The Littleton riverfront

Material Information

The Littleton riverfront a test case
Pecka, Jeffrey L
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
37 unnumbered leaves : illustrations, maps, plans (including 1 folded in pocket) ; 22 x 28 cm


Subjects / Keywords:
Open spaces -- Colorado -- Littleton ( lcsh )
River channels -- Colorado -- Littleton ( lcsh )
Channels -- South Platte River ( lcsh )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )


Includes bibliographical references.
General Note:
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Landscape Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
Jeffrey L. Pecka.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
09216855 ( OCLC )
LD1190.A77 1979 .P42 ( lcc )

Full Text

The Littleton Riverfront-A Test Case

Member,Working & General Committee H. DUANE BLOSSOM, ASLA, LANDSCAPE ARCHITECT Director of Landscape Architecture College of Environmental Design J University of Colorado at Denver 629-2650
Member,Working & General Committee \ ^ ^ WILLIAM J. FRANKLIN, CITY PLANNER Community Development Department City of Littleton Littleton, Colorado 795-3754
Member, General Committee JAMES P. KNOPF, ASLA. LANDSCAPE ARCHITECT Assistant Professor of Landscape Architecture College of Environmental Design University of Colorado at Denver 629-2650
i i \ i
Member,General' Committee / Outside Professional ANDREW C. McMINIMEE, AIP, DIRECTOR of COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT 795-3748 Community Development Department City of Littleton Littleton, Colorado
Member,General Committee / non-L.A. Environmental Design Faculty j tnOi s -rhesi's Jurisdictional Contact / Advisor 1 /L | i /97f \ L-0 Jurisdictional Contact / Advisor | pc/fi- \ DANIEL J. SCHLER, PH. D.. DIRECTOR of COMMUNITY SERVICES DEPT. Professor of Urban and Regional Planning College of Environmental Design University of Colorado at Denver 629-2772
MICHAEL J. TUPA, LANDSCAPE ARCHITECT Staff Landscape Architect District 6, Colorado Division of Highways Denver, Colorado 757-9372
BILL WOODCOCK, LANDSCAPE ARCHITECT Superintendent of Planning South Suburban Metropolitan Recreation and Parks District Littleton, Colorado 795-6531
^mber, Working & General Committee ( ) DANIEL B. YOUNG, ASLA, LANDSCAPE ARCHITECT Associate Professor of Landscape Architecture College of Environmental Design | University of Colorado at Denver 629-2638 I


This document is the culmination of one year of research, analysis, design and presentation involving the Platte River Corridor through Littleton, Colorado. This doc ument is the second of a set of publications, the first being The Littleton Riverfront, published by the Department of Community Development, City of Littleton, Colorado.
Platte River channelization was proposed as early as the year 1950, and the behavior of the l iver has been under detailed study since 1945. The City of Littleton has i expanded on an upstream reach of the river with a proposal for a non-structural solution to the flood problem. This solution is currently under development with the cooperation of the Corps of Engineers and will eventually become Littleton's Flood Plain Park.
This reach of the river, due to limitations and constraints is currently being planned as a structural or soft bank channel.
In lesponse to very realistic needs, the City of Littleton, Colorado, has produced a document entitled The Littleton Riverfront which is essentially considered a master plan for riverfront redevelopment. The primary reason for publishing this document is to provide both guidance and documentation for administration of plans generated in response to a grant from The Small Cities Program sponsored by HUD. This document, available separately, details extensive research and planning that has been necessary to adequately manage the needs of a growing community in the face of multiple pressures generated from both outside and within.
"This... is about the most intensively used and most often abused resource on Earth the river of the urban region, "
Roy Mann iri Rivers in the City



1 MAY 1945

" I loads are one of the most dramatic interactions between man and his environment, emphasizing both the sheer force of natural events and man's inadequate efforts to control them."
Many issues face the City of Littleton today, and in the decade ahead, and new solutions must be found to ever-tightening economic constraints and conflicting land use and transportation demands. Increased awareness and educational levels
are pressing for a less polluted and congested urban environment, and demand for recreation continues to rise. In particular, the need for recreation and open space in close proximity to urban centers will become more important as "the countryside" is pushed farther and farther off on the urban fringe.
Likewise, major river channelization Is becoming an accepted solution to the devastating floods that sometimes engulf our western rivers and the cities that invariably sit astride the eventual floodplain. Just such channelization is planned for The South Platte River, the major drainage feature of the entire region, in order to protect not only Littleton, but also Denver and numerous other communities situated downstream. Faced with eventual channelization, the community has chosen to view this as an opportunity rather than a problem, and is actively moving toward steps to utilize those lands actively removed from floodplain restriction.
Along similar lines, the park districts along the Platte are gearing up for a new era of commuter bike and pedestrian trails, a regional open space system and very elaborate linkage systems to bind the region's parks into a cohesive system of open
space and recreational sites.
Here then is an opportunity, as well as a problem, for the "Master Plan" that Littleton has produced is largely a planning document based upon the best available data; yet not quite a physical plan, with highly coordinated land uses and accurately detailed recreation sites on land that occupies the very heart of the historic City.
Roy Ward in Hoods

U 3 W A T ( R WA' 3 r.AtHlMl'NT STATION
"The riverside is a unique and irreplacable resource where, at the interface between land and water, air and sun, some of the most productive plant associations on earth can be found."
Roy Mann in Rivers In The City

" Nature is blamed for failings that are man's, uiu! well run rivers have to change their plans.
rrom he poem "Water" by Sit Alan Herbert
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"Rivers and seashores are favorable to open space and are frequently being reclaimed from earlier industrial and commercial uses."
August Hecksher in Open Spaces

" People find in meeting places the chance
to spnse what is going on, to test the mood of the >(" niiinty, to mingle and communicate."
August Heck'dipr in Open Spaces
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The process utilized in completion of this project is illustrated on the opposite
i ho methodology used for completion of analysis is a hybrid of existing methods available to the profession of Landscape Architecture. Simply stated it is a method
which maps site constraints and potentials at an identical scale and schematically
overlays these elements to produce a composite map.

C Accept Situation
Define Project, Goals .Process, Problem Accept Given Parameters n
Suivey & Inventory Delineate Background & Importance Build Data Base
O Analyze
Identify Methodologies Identify Iseueft, Problems, Precepts identify Critical Areas, Relate Goals Perform Analysis Functions Delineate Agencies & Participants
O Define
Limits,Time, Scope, Scale Resolution, Detail, Accuracy Product

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Precepts, Concepts,Themes, Image Define Sub-Areas&Components Develop Hypothesis
Explore Alternatives A
Define Impacts
C Select
Overall Concept Final Hypothesis Match Solutions to Problems Format


Develop Conceptual Master Plan Refine Supportive Data J?
Develop Impiomentatlon Strategy Presentation/Documontotlon/Publlcatlon/ Distribution
k--------O Evaluate
Public Presentation
Test Hypothesis & Concept
Evaluate the Evolved Design

Existing planning for river channelization through Littleton, Colorado provides no mechanism for realistically fitting the altered river environment into the long term land use for the area based upon the principle of highest and best use of the land. In a more general manner, the problem may be stated as the difficulty of fitting an untamed natural force through a city with all of its political jurisdictions, economic pressure* and special Interest groups,
Application of the Problem Solving Process and available analytical methodologies should provide the optimum solution to the complex physical, political, jurisdictional and economic problems presented by river channelization. This process is one of "balancing" economic versus ecological versus social versus cultural aspects to take maximum opportunity of new situations created by flood plain mitigation and flood control.
"The Plan"
"The Flood"
"Political Resolution" "Economic Use"
"Urban Runoff/Flood Control" "Circulation and Bridges" "Recreation"
"Recreation & Parks" j

The River

Standard Project Flood


This section will briefly describe the physical characteristics of the riverfront area. Such factors as soil types and drainage may impose certain development restrictions. The summary of the proposed flood control project On Little's Creek will explain how some of these restrictions will be alleviated.
Elevations in the study area range from 5300' along the South Platte River, just west of West Belleview Avenue at the South Santa Fe Drive intersection, to approximately 5370' in the area of Little's Creek where it crosses the mainline railroad tracks.
Generally, soils in the study area are categorized as Alluvial land Nunn association: deep, nearly level, mainly loamy and sandy soils-, on flood plains and terraces." A soil association is described by the Arapahoe County Soil Survey as follows: "... a landscape that has a distinct proportional pattern of soils and at least one minor soil, and it is named for the major soils. The soils in one association may occur in another, but in a different pattern."
The Alluvial land Nunn association within the study area lies in a 136 2 mile wide band, centrally divided by the South Platte River. The area is primarily composed of Edgewater loam, wet alluvial land and Nunn loam. Edgewater loam and wet alluvial land are deep, poorly drained soils that occur along major streams. These soils are characterized by high water tables, severe wind erosion unless suitably protected, and flooding. These factors are severely limiting for land uses other than agricultural or recreational purposes. Channel improvements to the South Platte River and Little's Creek will eliminate the restriction due to flood hazard, but development of the area will require particular attention to surface drainage and ground cover and other additional erosion control techniques.
" The riverside is a unique and irreplacable resource where, at the interface between land and water, air and sun, some of the most productive plant associations on earth can be found."
Roy Mann in Rivers In The City

Rough and Ready Flour Mill and Mill Race in 1910. (Photo Courtesy of Littleton Historical Museum)
The Nunn loam is located on uplands and terraces adjacent to the South Platte River. This soil is deep, well drained and has a moderate to high water holding capacity. Wind erosion is somewhat severe in some unprotected areas. Limitations to non-agricultural uses for this land are slight to moderate. This soil association is the only type encountered in the development of this project. See map on facing page. Also, south of the project area, within the City of Littleton's floodplain Park, there are considerable amounts of extractable gravel deposits.

PROPOSFD R* CPf AT ION Pi AN imtt. T_/ *Ui
Proposed Recreation Plan (Corps)

The River

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South Suburban Metropolitan Recreation and Park District

Recommended Plan (Corps)

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Surrounding Land Use

Site Areas


Site Analysis

Traditional site analysis functions were performed utilizing the schematic overlay method. Potentials and constraints become fairly evident when political and economic factors are taken into account.
The site itself is a highly malleable situation with the repetetive floods and their effects adding, molding and removing land and landform at will. The channelization will remove some of this malleability and stabilize the riverfront environment for higher uses than the existing abandoned buildings and junk infested swamps. The most important aspect of the site that will not change is the high degree of visibility that the lowness of tiie site provides to all surrounding lands. Viewshed function is an important aspect of this open space corridor, and any development should be visually compatible with a quality image and an overall feel of green space and large scale recreation.
The projected land use plan and political restrictions were generated during the preparation of the preceding document The Littleton Riverfront
Farh layering of analysis is presented here in schematic overlay form.
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"The formal (design) process begins with an understanding of the persons for whom the site is being planned and a definition of what their role will be in creating or deciding the features of the plan."
Kevin Lynch in Site Planning
"Next comes an analysis of the situation; a study of the site itself, and also of the whole structure of power, value and technology within which the work must be carried out."
Kevin Lynch in Site Planning
" Finally a design is created a form that the site site will be given to fulfill the program."
Kevin Lynch in Site Planning

" A city's open spaces are capable of evoking in
the public a strong sense of possessiveness and a desire for involvement."
August Hecksher in Open Spaces


Existing Land Ownership,Leases,Easements

Vehicular Circulation and Acceaa


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Existing Flood Plain

Existing Surface Water

Existng Canopy Vocation

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West Main St.
Dredge Spoil Disposal Zones(Prioritized)
West Bowles Avenue
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Visual Anaysis 1

Visual Analysis 2

Visual Analysis 3


DI-VI 1.01 'Ml is! I CONCEPT
lht; development concept is one of paired recreational and commercial development based upon the potentials and constraints of each portion of the site. The primary development theme is based upon the hypothesis that the river, and the riverfront, can piovide an urban edge condition or buffer for intensive commercial development that has advantages for both.
The recreational limitations posed upon the portion of the site west of the newly constructed river channel will not only fit both corridor and neighborhood needs, but will also accomodate limited amounts of dredge spoil to provide a better riverside environment.
The recreational and open space lands then, provide a perfect viewshed and aesthetic counterpoint to the intense commercial development on the "downtown" side of the river. Economic analysis proves, that this site must perform commercial functions in order to provide an "anchor" for this corner of downtown economic redevelopment. To take this "103% corner" away from the commercial sector would not only be deti imental to the business community and tax base, but might also overload the area with parklands in such a way that vandalism and blight would begin to occur.
A maximum amount of recreational amenity is provided which along with the site surveillance provided by a 7 story Hotel should bring a focus of attention and vitality to the site that will combat the current appearance of blight and abandonement.
The proposed recreation modes are matched to both national and regional recreation surveys for both type and quantity. The quality of the recreational development will largply bo dependent upon budgets and aesthetic character of the entire trail corridor.
The semi-formal character of the parklands should be a good counter-point to the wild character of the reservoir/habitat area and the more formal "renaissance" type of character found at the site containing the major hotel.
" The traditional park is often in trouble, being in the wrong part of the city or of a size difficult to maintain and patrol. While such problems are worked on, newer forms of open space must be imaginatively developed. These may include pedestrian and bicycle routes, waterfront areas, walkways through historic areas, or in the central core... "
August Hecksher in
Open Spaces
" The general rule in regard to urban open space is that it must be used. Emptiness is the curse of open space as boredom is the curse of leisure. "
:\ August Hecksher in Open Spaces

" very site, natural or man-made, is to some (tern. unique, a web of things and activities. That v/"!) must be undei stood: it imposes limitations;
'! r'-ulains new possibilities."
Kevin I ynch in Site Planning
Hotel development, while contingent upon final access points and the eventual economic packaging should retain a quality image, particularly with respect to the handling of parking, public transportation modes and access to the river.
A concept of this sort is not at all new on the Continent of Europe, but American planning seldom allows for a large parcel such as this along a prime river oriented amenity such as the Platte and associated riverfront lands.
"the image not only makes society, society continually remakes the image."
Kenneth Boulding in The Image

Proposed Land Uso Plan



envimmnmlnial impacts
11m- benefit-cost ratio of the proposed river channelization is already described in extensive detail in The Final Revision to the Chatfield Lake, Colorado Environmental Statement South Platte River Chatfield Dam to Denver'.'
Obviously, the overall reduction of floods and flood effects is both beneficial and desirable to on-stream and downstream communities. The major identified detrimental Impacts of flood control are alteration of habitat, relocation of existing uses, the expense of channel construction, the expense of bridge reconstruction or in some cases, modification, and channel degradation. Recommended measures such as low profile gabion structures and fish habitat boulders are commendable in terms ol what channelization does to the existing habitat, but 5000 cfs flows on a regular basis preclude much in-channel detailing.
The additional impacts of the channelization; those of spoil disposal are not addressed in the current environmental statement. The riparian environment is at least as sensitive and valuable as the in-channel environment, and measures to protect or re-build this area should go hand-in-hand with channel planning.
The proposed conceptual master plan retains fish habitat in the Centennial Well/ Reservoir system if not in a flowing river. The depth and influent seepage of the ponds should maintain cold water species of fish as well as providing open water for water fowl and other riparian species. The safety fencing should be retained to eliminate urban predators from nesting grounds, and limited fisherman access to the site could be controlled by South Suburban Metropolitan Recreation and Park Dish id through the use of a sportsman's club or subscription basis. The reshaped ponds should provide warm water and marsh areas as well for a full mix of habitat in an attempt to develop a fully harmonious ecological system.
The proposed parklands should be extensively planted with desirable flora which
" The fresh-water marshes are also indispensable, as are the floodplains; both are prime habitats for wildlife, aquatic species, and birds. The nutrients produced in the inland wetlands are also the foundation of food cycles..."
Roy Mann in Rivers In The City

" There clearly is a desparate need for profes-i' :nils who are conservationists by instict, but wiu care not only to preserve but to create and inu.m\ they must be workmen who are instinc-tivoly mV rested in the physical and biological sciences, and who seek this information to in'.er-pose Iheir creative skills upon the land. The i andscape Architect meets these requirements. "
Ian McHarg in
Desk]'} Witii Nature
will upgrade the presently existing narrow spectrum flora consisting largely of Plains Cottonwood, Siberean Elm and weeds.
Proposed species include the Colorado Blue Spruce and Bald Cyprus, two conifer species which tolerate wet feet, and which will provide better cover for song birds and gamebird species; berry species such as Mulberry, Serviceberry, Hackberry and Snowberry; Cherries, Plums and Chokecherry; Rushes, Asparagus and Plantain; Sumac, Alder and Birch; Currant* Dogwood and Russian Olive; and larger species such as Cottonwood, Willow, Swamp Red Oak, Common Apple and Inland Boxelder.
The proposed pond reconfiguration includes islands for optimum, predator free nesting and breeding grounds. Resnaping of these ponds should not decrease the potential value of the site as a reservoir, and the quantity of stored water should remain essentially the same.
The drainage and grading concept allows for critical drainage out of Bowles Grove Park and surrounding lands via constructed drainage structures with one-way flaps. Drainage is desirable from behind the levee system, but some ponding of urban runoff during flood events is desirable as well, and this ponding will effect both a slowed release from public land as well as performing aquifer recharge functions.
The proposed project provides additional benefits beyond flood control functions. The recreational aspect of the entire corridor is widely accepted. The recreational potential of this site is high indeed, and maximum recreational development should occur on a phased basis over the next thirty years.
Overall, the tradeoffs involved in channelization can balance out as beneficial to the community if the Riparian environment is developed in a positive and environmentally sensitive way.


Ixonnmic considerations are of utmost importance to a project of this scope and s< ale, Particulars of economic analysis will have to be pursued as part of a separate document closer to the actual date of implementation, but certain relevant points can be piesented at this stage of development.
The costs of channelization, while not fixed, are primarily within the domain of the it. S, Army Corps of Engineers, as long as cooperating agencies and communities take care to prevent flagrant land abuse along the proposed channelization. Of primal y concern would be premature and conflicting inflow of low quality development that could cloud land use issues and elevate property costs. Secondarily, the issue of river-bank gravel mining is warming up with regard cost versus benefits to both the public and the consumer. Yes gravel and sand are becoming more scarce in the Urban front Range Corridor, but with such a high ratio of mineral" to ovei burden, huge "holes' are beginning to occur that might require twice the value of extracted mineral to (ill in order to provide levees and back of bank land uses sometime in the near future.
Along this line, the entire issue of spoil disposal enters the realm of both mine reclamation and mineral extraction. The proposed plan states that the cooperating agencies (in this case, the City of Littleton, to a large degree, as adjoining land ow-nei) shall provide a site for the disposal of channel dredge spoil. This aspect contains several important aspects.
if the levees at riverside are allowed to stick above the surrounding terrain like walls or dikes, the urban runoff from nearby surfaces will probably leave the levee structures flooded, perhaps washed out, and probably ineffective. The most effective use fuj lire spoil is to backfill the back-of-levee areas to provide useable land as welt as to reinforce the levees against future catastrophic events. Of course, the
" The root of environmental abuse is not ideologic. It is economic. "
Roy Mann in Rivers in the City

secondary issue then becomes the quality of reclamation provided to the dredge spoil areas, many of which will undergo drastic changes in character from the blighted, and backfilled mudflats that they are today. While environmentally of moderate value, these marshes currently present a blight to the community in the sense that they demand a disproportionately large amount of riverfront land from otherwise more beneficial uses that could still provide and support wetland habitat.
On the other hand, other pressures will come to bear on the dredge spoil that will both confuse and complicate the dredge disposal issue.
Gravel mining is currently taking place all along this portion of the South Platte River, and gravel mining interests are loathe to see any extractable portion of the deposit barred from private gain. The important question here is whether a short term mineral/industrial use should be allowed to mine away a portion of sensitive riverfront land very near the heart of downtown Littleton. Current zoning, land ownership and access all prevent this mining occurence, but some may propose this as an issue which could cloud the beneficial aspects of the river front redevelopment project.
A more complex aspect of the disposal of dredge tailings would be the de facto mining of the deposits by a cooperating agency such as the Colorado Department of Highways, by agreeing to let the State use spoil for embankment construction all along the corridor as part of arterial reconstruction, bridge embankment construction and revetment stabilization. It must be remembered here that the spoil,
1 f V* .
as soil, belongs to the land owner and should be disposed of at the owner's discretion, on or off-site. The economic aspects of this issue must not outweigh the environmental sen sibilities of the long term situation.
The second overall aspect of economic analysis Is the long term use of the land.

Tho ch .tmi li7 )lion project shonkl be economically beneficial to the impacted com-muriiliS if Irjeral funds are put to the best possible use. Removal of flood plain reslri! i:. ns on acres and acres of land will allow more innovative and progressive development of otherwise valueless and blighted rivet ft ont lands. Riverfront property free from the threat of flood presents some exciting options to communities that need incentives to reinforce dynamic community planning in the face of urban sprawl and low density development.
"What constitutes a proper degree of use will de pend on circumstances and it is possible that certain areas may in the future become over charged with people."
August Hecksher in
Open Spaces


Ihl': portion of the Platte River Corridor presents exciting opportunities for revitalization and redevelopment. This presently marginal area offers potential for both i n realional and commercial uses on otherwise under-developed land. The key element upon which realization of this potential hinges is the proposed channelization of this reach of the South Platte River. Secondarily, access problems must be resolved to the best public benefit through a wise balance of arterialization on South Santa Pe Drive and Federal Boulevard with small amounts of access to critical development parcels.
Furthermore, channelization of the river and disposal of the dredge spoil along selected parcels of back-of-levee land, will require sensitive grading, drainage and re-landscaping to rebuild the construction devestated environment. Protection of all remaining wildlife lands is important due to reduction of habitat quality directly in and along the river-bed channelization.
The primary remaining issue then will be construction of the recreational trail con idor and links with other recreational lands. Open space, parks, recreation and private interest monies can all provide necessary elements of this important regional system.
Paired commercial development on appropriate parcels is important to the overall economic viability of the communities directly involved with the channelization project, as removal of extensive amounts of prime commercial and industrial development. land would destroy the continuity of community planning necessary to weave neighborhoods and commercial districts together into a living community that will survive and grow.
Use, maintenance and upgrading of riverfront lands will complete the long term
" What is expressed in open spaces is the essential quality of urban life its casualness and variety, its ability to crystalize community feeling."
August Hecksher in
Open Spaces

plan, as no land can be neglected and be expected to maintain itself under the long I' t m pressure of use, abuse and decay. Tree and turf maintenance, prevention and counter-action of vandalism, improvement of facilities and even new and as yet un-forseen changes in the land use plan will all become necessary to maintain a quality of life and a quality of environment along this and other portions of Colorado's South Platte River.

1976 Colorado Comprehensive Outdoor Recreation Plan Board of Parks & OutdoorRecreation Denver, Colorado: State of Colorado, 1975.
Water Quality Standards And Stream Classification Colorado Department of Health Denver, Colorado: 1978.
Development Plan For Parks, Recreation And Open Space DRCOG
Denver, Colorado: DRCOG, 1977.
Regional Parks, Recreation And Open Space Plan DRCOG
Denver, Colorado: Denver Regional Council of Governments, 1975.
The Region Defined
Blossom, H. D. and Others
Denver, Colorado: University of Colorado, 1977.
Denver Regional Open Space Study
Blossom, H. D. and Others
Denver, Colorado: University of Colorado, 1977,
Regional Flood Plain Management Tucker, L. Scott and William G. DeGroot in Civil Engineering. November 1976.
Summary Draft Regional Growth And Development Plan DRCOG
Denver, Colorado: 1977.
" With the increasing quantum lag between eco-nomic/technological growth and public understanding of the effect of such growth upon the environment, industrial civilization has failed to grasp soon enough the nature of the problems of riverside use and abuse, let alone to devise answers."
Roy Mann in
Rivers In The City
" Management of our flood plains need not and should not be a single purpose effort. A management strategy can help achieve many diverse urban objectives such as clean water in streams, open space, parks, sewage treatment, bike and pedestrian paths, aquifer recharge, water based recreation and educational facilities. "
Kenneth Wright in
Civil Engineering

"The damage that is being done to the riversides of the urban region is not simply a matter of the present, for, despite the new environmental awareness of today's public, the economic and social demands that cause wasteful consumption of the water's edge are accelerating exponentially."
Roy Mann in
Rivers In The City
Clean Water Plan DRCOG
Denver, Colorado: 1977.
Design Memorandum Downstream Channel Improvement Corps of Engineers
Omaha, Nebraska: U. S, Army Corps of Engineers, 1976.
Denver Wide (River) Plans Lamoreaux, Rick and Others in Civil Engineering, November 1978.
Platte River Valley: Two Choices For Littleton Bartlett, Jim
Littleton, Colorado: WICHE, 1973.
The Littleton Plan Littleton City Council Littleton, Colorado: 1971.
Faces Of South Santa Fe Jones, Shirley
Denver, Colorado: Colorado Department of Highways, 1978.
Littleton Complan (Comprehensive Plan) City of Littleton Littleton, Colorado: 1980.

An Economic Analysis Of Littleton City of Littleton Complan Staff Littleton, Colorado: 1975.
Adaptive Re-Use: Littleton Town Hall Bower, Mike
Denver, Colorado: University of Colorado, 1977.
Central Area Neighborhood Information Littleton City Planning Commission Littleton, Colorado: 1975.
Central Area Neighborhood Policy Plan Littleton City Planning Commission Littleton, Colorado: 1976.
Clear Creek Channel Realignment CDOH
Denver, Colorado-. Colorado Div. of Highways, 1978.
Major Drainageway Planning / Lee Gulch Little Creek KKBNA
Denver, Colorado: Urban Drainage & Flood Control District
Channel Improvements Clear Creek
Centennial Park
" To sweep away the mistakes and the derelic tion of the industrial-age waterfront is a formidable but not unusual task. The rarer and more difficult accomplishment is to utilize ecological and landscape planning effectively to prevent the repetition of old mistakes in new forms."
Roy Mann in
Rivers In The City
" After a century of neglect and degredation, the South Platte River is transforming into the most significant recreational resource in the area. "
Kenneth Wright in Civil Engineering

"Whittaker and Browne reflect the Anglo-American optimism and genius for creating viable new open spaces out of seemingly "dead" or offensive urban land. They remind us, for example, that San Francisco's Golden Gate Park was created out of sand dunes, that the backs of Cambridge, England were constructed on rubble... and of course almost every city in the world continues to have useless and even dangerous spaces within its limits, which could be converted to parkland."
Albert Fein in
Parks for People
DR COG Base Map Set
Denver Regional Council of Governments
Denver, Colorado: DRCOG, 1975. .
South Suburban Metropolitan Recreational Park District
Littleton, Colorado: 1978.
Colorado Environmental Data System
Whaley, Ross and A. Dyer
Fort Collins, Colorado: C. S. U., 1972.
Colorado Land Use Classification System Burns, Robert
Denver, Colorado: Colorado Division of Planning, 1976.
Water Resource Investigations in Colorado OSGS
Denver, Colorado: USGS, 1968.
Directory Of Agencies: A Citizen's Guide CSU Extension Service
Fort Collins, Colorado: Colorado State University, 1979.
Environmental Directory 1976 Edition USEPA/Rocky Mountain Prarie Region I Denver, Colorado: USEPA, 1976.

Environmental Permit Directory Kinney, Paul W.
Denver, Colorado: Office of the Governor, Colorado, 1977.
Environmental Protection Directory Trzyna, Thaoorus
Chicago, Illinois: Marquis Academic Media, 1975.
Environmental Control Directory ES&T
In Environmental Science and Technology, October, 1977.
Public Law 91-611 / Title I Rivers & Harbors U.S. Congress (91st Session)
Washington, D. C.: 1970.
Senate Bill 96-703/ Title 1-Water Resource Development United States Congress (96th)
Washington, D. C.: 1979.
House Bill 96-4788/Title-I-Water Resources Project Authority U.S, Congress(96th)
Washington, D. C.: 1979
House Bill 73-1529 Colorado Legislature Denver, Colorado: 1973.
House Bill 74-1041 Colorado Legislature Denver, Colorado: 1974.
" The river has been turned into a place for people. Its banks have been sculptured and relandscaped. Five hundred trees stand along its path where once only rubbish was found.
Rick Lamoreaux in Civil Engineering

Riparian zones have their greatest value as no and lifters between man's yfbarfand Moral development and his most vital ''-source water. "
Eugene P. Odum
Final Revision To The Chatfield Lake, Colorado Environmental Statement South Platte River Chatfield Dam To Denver U.S. Department of the Army Omaha, Nebraska: Corps of Engineers, 1977.
Denver Metropolitan Area-Wide Environmental Impact
Statement Volume I
Department of Housing & Urban Development
Denver, Colorado: H.U.D., 1979.
Denver Metropolitan Area Wide Environmental Impact
Statement Volume II
Department of Housing & Urban Development
Denver, Colorado: H.U.D.. 1979.
Denver Metropolitan Area Wide Environmental Impact-
Statement Vol u me III
Department of Housing & Urban Development
Denver, Colorado: H.U.D., 1979.
Environment and Colorado A Handbook Foss, Phillip, 0.
Fort Collins, Colorado: CSU, 1975.
Guide I i nes & Criteria For Identification and Land-Use Controls of Geologic Hazard and Mineral Resource Areas Rogers, W. P. & Others
Denver, Colorado: Colorado Geological Survey, 1974.
Predicting Impact Of A Restoration Project On River Dynamics Heede, Burchard H.
Fort Collins, Colorado: RMFRES/USDA/USFS. 1979.

Final EIS South Santa Fe Drive. Florida to Church CDOH
Denver, Colorado: CDOH, 1978.
1-470/Detailed Assessment Report CDOH / Policy Planning
Denver, Coloradp: Colorado Department of Highways, 1976.
The Universal Traveller
Koberg, Don and Jim Bagnall
Los Argos, California-. Kaufmann, 1972.
Metropolitan Open Space From Natural Processes McHarg, Ian
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Personal Communication
A Planning And Design Process Toth, Richard E.
Approach To Environmental Resource Analysis III McHarg, Ian L.
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Ian L. McHarg, 1970.
Three Approaches To Environmental Resource Analysis Belknap, Ramond and Others
Washington, D. C.: The Conservation Foundation, 1967.
Defensible Processes For Regional Landscape Design Steinitz, Carl
Washington, D. C.: American Society of Landscape Architects, 1979.
Hills, Lewis McHarg
Blossom, H.D. and Others
Denver, Colorado: University of Colorado, 1977.
" Most American rivers have served people as maps, highways, irrigators, food and power producers but many have not been well ; served in return. "
"Rivers U.S.A."

Process Lawrence Halprin Halprin, Lawrence
Tokyo, Japan: Process Architecture Publishing, 1978.
The RSVP Cycles Creative Processes In The Human Environment Halprin, Lawrence
New York, New York: Braziller, 1969.
Our Office And Our Work Halprin, Lawrence
San Francisco, California: Lawrence Halprin & Associates, 1972.
The Quest For Completeness House, Peter W.
Procedure For Conducting and Assessing Vegetative and Wildlife Studies For Environmental Impact Statements Goodman, Patsy
Denver, Colorado: Colorado Department of Highways, 1979.
Introduction To Architectural Programming White, Edward T.
Tuscon, Arizona: University of Arizona, 1972.
The Image Of The City Lynch, Kevin
Cambridge, Massachusets: M. I.T. Press, 1960.
Town scape Cullen, Gordon
New York, New York: Van Nostrand Raintree, 1975.
Environmental Planning, Perception and Behavior Saarinen, Thomas F.
Hopewell, New Jersey & Boston; Houghton-Mifflin, 1976.

Shape of Community
Chermaoff, Serge and Alexander Tzonis
Middlesex, England: Penguin Books, 1971.
Managing The Sense Of A Region Lynch, Kevin
Cambridge, Massachusetts: M. I.T. Press, 1976.
Earthscape, A Manual Of Environmental Planning
Simonds, John Ormsbee
New York, New York: McGraw Hill, 1978.
Design With Nature McHarg, Ian L.
Garden City, New York, Natural History Press, 1969.
Anatomy Of A Park Rutledge, A. J.
New York, New York, McGraw Hill, 1971.
Landscape Architecture Simonds, John 0.
New York, New York: McGraw Hill, 1961.
Site Planning Lynch, Kevin
Cambridge, Massachusetts: M. I.T. Press, 1971.
Urban Planning & Design Criteria DeChiara, Joseph & Lee Koppelman New York, New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1975.
" In the last decade, rivers, along with other important natural resources, have become a subject of increasing public concern. Coupled 1 with the immediate need to prevent further de- i struction of their delicate ecology has been new public awareness of the river as a major urban asset.
"The River"

$jt?_ Plannfra Smteffo
)a$ Cities
ilalprin, Lawrence
Cambridge, Massachusetts: M.l.T. Press, 1972.
Urban Spaces Specter, David
Greenwich, Connecticut: New York Graphic Society Ltd., 1979.
Water In Landscape Architecture Campbell, Craig S.
New York, New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1978.
National Park Recreation And Open Space Standards Buechner, Robert Ed.
Washington, D. C.: National Recreation and Park Association, 1971.
The Nature Of Recreation A Handbook
Wurman, Richard and Others
Cambridge, Massachusetts: M.l.T. Press, 1972.

Planning & Design Of Outdoor Recreation Facilities
Department of the Army Washington, D. D.: 1975.
'! W.>:- and life are two tilings woven intrinsic ally lugiHiiei."
David Cavagnaro in Living Water
The American Walk Book
George, Jean Craighead
New York. New York, E.P. Dutton, 1978.
Bicycle Planning And Design Mayer, Richard L.
Washington, D. C.: American Society of Landscape Architecture, 1978,

Hiiyii1 Transit: Us Planning And Design
B-iat k stone, Bruce and Others
Mi w Yuii., New York: Praeger Publishers, 1975.
The Inferprelor's Handbook Grater, Russel
Globe, Ai i/ona. SVVPMA. 1976.
Design For Ploy banner, Richard
Cambiidge, Massachusetts: M. I.T. Press, 1969.
Bonier Free Site Jlesign ASl.AF
Washington, D.C.: HUD, 1977.
Outdoor Design A Handbook For The Architect & Planner
M ii lowe, Oiwen C.
MewYoik, New York, Whitney, 1977.
Sign Systom S[iecifications National Park Service
Denver, Colorado: U.S. Department of the Interior, 1978.
Construction Details, Standards & Plans Colorado Department of Highways Denver, Colorado-. CDOH, 1976.
Standatd Specifications For Road & Bridge Construction Colorado Department of Highways Denver, Colorado: CDOH, 1976.
Gliilam Bridge Systems Plans & Details A IlC
Inglewood. Colorado: American Institute of Timber Construction, 1975
" Always was the river that beckoned onward through the deep and shadowed forest, toward the mountain pass and later across the plains the Missouri, the Platte, the Arkansas, the Snake, the Columbia, the Colorado."
Robert E. Doyle i President
National Geographic Society

National Urban Recreation Study Executive Report
Washington, D.C: USGPO, 1978.
Assessing The Recreation Potential Of Rivers
Chubb, Michael and Eric H. Bauman
in Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, March-April, 1977.
Introduction To Water Trails In America Colwell, Robert
Harrisburg, Pa., Stackpole Books, 1973.
River Systems, Recreational Classification. Inventory & Evaluation Craighead, Fran k and John Craighead in Naturalist, February, 1962.
Handbook On Urban Planning Claire, William H.
New York, New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1973.
Principles And Practice Of Urban Planning Goodman, William
Washington, D.C.: International City Manager's Association, 1968. j
Environment: A New Focus For Land-Use Planning McAllister, Donald M.
Washington, D. C.: National Science Foundation, 1973.
Environment: A New Focus For Land-Use Planning McAllister, Donald M.
Washington, D.C.: National Science Foundation, 1973.

Land Use And Water Resources Plereira, H. C.
London, England: Cambridge University Press, 1973.
Open Spaces The Life Of American Cities Heckscher, August
New York, New York: Harper & Row, 1977.
The President's National Urban Policy Report Carter, Jimmy
Washington, D.C.: HUD, 1978.
The Littleton Riverfront McMinimee, Andrew and Others Littleton, Colorado: City of Littleton, 1978.
Creekside Park, Marin County, CA.
Royston, Hanamoto, Becky & Abey in Landscape Architecture, July, 1979.
Los Coyotes Regional Park, Orange County, CA.
Woodward Dyke
County of Orange Development Agency, California, 1977.
Crown Valley Community Park Woodward Dike Consultants County of Orange, California: 1976.
Littleton Flood Plain Park
Rogers-Nagel-Langhart/ Interplan/Wright-McGlaughlin Engineers Denver, Colorado: 1975.
Urban Waterfronts: Design And Planning
in Progressive Architecture. June 1975.
" Rivers have what man most respects and longs; for in his own life and thought a capacity for renewal and replishment; continual energy, creation, cleansing. " I
, John M. Kauffmannin Flow East

" The sound and look of water...can create a mood, an oasis in the urban fabric that delights and enriches the soul. "
David Specter in Urban Spaces
Nooksack Plan
Jones & Jones '
Seattle, Washington: Jones & Jones, 1973.
The San Antonio River Corridor
Skidmore, Owings & Merrill
New York, New York and San Antonio, Texas: 1973,
Cycle Path Project In Tilburg,/ Netherlands
Wolfhart, Rouf .............
in Anthos/landscape Architecture Quarterly, 2-1979.
Park & Sports Facility In A Ground Water Area Of Zurich NAF, Armin
in Anthos-Landscape Architecture Quarterly 3-1978.
Environmental Resources Of The Toronto Central Waterfront Wallace, McHarg, Roberts & Todd Toronto, Canada: City of Toronto, 1976.
landscape Planning And Design In The Argonian Reuss Valley Weber, Hans
in Anthos-Landscape Architecture Quarterly, 3-1977.
Cultivated landscape And Nature In The Great World Waldrich, Andreas
in Anthos/ landscape Architecture Quarterly, 3-1978.
Delaware County Parks And Recreation Master Plan Young, Daniel B.
Muncie, Indiana-. 1976.
Eureka Core Area Development Plan Design Manual State of California Eureka, California: 1976.

Rivers U.S.A.
Russell, Edward and Others
New York. New York: Champion International. 1976.
Rivers In The City Mann, Roy
New York, New York: Praeger Publishers, 1973.
Urban Streams; Sensual Blight Or Amenity
Keller, E.A. and E. K. Hoffman
in Journal of Soil & Water Conservation, Sept-Oct 1977.
Preserving The Nation's Wild Rivers Doyle, Robert E.
in National Geographic. July 1977.
The River; Images Of The Mississippi Walker Art Center
Minneapolis, Minnesota: Design Quarterly 101/102, 1976.
Civilizing American Cities: F.L.O. On City Landscape Sutton, S. B.
Cambridge, Massachusetts: M. I.T. Press, 1979.
Civilizing American Cities-. Frederick Law Olmsted On City Landscape Sutton, S. B.
Cambridge, Massachusetts-. M.I.T. Press, 1979.
Design Of Cities Bacon, Edmund N.
Rivers .
Thomas, Bill
in Flighttime, February 1979.
" Unique among urban surfaces, water defines its own scale, constantly changing its color and texture in response to wind and sky."
David Specter in Urban Spaces

" A river is technically defined as water flowing between two banks from a higher place to a lower place. But everyone knows that a river is much more. A river harbors life, takes life, gives life, shares lives and nations. "
"Rivers U.S.A."

Littleton From The Beginning Hicks, Dave
Denver, Colorado: ATP Publishing, 1975.
History Of Denver Smiley, Jerome C.
Denver, Colorado: Old Americana Publishing, 1978.
History Of Colorado-In Four Volumes Stone, Wilbur
Chicago, S.J. & Clarke Publishing Co., 1918.
Cities Of The American West: A History Of Frontier Urban Planning Reps, John W.
Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1979.
Denver-Colorado's Rocky Mountain High Putnam, John
in National Geographic. March 1979.
Colorado Climate Siemer, Eugene
Fort Collins, Colorado: Colorado Experiment Station, 1977.
Climate Of The States Colorado
Berry, J.W. V
Washington, D.C., USGPO. 1968.
Climatography Of The Front Range Urban Corridor & Vicinity; Colorado Hansen, Wallace R., John Cronic & John Matelock I
Washington, D.C., USGPO, 1978. I

n 01 or,Y
WSV - . >.hv#
Pr.Ti ie, Peak & Plaloau
(hronii, John and iialsea Chronic
Denver, Colorado: Coloi ado Geological Survey, 1972,
Cities And Geology Legged, Robert F.
New York, New York: McGraw Hill, 1973.
Geologic Atlas 01 the Rocky Mountain Region
Denver, Colorado-. Rocky Mountain Association of Geologists, 1972.
l.uvirqnioenlal_Ge()[ogy H; i/, Frederick
Stroudsburg, Pensylvania-. Dowden, Hutchinson & Ross, 1975.
t^nxr r. ; MHMMi
Urban Geomorphojogy Coates, Donald, Ed.
Boulder, Coloradp: Geological Society of America, 1976.
laud Forms And Geomorphology King, Cuchiaine
StioudstHirg, Pennsylvania: Dowden, Huchinson and Ross, 1976.
Environ men taI Geomorphology And Landscape Conservation Coates, Donald Ed.
Stiourisbuig, Pennsylvania: Dawden, Hutchinson & Ross, 1972.
River Morphology Schiumm, Stanley
Stroudsburg, Pa., Dowden, Hutchison & Ross, 1972.
" Continued urban growth on the Colorado Piedmont and especially in Greater Denver has intensified flood problems that have been on record since pioneer days. "
Wallace R. Hansen in Urban Geomorphology

River Engineering
Johnson, Wendell & Donald C. Bondurant New York, New York: McGraw Hill, 1974,
State Of Knowledge Of Channel Stabilization In Major Alluvial Rivers Corps of Engineers, Committee on Channel Stabilization Washington, D.C.: U.S. Army/USGPO, 1969.
StablJ|zation Of Alluvial Channels Bowmik, "N,67and d. b. Simons
Fort Collins, Colorado: Colorado State University, 1969.
Hydrology For Urban Land Planning Leopold, Luna
Washington, D.C.: U.S. Geological Survey, 1968.
Meinzer, Oscar, Ed.
New York, New York: Dover Publications, 1942.
Handbook Of Applied Hydrology Chow, Ven, Te, Ed.
New York, New York: McGraw Hill, 1964.
Ground Water Tolman, C.F.
New York, New York: McGraw Hill, 1937.
Hydraulic Design Of Stilling Basins And Energy Dissipators Peterka, A.J.
Denver, Colorado: USD 1/ Bureau of Reclamation, 1974.
Civil Engineering Handbook Urquhart, Leonard Ed. ^
New York, New York: McGraw Hill 1962.

Floods, A Geographical Perspective Ward, Roy
New York, New York, Wiley, 1978.
Effects Of The May 5-6, 1973 Storm In The Greater Denver Area Hansen, Wallace R.
Reston, Va., USGS, 1973.
Thunderstorms NOAA
Washington, D.C., USGPO, 1973.
Floods, Flash Floods And Warnings NOAA
Washington, D.C., USGPO, 1973.
Natural Hazards White, Gilbert, Ed.
New York, N.Y., Oxford University Press, 1974.
Assessment Of Research On Natural Hazards White, Gilbert F. and Eugene Haas Cambridge, Massachusetts, Nl.l.T. Press, 1975.
Geological Hazards Bolt, B.A. and Others
New York, New York: Springer-Verlag, 1975.
Urban Runoff Quantity & Quality Whipple, William, Ed.
New York, New York: American Society of Civil Engineers, 1974.
Storm Water Management Design Weston, Roy. F.
West Chester, Pennsylvania: Maryland Department of Natural Resources,
" Most floods on the South Platte and Arkansas Rivers and the Front Range Tributaries are characterized by uncommonly high intensity, high velocities, low frequency and short duration..."
Wallace R. Hansen in Urban Geomorphology

" Shining River that enchanted thread which ran through all, from which all swept away, and towards which all inclined..."
Thomas Wolfe in Of Time and the River
Drainage Manual
U. S. Dept, of Interior Bureau of Reclamation
Handbook Of Steel Drainage & Highway Construction Products Highway Task Force, American Iron & Steel Institute Washington, D. C.: Lakeside Press, 1971.
National Handbook Of Conservation Practices Soil Conservation Service ,
Washington. D.C.j USGPO, 1977.
Ponds For Water Supply And Recreation Soil Conservation Service Washington, D.C.: USDA/USGPO, 1971.
Lakes & Ponds
Tourbler, Joachim and Richard Westmacott Washington, D.C.: Urban Land Institute, 1976.
Project Phases And Erosion Control Measures Tupa, Michael J.
Denver, Colorado: 1978.
Erosion And Sediment Control In Urbanizing Areas Of Colorado Colorado State Soil Conservation Board Denver, Colorado: SCS, 1979.
Erosion And Sedimentation Control In Site Master Planning Ferguson, Bruce
in Journal of Soil & Water Conservation. July-August 1968.
Erosion Control Manual
Colorado Department of Highways '
Denver, Colorado, CDOH, 1978. \

Earth And Earth Rock Dams Sherard, James L. and Others New York, New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1963.
Michigan Soil Erosion & Sedimentation Control Guidebook State of Michigan
Lansing, Michigan: State of Michigan, 1973.
The Stream Conservation Handbook Migel, J., Ed.
New York, New York: Crown Publishers, 1974.
River Ecology Whitton, B.A.
Berkeley, University of California Press, 1975.
The Recycling Of A River Wright, Kenneth and William Taggart in Civil Engineering, November 1976.
Stream Improvement Analysis
Moore, Russell and Others
Denver, Colorado: Colorado Division of Wildlife, 1976.
Strategies For Protection And Management Of Flood Plain
Wetlands And Other Riparian Ecosystems
Washington, D.C.: USDA/USFS, 1978.
Importance Of Preservation And Management Of Riparian Habitat RMFRES
Fort Collins, Colorado: USDA/USFS, 1977.
" Water is the best edge a city can have. "
David Specter in Urban Spaces

Recovery & Restoration Of Damaged Ecosystems
Cairns, J. and Others
Charlottesville, VA., University Press of Virginia, 1977.
Conservation In Practice Warren, A., and F.B. Goldsmith, EDS.
London, England: Wiley & Sons, 1974.
Performance Controls For Sensitive Lands Thu row, Charles and Others
Washington, D.C.:
Planning For Wildlife In Cities And Suburbs
Leray, Daniel and Others
Washington, D.C.: USDI/ASPO/USGPO, 1978.
Developing Wildlife Habitat To Solve (Dredge) (Waste) Disposal Probs Hunt, L.
in Civil Engineering, September, 1978.
Essential Habitat For Threatened And Endangered Wildlife In Colorado
Denver, Colorado: State of Colorado, 1978.
Bergman, Ray
New York, New York: Alfre A. Knopf, 1970.
Birds Of North America
Robbins, Chandler and Others
Racine, Wisconsin: Western Publishing Co., 1966.
Plants / People / And Environmental Quality Robinette, Gary
Washington, D.C.: ASLAF/USDI, 1972.

Manual Of The Plants Of Colorado Harrington, H.D.
Chicago, Illinois: Sage/Swallow, 1964.
Trees For The Rocky Mountains Kelly, George
Denver, Colorado: Rocky Mountain Horticulture Publishing, 1976.
Woody Plants Of Colorado Kelly, George
Boulder, Coieradei Pruott Press, 1970.
Wildlife And Plants Of The Southern Rocky Mountains Yocum, Charles and Others
Healdsburg, California: Naturegraph Publishers, 1969.
Rocky Mountain Horticulture Kelly, George W.
Boulder, Colorado: Pruett Publishing, Co. 1967.
An Illustrated Guide To The Proposed Threatened And Endangered Plant Species In Colorado Ecology Consultants Inc.
Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, 197&.
Weeds Of Colorado
Thornton, Bruce and Others
Fort Collins, Colorado: CSU, 1974.
Range Management Handbook With Site Descriptors Soil Conservation Service Washington, D.C., 1976.
" There are three elements of scenery however, which must be regarded as indispensable to a fine park...the first being turf, the second foliage and the third still water."
Frederick Law Olmsted in \ Civilizing American Cities |