Citation
Hotel in Tripoli International Airport, Tripoli - Libya

Material Information

Title:
Hotel in Tripoli International Airport, Tripoli - Libya
Creator:
Aborkis, Mahmud M
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
56, [9] leaves : illustrations, charts, map (1 folded), plans (some folded) ; 29 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Hotels -- Designs and plans -- Libya -- Tripoli ( lcsh )
Hotels ( fast )
Libya -- Tripoli ( fast )
Genre:
Designs and plans. ( fast )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Designs and plans ( fast )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaf 57).
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
Mahmud M. Aborkis.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
13802220 ( OCLC )
ocm13802220
Classification:
LD1190.A72 1982 .A826 ( lcc )

Full Text

HOTEL
IN
TRIPOLI INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT
A+P
LD
1190
A72
1982
A826
ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN
pp* r
ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN
AURARIA LIBRARY


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University of Colorado Denver
f
College of Design and Planning Thesis Preparation Fall 1982
Hotel
in
Tripoli International Airport Tripoli Libya
Instructors: Prof. R.W. Kindig Prof. G.K. Vetter Prof. P.J. Heath
Student: Mahmud M. Aborkis


CONTENTS 2 Page
-The Project 1
-Site Analysis 5
-Climate Analysis 1 2
-Design Criteria 17
-Program 5 5
-Bibliography 5 7


The Project
Project Desctiption Location
Scope and Limits of Project Goals


Hotel
in
f
Tripoli International Airport
Project Description A Hotel is one of the main services that makes an airport capable to serve as a
)
transit point for long distance trips. The master plan review of Tripoli International airport includes a Hotel as one of the new services proposed for the expansion of Tripoli Airport. This hotel would provide accommodations for transit passengers who have next day connection flights. The program of the hotel consists:
- 100 bedroom hotel and services
- Restaurant for 100 people
- Lounge for 100 people served by bar
- Administration offices
- Shops
- Two outdoor tennis courts
-Swimming Pool
-Parking for 50 auto, mobiles Location The proposed hotel will be located in Tripoli International Airport about 25 km south the city of Tripoli, which is the capital of Libya. Figure ( 1 ) shows the geographical location of Tripoli.
1


2


Scope and Limits of Project: The scope of work will include the hotel layout study in addition to the architectural design of 100 bed hotel and all services needed. This will deal with the design of:
- individual hotel rooms
- hotel services
- lobby and entrance area
- restaurant, food preparation and serving
- lounge and bar
- parking for the hotel including automobile circulation
- circulation throughout the building and site
Goals Major goals are:
- to create an atmosphere and image to make the guests happy and comfortable.
- to design hotel rooms into a working, flexible and simple solution.
- to create intergration between main lobby, restaurant and loung.
- to create integration between indoor and outdoor activities.
3


Main Entrance
Delivery
Functional Relationships


SITE ANALYSIS


INTRODUCTION
TRIPOLI AIRPORT >
Tripoli airport is located in the suburbs of the city of Tripoli, which is the capital of Libya. Tripoli is located in the southern part of the Mediterranean Sea coast, and in the northern part of Africa. The airport site is located about 25 KM. to the south of Tripoli. Figure ( 3 ) shows Tripoli Regional Location Map. The ultimate airport layout measures 350 hectares approximately. The airport is surrounded by farms, many scattered houses are located in this area, the small town BenGashir is the business center. BenGashir is located onekm in the north of the airport.
5


PE^inM.M I OCATIAM 5.AAO * ..


In 1981, there were 3.3 million passengers who flew through Tripoli airport, average of 60 /take-off and landing per day. The airport proposed development plans for 1995 will be able to serve 10.0 million passengers, average of 200 take-off and landing per day. According to this development, the airport will work as transitional point for long distance trips. A hotel is one of the services needed for the new development. This hotel will serve the passenger who will arrive at the Tripoli airport, and has a next day flight. Figure ( 4 ) shows Tripoli International Airport Master Plan Review.
7


LEGEND
N
201 RUNWAY 09R/27L 216 EAST WEST
202 RUNWAY 09 L / 27 R 239 NORTH SOL
201 RUNWAY 18/16 240 MAIN AJRP
204 APPROACH UGMTING RUNWAY 09 R 241 TERMINAL
2 OS VASIS RUNWAY 09 R 242 PUBLIC AN(
206 LOCATOR TRANSMIT TER RUNWAY 09 R 241 MULTI-STORI
'07 GLIOE SLOPE TRANSMITTER RUNWAY 09 R 244 LONG TERM
.'06 MIOOLE MARKER RUNWAY 09 R 2CS STAFF ANO
209 LOCATOR TRANSMITTER RUNWAY 09 L 246 SERVICE Bi
210 APPROACH UGMTING RUNWAY 27L 247 VIP PAVIL
211 VASIS RUNWAY 27L 244 terminal
212 LOCATOR TRANSMITTER RUNWAY 27L 249 FLIGHT CA1
211 GLIOE SLOPE TRANSMITTER RUNWAY 27 L 250 OESERT TE
2U MIOOLE MARKER RUNWAY 27 L 2S1 MAJ TERMI
2 IS APPROACH LIGHTING RUNWAY 16 2S2 FREIGHT Tf
216 VASIS RUNWAY 16 2S3 AIRSIOE VI
217 LOCATOR TRANSMITTER RUNWAY * 2S4 COMMERCE
216 GLIOE SLOPE TRANSMITTER Runway 16 2SS B 747 HANG
219 MIOOLE MARKER RUNWAY 16 2S6 FUEL FACII
220 IVOR / OME 2S7 ENTRY TO i
221 MAIN PARALLEL TAXIWAY 2S8 AIRPORT SI
222 OIAGONAL TAXIWAY 2S9 WORKS MA
221 LINK TAXIWAY 260 CAO WORK
2 26 PASSENGER APRON 261 MOSOUE
22S OESERT TERMINAL APRON 262 CAO HEAC
2 26 MAJ APRON 261 CAO OFFI
227 FREIGHT APRON 264 CAO TECH
228 MAINTENANCE apron 26 S GOVERN M£l
2 29 CONTROL TOWER 264 ISOLATION
210 MET OFFICES ANO AERIAL FARM 267 AIRLINES !
211 FIRE STATION 264 MOTOR TRA
212 FUEL TANKS FOR FIRE STATION 269 LAA HEAl
2X1 A'RPf-O uGmting sue stations 270 AIRLINES 0
2 34 Fire practise AREA 271 SEWAGE Tl
2 IS search ANO RESCUE CENTRE 272 PETROL ST/
2)6 FLIGHT INFORMATION CENTRE 271 HOTEL
217 MAIN AIRPORT ACCESS ROAO 274 LANOSCAPl
Fig. (4)
TRIPOLI INTERNATIONAL ULTIMATE AIRPORT LAYOUT


The proposed hotel, site is Located near the airport main entrance. The area of this site is 6
t
hectars approximately. Figure (5 ) shows that the site
contains one compLete block surrounded by four roads,
the one in the west is the main vehcuLar axis in this airport.
>
' i
The area in the east of the hotel site is proposed for airlines stores and the area in the south of the hotel site is proposed for governmental offices. The area in the north of the hotel site is agricultural flat land, there is no obstructions and it is out of the airport boundary.
The site is faced with the problem of noise. The aircraft movement makes this noise. A well designed building could eliminate this problem. A tall building may be built and still avoid this effect by:
First: Using materials that will absorb sound.
The transmission loss of a wall can be greatly improved if the wall is made up of two or more layers separated by an air sp>acc. Separations of 30 cm or less are more common. The transmission loss of the double wall construction is far less than the sum of the individual p>annel transmission loss.
9


3
O
m
o
a
<
Proposed Offices
Fig.15]
SITE ANALYSIS


Second: Decreasing Che sound by selecting the
/
location of the building faraway from source of noise.
More study about design and noise in the following Design Criteria Section.
11


Climate Analysis
Winds
Temperature Humidity Precipitation Sky Condition


THE CLIMATE IN TRIPOLI LIBYA
The climate of Libya is dry in the desert and semi-dry in the coastal stripe.
Winds: Winds usually local; generally low in the morning increasing towards noon to reach a maximum in the afternoon, frequently accompanied by whirl winds of sand and dust. The inclosed figure about winds shows the notice rate of calms (19.3%), and the lowest rate of winds which has speed more than 25 miles per hour.
The major winds influencing the Tripoli area is:
1. The southern winds in the winter season.
2. The northern winds in the summer season.
In general, the Libyan climate is influenced by the winds, mainly near the coast.
TEMPERATURE:
The summer season in Tripoli is hot, and the winter season is modimum. The temperature arrives to the average maximum in the hotest month (97 F.) in August. The average minimum in the same month is (70 F.)
The temperature arrives to the average maximum in the coldest month (63 F.) in January. The average minimum is the
12


same month is (43 F.). The temperatures in the months December and February are the same as January. '
HUMIDITY:
Humidity is low. The relative humidity fluctuates with air temperatures that range from below 20% in afternoon to over 40% at night.
PRECIPITATION:
Rains are few and far between. Precipitation sometimes starts at high altitudes, but evaporates before it reaches the ground. Large areas average between 50 150 mm per year. SKY CONDITION:
The sky is without clouds for the greater part of the year, but dust haze and storms are frequent, accuring mainly in the afternoon.
13


DIAGRAM I
\ I cr'^ (~j
TYPICAL PREVAILING WINDS
2 * L-J i 2_j_jJJ I £- 1^J I
TRIPOLI AREA
NW
(atlIL^S _ ) UL ,> u J ^ 5
PERCENT OF WINDS AT 0 TO 24 M.RH! ~
( 2c L-J L ^5 A A i ) at L-J L o t ^ Y o L^zc
PERCENT OF WINDS AT 25 TO 54 M.P.H.

14


DEGREES CENTIGRADE
DIAGRAM 2 r i ^ ^
MONTHLY MEAN MAXIMUM G MINIMUM TEMPERATURE
I } I *J I ~&j Iy>J I c' Ls-y > Ao
TRIPOLI, LIBYA
l j jjJ ^ 1.1^
z
u
cr
x
<
00
Ui
UJ
X
o
u
Q
\
r t o i v a y
ii w


0
"h
i
r
MONTH
I
MONTHLY MEAN MAXIMUM TEM PERATURE
^v*3
MONTHLY MEAN UINIUUM TEMPERATURE V> y l .- 1 I 0^ ly^"*J ^ ^
15


DIAGRAM 3
r \ BI-
MONTHLY EXTREME MAXIMUM & MINIMUM TEMPERATURES
i I j *J 1 .*tj I I^>0 1 o J
TRIPOLI, LIBYA

l -JM l ( l ll
O __ J F
t \
M
r
A
t
M
0
J
1
J
Y
A
A
S
V
N 0
\\ \\
122
* v r
M3
\ \r
104
\ i
93
%0
86
A\
77
YY
68
\A
59
on
50 o
41
t \
32
rr
23
rr
UJ
x
z
UJ
X
X
<
cn
Ui
UJ
x
o
UJ
o
1
i
0
}
r
MONTH
ji
MONTHLY MAXIMUM TEMPERATURE ^ry-11 olr^1 HTV*5
MONTHLY MINIMUM TEMPERATURE
I 'rij-~J I Ir"^ ^ j J
16


Design Criteria
Design and Climate Design and Codes Design and Noise Design and Theories


DESIGN & CLIMATE


DESIGN AND CLIMATE:
There are many recommendations for the design in the
Tripoli Region Climate:
1. Climate and summary of characteristics:
Summers are warm to hot and dry. Winters cool to cold with moderate rainfall. Intensive solar radiation especially in summer. Variability of temperatures, humidity and rainfall are quite large expected in the Tripoli Region.
2. Problems and requirements:
Buildings must be designed to provide protection from heat and dust in summer and from cold and rain in the winter. Some heating in winter and cooling in the summer are usually necessary.
3. General Response:
3-1 Layout and form: Buildings require compact planning they have to allow for sun and light in winter. Court yard plans suitable, on east-west axis with adequate spacing to allow for breeze penetration will be more appropriate.
3-2 Orientation: Because of high intensity of colar radiation, window should face north and south.
3-3 Outdoor spaces: Court yards for shade in summer and protection from cold winds in winter.
17


4- Structure Response:
4-1 Windows and ventilation: Cold winters sun would be welcome during this period. Medium sized openings are needed to ensure good air flow during summer and permits the penetration of sun in winter.(
4-2 Walls: Simplest solution is to follow and use the thickest suitable walls. Internal walls and floors could be heavy to store heat during winter while preventing the internal temperature from rising to much when the sun is allowed to penetrate through windos.
4-3 Roof: Sloping roofs to shed rain; should provide shade for windows and protection from rain.
4-4 Surfaces: Wall and roofs should be reflective (light colored) where not shaded.
18


DESIGN & CODES


ZONING CODE
>
Zoning Classification
Front Setback.....................................3 m
Sides Setback.....................................3 m
Rear Setback......................................3 m
Maximum Height of building ......................30 m
Minimum Hieght of each floor (floor to floor)..3.20 m
Open Space
30% of Site area
Off-Street Parking Requirements:
A. Minimum off-street parking spaces required:
1. Hotels, motels and rooming houses,
1.5 spaces per rental unit.
2. Eating and drinking establishments
1 space per 10 sq. m. of gross floor area
B. Minimum size of Parking spaces and aisles:
1. Stall width -3m
2. Stall length -6m
3. Minimum drive width -3m (one-way)
6 m (two-way)
19


DESIGN & NOISE


SOUND ISOLATION: Barriers Between Exterior Sound Source and Interior Receiver
Barriers can be effectively used to reduce outdoor noise, particularly high frequency sound such as vehicle tire whine. However, low frequency sound such as vehicle rumble and engine roar tends to diffract past barriers. Actual attenuation in decibels can be estimated for various barrier configurations by the curves on the following page.
y\Y,m *


Poor
No acoustical shielding f from landscaping
(See page 94 on landscaping attentuation from woods)
Elevated roadbed plus shield of earth berm
Natural barriers
Good isolation provided
NOTE: Heavy vehicular traffic represents a continuous line source which radiates sound cylindrically (not spherically
as from a point source). Consequently, car noise decreases by only 3 dB for each doubling of distance from the source. Trucks, however, can usually be treated as point sources with 6 dB decay for each doubling of distance from the inverse-square law.
22


Sound attenuation in dB par 100 It
SOUND ISOLATION: Effectiveness of Landscaping as Sound Barrier
Trees and vegetation are not normally effective as sound barriers. For example, dense planting at least 100 feet deep will provide only 7 to 11 dBs of sound attenuation as shown by the curve below. Also, deciduous trees provide almost no shielding during the months when their leaves have fallen.
Not this
Single row of trees has no value as an acoustical barrier
data below)
Ref.: T. F. W. Embleton, Sound Propagation in Homogeneous Deciduous and Evergreen Woods. J^Acoust. Soc. Amec.. Vol. 35, No. 8. August, 1963.
0 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
63 125 250 500 1000 2000 4000 8000
Frequency in Hz
Typical noise attenuation of deciduous and evergreen woods per 100 ft
NOTE: It was also found by Embleton that amplification (no mid-frequency attenuation) occurred within 50 ft of
the sound source due to resonance of tree trunks and branches!
23


SOUND ISOLATION: Attenuation Outdoors (Temperature and Wind)
NOTE: Wind at right angles
to sourca-raoaivar path has no effect!
Acoustical shadow zone due to wind
Receiver
Source

Wind velocity it lower near ground to velocity gradient cautet tound to bend downwardt
100
200 It.
WIND
The effect of wind on sound outdoors is a complex phenomenon. Downwind from the source, sound is normally bent toward the ground increasing its level. Upwind, sound is bent upwards causing a shadow zone where its level is reduced. For example, at distances of about 500 ft. (as shown above) the upwind mid-frequency attenuation for winds of 10 mph can be about 10 dB. Note that a reversal of wind direction can increase the level by about 10 dB at the same location! Do not rely on wind attenuation in design.
Shadow rone
TEMPERATURE
On a clear, calm day the effect of temperature gradients (i.e., decrease of air temp, with elevation) can cause sound to bend upwards as shown by the above sketch. Conversely, on a clear, calm night sound will tend to bend toward the ground.
NOTE: Estimates of attenuation outdoors due to temperature and wind depend on meterological as well as acoustical
data. For further information on sound propagation outdoors, see p. 164-193. L. L. Beranek. Noise and Vibration Control. McGraw-Hill. New York 197 I
24


SOUND ISOLATION: Building Orientation
Courtyards can be a source of considerable noise. The apartment buildings shown below have a central courtyard surrounded by parallel walls. These hard-surfaced parallel walls will cause annoying flutter echoes which can intensify the courtyard noise.
Poor
t
Parallel walls of courtyard make exterior noise condition worse by containing noise and causing flutter echoes


SOUND ISOLATION: Site Location of Buildings (Motels Near an Airport)
In evaluating aircraft noise a quantity called "perceived noise level" in decibels (abbrv. PNdB) has been developed to account for greater human sensitivity to high frequency sound. PNdB's calculated from measured noise levels are more high frequency weighted than dBA's and correlate very well with an average listener's response to aircraft noises of widely varying character. For example, two noises at the same PNdB level, as shown by the table at the bottom of the page, would be judged equally noisy by an average listener, although their sound spectra might be quite different.
0 Equal
5 1 1/2
10 2
IG 3
20 4
NOTE: For compfiftimivi information on environmental noise, see Karl O. Kryter, The Effect of Noise on Man,
Academic Press, New York. 1970.
26


DESIGN & THEORIES


Basic Theories Of Hotel Plannins
Every type of building must function smoothly to achieve the end result that the client is seeking. The primary function of a hotel has not changed from the earliest recorded hostelry to the present-day hotel, whether ttyat be a hotel of 100 rooms or 3,000 rooms, whether it be an incity hotel or a resort hotel, whether it be a convention hotel or a family-type hotel. We had a house divided in two. The front half of the house included the reception area and the public rooms, or the covered arcades in the caravansaries, where the guests gathered to dine and to socialize. The other half of the house, the back of the house, was where food was prepared and where the guests' service amenities were taken care of, such a laundering.
It must be borne in mind that, as far as planned circulation is concerned, there must never be mingling of the front-of-the-house services with those of the back of the house. At no time should the guest be aware of everything that is taking place at the back of the house, but, at the same time the smooth operation of the front of the house is completely dependent upon what is taking place at the back of the house. The two functions must be kept separate and yet so interrelated that both function smoothly and efficiently.
27


Hotels are designed and built so that the client, owner or operator of the hotel will get a satisfactory financial return on his investment. In order to achieve the greatest return for each dollar invested, we again face a dual problem. In the first instance, the guest must feel completely comfortable and at ease from the moment he steps through the entrance doorway, checks in, goes to his room avails himself of the food and beverages available, spends a comfortable night in a well-appointed, scrupulously, clean room and returns the next day to a room which is as fresh and inviting as it was the moment he first entered it after checking in. Everything for the guest's creature comforts should be carefully considered whether it be the ease of finding the registration desk, the cashier, the bars and dining rooms the elevators that will take him up to his room, and finally the room itself. The service at the registration desk, in the bars and dining rooms, and in the guest room itself as well as in the corridors must be such that the guest finds his every want courteously and efficiently taken care of.
The physical environment becomes an important part of the guest's creature comfort. These factors include color, and decor, lighting, proper air temperature, comfortable furnishings and, above all, a pleasant and relaxed atmosphere.
28


Everything that the guest expects and should get will be a result of what takes place at the back 'of the'house. It is only in this area that everything that will keep a guest contented during his stay is arranged for and so ordered that everything the guest is seeking is accomplished unobtrusively and, what is most important, economically.
Economic operation of a hotel depends entirely upon the back-of-the-house services. Since these services are primarily concerned with hotel personnel, the plan must be so arranged that maximum efficiency from each hotel employee can be achieved without taxing the employee and without allowing the guest to feel the drive for efficiency that dictates every phase of hotel planning.
29


Back of the House
Though rarely seen by a guest, the back of the house is the most crucial part of the plan. It must be laid out with two paramount objectives: control and efficiency. Foodstuffs, house-keeping supplies, and a great many other items must be received out of sight of the hotel guests. Such receiving is usually done at a loading dock, which should be covered so that deliveries can be made regardless of the weather. An operating hotel, even a small one, will have deliveries going on throughout the day. The receiving of shipments as well as the checking of whatever comes into the hotel and,finally, sending the various items received to their proper destination must be under tight control. This is usually the function of a receiving department that should be located directly on or adjacent to the loading dock. Tight control must be exercised in two directions. In one direction, it is not uncommon for material to be delivered and, within a short time of its having been left on the dock unchecked, for the management to find that this material has disappeared or that some parts of the shipment have gone astray. The second part of the control is to make sure that, once these shipments have arrived, they go directly to their destination without a chance of becoming
30


lost on the way. A good back-of-the-house plan will be worked out in such a way that the flow of supplies is tightly controlled by the security. There is one further item in the control area which, at first glance, might seem highly unimportant: namely, the movement of garbage out of the hotel to a point where it will be picked up by garbage trucks. Experience has indicated that a good deal of pilferage in hotels is accomplished through the medium of garbage removal. Well-wrapped steaks and cans of food can be concealed in garbage and removed by an accomplice before the garbage haulers pick up the refuse. In the larger hotels, garbage destructors or compressors may be used, in which case tight surveillance is necessary only in the garbage receiving area. Where garbage is shipped out, it is wise to have the garbage rooms so placed (and, incidentally, refrigerated) that the receiving office has this space in full view to discourage on outside accomplice or an employee who is leaving the hotel from entering the garbage room to filch what was placed there previously by someone in the kitchen or the supply areas.
Another form of control which is the flow of personnel into and out of the hotel. Hotel personnel usually come through at a point close or adjacent to the receiving area.
31


This is not necessarily a must, but is advisable because the same control office can observe the coming and going of the help. Usually time control is through the medium of a time colck, which is punched by the employees. It is not uncommon for thieves to attempt entry through the service area and to work their way up through service elevators to accomplish what they came for. A tight control at the point of entry and egress of all employees is highly desirable and can easily be accomplished if it is the same point as that at which food and other hotel supplies are brought in. Laundry Facilities
A laundry is a usual adjunct of most good-sized hotels Many hotels avail themselves of city laundry service, in which case there is no laundry room at all or only a small laundry which handles towels only. A hotel laundry that does its own uniforms and flatwork (sheets, pillowcases, linens, etc.) requires a good-sized space for washers dryers, drum ironers, and various pressing machines-each suitable for its own type of flatwork, uniforms and guests' laundry.
House Keeping Department
The housekeeping department, having several functions, is the province of the chief house-keeper, who will usually have assistant floor housekeepers. Under the housekeeper's
32


strict control and supervision will be all the maids and porters. These people, after donning their uniforms, will come to the housekeeper for instructions and very often for supplies to take with them to the various guest-room floors. The porters will deliver to the service areas on the guestroom floors all linen and soap as well as facial tissue, toilet paper, matches, room service menus, and ashtrays. (Most hotels use inexpensive ashtrays that carry the hotel name and that the guests may take along as souvenirs.) The housekeeper's area is also a storage area.
Food and Beverage Service
Most hotel kitchens and food preparation areas are planned by kitchen engineers.
After the comestibles have been weighed in, checked, and signed for, they are sent to either dry storage or liquor storage, or to one of the various cold holding rooms or boxes. Canned food and other bottled or packaged food which does not need refrigeration will be sent to dry-storage rooms. Vegetables will be sent to an area where they will be stored ready for preparation. Fish, fowl, and meat will go to a separate area where boxes must be arranged with proper temperatures for their storage. Once the food has safely reached its destination, there must be no place
33


STORM WCATMCR CAP FLASHING -BUILT-UP ROOF
34


for it to go except into the kitchen where it will be used by cooks and chefs. >
We now have everything delivered, prepared and ready for expert transformation by cooks. The food from the prep area is brought to the various points where it is to J?e used. One of the first areas to which a good part of the prepared food will go is the rough cooking area. Here, where most of the bulk foods will be prepared. Since many large pots are used in this area, there is usually a pot washing area close to the rough or preliminary food cooking area. Rough cooking is usually backed up to the finished cooking area, the chefs will be preparing sauces and gravies as well as broiling and frying and applying final flame to various types of meats, fish, and fowl.
Between the chefs' ovens froilers, and fryers, which are aligned in a straight line, there will be an aisle for the chefs. On the other side of this aisle will be the serving tables from which the waiters will pick up the finished food. At the bottom of these tables will be plate warmers which the waiter picks up and sets on the table so the chef can place the order of the specific dish that is required.
Somewhere in the waiter's line of traffic, will be the garde manager section. Here have been delivered all the
35


prepared vegetables and fruits so that the garde manager can arrange salads, and prepare cold desserts. Farther along the waiter's course will be a section, close to the exit, where such items as bread and rolls, butter, coffee, tea, ice, and other items are stored. This entire area is for self-service by the waiters, who will pick up the items they need on their way to the guest waiting for the delivery of his food.
After a guest has completed his meal and the bus boy has picked up the soiled dishes, the dishes are taken into the kitchen area for dishwashing. Dishwashing is a noisy operation in which sound should be baffled. However, the dishwasher is usually placed close to the dining room for ease of moving dishes.
There is also a checker's desk in the kitchen area. The checker controls items leaving the kitchen area to make sure the order and prices are correct.
A service bar with a bartender will also usually occur in the kitchen. Here again, it must be on the direct path of travel by the checker.
Some other areas that will usually be found in a kitchen area include: a chef's office with a view of kitchen activities; a room service area; and restrooms.
36


Bar rooms and cocktail lounges must also be serviced The plan should allow for delivery of, liquor, bottled goods and crunchies without too much possibility of losing something on the way.
Mechanical Space
Another area to consider in the back of the house spaces is the mechanical room. This area will house equipment for heating and cooling, central electrical switch gear, an engineer's office, and a mechanical repair shop There will also be storage rooms for spare parts, cleaning equipment and cleaning supplies.
Front of the House
Every area that a guest will see, which includes: lobbies, dining spaces, rest rooms, passenger elevators, corridors, hotel rooms, etc., comprises the front of the house. The main objective of these spaces to keep in mind is: the convenience and continued approbation of the guests.
When a guest enters a hotel, he should be overcome with a feeling of serenity, welcome and definitely a complete absence of confusion.
Guest Registration
The registration desk should be located so that it is immediately visible as a person enters the hotel lobby.
37


Advance Reservations
The reservation office must be close to the front desk since questions do arise at the time when a guest is checking in. This will allow a reservation clerk to go back to the reservation department to check on a questionable reservation or correct any problems that may arise. Mail and Keys
Both mail and keys are two other services that the registration desk must perform. The key rack should be directly behind the desk unless the hotel is large enough to have a separate area. In this case the space should be alongside the registration desk. Mail is also handled in most hotels by the registration desk. Again, in a large hotel with a separate area for keys, these special key clerks will also handle the mail.
Cashier
Usually in larger hotels the cashier is placed in the front desk area, but somewhat remote from the actual registration desk.
There will also be a complete bookkeeping department. This department should be close if not backed up to the front desk cashiers.
38


Usually a vault or safe deposit boxes are provided for guests who bring valuables with them. Guests are usually required to leave such valuables with the hotel.
A hotel cashier must also handle the cash from the restaurants and coffee shop. In some cases safety deposit boxes or vaults are provided to store money when it is brought to the cashier space at off hours.
Administrative Area
The larger a hotel project gets, the larger and more complex the administrative area gets. Besides the manager and the assistant manager, there may be a food and beverage manager, a banquet manager, and a convention manager with assistants. Accessability to the public is very important for many of the people in the administrative area will not only work closely with the back of the house, but also with guests and customers seeking to arrange luncheons, conventions, and banquets.
Restaurant Facilities
Most of the large hotels have a pleasant coffee shop for quick service and for simpler meals, and a restaurant for more leisurely dining with a more varied menu. A cocktail lounge is usually located close to the dining room
39


LIMITS OF AISLE
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LIMITS OF AISLE
RESTAURANTS AND EATING PLACES
Rettauranf Seating


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WALL OR OTHER FIXED OBSTRUCTION
LIMITS OF PUBLIC AISLE
WALL OR OTHER FIXED OBSTRUCTION
LIMITS OF PUBLIC AISLE
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RESTAURANTS AND EATING PLACES
Restaurant Seating


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RESTAURANTS AND EATING PLACES
Food Bart
STANDARD (straight) TYPE
Abt. Min. OetirobU Min.
X No cooktop equipment ^ I- 6 7 0
X WitK cookinq equipt. ? 0 7-6
Y 1 per ton ? 0 71
Y ? or mote peftom 7 6 79
z 1.10 7 0
E 9 1-7
Ap ) 6 4.6
I- 0 1.7
cc MO 70
Variations in Shape
Utuel Minimum
A 7-6 lo 3 6
B 7 6 to 4 6
c 7 9 to 5-6
dimvnitoM !n t*t and iacltat
LEVEL FLOOR
HEICHTS
OROPPED FLOOR
Renqe of Dim B J O to J- 6
?#' 1 b X 1 7 In 1 9 X 7 4 to 710
IB ) 0 lo ) 6 Work 7 io : j s 1.6 lo 7- 1
1 to 10 s ' 'o 7.6 K 17 to I- J
* 7 4 lo ?. P Work 7 4 lo ? 8

42


SERVINC TABLE (& sideboard)
! Abs. Mm. I Des. Min. ' Comfortable
As Service only ? 6 3 0 1 3 6
AP Public C*C n 7 0 7 6 ! JO
£ Clearance to adjacent units 0 7 3 z
Lenqth /
Width"' -' 4? > ^
Display tables (hots d'ocuvtcs. etc.) usually S0** i 2'0*#: (wines). 3*0 found
\
\
\
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AREA OCCUPIED BY CART WHEN
L>T OMn i VYrttiN mini1 ytrriTTTTT
STORED: 38x21^x35 U 0 J
SERVINC CART
Abs. O.i.
Min. Min.
As Service only 7-0 7-b
R Turn radius JO 3-6
O Door, openinq width 7 0 7 b
Approa. area when stored: 36** 2l'/i* 3S
TRAY STAND
WALL OR COLUMN
Abs. Min. D,i. Min. Comfort- able
As Service only 7-b 3 0 3 6
Ap Public c Clearance to adjacent units 7-0 S.l 7 6
Lenqth (tray) | Width (tray) l
Depends on type of restaurant
Appro* area ot stand, stored: J** a 20** J4W
WATER COOLER
Abs. , D. I Comfort-
Min. ! Min. able
As Service only : < ! 3 0 ! 3 6
Ap Public circ'n i ?o 1 7 6 i 3 0
c Clearance to ad-lacent units J Can arranqe on top or front
ten WidtK l uJ(d
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43


CAB
STRAICHT TYPEwith or without ttoolt
Abs. Min. O.i. Min. Comfort* able
Ap Public aisle 1-6 to 1-6 4 0 to S O 4-6 to 6-0
i Stool to wall 10 to 1-6 1.? to 16 1-4 to 1-6
cc Stool, cant, to cent. 19 to 2-0 7 0 2-2 to 2-6
c Stool to bar 9 to t-0 1-0 l.l to 1-2
X Back bar 1-6 to 1-8 1-8 to 2 0 2-0 to 2 1
r 7-0 to 7-7 2-6 1-0
z l.r 7 1 to 7 6 2-S to 2 6 2-8 to 2 9
R
CURVED TYPES: n. diul R should be at least
2 ft.: other dimtmiont as for straight types.
Bor length: Allow from I ft. 8 in. to I ft. 10 in. per person for standup bars; 2 ft. for each stool.
Bor depth: No increase in depth is needed for more than I bartender, as each man should be provided with his Own set-up'* space sn the work counter and bed-bar.
Service bars: These are usually from 6 to 8 ft. long, for I-man service' from 10 *0 I? ft. long if 2 bartenders are needed for peal service periods. No footrail counter overhanq or stools are required. Location is often adjacent to kitchen and concealed from patrons: however, advertising values sometimes cause it to be set in public view. In the latter case, a rope rail or similar device, to discoureqe patrons from standing a* the bar. is often advisable.
BAR HEIGHTS
hn.
dimensions in feet and inches
r 7 t0 to H 7 to 10 Usual Min. Ut..l Mas.
B 1 6 19
BB 1 6 19
Cob ) 0 to 1 10 S O to S 1
i_ ? 4 to ? 6 2-2
Work 2 4 2-6
X i | O | i 1 i U 12 to 1-1
44


RESTAURANTS AND EATING PLACES
Restaurant Seating
2 PERSONS SIDE BY SIDE
Abt. Min. 0.1. Min. Comfort* eble
Ssnrice
A end pub. cicc'n i-b 3-0 3-6
Length 3-6 3-9 4-0
Width 3-0 3-3 3-6
Nou: TMi type not fdimriljf romm 2 PERSONS FACE TO FACE
Abt. O.u \ i Comfort*
Min. Min. eble
Service 7-6 3-0 3-6
A end pub. o o to
7-7
Length 7-0 to 7-6
7-6
4-10 S-7 S-8
Width o to to
S-6 S-6 S-10
is feet end inch.
4 PERSONS
Abt. Min. O.t. Min. Comfort* eble
Service 7-6 3-0 3 6
A end pub. *o to o
circ'n 3-0 4-0 S-0
3-9 4-0
Length 3-6 to o
4-0 4-7
4-10 S 7 SB
Width o o to
S-6 S 6 S-10
BOOTH FURNITURE HEIGHTS
Abt. Min. 0... Min. Comfort* eble
H 3-0 to 3-6 3-6 4.0
S t S *o 1-6 l S to 1-6 1-6
T 7-S 7-S to 7-6 7-6
W l 8 to 7-0 7-0 to 7-7 7-4 to 7-6
S..t 1 4 to l-S l-S to t 6 1-6 to 1-8
Spl.y 0 to 0-3 0-7 to 0-3 J 0-3'/, to 0-4
> iW.
45


so hotel guests can pause for a cocktail before lunch, dinner, or while waiting to meet friends. When planning restaurants it is important to remember that the decor must be developed to entice the hotel guest to eat in the hotel rather than outside in other restaurants. ,
Lobbies
The lobby size is largely determined by the number of guest rooms as well as by the type of hotel. This space will create the mood and usually the most lasting impression of the hotel.
Elevators
Elevators should be immediately visible either from the entrance of the hotel or from the registration area. The elevators are part of the hotel atmosphere, and need to carry out the ambience of the lobby.
Guest elevators should never be used for service, Service elevators should be separate and apart.
Guest Floor Corridors
After a guest gets off the elevator on his floor, he should find himself in an elevator foyer. No guest room doors should be placed oppsite the elevators
It is recommended that no corridor be over 30 m in length. There are a number of hotels that have 60 m long
46


corridors. Long corridors should have an interuption, such as a change in width or direction. Normally, a lira corridor is used, though some hotels may do with 1.5m. Setting guest room doors back half a metter or more gives an apparent width to the corridor and a feeling of privacy. It is normal to pair guest room doors. Lighting and color can help a corridor to appear not so long. The lower section of a corridor wall will be hit by luggage and trolleys. A change in material is suggested.
Guest Rooms
The prime product that has to offer is the guest room. A loss occurs each night a room is not sold.
The length and width are determined by the amount of furniture that is to go in the room and by the degree of luxury to be achieved. Space conveys a feeling of luxury and where an operator is aiming for the high priced market, it is recommended that rooms are sized not for actual furniture requirements, but for sheer luxury of spaciousness.
The most common room in the hotel field today is the twin bedded room. Tnen the single occupancy, and lastly, studio rooms or suites. It is reorrmended that a 2.10 m bed be used. Single beds are 1.05 m wide, a full sized bed is 1.35 m wide, a queen sized bed is 1.5m wide, and a king sized bed is 1.8 m wide.
Headboards are important and do take heavy wear and soiling. Also, movement of beds is important to allow the
47


maids and porters to clean under them.
An optimum room dimention width of 3.75 m (another
0.15 m would be welcome if the plan and budget allow).
In addition to sleeping facilities, sitting facilities must be provided. The most common arrangement consist^ of two comfortable armchairs with a cocktail table between them. Good lighting is required over the sitting area and for the beds.
Another area which requires good lighting is the writing area which consists of some sort of sitting arrangement. Many times the writing table is combined with a separate dresser. Another piece of furniture which msut be provided is the luggage stand. Also another chair or two is needed.
In a more luxurious room, the cocktail table will give way to a dining table. (If a dining table is not provided, space must be left for a room service trolley). Also, the writing table will be separate from the dresser.
Another arrangement in hotels is the studio room. (The above information pertained to normal twin or single bed arrangements). Dual sleep pieces are available which are comforatble sofas during the day and perfectly comfortable beds at night. This arrangement allows the guest to ues his
48


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room as a true sitting room. Many people use their rooms during the day to conduct business or>to visit with friends. These studio rooms can adjoin another normal guest room and be used purely a sitting room.
Every hotel should have arrangements for suites qf a permanent nature as opposed to the above, suites will be furnished like fine sitting fooms. They are used by travelers who do a good deal of entertaining, and business. In this case the hotel may be asked to move out most of the furniture and bring in chairs for meeting. The plan should allow for a storage room on the floor capable of holding alternate types of furniture. These suites may also be used for couples or by a large family, in which case the sitting room of the suites may be used for sleeping at night. Also, these suites should have a good sized dining table with a sufficient number of chairs, an accessory table, an adequate desk, and sufficient number of comfortable lounge chairs. It is recommended to arrange the sitting room of a suite so it connects with at least two bedrooms, and if possible, even three or four bedrooms. Suites are usually located in the comer of a building to make it possible to join up several bedrooms.
52


The hotel should be able to rent each of the rooms in a suite separately. Each room will have to have its own separate key. A foyer connecting the bedrooms and sitting areas makes this possible. The plan should include a complete bathroom for the sitting area of a suite to mak^ it possible to rent the rooms out singly. If the room will not be rented out singly, a bathroom or lavoratory facility is needed in each living or sitting room. Plumbing connections should be arranged to allow for a bar to be introduced in the sitting room.
Guest Bathrooms
The minimum bathroom will consist of a combination tub-shower, a lavoratory, and a water closet. Many hotels use two lavoratories, in the bathroom facilities. The best arrangement is for one lavoratory to be in the bathrooms, and one outside the bathroom. This allows two persons to use the bathroom facilities without interfering with each other. In luxury hotels, a bidget is also included sometimes. Good hotels will use a 1.65 m bathroom instead of 1.5 m bathroom. Pleasing the guest is the main concern, and the bathroom can be a great people pleaser.
53


Guest Room Closets
The longer the guest-stays, the larger the closet needs to be. Larger walk-in closets should be considered where guests will be staying any length of time. The door should be such that, when the closet is opened, there