remain an independent and active force within the community as long as possible.
By sharing their time and information, the following people have helped to clarify the direction of this thesis: Edward D. Pierson, David Hlavac, Sister Marie DeLourds, Mark McCormick, Duane Erickson, and Paul Heath.
I wish to give special thanks to my husband, Jim and my daughters, Stephanie, Jennifer and Amy for their support and patience through this educational process.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ISSUES: DESIGNING FOR THE ELDERY
APPENDIX A: DISABILITY CHARTS AND HANDICAP DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
APPENDIX B: CLIMATIC TABLES
APPENDIX C: CODES
A community encompasses many layers of relationships between public and private spaces. The private space of one layer contains the public and private spaces of layers below. 'Public space' is defined as space exposed to the scrutiny of 'outsiders', 'private space' is more exclusive. Public spaces provide a framework for a perceived image while private spaces serve as a support base for this image.
When considering the total community it is the municipal buildings, civic parks, plazas, and landmarks that describe the public space. The potential to draw smaller community elements together and establish a common identity exists through shared history and shared space. Residential, industrial and, to some extent, commercial areas are open on a more selective basis. At a neighborhood scale, smaller parks, landmarks and streets create the public identity. Dwelling units and enclosed exterior spaces comprise the private space. The separation of community functions into public and private extends into the individual dwelling units. Areas used for
entertaining and neighboring provide opportunity for a resident to express his/her individual identity. Private spaces provide room for further retreat or reflection.
Perception of the total community is influenced by how strong or weak the relationships are between the many layers or how relationships are made.
Historically, people have worked and lived within the same community. Strong ties existed within and between layers, reinforcing feelings of security, belonging and support. The trends now are toward increased mobility. Not only do people move with increased frequency between communities; jobs, socializing, recreation and dwellings are often not within the same community boundries.
A segmentation and separation of functions of a community has taken place, weaking the relationships between layers. Developments turn inward with little relation to neighboring developments. Even ties within a neighborhood are often weak.
Can an inner community be designed that would
facilitate the strengthening of ties within as well as without?
When surrounded by inward systems of development, a feeling of vulnerability exists for a completely open system. Acknowledgement of neighboring areas can be made through orientation and scale of a new development. Orientation of structures and entries can facilitate a sense of openness toward the rest of the community while maintaining separation of identities.
Within the inner-community, progression through descending orders of public and private spaces should be articulated. The establishment of 'sensed' boundries can be achieved through use of materials and light versus structural form. Areas that encourage neighboring should be accommodated within that progression.
While it may be argued that the traditional community ties are now no longer valid within megacommunity systems, groups of people exist who would benefit from the support sys-
tems inherent within the traditional community. The elderly represent one such group who through limited income and/or physical limitations are less mobile. The tendency for isolation that exists within a fragmented community is accentuated by the enormous amount of free time avail able to those who are retired. Support services are needed from the larger community as well as on a more one to one basis to allow the elderly to maintain a full and independent life as long as possible.
This thesis proposes to address the issues of relationship between the layers of community within the context of an elderly housing complex.
The housing is to be sited on vacant land north of the Faith Presbyterian Church complex, near the intersection of Moline Street and Alameda Avenue in Aurora, Colorado. The site contains 7.43 acres. Under present PUD R-2 zoning the site can accomodate 110 units, to be divided as 75 one bedroom units and 35 two bedroom units
It is intended that support services will be
partially provided by the church facility.
The church administration has shown interest in providing services on a volunteer basis as an extention of services already offered to elderly members of its congregation and other members of the community. Besides the two sanctuaries the church complex also houses classrooms, a gym and a large kitchen.
Housing for any segment of a community should meet the same basic needs for shelter and comfort. However, housing for the elderly must contend with needs accentuated by decreasing mobility. The dwelling unit becomes the primary focus for any activity. Elderly housing should take an active role in providing a basis for community interaction inside, as well as outside its boundaries.
It is necessary to consider the psychological, physical and economic issues facing the elderly By addressing these issues it is hoped that housing can be developed that will help prolong the independence and productivity of its residents .
VARIETY The elderly have the same need for visual, physical and sensual stimulus as other members of the community. Use of materials and the layout of spaces should provide opportunities for a variety of experiences. Care should be taken that the variety does not create confusion.
Over simplification and repetition can create a bland institutional atmosphere. Units should allow for individual expression and personalization. Consideration should be made for furniture and belongings consolidated from a larger home.
SECURITY The feeling of vulnerability can increase with aging. Residents should feel that they have control over their own space. Safety features should contribute to the sense of physical security. Should there be an in-house manager or an electronic security system supervised from outside?
COMMUNITY The elderly are often isolated due to loss of friends and separation from family. There should be opportunities to participate in activities within the inner-community as well as outside. Shared interior and exterior areas should facilitate socialization.
PHYSICAL LIMITATIONS (See Appendix A)
REACH With aging there is a reduction in flexibility and reach capabilities. Confinement to a wheelchair further restricts reach. Placement of shelves, cabinets, switches, outlets, etc. should take reach limitations into consideration.
VISION Visual disabilities vary from loss of visual acuity, loss of visual field, loss of light sensitivity and clouding of the lens to hardening of the cornea. Brighter illumination is required. Higher contrast is needed between elements such as floors and walls. Alternate sources of information should be provided.
HEARING Varying amounts of hearing loss may be experienced, usually perception of high tones is lost. Bells and alarms should make use of easy to hear frequencies. Care should be taken to minimize background noises and echos.
TOUCH AND GRIP Some elderly may experience impairement due to paralysis, arthritis or other chronic ailments. Controls should be easy to grip. Protection should be provided against abrasion and extreme temperatures. Door and cabinet handles should be easy to operate.
MOTION Ihe elderly may do things slower due to difficulty in walking, slower reaction times and loss of balance. Level changes should be gradual and easy to negotiate. Adequate room in circulation paths should be provided for passing and wheelchairs. There should be handrails on at least one side of public corridors. Slip hazards need to be eliminated.
INCOME Income is usually at a fixed rate that does not keep pace with inflation. Where possible, opportunities should be made that would encourage the continued use of occupational and hobby skills. Dwelling units should provide space for hobbies. A room for study/office should be optional.
1 AURORA SENIOR CENTER
3 AURORA MALL SHOPPING
4 BUCKINGHAM SQUARE SHOPPING
5 GROCERY STORE
6 RTD PARK-N-RIDE TRANSFER POINT
RTD SERVICE LINE
7 AURORA PRESBYTERIAN HOSPITAL
8 HUMANA HOSPITAL AURORA
9 MUNICIPAL GOLF OOURSE =jJCJL
The site on Moline near Alameda Avenue was choosen for its proximity to Faith Presbyterian Church. The church, while it provides one-on-one service to elderly within its community, offers an opportunity to make use of its facility. The church complex contains a large 'fellowship hall', kitchen and classroom space.
The site itself is open, covered only by short grasses and weeds. The trees that border on the Highline Canal are the only major landscape elements. The church sits to the south, separated from the site by a large parking lot. The other three sides contain from moderate to low density housing. The housing on the north is separated by a portion of the Highline Canal.
Moline Street borders the site on the east. For the major part of the day the traffic is light. Only in the late afternoon does the traffic increase due to motorists using the street for a short-cut.
Block 9 Aurora Village, .92 acres Portion of block 7 described as beginning 519.44' N of SW Corner, SE \ Section 11-4-67, thence N 632.53', thence 80012 NE 341.14', thence a-ligne curve to right 675.49', thence S 62.89', thence W 516.44' to beginning ex S 165'
6.51 acres more or less.
2 3 It
A, I MUCHA
Aurora is within a semi-arid climate zone which experiences relatively mild temperatures. Extremes of either hot or cold temperatures are fairly short term.
Average precipitation is low although summer thunderstorms can produce short intense periods of rainfall. Snowfall can occur ten months of the year. While most snow accumulation is light, isolated storms may bring 18" within a 24 hour period. In designing for the elderly, care must be taken to minimize ice and snow build-up at entries and on pathways. Entries should also be protected from the cold winter winds that come from the north and northwest.
Climatic conditions provide an opportunity to make use of passive solar heating. The area receives 70% of possible sunshine annually. Shading devices or vegetation should be used that take advantage of the winter sun while protecting from the summer sun.
See Appendix B for climatic data.
Overhangs and shading devices that are designed to block the summer sun and admit the winter sun should be used. South facing windows should take advantage of solar heat gains in the winter. Landscaping can be used to provide needed summer shading.
Optimum orientation is to the south with the long axis running east-west.
Insulate against the low temperatures that occur in this region. Massive, heavy building materials can be used to temper outside temperature extremes. (Thermal mass should only be used in direct gain areas, good insulation in other areas.)
Landscaping, as well as clustering of buildings, can be used to provide protection from cold winter winds. Summer winds should be utilized to provide natural ventilation (cross ventilation or induced ventilation through use of thermal chimneys).
By increasing the amount of vegetation indoors and outdoors, humidity levels will be raised.
Pools of water can help provide evaporative cooling.
The needs and requirements of this project have been separated into two catagories.
Areas that relate to the community outside and to the community within the development: PARKING OUTDOOR AREAS ENTRY/LOBBY COMMUNITY AREAS CIRCULATION LAUNDRY STORAGE MECHANICAL RESTROOMS
Areas that relate to public and private spaces of an individual unit:
The exterior areas of the development provide the basis for establishing the connection between the 'outside' community and the community within. The question, "How does this development relate to those around it?", should be resolved. Hopefully, it will be resolved in a manner that facilitates stronger community ties. It is not yet understood how the ties to the neighboring church will be achieved, however, due to the potential use of the facility the issue becomes important.
The arrangement of the areas within this cat-agory should define the progression from the more public to the private. As areas become more oriented to the community within, the residents should sense their increased control over these areas.
The shared areas, interior and exterior, need to provide a support base upon which community ties can be formed.
In developing these areas the specific needs of the elderly must be considered. Suggestions for each area have been made within the diagrammatic program charts.
Parking should be broken down into small areas to minimize impact on the site.
Distance to units should be kept to a minimum.
If possible, sheltered parking should be provided.
Adequate handicapped parking should be made available close to entries, allow for 12' wide stalls.
People with disabilities should not have to pass behind parked cars to reach a sidewalk.
1 space/two bedroom
Ramps for wheelchair access shall not be steeper than 1 vertical to 12 horizontal.
Provide a variety of spaces that allow for large gatherings as well as more intimate visiting.
There should be flexibility in allowing a range of outdoor recreation activities.
Provide shelter from cold winds.
Take advantage of winter sun.
Vegetation should provide shaded areas in summer months.
Provide moveable and fixed seating.
There should be convenient access from units.
Provide opportunities for gardening.
Avoid abrupt changes in level.
Pathways at least 48" wide, 60" for wheelchair passing.
Horseshoes area: 500 sq.ft. (10x50)
Croquet: 3000 sq.ft. (40x75)
Ramps shall not exceed 1:12 slope.
Place elevator wihtin 30-80' from entry.
Provide wall space for announcements.
Place waiting area close to entry with view of drop-off area.
Provide security control of access.
Provide seating in small groups.
Entry should be barrier free.
Provide enough depth, 6'-9" at vestibule to allow ease of operating doors.
V' max. threshold
Provide restrooms adjacent to lobby (200 sq.ft.)
Provide separation of entry/lobby from rest of structure.
First introduction to units for guests
Primary use of stairs emergencies
Handrails at least at one side
Avoid glare problems from windows
Provide areas for sitting and socializing
Corridors and floors should be distinguishable from each other.
If possible provide opportunity to personalize entries to units.
Provide fine textured non-slip surface ELEVATOR
Provide handrails within elevator.
44" min. corridor width
150' max. distance to an exit
6'-8" x 4'-9" min. cab size for elevator
8" max. riser, 9' min. tread 6" riser 12" tread re-comnended
Provide refuge for person in wheelchair in stair well.
Provide open, airy space yet give visual privacy from other areas.
Provide convenient access.
Isolate noise and smells from other areas.
Provide tables for folding.
There should be seating in an area that is well ventilated and relatively quiet.
One washer and dryer for every 20 units.
Provide a soaking tub.
USER ACTIVITITIES DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
Use by guests Accessible to one or more outdoor areas 4-J U-l
Use by residents Avoid highly visible entry to restrooms from sr
entry/lobby area 8
Restrooms should be wheelchair accessible
CODE REQUIREMENTS O
Provide adequate ventilation CL
75 ONE BEDROOM @ 525 SQ. FT.
35 TOO BEDROOM @ 700 SQ. FT.
APPROX. 10% (12 units) HANDICAPPED
(All units will be designed to meet minimum
handicapped access requirements.)
The units are intended for a wide range of older people who for various reasons want or need a smaller home. Some people will be very mobile, continuing an active involvement in the outside community, while others will require a minimum of physical barriers to enable them to continue an independent lifestyle. Without becoming institutional in appearance, the units should be able to meet this wide range of needs.
The progression of public to private extends into the individual units. Areas that are used for entertaining should not have direct visual access into private areas of the unit. 'Front doors' are places which need to accomodate neighboring as another opportunity
for strengthening inner-community ties.
Within the diagrammatic charts suggestions have been made for individual parts of the units in an attempt to create homes that will facilitate the continued independence of the residents.
Putting on/taking off outer wear
Displaying personal objects
3'-0"min. clear width for entry door
Easy to operate, lever-action door knobs
Large raised or indented well-lt unit numbers
Provide a coat closet
Access should be direct to plain living space with only public areas visible.
Provide a peephole or sidelight
Small table for display and/or setting packages
* Chair for sitting while changing into or out of outer wear
Provide contrast between floor and walls
Non-slip floor surface
Easy to clean wall surface
Viewing out window
Min. glazing = 8% of floor area
7'-0" min. ceiling height
14' x 11'-6" to 13'-6" reconmended dimensions
Provide one unbroken wall, preferably perpendicular to window
Provide space near window for an easy chair
2'-6" min. sill height for viewing from a seated position 2-4" min. sill height from a wheelchair
Windows should be easy to operate
Use deep sills to allow for plants or other objects
Minimize views into more private areas
Avoid circulation paths which divide the space
Provide access to outside balcony
1-2 easy chairs
Desk with chair
Couch and end tables
' Sewing machine and/or storage for hobbies
Low pile carpeting
Transition from non-carpeted to carpeted should avoid tripping potential
Materials that will reduce extraneous noise
Walk between dining and food preparation areas should be be short and direct
Floor area should be available to accommodate 6-8 guests at a table
If passible provide uninterrupted wall area near table for a china cabinet
From formal area avoid views of bathroom and kitchen sink
2'-9" counter top height, 5'-8" max. cabinet shelf height
Provide easy to maintain kitchen equipment
Allow for flexibility of kitchen equipment to accommodate handicapp>ed
non-slip floor in kitchen area
O O cn r^
Table and chairs China cabinet (42")
Ventilation of stove
7' min. room width
Non-slip floors in kitchen area
Light colored countertops for contrast
Easy to clean walls
See other bedroom
Bed for guests
Provide storage space
Window placement should provide good light for reading
Possible use as extension of livingroom when not in use as a bedroom
Desk with chair
See other bedroom
If no window, ventilation required for possible air change every 5 minutes
Non-slip floor material
Accessible to a wheelchair
Door should open outward
Removeable cabinet under sink to allow for knee clearance
Grab bars provided
If provided, emergency call system accessible from tub
Use of contrast to define areas (edges of ) within bathroom
Non-slip surfaces within tub or shower
USER ACTIVITIES DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
Food storage Clothing Infrequently used items Provide extra food storage for those residents with limited mobility Storage should be easily accessible
1 KITCHEKJ |
\ 72 ' U: J
i | FURNITURE CONSIDERATIONS
CODE REQUIREMENTS STORAGE
AN ARCHITECTURAL THESIS
KATHRYN A. MCNALLY MAY 1985
EAST ALAMEPA AVENJUE
SITE ~ FIRST FLOOR
3. TWO BEDROOM- 920sq ft
C TWO BEDROOM-755sq ft
Within the introduction the question was asked: "Can an inner community be designed that would facilitate the strenghtening of ties within as well as without?". The issues were explored throught the process of designing a housing development inserted within an existing network of housing developments. Senior housing was chosen as a case study based on needs for a strong community system due to decreasing mobility and increasing dependence of the elderly.
Priorities had to be established as to which links between the various levels of community would be most benefical to the residents. Given the targeted age group of 65 years plus the development of inner community ties was considered to be the most important. Yet, the need for ties to the outside could not be regarded lightly. There was also concern that while providing a physical environment which encourages neighboring, privacy would be maintained. Residents should have a sense of control over their space.
Individual units within the project were clustered into small groups to break down the
perceived scale of the project. Entries were oriented to provide opportunities for neighboring.
The decision to provide semi-private outdoor space, as opposed to completely private space was based on the desire to encourage ties with 'back-yard' neighbors. The addition of screening or trellis work would increase privacy lost while maintaining the openness of those spaces.
Whereas community ties within can be strenghtened by the reduction of physical and visual barriers, as well as the creation of areas that promote neighboring, the ties without are more tenuous.
The choice to exclude the automobile from the interior of the development forced its consignment to the outer edge. As a result the central open space was set aside for pedestrian circulation and gathering while the outer edge became primarily automobile circulation, creating a barrier between the development and its neighbors.
Orientation of the primary front doors of the housing clusters were influenced by the requirement to orient the development to face its neighbors.
The practical need for close-in and sheltered parking for the intended residents created a situation that enhanced the physical barrier of the
automobiles. Carport structures were used to minimize the impact by allowing visual penetration to the housing beyond.
The ideal of close ties between all levels of communities should be weighed against many factors: the demographics of a given development; the surrounding developments; the size a community can reach and still be psycolog-ically comfortable; and, the balance between openness and security (especially important in mega-community systems). While equally strong ties between each level prove impractical to achieve much can and should be done to provide opportunity for those ties to exist. The future of cities which are perceived as fragmented (such as Aurora) could be much improved by physically creating the groundwork by which they could be pulled together.
leading causes of activity limitation among persons 65 and over. United States, 1961 to 1963
SrlM cnrorlc ccr-t1r (bl'ng ll*Utlo
ofii o> wmom Tiyiitt ir ,"ti;n;-
Source: National Center for Health Statistics, 1965, Vital and Health Statistics, Series 10, No. 17, p. 5.
Degree of limitation of activity due to chronic conditions, by age,
United States, 1961 to 1963 (percentage distribution)
Pei sons with one or more chronic conditions
Persons limitation in amount Unable
Age All persons with no chronic conditions Total With no 11m1tatlon of activity but not In major activity* or kind of major activity* to carry on major activity*
All ages 100.0 55.9 44.1 31.9 3.4 6.6 2.3
Under 17 100.0 80.1 19.9 17.8 1.1 0.8 0.2
17-44 100.0 52.5 47.5 39.3 3.1 4.5 0.6
45-64 100.0 35.9 64.1 43.7 5.9 11.6 2.8
65+ 100.0 19.0 81.0 32.3 7.3 25.9 15.5
Major activity refers to ability to work, keep house, or engage in school or preschool activities
National Center for Health Statistics, 1965, Vital and Health Statistics, Series 10, No. 17, p. 26 (adapted).
Persons with specified number of chronic conditions United States, 1957 to 1958 (per 100 persons)
lit*, of conditions All ages under 15 Age 15-44 Age 45-64 Aoe cl*
1 or more chronic conditions 39 19 39 58 75
Only 1 chronic condition 23 15 26 30 26
2 chronic conditions 9 3 9 16 21
3 or more chronic conditions 7 1 4 12 28
1 or nore chronic conditions 44 16 45 63 81
Only 1 chronic condition 23 13 26 27 27
2 chronic conditions 11 2 11 18 20
3 or more chronic conditions 10 1 8 18 34
includes chronic diseases and Impairments.
Splegelman, 19611, |\ 8, based on United States National Health Survey, 1959, Health Statistics, Series B. No. 11, p.2.
Rate per 1,000
Specific Impairments by age. United States, 1957 to 1958.
Except paralysis and absence
Source: Health Statistics, Washington, D.C.: Public Health Service, 1959.
(MEAN DIMENSIONAL DATA FOR CHAIRBOUND MAN)
(MEAN DIMENSIONAL DATA FOR CHAIRBOUND WOMAN)
REACH: AMBULANT STANDING
(MEAN DIMENSIONAL DATA FDR STANDING
WOMAN, AGE 60 PLUS)
REACH: AMBULANT SITTING (MEAN DIMENSIONAL DATA FDR SEATED WOMAN, AGE 60 PLUS)
slope = Y: X
where X is a level plane
Measurement of Curb Ramp Slopes
Sides of Curb Ramps
Built-Up Curb Ramp
(Source: ANSI A117.1-1980)
NON The automatic door reopening device is activated il ;in object losses Huoneh cither line A or line II. I.ine A ;nul line II repie>enl the vertie:il lout inns of the door reopening device not requiring contact.
lloistwny and Elevator Entrances
Alternate Locations of Panel with Center Opening Door
Alternate Locations of Panel with Side Opening Door
Fig 23 Car Controls
Usable Tread Width and Examples of Acceptable Nosings
Extension at Top of Run
Size and Spacing of Handrails and (Jrab Rars
Minimum Clear Width for Single Wheelchair
Minimum Clear Width for Two Wheelchairs
Wheelchair Turning Space
Turns around :in Olistruclion
Width of Accessible Route
Clear Floor Space
Clear Fluor Space in Alcoves
NOTI : ir x > 24 in 1610 mini, then ;in additional maneuvering clearance of 6 in t 150 mini shall be provided as shown.
NO 11 : If x > 15 in 1380 mini, then an additional manenverinv clearance of I 2 in 1305 nun) shall he provided as shown.
Additional Maneuvering Clearances for Alcoves
Minimum Clear Floor Space for Wheelchairs
Clear Doorway Width and Depth
Two Hinged Doors in .Series
NO IT: \s 12 in <3115 mml if door has hoth a closer and Infill
Front Approaches Swinging Doors
Pull Side Push Side
NO 11 \ = 36 in t1) 15 mm) minimum il y = 60 in 0525 mm):\ = 42 in 0065 mini ininiuumi if j -54 in 11370 nun).
NOTI.: y = 48 in 11220 mm) minimum if door has both a Inli'li and closer.
Hinge Side Approaches
NO 11 y = 54 in O 370 mml minimum if door has
NOTI-: v = 4K in f I 220 mml miuimiiiTi il door lias closer.
l-illell Side Approaches Swinging Doors
NOTI All doors in alcoves shall comply with the clearances lor front approaches.
Maneuvering Clearances at Doors
Ftotil Approach Sliding and Folding Doots
CM : A.
T O | V
Slide Side Apptoach Sliding and Folding Doois
l atch Side Approach Sliding and Folding Doors
NOTF All doors in alcoves shall comply with Ihe clearances for front approaches.
High Forward Reach Limit
NOTE: \ shall be <25 in <635 mm); / shall be >x. When x < 20 in (510 mm), (hen y skill be 4R in (1220 mm) maximum. When x Is 20 to 25 in (510 (o 635 mm), (hen y shall be 44 in (I I 20 mm) maximum.
Maximum Forward Reach over an Obstruction
Clear Floor Space Parallel Approach
Maximum Side Reach over Obstruction
Side Reach l imits
Fig. 6 Side Reach
Before Removal of Cabinets and Base
Cabinets and Base Removed and Height Alternatives
Counter Work Surface
Before Removal of Cabinets and Base
Cabinets and Base Removed and llei^lil Alleinatives
Fig 51 Kitchen Sink
24 min 610
1 p> c Â£ 8
With Seat in Tub
With Seat in T ub
With Seat at Mead of! ub
With Seat at Head of Tub
Crab Bars at Bathtubs
NOTE: The hatched area? are reinforced to receive grab bars.
Location of Grab Bart and Controls of Adaptable Bathtubs
SYMBOL M Y Shower controls
With Scat in Tub
<3 Shower head ^ Drain
Clear Floor Space at Bathtubs
With Seat at Head of Tub
36-in by 36-in (VI 5-mm by 915-mm) Stall
CO| co|Â§ & 3
30-in by 60-in (760 min by 1525-mm) Stall
Grab Bar?; at Shower Stalls
Shower Seal Design
36-in by 36-in (91 5-mm by 91 5-mm) Stall
J .. 2Jnai e<
f CM CO 815 6mtm o 2 n c co
30-in by 60-in (750-mm by 1525-mm) Stall
NO 11 The hutched ureas arc reinforced to receive prab bars.
Location of Grab Bars and Controls of Adaptable Showers
(91 5-mm by 91 5-mm) Stall
30-in by 60-in
(760-min by 1525-nnn) Stall
Shower Size and Clearances
Grab Bars at Water Closets
NOTI The hatched areas are reinforced to receive prah bars.
Reinforced Areas for Installation of Grab Bars Fig 47
Water Closets in Adaptable Bathrooms
MEAN AND EXTREMES OF TEMPERATURE: F
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
DAILY MAX. A3.5 A6.2 50.1 61.0 70.3 80.1 87.A 85.8 77.7 66.8 53.3 A6.2
DAILY MIN. 16.2 19.A 23.8 33.9 A3.6 51 .9 58.6 57.A A 7.8 37.2 25.A 18.9
MONTHLY MEAN 29.9 32.8 37.0 A7.5 57.0 66.0 73.0 71.6 62.8 52.0 39.A 32.6
RECORD HIGH 72 76 RA 85 96 10A 10A 101 97 88 79 7A
RECORD LOW -25 -30 -11 -2 22 30 A3 A1 20 3 -8 -18
NORMAL H DEGREE DAYS8 C 1088 902 868 525 253 80 0 0 120 A08 768 100A
0 0 0 0 0 110 2A8 208 5A 5 0 0
SOURCE: NOAA, Climate of the States,2nd Edition Vol. I a 65"F DECREE DAY BASE
MEAN --MIN. -
Temperatures are relatively mild. Any extremes, hot or cold, are of short duration.
Of significance are the large temperature swings between night and day.
Based on a 65F Degree Day base, there are only two months, July and August, which do not require heating.
MEAN AND EXTREMES OF PRECIPITATION: IN.
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUC SEP OCT NOV DEC
MEAN .61 .67 1.21 1.93 2.64 1 .93 1.78 1.29 1.13 1.13 .76 .43
MONTHLY MAX. 1.44 1.66 2.89 4.17 7.31 4.69 6.41 4.47 4.67 4.17 2.97 2.84
MONTHLY MIN. 0.01 0.01 0.13 0.03 0.06 0.10 0.17 0.06 T 0.05 0.01 0.03
MONTHLY MEAN SNOW 8.4 8.0 12.6 9.6 1.5 T 0.0 0.0 1 .9 3.8 7.6 6.5
MONTHLY MAX. SNOW 23.7 18.3 29.2 28.3 13.6 0.3 0.0 0.0 21.3 31.2 39.1 30.8
SOURCE: NOAA, Climate of the States, 2n<) Edition Vol. 1
The mean annual precipition equals 15.5 inches with most of the moisture occurring during the spring months. The winter months are normally the driest.
Snow has occurred in every month except July and August.
RELATIVE HUMIDITY: 1
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
MONTHLY MEAN MAX. 5AM 62 67 69 69 70 72 71 69 71 65 69 66
MONTHLY MEAN MIN. 5PM 48 43 41 34 37 37 36 34 36 36 50 52
AVERAGE 55 55 55 51.5 53.5 54.5 53.5 51.5 53.5 50.5 59.5 59
SOURCE: NOAA, Climate of the States,2nd Edition Vol. I
MF.AN AND EXTREMES OF WINDS
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
MEAN WIND SPEED (MPII) 9.2 9.4 10.1 10.4 9.6 9.2 00 Ul 8.2 8.2 8.2 8.7 9.0
PREVAILING DIRECTION S S S S S S s S S S S S
MAX. WIND SPEED (MPII) 53 49 53 56 43 47 56 42 47 45 48 51
DIRECTION MAX. WIND N NW NW NW SW S SW SW NW NW W NF.
SOURCE: NOAA, Climate of the States,2nH Edition Vol. I
During all seasons, South is the prevailing wind direction. This wind is a result of nighttime drainage winds down the South Platte Valley. North and Northeast winds are most frequent during late morning and afternoon hours.
The mean annual wind speed is 9.1 MPII. April has the highest average wind speed, 10.A MPII.
AVERAGE HOURLY WIND SPEED (MPII) AND DIRECTION
SUNSHINE AND CLOUD DATA
JAN FF.B MAR APR MAY IUN JUL AUG SEP C'CT NOV DEC
PERCENT OF POSSIBLE SUNSHINE 72 71 70 66 65 71 71 72 74 73 66 68
NUMBER OF CLEAR DAYS 10 8 8 7 6 9 9 10 13 13 11 1 1
NUMBER OF PARTLY CLOUDY DAYS 10 9 10 10 12 13 16 14 9 10 9 10
NUMBER OF CLOUDY DAYS 11 11 13 13 13 8 6 7 8 8 10 10
AVERAGE HOURS SUNSHINE 218 219 260 262 290 318 323 307 278 252 199 198
SOURCE: NOM, Climate of the States,2nd Edition Vol. 1
Annually Denver receives an aver age of 70% of total possible sun shine. The clearest days occur In the fall while the cloudiest occur in the spring.
CLOUDY PT1.Y CLOUDY
AVERAGE DAILY SOLAR AND SKY RADIATION: BTU/SQ. FT
JAN FED MAR APR MAY JUN JUL ADG SEP OCT NOV DEC
DAILY AVERAGE 840 1127 1530 1879 2135 2351 2273 2044 1727 1300 883 732
SOURCE: IKS. Dept. of Energy, Passive Solar Design Handbook Vol. 3
SOLAR POSITION AND INTENSITY; SOLAR HEAT GAIN FACTORS* FOR AON LAT.
Solar Solar PoaltIon nirrct Normal Solar llrat Tain ractora, Btnh/* ft Solar
A.N. Alt. Ar limit It Irradiation, PtuS/nq ft N *ir sr S S3' MV Nor. r.H.
5 4.7 117.3 71 in 71 70 A 1 1 1 1 7 7
A 14." 100.4 154 47 147 1S1 70 12 17 1? 17 39 A
June 7) 7 76 .0 99.7 715 37 177 707 127 71 70 70 70 97 5
a 37.4 0.7 74A 79 ISA 715 157 79 76 76 76 153 4
9 46.6 60.7 767 31 113 192 )4| 45 31 31 31 701 3
in 5. AS.6 777 IS A7 I6S 14 69 36 35 35 737 7
II 69.7 41.9 77A 37 40 60 116 96 41 17 37 760 1
I? 71.5 0.0 77 3 1 41 71 95 71 41 36 76 7 17
Half Oar Total* 74? 714 mi 610 111 197 161 160 1171
VINTF.6 0 5.5 53.0 66 7 7 67 63 49 3 7 7 6 4
9 14.0 41.9 717 9 10 135 705 151 17 9 9 39 1
Or r 71 10 70.7 79.4 7A1 14 ll 111 737 710 55 14 14 77 7
It 25.0 15.2 77 IA 1A 56 717 74? 120 IA If 103 1
17 76.A 0.0 794 17 17 16 17? 753 177 16 17 113 17
Naif Oa r Total* 49 54 360 631 761 773 50 49 76?
BearIn ted from ASWNAf.
"llifilltnoli pf fundinmlit*, 177
Total (aim hd Rntnn for l)S (1/6 in.) (hrM glnn*. *** on a ground rdlrrKnrr of 0.20
RANGE OF SOLAR ANGLES FOR 40 N LAT
Solar Time Winter Solatlce Dec. 21 Equinoxes (Mar. 21/Sept. 21) Simmer Solstice (June 21)
Altitude Azimuth A11 itude Azimuth Altitude Azimuth
ft:00 a.m. 0* -121.3*
5:00 a.m. 4.2" -117.3"
6:00 a.m. 0. * -90.0* 14. B" -108.4"
7:00 a.m. 0. -58.7 11.4 -80.2* 26.2 -99.7"
8:00 a.m. 5.5* -53.0* 22.5* -69.6" 17.4" -90.7"
9:00 a.m. 14.0* -41.9" 32.8" -57.3 41.9" -80.2*
10:00 a.m. 20.7* -29.ft* ftl.6* -41.9" 59.8" -65.8"
11:00 a.m. 25.0* -15.2" ft7. 7* -22.6" 69.2" -41.2"
12:00 noon 26.5* 0.0* 50.0* 0.0* 73.4* 0.0*
SOURCE: Denver Planning Office, Planning with Climate and Solar Energy
SHADOW LENGTHS FOR SELECTED SLOPES AND TIMES: FEET/FOOT OF OBSTRUCTION
Solar il Level Ground 5X S* Slope 5Z N Slope 5Z W Slope 5Z E Slope
Winter 10:00 a.m. 2.7 2.4 3.0 2.8 2.5
Solst ice 9:00 a.m. 4.0 3.5 4.7 4. 7 3.5
Equinoxes 10:00 a.m. 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.1
9:00 a.m. 1.6 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.5
Summer 9:00 a.m. 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.8
Solstice 8:00 a.m. 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.2
7:00 a.m. 2.1 2.1 2.0 2. 1 1.9
Slope is downward to the south at a rate of 5 feet per 100 feet of horizontal distance.
SOURCE: Denver Planning Office, Planning with Climate and Solar Energy
SOLAR ANGLES, SEASONAL VARIATION. DENVER I40*N|
PLAN OF SOLAR ANGLES
ZONING: PUD R-2 PERMITTED USES Multiple family dwellings
Public and parochial schools Public parks and playgrounds see sec.41-201 for others
DENSITY Minimum lot area of 2700 sq.ft, per dwelling
PERMITTED ACCESSORY Personal service shops
USES Meeting or recreational rooms
Must be within same structure as primary use, not exceed 10% of total floor area and not exceed 50% of any building occupancy.
1 I 1 1 1 1
SITU6TUEES 1 r%ce.
i i I i i J
b AUR 7
ZONING (cont'd) FRONTAGE & SETBACK
STREET MINIMUM STANDARDS
sec.41-208 AUR sec.41-209 AUR
Layout of streets should discourage out- sec.41-611 AUR
side traffic and cause minimal fragmentation of development.
Number of dwelling units (D.U.) served determined by the number lying between two primary points of access to the PUD.
Residential Cul-de-Sac 1- 10 D.U. | f-
Local Street 11- 50 D.U. | f 1 -p-i 1
Collector 51- 200 d.u. | r , r 40' 1
ri>-cev &Xkjm.-TD-zaesiee.: no eBpuieEMEkrro
h r HEIGHT: TALUB3T
ZONING (cont'd) PARKING LOTS
\ space each efficiency unit % space each one bedroom unit 1 space each two bedroom unit
iwit? tjreucTUCÂ£s if
6' C*Â£Â£ieiL TO A&UTTIkfc* EESIPeMTIAL AFTA
SCZEE-kllkiG AMP WASTE
A-3 for rooms used for community gatherings Table 5-
R-l for apartments
ALLOWABLE FLOOR AREA & MAXIMUM HEIGHT
TABLE NO. 5-CBASIC ALLOWABLE FLOOR AREA FOR BUILDINGS ONE STORY IN HEIGHT*
(In Square Feel)
TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION
1 _ ! ,v
OCCUPANCY F.R F.R. ONE HOUR - N 1 ONE HOUR N NT ONEHOUR N
A-l L'ulimited 29.900 Not Permitted
A) 2 2.1 Unlimited 29.900 13.500 Not Permitted | 13,500 Not Permitted 13.500 10.5(8) Not Permitted
A) 3 4 Unlimited 29.900 13.500 9.1(8) 13,500 9.100 13.500 10,500 6.(88)
m i:- Unlimited 39,900 1 B,0*)0 I2.(8X) | 18.(88) 12,(88) |H.f88) 14.000 8.(88)
B-4 Unlimited 59.900 27,000 18.(88) 27,(88) 18,(88) 27.(88) 21.(88) 12.(88)
t Unlimited 45.200 20,200 13,500 20,2(8) 13,500 20.2(8) 15.700 9,1(8)
III 12 15.000 12,4(8) 5.*00 3,700 5,600 3,700 5,6(8) 4,4(8) 2,5(8)
If) 3-4-5 Unlimited 24.800 11,200 7,500 11,200 7.500 11,200 8.800 5.100
1)1 2 Unlimited 15.100 (.800 Not Permitted 6,800 Not Permitted 6.8(8) 5.2(8) Not Permitted
1-3 Unlimited 15.100 Not Permitted
MJ See Chapter 11
R 1 Unlimited 1 29.900 13.500 9,100' | 13,500 9.100' 113.5(8) | 10.500 6.000'
R 3 Unlimited
'For open parking garage*, see Section 709 See Seel ion 903.
See Scclion 1002 fb)
4For agricultural buildings. sec also Appendix Chapter 11 'Ian limitation* ami exception*. sec Section 1202 tbt 'For multistory building*. *ce Section *0* tbt
N -No requirement* for Fire resistance F.R. l ire resistive II.T. Heavy Timber
TABLE NO. 5-D MAXIMUM HEIGHT OF BUILDINGS
TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION
OCCUPANCY II P ' 1 II IV || V
F.R || F.R. | ONE HOUR | N flONE HOUR N || H T. H ONE HOUR | N
MAXIMUM MEIOHT IN FEET
Unlimited || 160 | 65 | 55 55 || 65 || SO | 40
MAXIMUM HEIGHT IN STORIES
A-l Unlimited 4 Not Permitted
A)2-2.1 Unlimited 4 2 Not Permitted 2 Not Permitted 2 2 Not Permitted
A) 3-4 Unlimited | 12 2 1 2 1 2 2 1
III 1-2-3 1 Unlimited | 12 4 2 4 2 4 ) 2
B-4 Unlimited 12 4 2 4 2 4 3 2
t Unlimited 4 2 1 2 1 2 2 I
HI Unlimited 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
III 2-3-45 Unlimited 5 2 1 2 1 2 2 1
II Unlimited 3 1 Not Permitted 1 Not Permitted 1 1 Not Permitted
1-2 Unlimited 3 2 Not Permitted 2 Not Permitted 2 2 Not Permitted
13 Unlimited 2 Not Permitted '
R 1 Unlimited R 12 4 r 1 * 3 2'
R 3 Unlimited II 3 3 _u : LU 3
'I'or open parking garage*, see Set lion 709 7See Seciton 802 (c)
'See Section 1002 lb)
4Fr agricultural building*, sec also Appentlix Chapter 11
N No requirements for fire resistance F.R. Tire resistive II.T.- Heavy Timber
A UBC UBC
OCCUPANCY (cont'd) WALL & OPENING A-3: fire resistance of exterior walls; Table 5-A UBC
PROTECTION 1 hr. less than 40 ft.
2 hr. less than 5 ft. openings in exterior walls; not permitted less than 5 ft. protected less than 10 ft.
R-l: fire resistance of exterior walls;
1 hr. less than 5 ft. openings in exterior walls; not permitted less than 5 ft.
1 hr. between A-3 and R-l
Table 5-B UBC
2 Assembly areas,"less-concentrated areas", Table 33-A
at least 50 occupants
2 Hotels and apartments, at least 10 occupants
Total width in feet = occupancy load 3303-b UBC
Per story occupancy load of that story plus 50% occupancy load of adjacent story that exits through that story plus 25% of next story.
If only two exits, place apart at a distance equal to not less than % the length of the maximum overall diagonal dimension of the building or area to be served measured in a straight line between exits.
150' in a building without an automatic sprinkler system
200' in a building with an automatic sprinkler system
Rooms may have one exit through an adjoining or intervening room as long as direct, unobstructed and not greater than max. distance allowed. (Rooms in dwelling units exempted.)
3' minimum width 32" minimum clearance 4' maximum leaf width
44" minimum width, 10 or more occupants 3305-a UBC
Exits required at each end of corridor.
20' maximum lenght of dead-end corridor. 3305-e UBC
44" minimum width, 50 or more occupants 8" maximim riser allowed 9" minimum tread allowed
3306-b UBC 19-23,b-2 AUR 19-23,b-2 AUR
44" minimum width (width of stairs) 3306-g UBC
4* maximum size required
12' maximum vertical distance between landings 3306-i UBC
30"-34" required height above nosing 3306-j UBC
Handrails required at each side of stairs.
Intermediate handrails are required at stairs 88" wide or greater.
Handrails not required for private stairs of less than 4 risers or less than 30" high.
EXITS (cont'd) SIGNAGE
Required exits or change of direction of sec.19-23,6 AUR
an exit way shall be marked with an illuminated exit sign.
At least one elevator serving all floors should 5013-h, UBC
accofTiriodate a wheelchair.
Elevator lobbies on each floor need fire separa- sec.9-18,h-1 AUR
tion from the remainder of the building, not less than one-hour fire resistive construction.
i 50" I
! ^ l
I JO7' t
Guardrails shall not be less than 42" high. 1711 UBC
Openings on an open guardrail or stair railing shall not allow the passage of a 6" sphere.
1 vertical to 12 horizontal is maximum slope 3307,c UBC
allowed for handicapped access
Landings required every 5' of rise for slopes 3307,d UBC
greater than 1:15
Handrails required for ramps steeper than 1:15
NET FLOOR AREA
HEIGHT & WIDTH
LIGHT & VENTILATION
130 sq.ft, min. at least one habitable room 150 sq.ft, min. dual purpose room
cooking/living or cooking/sleeping 70 sq.ft, min. sleeping
50 Z MIN.
2 2 7' MIN 2 5 i- 27" MIU.
------ wet cuf&x
Any portion of a room having a ceiling height less than 5' shall not be considered as contributing to minimum area requirements.
AREA . 8% AREA ..
window /skylights room floor
40% of windows in each room shall be openable
Each dwelling unit shall have at least one water sec.19-20,c-1 AUR closet, lavatory and bathtub or shower.
FIRE FIRE ACCESS ACCESS 36' easement required 26' easement, parallel parking space excluded Access roads shall be located within 150' of sec.16-28,b AUR applicable building entrance.
ENERGY MIN. STANDARDS Min. insulation standards for residential build- sec.9-138,1 AUR ings: R-ll for all exterior walls and floors over unheated spaces R-19 for exterior ceilings All windows double glazed as well as sliding glass doors All exterior doors weather stripped
AIA Research Corporation; Regional Guidelines for Building Passive Energy Conserving Homes, HUD/DOE; Washington; 1980
American National Standards Institute, Inc.; American National Standard Specifications for Making Buildings and Facilities Accessible to and Usable by Physically Handicapped People; A117.1-1980; Washington, D.C.; 1980
Barker-Rinker-Seacat & Partners; Marion Heights Programming Document; Denver; 1981
Beck, William C. and Ralph H. Meyer, Editors; Health Care Environment: The User's Viewpoint, chapt. 9; CRC Press, Inc.; Boca Raton, Florida; 1982
Butler, Alan, Christine Oldman and Richard Wright; Sheltered Housing for the Elderly; A Critical Review; University of Leeds; England; 1979
Center for Community Development and Design; Elderly Housing: A Design Proposal; University of Colorado at Denver; Denver; 1978
Central Mortgage and Housing Corporation; Housing the Elderly; Canada; 1975
Denver Planning Office; Planning with Climate and Solar Energy; City and County of Denver; Denver
Field, Minna; Aging with Honor and Dignity; Charles C. Thomas; Springfield, 111.; 1968
Gelwicks, Louis E. and Robert J. Newcomer; Planning Housing Environments for the Elderly; National Council on the Aging, Inc.; Washington, D.C.; 1974
Horrobin, Peter J., Editor; Housing the Elderly;
MTP Construction; Lancaster, England; 1974
Housing and Home Finance Agency; What's New in Housing the Elderly; USGPO: Washington, D.C.,1960
Howell, Sandra C.; Designing for Aging: Patterns of Use; The MIT Press; Cambridge, Mass.; 1980
Kirk, Larry; Accent on Access; American Society of Landscape Architects Foundation; 1975
Musson, Noverre and Helen Heusinkveld; Buildings for the Elderly; Reinhold Publishing Corportation; New York, N.Y.; 1963
Myerhoff, Barbara; Number Our Days; E.P. Dutton; New York, N.Y.; 1978
Ramsey & Sleeper; Architectural Graphic Stan-dards; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; New York;
Rinehart, Arley, John Wulfmeyer and Richard Henry; Housing for the Elderly; The Housing Authority, City and County of Denver; 1976
Steinfeld, Edward, Project Dir.; Barrier-Free Design for the Elderly and the Disabled; Pari: Three: Programmed Workbook (also Part One); Syracuse University; Syracuse, N.Y.; 1975
Townsend, Claire; Old Age: The Last Segregation; Grossman Publishers; New York, N.Y.; 1971
Uniform Building Code; 1982
Weiss, Joseph Douglas; Better Buildings for the Aged; Hopkinson and Blake; New YOrk, N.Y.; 1969
Sister Marie DeLourds, Director, Holy Family Plaza, October 9, 1984
David Hlavac, Colorado Medical Society,
October 2, 1984
Mark McCormick, Barker-Rinker-Seacat & Partners, October 29, 1984
Edward D. Pierson, Chairman, St. John's Committee on Housing for the Aging, September, 1984