Thesis preparation

Material Information

Thesis preparation
Prindle, Bill
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
38 unnumbered leaves : illustrations, chart, maps (some color), color photographs, plans ; 1979


Subjects / Keywords:
Prefabricated houses -- Designs and plans -- Colorado -- Lochbuie ( lcsh )
Solar houses -- Designs and plans -- Colorado -- Lochbuie ( lcsh )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )


General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for a Master's degree in Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
Bill Prindle.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
09230989 ( OCLC )
LD1190.A72 1979 .P736 ( lcc )

Full Text
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tufris preparation^

I would like to thank Paul Wright of Century Housing Corporation, and Dan Conway of T.H.K. for their input into this thesis project.
A very special thanks to my wife, Suzi.

The focus of this thesis is to examine the pre-fab, modular housing industry to determine how the industrial housing product can be applied to passive solar, energy efficient concepts without removing the product from the purchasing abilities of the low to middle income consumer. It is intended that the conclusions of this thesis could be applied as an alternative to the mobile home colony which has become a by-product of energy and mining development in areas of western Colorado, Wyoming and Utah. It is the opinion of some sociologists that the sense of permanence is an important issue in solving some of the boom-town social ills. It is anticipated that this alternative housing system will help to provide some of that sense of permanence and community.
To gain an understanding of the traditional mobile home consumer, I worked in conjunction with Professor Herb Smith's Planning 2 studio. The Planning 2 studio is presently engaged in preparing preliminary master plans and policy plans for the mobile home community Lochbuie, Colorado. Much of the data used in this thesis is derived from the efforts of the Planning 2 studio. Although I intend for the conclusions of this thesis to be applied in a broader sense, for the present I will focus on the development of a 15 to 20 acre parcel within the municipality of Lochbuie, Colorado.

The recently incorporated town of Lochbuie is located approximately 25 miles
northeast of Denver adjacent to 1-76, just inside the Weld County boundary.
Located 4 miles northeast of Brighton, Lochbuie encompasses approximately
430 acres, of which nearly 350 acres are undeveloped. The town's southern o
boundary is 40 north latitude.

Lochbuie is located east of a minor ridge which divides the South Platte River and Box Elder Creek drainages. The ridge is a major influence on the local micro-climate as it deflects many storms away from the town. The ridge also channels Denver's air pollution past Lochbuie. Since no micro-climate records exist for Lochbuie, it is safe to assume that Denver's weather data closely corresponds.

The results of the Planning 2 studio's survey of Lochbuie indicated that the best description of the town's 1000 residents is that the average person rates Lochbuie as a good place to live; likes the rural atmosphere and reasonable housing costs; rates neighborhood appearance as important; owns one's mobile home and lot; has lived in the community for 10 years or more; cans the produce from one's garden; is a blue collar employee earing $17,000 to $20,000 annually; is employed in the Denver-Metro area and commutes daily by family car. In addition to the average person in Lochbuie, nearly 20% of the community is retired and is supported by pension and social security benefits.
Services within Lochbuie include a grocery store, gas station, liquor store, and a greenhouse which employs nearly 100 persons. It is anticipated that commercial facilities will expand with the growth of the town, and that employment opportunities will increase with the hopeful introduction of a light industrial park.
Presently, sewage is handled by individual septic tanks. However bids have been accepted for construction of sewer lines and treatment facilities. The system is expected to be operational by July 1980.
Water service is supplied by 3/4 inch water taps. Lochbuie enjoys substantial water rights which can accommodate future expansion.
Zoning ordinances have yet to be adopted pending the development of a comprehensive master plan.

Further data generated by the Planning 2 studio indicates that over 50% of the people living in Lochbuie have previously owned and resided in mobile homes elsewhere before relocating to their present location. Nearly 90% of the people surveyed are satisfied with the mobile homes' ability to meet their housing needs, with over 50% reporting to be very satisfied.
The average size of a mobile home in Lochbuie is approximately 800 sq. ft. A third of the owners have added on extra living and storage space to accomodate changing space requirements or in effort to better insulate their dwelling. The additions average 300 sq. ft., therefore the median 2-3 bedroom mobile home totals about 920 sq. ft.
The average monthly mortgage payment for the 50% of the people who have monthly payments is about $250.00. The average utility bill is $50 per month, and the average yearly single month high is $90.00.
When asked how much an individual would be willing to spend for one's next dwelling, the average response was about $35,000.00.

The general public image of modular housing lacks an understanding of the modular housing industry. Many often heard comments are that modular housing is poorly constructed, lacks good design, is boring, offers little freedom of choice, uses inferior finishes, etc. Nothing is further from the truth than the previous comments. Modular homes are constructed in large factories under ideal conditions. This helps to insure quality workmanship. The materials used in modular housing are bought by the carloads from manufacturers at prices far below what a small general contractor could purchase them for, thus enabling the modular home manufacturer to use better quality materials at lower costs. True, many modular home developments are poorly designed, however this is the fault of the developer's lack of imagination. Traditionally, talented architects have stayed away from the modular home industry, but with soaring housing and interest costs, perhaps more architects will begin to explore the potentials of the modular housing industry.
The largest modular/mobile home manufacturer in Colorado is Century Housing Corporation, located in Ft. Morgan. The architect for Century Housing, Paul Wright, has been a valuable source of information and inspiration. This thesis will use construction techniques and concepts which are employed at Century Housing Corporation as guidelines for decision making.
Few restrictions exist which govern modular housing size or configuration. Most often, highway load restrictions govern size, but only lack of imagination governs configuration. Widths 12-16 feet, lengths of 20-80 feet, and heights of 8-12 feet are the most common modules. Century Housing is quick to point out that they are eager to work with an architect in schematic design phases.

Hauling distance to the erection site is flexible. No clear cut criteria seems to exist in determining maximum distance. Century Housing hauls their products to Arizona,
New Mexico, Utah, Wyoming, Colorado, Texas, Kansas, and to the Mississippi River.
Century Housing constructs modular homes to Uniform Building Code standards. Exterior walls are 2x6 wood construction, interior walls are 2 x 4 wood construction. 5/8 inch drywall covers the ceiling and walls throughout. The wood truss floor system is covered with 3/4 inch T & G plywood, glued and nailed. The insulation values are R-36 ceiling, R-19 walls, and R-22 floor. All units come complete with appliances, drapes and interior finishes. Costs range from $18 to $20 per square foot depending on which materials and appliances are specified.

Project The Beach House
Location Garden City, South Carolina
Developer Surf Associates
Sales Litus Sales and Development
t Manufacturer Continental Homes Roanoke, Virginia
Units 42
Parking 1.5 spaces per unit
Site Approximately one acre with 220 feet fronting directly on the Atlantic Ocean
Each 1000 sq. ft. unit contains 2 bedrooms, 2 baths, kitchen, and livingroom with attached balcony. Entry to each unit is accomodated by a 3 story stair tower and balcony assembly which allows access to each unit through the kitchen.
Standard amenities which are installed at the factory include a 52 gallon quick recovery hot water heater, 16 cu. ft. refrigerator with ice maker, dishwasher, continuous clean oven, disposal, smoke detector, central heat and air conditioning with a General Electric heat pump, breakfast bar, carpeted and heavy pad, Armstrong vinyl floors, paneling, vinyl wall coverings in kitchen and bath, washer and dryer connections, security locks, and hardwood cabinets.

The insulated exterior wall system is 2 x 4 wood construction with 3/8 inch plywood on the exterior and 5/8 inch drywall on the interior. Wood siding is added to the exterior on site. The floor system is 2 x 8 wood construction on 16 inch centers. The ceiling system is 2 x 6 wood construction covered by 3/8 inch drywall. All interior walls are 2x4 wood construction covered by 5/8 inch drywall.
The 24 foot x 40 foot unit arrives on the site in 2 12 foot x 40 foot modules which are then assembled. The developer indicates that the units arrive about 90% complete.
Unit from manufacturer 90% complete Contractor's Fees
Includes: sewer, water, foundations, application of roofs, siding, balcony, landscaping, walks, driveways, parking, grading, etc.
Land Costs
Fees Legal, Architectural, Interest Profit
Dollars/Unit $20,000 8 10,000
10 12,000 7 10,000 10 12,000
Total Price to Consumer
$55 64,000

A special group of people have always enjoyed their own way of life at Garden City. Unspoiled beaches, natural marshes and endless winding channels.. .this is the setting for the fishing, crabbing, boating and sunbathing that typify the South Strands leisure living.
Now that unique way of life is available to you and your family. Come enjoy a refreshing game of tennis, fishing on the nearby pier,| a leisurely stroll on the beach or delicious local seafood. Come relax with us.. .at
** at garden olty^^

* Two bedrooms, 2 baths
* Ocean front and second row
* Central heat and air conditioning
* Oceanfront swimming pool
* Rustic contemporary design with German-board siding
* Insulated wood-framed windows
* G.E. kitchen appliances
* 52-gallon quick recovery water heater
* Security locks
* Choice of 3 interior colors
Sales by
401-C 79th Ave. North Myrtle Beach, SC 29577
P.O. Box 4637 Surfside Beach,
SC 29577
(803) 651-7214 (803) 449-7527
Another Development by
Sun£ j44A6Cteite&




I !_____________
lochbuie, Colorado


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Developer's Program
The economic feasibility data generated by the Planning 2 studio's survey indicates the median household income level of Lochbuie is between $17,000 and $20,000 annually.
This household income range would qualify a consumer to purchase a dwelling priced from $42,500 to $50,000.
The developer desires to meet H.U.D. requirements to facilitate financing through F.H.A. and V.A. loan guarantees. The maximum allowable price fee F.H.A. approved loan is $65,000.00 H.U.D. requirements also include developer compliance with Section 234c, and 234d of the National Housing Act.
At 12d.u./ac., the developer anticipates the following preliminary estimated costs:
Item Dollans/Unit
1000 S.F. modular unit 90% complete $18 20,000
Contractors Fees 6,000
includes: water, sewer, utilities, roads,
curbs & gutter, sidewalks, landscaping
Land Costs 500
Architect & Engineer Fees 3,000
Administration, Marketing & Interest 7,000
Profi t 8,000
$42,500 $44,500

The owner of the 350 acre undeveloped parcel of Lochbuie has expressed a desire to sell a minimum of 15 acres for development at any one time. The developer has agreed to develop a 15 to 20 acre parcel, the specific boundaries to be determined after schematic design.

Develop a multi-family, passive solar, modular housing complex using all H.U.D. and Uniform Building Code requirements which may apply. Program and space requirements are listed below.
General Develop Area Net Density Unit Sa. Ft. Parking
Recreation Center
15-20 acres 12 14 d .u./ac.
900 1200 Sq. Ft.
2 spaces/unit, 25% can be compact car parking Screened and lighted R.V. parking area Facility for parties, meetings, should contain pool, sauna, locker rooms, offices, kitchen, and 4 tennis courts
Passive Solar Cloudiness Index Heating Degree Days Av. BTU/S.F. Systems
Examine passive solar systems for appropriateness. Include trombe walls, water walls, bead walls, thermal mass, greenhouses and thermal envelopes in the research.
Determine special engineering considerations due to passive solar and modular housing
construction. Attention should be directed to areas of foundations and connections.

Dwelling Units
1 bedroom = 20% of total
2 bedroom = 40% of total
3 bedroom = 40% of total
Amenities Standard amenities supplied in the base housing cost estimate from Century Housing should be used.
Consult H.U.D. Minimum Property Standards for Multi-family Housing to determine minimum space and performance standards.
Extensive landscaping shall be used to screen objectional views, accent entry areas; articulate space, increase the performance of passive solar buildings, and enhance the living experience.

University of Colorado "Analysis of the 1979 Lochbuie Survey" 1979
U.S. Department of Eneigy "Insulation and Temperature Data Listing by Station,
U.S. Housing & Urban Development Month and Year" 1980 "Passive Solar Buildings" July 1979
42U5.1 "Home Mortgage Insurance Condominium Units
Section 234( c) July 1973
4580.1 "Mortgage Insurance Handbook for Condominium Housing Insured Under Section 234(d) of the National Housing Act" June 1973
4910.1 "Minimum Property Standards for Multi-Family Housing" 1973
4930.1 "Manual of Acceptable Practices" 1973





masters thesis
william e. prindle II
university of Colorado
august 14, 1980

william e. prindle II
university of Colorado
august 14, 1980

level 1 1/8 scale
masters thesis
william e. prindle II
university of Colorado
august 14, 1980

1b II20 SQ. FT. 1b II20 SQ. FT.
level 2 1/8 scale
masters thesis
william e. prindle II
university of Colorado
august 14, 1980

level 3 1/8 scale
masters thesis
william e. prindle II
university of Colorado
august 14, 1980

front elevation 1/8 scale
masters thesis
william e. prindle II
university of Colorado
august 14, 1980

rear elevation 1/8 scale
masters thesis
william e. prindle II
university of Colorado
august 14, 1980

side elevation va scale
section a 1/8'scale
masters thesis
william e. prindle II university of Colorado august 14, 1980

section a 1/4 scale
section b 1/4 scale
masters thesis
william e. prindle II
university of Colorado
august 14, 1980

section c 1/4 scale
section d 1/4 scale
masters thesis
william e. prindle II university of Colorado august 14, 1980

section e 1/4" scale
masters thesis
william e. prindle II university of Colorado august 14, 1980

section f 1/4 scale
masters thesis
william e. prindle II
university of Colorado
august 14, 1980

section marriage wall 1V2 scale section perimeter wall 11/2" scale
masters thesis
william e. prindle II
university of Colorado
august 14, 1980

floor truss 1" scale
masters thesis
william e. prindle II
university of Colorado
august 14, 1980

unit 1b
TOTAL S.F. II20 X 7.43 . Q.32I
VAULT S.F. 700 X 2 5.00 = 17,500
FLAT S.F 4-20 X 24.00 = IO.OSO
FEES 1 .600
DEVELOPER'S ie% 6,750
TOTAL 4-4,251
item quant. $ $tot.
ASPHALT 12,148 S.Y. 6.50 78,963
CURB-GUTTER 2,600 L.F 5.50 14,300
CURB ONLY 3,900 L.F 2.50 9,750
GRAVEL- REC. VEH. 1,133 S.Y. 2.00 2,266
GARDEN PREP. 34,750 S.F 0.12 4,170
GRADING 75,000
IRRIGATION 392,032 S.F 0.20 78,406
SOD SOIL PREP. ii ii 0.26 101,928
TREES CONIFERS 67 190 12,730
LG. DECID. 83 180 14,940
SM. DECID. 144 150 21,600
POOL DECK 20,000
RECREAT. BLDG. 1,372 S.F. 30 41,160
TOT LOT 7,000
CEDAR SIDING 45,168 S.F 2.40 108,403
FOUNDATIONS 137,088 S.F. 0.60 82,252
SIDEWALKS 31,400 S.F. 1.00 31,400
UNIT ASSEMBLY 512 HRS. 130 66,560
LAND COSTS 15.4 AC. 6POO 92,400
UNIT S.F COSTS 1,018,467 -4 137,080 = 7.43 S.F.
unit 2a
TOTAL S.F. 1064 X 7.43 - 7,905
VAULT S.F. O X 25.00 = O
FLAT S.F. 1064 X 24.00 = 25,536
FEES 1.600
DEVELOPER'S 18% 6,307
TOTAL 41,348
unit 2b
TOTAL S.F. 1328 X 7.43 _ 9,867
VAULT S.F 850 X 25.00 = 21,250
FLAT S.F. 478 X 24.00 = 1 1,472
DEVELOPER'S 18% 7,954
TOTAL 52,143
unit 1a
TOTAL S.F. 880 X 7.43 _ 6,538
VAULT S.F 404 X 25.00 = IO.IOO
FLAT S.F. 476 X 24.00 = I 1,424
FEES 1,600 29,662
TOTAL 35,001
unit 3a
TOTAL S.F 1272 X 7.43 . 9,450
VAULT S.F. 628 X 2 5.00 = 1 5,700
FLAT S.F. 644 X 2400 = 1 5,456
FEES 1.600
DEVELOPER'S 18% 7.597
TOTAL 49,803
masters thesis
william e. prindle II
university of Colorado
august 14, 1980