Thesis preparation

Material Information

Thesis preparation
Al-Sulaiman, Yazid
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
iii, [7] leaves : illustrations, charts, color maps, color photographs, plans ; 28 cm


Subjects / Keywords:
Stores, shopping centers, etc -- Designs and plans -- Jiddah (Saudi Arabia) ( lcsh )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )


Includes bibliographical references (leaf 111).
General Note:
Cover title.
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Yazid Al-Sulaiman.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
11264268 ( OCLC )
LD1190.A72 1983 .A87 ( lcc )

Full Text
Thesis Preparation Arch 712
Yazid Al-Sulaiman
Instructor: Paul Heath
May 5, 1983

I would like to thank Mr. Eddie Jamell for his help in the photography process, and Mrs. Lana Hope for typing the paper.

THE PROGRAM ............................................... 3
LOCATION OF COUNTRY ....................................... 5
PEOPLE OF SAUDI ARABIA .................................... 6
CLIMATE .................................................. 11
JEDDAH THE CITY .......................................... 14
THE "SOUK" ............................................... 20
MASTER PLAN REPORT ....................................... 25
TRADITIONAL ARCHITECTURE ................................. 36
VEGETATION ............................................... 49
SITE ANALYSIS ............................................ 63
PARKING ............................................. 67
THE CENTER .......................................... 73
SHOPS ............................................... 86
CODES AND RECOMMENDATIONS ............................... 101
FOOTNOTES ............................................... 110
BIBLIOGRAPHY ............................................ Ill

By Yazid Al-Sulaiman
1) The thesis I chose for my graduate degree of Architecture is a shopping center in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
2) The site is located in the city of Jeddah, and is approximately 100,000 meters squared or 1,089,000 square feet.
Gross area: 20,000m2 or 217,800 sq. ft
Net retail areas: 10,000m2 or 108,900 sq. ft
a) supermarket: 2,000m2 or 21,780 sq. ft.
b) hardware store: 2,000m2 or 21,780 sq. ft.
c) retail shops: 6,000m2 or 65,340 sq. ft.
Parking area: 37,255m2 or 405,706.95 sq.
Parking capacity: approximately 766 cars
1) The thesis project will focus on the retail shops only. The supermarket and hardware store will only be developed as far as the conceptual stage of the design.
2) 1 meter = 3.3 ft.
1 foot = .3m
1 square meter = 10.89 sq. ft.

The following assumptions are to be taken into consideration:
1. The suggested site is located in the middle of an educated middle class community that is steadily growing in number with an average purchasing power.
2. The site is easily accessible to all travellers from Jeddah International Airport, and from Medina to Makkah which might be a good attraction for their shopping needs.
3. The site is fairly known to all city population as the international exhibition area since two years, and it is attracting a considerable number of various sectors of the society during exhibition days which average now 80-100 days a year.
4. King Abdul Aziz University has a very ambitious program for the next five years that might double the population of the area.
5. Last but not least, present shopping facilities in the area are not adequate.
Resource people used other than instructor:
Al-Sulaiman Family client
William B. Tabler architect
Abdul-Hamid Derhali an official in the City Planning

The project undertaken is located in the city of Jeddah, in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Since this country might be alien to the reader, a geographical description is felt to be necessary.
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia occupies 4/5 of the area known as the Arabian Peninsula (approximately 900,000 square miles), and is a part of the region known as the Middle East. The countries of Jordan, Iraq, and Kuwait constitute the northern border of the Kingdom; while Qatar, the Arabian Imarets, and the Arabian Gulf (sometimes called the Persian Gulf), form its eastern border. Southward, the countries of Yemen and Oman constitute the Kingdom's border, while westward, the Red Sea forms a natural border that separates the Peninsula from the African Continent.

A. Background General Information:
In this part of the thesis program, I will attempt to familiarize myself and the reader with the people of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, their habits, and way of life. Acknowledging that this can be a very lengthy subject, reference to the people, their habits, and way of life, shall be limited to those felt to influence the design aspect of the program.
The Saudi Arabians are predominantly Arabic-speaking Arabs of the Islamic faith that strongly influenced their cultural attributes.
In recent years, significant changes began to take shape with the Saudi Arabian social and cultural system.
This was due to many different trends of which the most significant is the wealth created by the oil industry, that accelerated the country's growth and development and brought into conflict the aspect of technology of the twentieth century with cultural and social attributes. Originally, the Saudi Arabian society was of two typesthe Bedouins, these are a nomadic tribal society, and the Urbanists that lived in small cities or towns. With the rapid development and introduction of technology of the twentieth century, these cities began to grow and, following the boom of the 1960's, increasing numbers of people began to flow into these cities. The economic changes of the twentieth century

have spread the use of the motor car which meant the end of Bedouin wealth that was based on camel and horse breeding, and the rise of the oil industry has forced them into new occupations. With the accelerated growth, the Saudi labor force was unable to accomplish its goals by itself, subsequently jobs created by this development introduced a large number of foreign work force in the country. From the United States and Europe came the architects and engineers; from Syria, Palestine, Egypt, Pakistan, Lebanon, and Iraq came the skilled and semi-skilled workers needed to fill the gaps left by sudden and rapid growth. Unskilled Yemenis have poured north to work on building sites. Women from Ethiopia, Somalia, and the Philippines came seeking domestic employment.
With the influence of modernization and growth, the Saudis began to fear its effect on their social system and feel the need to control this acceleration and not be controlled by it. People wanted improvement and the benefits of technology without having to change their cultural attributes. Architecturally, for example, buildings built during the 1960's-1970's looked typically American and European in style with no reference to the Saudi cultural system nor to Islamic architecture. For the past ten years, the Saudi population began to require of foreign architects to understand and to have knowledge of this aspect. Consequently,
Islamic-Arabic buildings began to rise and take form. With the lack of Saudi labor force, the government began to

encourage education and feel the country's future necessity for the women's task force.

B. Customs and Beliefs:
Saudi Arabia is the center of the Islamic faith, hence, the religion of Islam is the most important part of the Saudi Arabian culture and the main foundation of the customs and traditions of the region. The code of religion is derived mainly from the Koran, which served the faithful as a model and rule of life in every particular. Use of alcoholic beverages is prohibited, therefore, liquor stores and bars are non-existent. Prayer is performed by a devout Moslem five times a day, and during these times, activities, such as shops, close for prayer and people are found praying in an adjacent mosque or in front of their closed shops. (Approximate time of closing at each prayer is ten minutes.)
The Saudi women are just beginning to emerge to a wider participation in social life. Protected traditionally from association with men cyitside their own family circles, they are gradually being permitted to fill a greater role in society. Both Saudi men and women acknowledge that they are culturally a part of a segregated society and do not have the desire to change that. Consequently, women occupy jobs, such as doctors, teachers (in girls' schools), and librarians, but not jobs that require the interaction of both sexes.
Saudi women still veil when leaving the physical boundaries of their own or friend's home. Saudi women also control their private wealth, they inherit a fixed amount of the family estate, and may keep, develop, or dispose of it as they please.

One of the "Pillars" of Islam is pilgrimage. At least once in his lifetime, every good Moslem is supposed to make the pilgrimage to Mecca and Medina and there undertake traditional ceremonies and visits. The impact of hundreds of thousands of people that exercise great pressure on the local capacity of housing, feeding, transport, and welfare can be imagined. In 1976, the number of people who participated in pilgrimage amounted to one million and a half, of which 633,000 came from outside Saudi Arabia by air, sea, or land. These people account for the major season in Saudi Arabia for commercial and business transactions.

EXTERNAL FACTORS: CLIMATE (From the book, The Kingdom of
Saudi Arabia)
Of all the sizeable countries on earth, Saudi Arabia is probably the driest. It derives its weather mainly from the north and west. Climatically, it is linked to the eastern Mediterranean and adjacent lands, in that it has a long, hot, and almost totally dry summer, with a short, cool winter season during which a little rain occurs. This is because air masses reaching Arabia have been largely exhausted of their moisture. Although Arabia is surrounded on three sides by sea, aridity is the dominant feature. With the sole exception of Asir in the extreme south-west, any influences from the southern tropical zones are excluded by the highland rain that runs from Oman to the Yemens.
Because of the dryness of the air reaching Saudi Arabia, and the consequent lack of cloud, insolation is considerable, producing very high summer temperatures up to 45 or 50C, and sometimes even more in the southern deserts. But the cloudlessness also allows heat to escape from the surface at night, especially in winter, so temperatures drop quite markedly between day and night, and between summer and winter.
Rainfall is scanty, irregular, and unreliable, occurring mostly during the months from October to April. Except along the Red Sea coast, and inland over the mountains of Asir, summers are practically rainless, and in the interior several years may elapse without rain. The extreme south of Saudi Arabia, the virtually uninhabited Rub al-Khali, is almost entirely without rain (one of the driest areas on earth), but over the rest of the country (Asir excepted), annual totals amount to 100mm, though 150mm have been known to fall locally within twenty-four hours. Because of temperature contrasts, winds can be strong, even violent, raising dust storms from time to time. On the coasts, relative humidity

is high due to sea breezes that bring in moisture.
In some cases, catchment of water is local from rapid percolation of rainfall, but over many parts of Saudi Arabia, there is a much larger series of water tables that allow "creep" of water underground from the better watered south-west through to the east coast. Some of the wells which tap this kind of water table are large; Mecca and Medina have a number. Some of this underground water is from wetter climatic phases of an earlier geological time, and is not replaced by present-day rainfall when drawn off. Today, with the advent of planned irrigation and exploitation of underground water resources, four or five times the former population is supported, and major cities have rapidly evolved at Rijadh, Jiddah and Mecca.


Jeddah the Bride of the Red Sea founded by Caliph Uthman-ibn-Affan in 647C.E. (Christian Era), is a city-port of great age and a gateway to Holy Mecca and western Arabia.
The city is situated about half-way along the Red Sea's eastern coast. Jeddah owes its existence to the presence of a gap in the triple line of coral reefs fringing the Red Sea shore and to another gap in the Great Arabian Mossif barrier which allowed communications inland to Mecca. As a gateway to Holy Mecca, Jeddah's airport handles an aircraft every half a minute during the Pilgrimage season, with an average expectancy of a million and a half pilgrims each year.
Throughout history, Jeddah served the Arabian Peninsula as the major sea-port on the Red Sea. In the twenty-sixth year of the Islamic era (646-647), Jeddah found itself growing from a fishing settlement to the main port for the expanding Arab empire. Jeddah became (still is) the main port for trade and the exporting of goods to the country. In 1910, the peak of Jeddah's export trade was only worth £65,000, mostly in the hides and skins that are still Saudi Arabia's second largest export. But imports, partly financed by the spending of pilgrims, were as high as £1,750,000. A portion of this was for transit, but the largest items were grain and rice to feed the pilgrims and to meet the growing demand of the interior. The Jeddah harbor, obliged to meet a demand for building materials and consumer goods from the whole country, was forced into superhuman effort. Whereas cargo

offloaded in 1946 was a mere 150,000 tons, and in 1966 only just over one million tons, by 1977 ships were discharging over eight million tons a year. On some days, a pall of cement dust hung over the town by day, while by night, ships waiting to discharge were strung out like fairy lights twenty miles into the roads. Yet in that single year, with the volume of cargo constantly increasing, waiting was eliminated. Ships were arriving and tying up, and their cargo rolling off and cleared through the port, all in a matter of three days. Jeddah today is the largest port on the Red Sea, with a magnificent modern harbor.
Brief History:
"Arab geographers report legends that Eve began her search for Adam at Jeddah (or, according to some, returned to the town from Paradise), and that she is buried here."'''
Jeddah, a fishing settlement, was confined for several centuries by its desert hinterland and an uncertain water supply within massive walls of bleached coral that engulfed the city. The nucleus of the city began to form at the north end of a bay so encumbered with banks of reefs that it seems strange that such an inhospitable anchorage on the coast of Arabia should have become a busy seaport. To be sure, a small settlement existed from the very earliest times, but it was when the cities of the Mediterranean gained a taste for incense from south Arabia and ship-borne spices and luxuries from the East, that the town started to grow.

With the coming of Islam at the beginning of the seventh century, the port's significance was assured for all time.
"The Persian poet, Naser Khusrow, visited the town in 1050 and left the first written account. He describes a thriving place: 'Jeddah is a great city surrounded by a strong wall,
with a population of some five thousand males. The bazaars are fine. There are no trees or any vegetation at all, but all that is necessary for life is brought in from surrounding villages. '
In 1517, the town fell under the power of the Ottoman Turks as part of the domain of the Sarif of Mecca. In the early nineteenth century, Turkish rule was interrupted, first by the Saudis of central Arabia, and then by the Egyptians, but the Turks were back in partnership with the Sharif by 1840. Resentment in the Muslim world at the growing European control which flared up in the Indian Meeting in 1858, did not completely bypass Jeddah. A group of consuls and traders strolling by the Mangabah Lagoon just north of the town, were set upon and the English, unsatisfied with the Pasha's investigation, sent the British naval ship Cyclops to bombard the town. A shell landing on the sea front caused the minaret of the Al-Basha Mosque to lean like the Tower of Pisa, providing Jeddah with one of its most celebrated landmarks until its demolition in 1979. The opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 proved a "boon" for Jeddah and, by the turn of the century, its merchants of Hadhrami, Javanese or Indian origin were handling a regular volume of commerce

with other Arabian ports, India, Egypt, and Africa, and even Liverpool and Marseilles. That year, 1916, Sharif Hussein of Mecca, encouraged by almost eleven million pounds in English gold, revolted against the Turks. But the Sharifian regime was short-lived. In central Arabia, a new generation of Saudis, moved by a powerful sense of religious destiny and the ability of Abdul Aziz "Ibn Saud," were now an irresistible force. Jeddah fell into their jurisdiction on December 23rd, 1925. The modern history of Jeddah begins from that day. In 1938, oil began to flow in the Eastern Province, and after the Second World War, the city walls were demolished.
"Jeddah today is thus a city of striking variety: seascape and cityscape, the ancient amid the modern, the elegant amid the garish; a city of alleys and boulevards, of an aspect sometimes
utilitarian and sometimes aesthetic."

Municipalities Concern:
"The Mayor, in particular, was concerned that the town's appearance did not sufficiently reflect Jeddah's place in Islam or history. It was turning its back on the sea, the source of all its prosperity. Above all, the human scale of small streets and minarets, and the familiar human textures of wood and paint, were vanishing fast amid the mass of glass and steel.
To remedy this problem, the municipality required new buildings belong recognizably to an Islamic tradition, and encouraged private businessmen to donate sculptures, monuments, and fountains to enhance the beauty of the city. With water made available, trees and shrubs reinforced the city's image and parks were donated to the public as a recreational and open space area.

Changing Trends in the Shopping Activity in Saudi Arabia:
In the old days, before the introduction of technology and the impact of Westernization on the country took its toll, shopping activities took place in the market or the "souk." Generally, the souk was located in the center of downtown as the focus of commercial activities in the city. The souk consisted of a series of small shops along the winding roads that often ended in a large open space known as the "saha."
The merchants of these small shops displayed their merchandise on the walls, tables, ropes hanging from the ceiling, and any other space the merchant could find that would not conflict with his movement in the shop or block the customer's right-of-way. Some shops were filled with merchandise to the extent that only a small space was provided for the owner to move about in order to obtain the specific item required by the customer. In this case, the customer's space was that portion of the street where he was close enough to the shop's front to visually inspect the merchandise. This was due to the relative size of the shop which was comparably too small in relationship to the amount of merchandise that it contained. This, though, did not present any problems for the owners nor to the customers, because these small shops often did not have a window front that would have obstructed the view to the inside. In addition, these shops used an equivalent system to that of a garage door, whereby the large metal

door was equal in area to that of the store's front, and whereby the owner secured his shop during nighttime hours with a large metal door lock. These shops did not have a back entrance for the service and delivery of the merchandise. All of the required merchandise were basically small enough to be carried by hand, and were usually delivered at early hours of the day when most of the people were still in bed. These small stores were also used as workshops by such private owners as tailors, shoe makers, and jewlers.
The souk often included craftsmen and artists who specialized in the traditional Bedouin and Islamic art. Thus, the souk becomes a bazaar, where the craftsmen display their works, the tailors create their designs, and the merchants come to trade goods and sell their fine carpets. Buildings were placed in close proximity to one another in order to provide for shade. They also provided shade to the narrow, winding artery, and pedestrian roads between them, thus blocking direct sun radiation from the street. In addition, the winding shape of the roads prevented the presence of a tunnel effect and reduced the penetration of dust and wind into the shopping area. These pedestrian roads were often reinforced by arcades, canopies, or other shading devices that helped reduce the average temperature and thus provide for a comfortable living environment and reduce physical and psychological stress.
Unfortunately, with what we call modernization and the mis-interpretation of the effects of applying Western design

ideas and methodology to an environment that is foreign to the western world, can still result in a successful built environment and enhance the progress of the country's general welfare. This attitude and way of thinking is evident with the increase of trade and import of foreign merchan dise, and the use of large shopping stores that are competing and endangering the survival of small shops. Today, you rarely find the craftsmen and activities of the old days in the downtown shopping area, nor will you find them in the outskirts of the city, for they are virtually extinct.
Today, population increase and the effects of Westernization, has led to the development of residential suburbs which prompted merchants to set up branches in the suburban periphery in order to be more convenient to their customers. In addition, the downtown shopping center was originally developed before the impact of the automobile (pedestrian oriented/narrow streets), thus today the parking lots are located on the boundaries of the shopping area which are about a 10-15 minute walking distance to the heart of the center. The major problem with the downtown today is the traffic jams that occur when one is heading from various parts of the city to the parking locations of the downtown shopping center. This, though, has not weakened the downtown for it is still the largest shopping facility in the city, where an air of festivity exists and attracts customers.
On the other hand, customers today will seek secondary shopping centers that are compatible and can provide one with

the same type of merchandise, thus avoiding undesirable traffic jams, parking problems, and most of all, saving precious time.
Secondary shopping centers are located on specific private lots, and do not promote the integration of various activities, such as office and residential, with the same facility. Thus, on one hand, they are segregated in comparison to the traditional souk, but on the other hand, are located within the vicinity of residential, office, and other activity nodes attempting to serve and relate to various parts of the community. Secondary shopping centers are closely related to those of the United States of America in terms of subdivision and location, and are geared towards serving a specific community. They are mainly vehicular approach oriented with adjacent parking lots serving them.
The newest element of the shopping activity in Jeddah is the introduction of the supermarket. It is either located on an individual lot or, in the presence of a shopping center facility, forms the largest portion of its floor area.
Within the shopping center, small or private shops are supported by a supermarket and sometimes another general store that are located at opposite ends of the building envelope. Private shops, whether in a shopping center or along a busy street, have developed a "street front" where a large glazed area is dedicated to the display of merchandise that would attract the shoper. In addition, these shops use illuminated signs that are written in both English

and Arabic languages. This is due to the variety of people (both Arab and Western) that today form part of the population of the city. The interior of the shops and the space allocation of its various parts is identical to that of Western and American interior space arrangements.
Secondary shopping centers today have service areas allocated to servicing the various shops, supermarkets, and general stores within. These service areas are usually placed in the various parts of the shopping center that are blocked from view and reach of the general public. Technology has changed the various traditional solutions to climate control, whereby most centers and shops today modify the micro-climate through the application of air-conditioning systems. Finally,
I would like to mention that most shopping centers and privately owned shops are open up to 10:00 PM. In Ramadan (month of fasting), however, these shopping facilities are usually closed for the most part of the day and are open to late hours of the night (2:00 AM). Therefore, these facilities should be designed to accommodate both daytime and nighttime shopping.

MASTER PLAN REPORT: (Growth & Location of Shopping Centres)
3.45 Shopping and office centres constitute the two major subdivisions of the commercial land use classification. In the first part of this section we consider the aspect of shopping as it relates to our Master Plan studies and later we consider the implications of offices.
3.46 Shopping An analysis of the present structure of the city reveals five distinct forms of shopping development in the urban area.
They are: (a) The Central Business District; (b) The Extended Street Frontage; (c) The Drive-in Centre; (d) the Hara, or Neighbourhood Centre and (e) The Corner Shop (local shops in residential areas).
The non-retail distributive trades and bulk markets form another identifiable group of activities associated with the marketing of goods.
We deal with this category after the sub-sections dealing with shopping and offices.
3.47 The distribution of shopping facilities in the city has been largely determined by the distribution of households and their income characteristics. The significance of income distribution in relation to the distribution of shopping facilities does not lie in the total number of income earners but rather in the numbers of households where more than one income earner is resident, i.e. the multiple income household.
3.48 There is a close relationship between incomes and expenditure, mobility and the density of residential development. This relationship
is evident in the location and structure of the city's commercial sector.
3.49 The results of the Socio-Economic Survey have been compared with the distribution of shops within the city. Haras with average

household incomes below SR 340 per month (i.e. Haras 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 9, parts of 6, 7, 8, and 19) are characterized by a grouping of shopping facilities at a focal point within the Hara to provide daily needs, convenience goods and services. Hara boundaries are indicated in Fig. 3.4.
3.50 From a similar analysis of the upper income group areas
SR 800-900 per month it is noteworthy that the above form of development has not emerged. Instead, this group is served by these centres which have developed at node points on the city's primary road system. The chief reason for this is that this population is highly mobile and additionally is more selective in its choice of goods.
3.51 The medium income group (SR 410-SR 675 per month) is served by both local and non-local commercial centres. The location of these centres in relation to the structure of the city is shown in Fig. 3.5 together with their nominal catchment areas.
3.52 The central area of the city contains the city's largest proportion of shopping facilities 65 percent of the city's retail outlets with a gross floor area of approximately 336,000 m2.
3.53 The main shopping area lies in the heart of the central business area around King Abdul Aziz Street and west of King Faisal Street. This area contains 84 percent of the central area commercial facilities with a gross floor area of approximately 285,000 m2.
3.54 The shopping area in the central business area caters largely for the specialist durable goods obtainable only in city centre shops which draw on a large catchment population. A comparatively small number of retail outlets (shops) in the central area are of a personal service nature, such as tailors, hairdressers and restaurants.

3.55 By far the most important market in the city is the main souq in the city centre. It consists of approximately 197,400 m2 gross floor area, which is 58 percent of the central area provision. This area accounts for a large percentage of the shopping trips generated within the city. The fish and vegetable markets are not physically attached to the main souq but are located on the fringes of the central area as are the commercial warehouses.
3.56 Ribbon development, or street frontage, shops constitute a large proportion of the city's retail outlets amounting in total to some 160,000 m2. These developments have more or less continuous frontages
of retail users on each side of the main roads in the city. Many of these facilities carry city centre type functions such as furnishings, specialist sports shops, car showrooms and so forth. Most of this type of development has residential accommodation on the upper floors. Ribbon development occupies 29 percent of the retail outlets in the city.
3.57 No pre-planned shopping centres are in operation in the city at present. We discussed in an earlier report the locaion of shopping centres in the city. (Alternative Urban Strategies Report, ref. paras.
7.17 to 7.22 and 13.39 to 13.46). The shopping centre, as an entity,
has emerged as a result of two factors, the relative location of high and low income groups in the city and the development of the supermarket trade.
3.58 In the medium and low income areas thirteen clearly defined local shopping centres exist. (See Fig. 3.5). These serve this population group with daily convenience goods and services. In a community which has a low vehicle ownership, the centres are characterised by their location in each Hara, i.e. astride the main circulation route through
the Hara and in the most convenient place, generally the geographic centre.

3.59 None of these centres supports a supermarket trade, instead goods are distributed through small grocers, hardware shops, street vendors, cafes etc.
3.60 The Hara centres provide 14,230 m2 of the city's commercial floor area at a rate of 1.9 to 3.6 shops per 1,000 population.
3.61 In recent years, three centres have emerged in the city drawing their custom from an increasingly mobile population. (See Fig. 3.5). The shoppers who use these centres are almost exclusively from the upper income group of the population. In these centres, the supermarket is playing an ever more important role as the focus of development. The catchment area of these centres extends in a complex pattern over the whole city.
3.62 The corner shop is available to residents throughout the city The distribution of these however, varies according to the income group recorded in the Hara. It is clear that in the low income Haras the corner shop is present in greater numbers than other areas an average of some 2 shops per 1,000 population, whereas in the upper income Haras the corner shop is distributed at approximately 0.6 shops per 1,000 population This relatively low and constant provision reflects the limited degree
of reliance upon the corner shop for the supply of convenience needs.
3.63 It can be seen that the present pattern of commercial facilities is clearly defined and follows closely the income grouping within the city. As the city of Jeddah grows, increasing demands will be placed upon the central business district shopping area. Unless strong planning measures are taken, this will have undesirable side effects in terms of overcrowding, traffic congestion and inadequate parking.

3.64 Provided the development of sub-urban shopping areas is undertaken to relieve this congestion, Jeddah's central area will remain the undisputed specialist shopping area of the Western Region.
3.65 The resulting growth of the central area can manifest itself in two ways; either by more intensive use of existing space or by the lateral expansion of the core.
3.66 It seems unlikely that shop efficiency will increase to any in the souq area. But allowing for a small amount of more efficient space usage in new development and the decentralisation of facilities to new centres, about 489,000 m2 of the additional shopping is forecast for the greater central area within the Plan period making a total of 825,000 m2 gross shopping floor area. The future location of shops in the central area must of course be related to good access from public transport and car parks.
3.67 The present natural distribution of shopping in the city provides a sound base upon which to consider the future role of retail outlet development in the city of Jeddah. We have defined in principle the intended role of the existing and proposed centres as falling into three main categories: primary, secondary and district.
3.68 The PRIMARY SHOPPING CENTRE for the city within the central business district is at the nodal point of the primary road network and
as such is very well served by the urban transportation system. SECONDARY CENTRES serve the outlying flanks of the city, obviating as much as possible overloading of the primary centre, while DISTRICT CENTRES are interspersed throughout the city providing for the day-to-day needs of the neighbourhood.

3.69 The Plan provides for the distribution of shopping centres covering a wide range of services, many of which are at present only available in the present city (primary) centre. This hierarchy of centres is structured to cope with population growth, increasing per capita demands for consumable and durable goods and providing a greater convenience of use to the people of Jeddah. To increase the coherence of shopping activities, this hierarchiacal structure should rationalise the shopping function. Shopping journeys that once required a visit to the city centre will then be replaced by a visit to either the adjacent district or local centres.
3.70 In order to facilitate the future growth of the central area of the city, we recommend that a policy of decentralisation of convenience facilities to other centres in the city be undertaken. Further we recommend the establishment of second major centre, initially at secondary level but eventually at "primary" level, to serve the new development area proposed adjacent to the airport site to the north of the present city.
This centre will provide the residents of the area with an alternative service and employment centre to the present city centre as well as providing the airport with a commercial centre, hotels and other ancilliary uses for the incidental activities of the airport. The most suitable location for such a centre is in the vicinity of the main entrance to
the airport.
3.71 The permanent catchment population for this centre will initially be at least 100,000 resulting in a projected retail floor area of about 177,500 m2 gross. It is not expected that highly specialised facilities will decentralise to this area but as the population growth moves towards the high estimate of 1.65 million, so should this

centre, which will be favourably placed in relation to this growth, be planned to grow as a second major centre for the city.
3.72 This policy objective has thus been decided upon in view of the high population strategy envisaged for the city. As a result of the relocation of the airport, this policy holds good for the low population strategy of 800,000 and provides opportunities for growth in the Plan period.
3.73 The choice of location of secondary centres has been determined by the potential of the existing large commercial areas for future growth. These areas at present draw from a large catchment population. These centres are expected to serve a catchment population of about 150,000 people each. It is intended that they would reduce the need to journey into the city centre and ease the pressures for future growth on the commercial centre of the city.
3.74 A total of 234,500 m2 gross retail area is estimated for allocation in each of the secondary centres. The actual size envisaged for the district centres and the population served will depend on the rate of growth of the population in its catchment area as well as the change in incomes. These two centres we propose are therefore not seen as being of the same size and carrying the same facilities, but rather that they develop according to the range of goods and services which will satisfy the catchment population.
3.75 The first is located at the Palestine Roundabout and is ideally located and suitable for upgrading to Secondary Centre status.
This decision has been influenced by the location of a large catchment population. The way that the present pattern of development has emerged to serve a community of high incomes and high vehicle ownership also has

influenced this decision as has the location of a road system providing a high degree of accessability. A problem to be resolved in this respect however, is that the present use of the main Medina Road as a parking area for shopping must be replaced by off-street car parking and service road facilities. The present large open space at the junction of the Medina Road and Palestine Road (West) should therefore be reserved for shopping use.
3.76§ As well as the upgrading of the existing Palestine Roundabout centre, we are proposing the establishment of a new secondary centre along the Mecca Road located at about Kilo 8. This is the most suitable location for such a centre because of the road requirements to serve the south and south-eastern area of the city, large land users such as the University and the substantial population growth expected in this quarter of the city. The expected catchment population is about 150,000.
3.77 In addition to the secondary centres (radius of population catchment about 5 km.) the smaller district, or Hara, will be necessary to provide for the needs of the lower income groups distributed throughout the city.
3.78 We feel that the present number of facilities will be increased according to the growth of the population and that the present location of facilities should be maintained. Our proposals are illustrated in Fig. 3.6.
3.79 The size of their catchment areas would depend on factors of a variable nature, such as the maximum acceptable distance of housing from the centres, the density of residential development in the catchment area as well as the influence of land uses such as public open space, main roads, schools and places of employment. A further factor to take

into account will be the location of the district centres which would inhibit the growth potential of any Hara centre.
3.80 Within the residential areas there will exist the opportunity to provide local shops on a limited scale. The number of these and the spacing will depend largely on local demands.
3.81 We have allocated 75,000 m2 as being adequate to provide for the future demand of district centres and local shops dispersed throughout the city. The approximate location of these centres and the catchment areas they will serve are shown in Fig. 3.6 within the context of the overall hierarchy of centres for the city. Generally, secondary and district centres will adjoin and have good access from the primary road system. Local shops should be related to the local level of movement and, in particular, pedestrian access.
3.82 An important rider to the future growth and location of commercial centres in Jeddah is the need to prevent the development of ribbon type frontage shops. The continual allowance of such shops will reduce the viability of any new centres proposed within the plan as well as adding to the congestion of roads resulting from on-street parking and servicing facilities.
3.83 Opportunities for new development The proposed new location of the airport to the north of the city provides an ideal opportunity to develop a major new centre as a focus to urban growth in the vicinity of the airport as well as providing much needed ancilliary facilities such as hotels, restaurants and such like close to the airport terminal.
3.84 The provision of non-central area retail facilities is limited. Prospects for large scale central area decentralisation will

depend upon the likelihood of stores which trade in specialist and durable goods moving to sub-urban locations where the roads are less congested and parking arrangements better.
3.85 The present centre at the Palestine Roundabout is ideally located for expansion into a secondary centre. The opportunity exists for the establishment of a new secondary centre on the Mecca Road at about Kilo 8, depending on the exact alignment of new roads, drawing from a large catchment population (including the University campus) living in the south-eastern sector of the city.
3.86 The central area has considerable opportunity for new development. At present the vacant sites and obsolescent buildings offer scope for new development and redevelopment. Although a large area of the Old Town is recommended for conservation (See Fig. 3.2 and earlier paragraphs of this Section), considerable opportunities exist for the redevelopment of land to the south of the present central block containing the souq. This area of land is at present occupied by a high proportion of buildings of an obsolescent nature and a high rate of vacancy.
A considerable amount of undeveloped land is available.
3.87 The area to the north is at present in a state of change and offers an ideal opportunity to extend central area shopping in this direction.
3.88 The southern fringe is at present given over to rhow-room type shops and offices. Frontage development on the ground floor is almost entirely given over to retail facilities.
3.89 We have previously pointed out that Jeddah has a unique opportunity to develop its waterfront on a comprehensive basis. The very nature of the foreshore, the depth of the water and the location

of the existing central business district presents an ideal opportunity to develop in a highly imaginative manner the present unused shoreline and shallow water to the best advantage of the city centre. New high speed urban roads and car parking provision can be combined with a sensitive and well planned development to give a modern and attractive centre in keeping with the thriving and growing momentum of the city. The structure plan for this area is shown in Fig. 8.2 in Section 8,
Land Use Proposals.

The development of traditional architecture in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has been shaped by two factors: Islamic religion (including sociological aspects) and climate. The various elements of building structures, such as the use of pointed arches-; mosaics, and Rawashins have been used for aesthetical reasons to enhance visual perspective. In addition, elements such as arcades, courtyards, fountains, and the use of light colored painted walls have been utilized in the space or building structure to modify the micro-climate. (For additional information, please refer to my independent study research on designing for hot, dry climates).





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The intention of landscaping is to enhance environmental quality within the settlement. It may be used functionally to promote evaporative cooling, impede and redirect wind, control sight lines, shield surfaces from direct sunlight and stabilize soils. Application should be selective and spare.
Community-scale public spaces should be landscaped to encourage utilization and social intercourse. Selection and placement of piant material should relate to adjacent architectural elements to achieve a compatible relationship.

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Vegetation in the form of trees, shrubs, creepers, and ground covers can be effectively used to improve the microclimate of a building in the following way:
- Providing shade and deciduous trees are excellent for shade in summer while allowing sun through during the cold months. Evergreens can be effectively used for shading the building or outdoor areas from the low-lying sun. Deciduous creepers shade for the summer and permit the sun to penetrate when it is needed in winter.
-Air cooling: moisture from plants can assist in lowering the air temperature by evaporative cooling and the environment adjacent to buildings can be tempered by the use of ground covers and shrubs.
- Ventilation: vegetation affects air flow which can be accelerated or directed through buildings by correct and careful planning as long as the behavior of the flow is predictable.
- Shelter: dense planting of evergreen vegetation can
be used to form windbreaks, provide protection against wind-blown dust and sand, and as screens for reducing glare.
Although a relatively wide range of vegetation will thrive in desert areas and almost anything can be grown where there is sufficient water, it must be remembered that

the list of plants included here is a general one and not all of them may be suitable for the city of Jeddah. The average height and spread that is g'iven for each plant can be influenced by both climate and soil conditions, and the plant may adapt by being smaller or larger in size. However, this list is a guideline to plants that will probably survive or have a better chance of survival in the region.
Acacia farnesiana (sweet acacia) deciduous tree with deep yellow flowers. Grows to 6 m in height with equal spread. A number of this large genus are evergreen and various species (eg A. albida, A. arabica etc) are found in a number of the major deserts around the world.
Ceratonia siliqua (carob bean, St. John's bread) native to the Eastern Mediterranean, this tree does well in hot, dry climates. Leathery, pinnate, dark green leaves with yellow and red flowers in summer. Height 7-12 m; spread 4-7 m.
Chilopsis linearis (desert willow, mimbre) native to New Mexico and Texas, this deciduous tree has narrow leaves and slender rather drooping branches. In spring and summer the tree is covered with small trumpet-shaped fragrant flowers. Height from 3-8 m.
Cupressus arizonica (cypress) this tree tolerates drier conditions than other species of the genus. Pyramidal in form and with grey or silvery foliage, it is fast growing and much used as a tall screen or windbreak. Height 10-15 m; spread 5-7 m.

Delonix regia (flamboyant)
a large deciduous tree with spread-
ing, flat-topped crown. Leaves are large and feathery-looking. Although particularly suited to humid coastal conditions, it does well in hot, dry inland areas which are frost free. Height 9-12 m; spread up to 9 m.
Eucalyptus large genus of fast-growing trees (most of them from Australia), which will grow well even in poor soils. Some are grown for shade and shelter (eg E. camaldulensis: height 10-15 m; spread 5-7 m) and others as ornamental flowering trees (eg E. torquata). E. lehmannii, which bears pale green-yellow flowers in late summer and autumn, is drought and wind resistant and is useful as a windbreak.
Plea (wild olive) a genus of slow-growing, drought resistant evergreen trees which tolerate extreme climatic and soil conditions. 0. europaea, for example, is found in a number of the arid areas. Height and spread about 4-6 m.
Palm trees come in all shapes and sizes, and can have various uses in the arid zones. They are roughly divided into two groups: the pinnate or feathery leaf types and the palmate or fan leaf types. Only one genus of each group is described here.
The Phoenix genus with feathery leaves range from the tall P. dactylifera (date palm) which grows to around 15 m high with a spread of about 5m, to P. roebelinii which is a slow-growing dwarf date palm 1.5-2 m high; spread 1-2 m. Washingtonia (cotton or fan palm) is a genus with large, fan-shaped fronds which does

well in coastal areas. Dead leaves droop to form a shaggy 'skirt' around the trunk unless cut away. W. filifera is thick stemmed with dull grey-green fronds. Height 10-25 m; spread 3-6 m. W. robusta is slender with a neat crown of bright green fronds.
Tamarindus indica a large, spreading tree with dense foliage which does well in coastal and dry areas. Height 15-18 m; spread 10-12 m.
Schinus (pepper tree) a genus of evergreen trees which tolerates dry conditions and poor soils. They are fast growing and make good shade trees. S. terebinthifolius is particularly suited to arid conditions and coastal areas. Height 6 m; spread up to 9 m. S. molle has attractive drooping foliage. Care must be taken as root system is shallow and wide-spreading. Height and spread around 7 m.
Tipuana tipu (or T. speciosa) (yellow jacaranda, pride of Bolivia) -a fast-growing evergreen tree with branches growing at many angles to form flattened crown. Bears bright yellow flowers in spring and summer. Height 7-9 m; spread up to 5 m.
Ulmus pumila (Siberian or dwarf elm) an extremely hardy, bushy deciduous tree which tolerates dry-hot conditions and can be used as a windbreak. Dark green serrated leaves turn russet in autumn. Height up to 6 m; spread up to 2.5 m.
Zizyphus jujuba (Chinese jujube) a deeprooted and salt-tolerant tree well suited to arid areas. Bears clusters of small yellowish flowers in spring followed by shiny, reddish-brown datelike fruits which are edible. Z. spina-christi is also often used for screening or windbreaks. Height 7-9 m.

Adenium multiflorum a strange slow-growing deciduous succulent tree or shrub with thick silvery green or grey stem, often with a swollen reservoir at the base. Broad, semi-succulent, glossy dark green leaves appear on the fleshy branches after the clusters of small white to pale pink flowers. Height 1-4 m; spread up to 1.5 m. A. hongel is found around the Gulf area and through the Sudan.
Callistemon citrinus (bottlebrush) and other members of this genus which bear red, crimson or yellow flower spikes, do well in arid areas. Height and spread around 3 m or more.
Cercidium (Palo verde) a genus of woody plants that have green stems and twigs which act as the main photosynthetic organs. C. floridum is a deciduous tree which bears clusters of bright yellow flowers during spring, followed by tiny leaves which are shed early leaving a fine tracery of bluish-green leaf stalks. Height and spread up to 8 m. C. microphyllum is also deciduous, but branches and leaves are yellow-green. More compact and spiney than C. floridum. Height and spread 5-6 m.
Dalea spinosa (smoke tree) a deciduous tree or shrub with a dense network of ash grey branches. Good show of fragrant dark blue flowers in spring. Height 3-6 m.
Dodonaea viscosa 'Purpurea' (purple hop bush) evergreen tree or shrub which is often grown as hedge or windbreak. Has many upright stems covered with willowlike bronzy-green leaves which turn a rich purple-red in winter. Height 3-5 m; spread 2-4 m.

Erythrina (coral tree) a large genus of deciduous trees (eg E. indica) and shrubs which are drought resistant and grow quickly in good sandy soil. They are noted for their spectacular clusters of flowers (greenish white, yellow, orange or red), which they bear in winter and spring before new leaves appear. Height from 2-12 m or more; spread 2-10 m.
Ipomoea leptophylla (bush moonflower) one of the large genus of evergreen and deciduous twining vines, and a few trees and shrubs, known as morning glory. This shrub or tree (to 3m) is beautiful when in flower (funnel-formed and pink) and is adapted for very dry places because of its enormous tuberous roots.
Maerua genus of small evergreen trees which are fairly drought resistant. M. caffra, for example, is slow-growing, has palmate leaves and bears clusters of small tubular white flowers in spring. Height around 3 m; spread 2 m.
Myoporum a genus of fast-growing evergreen trees and shrubs which withstand wind and drought. They have slender leaves and bear small starry, white flowers followed by berries. M. insulare is a dense-growing shrub with bright green succulent leaves and purple berries. Height 2.5-4 m; spread 2.5-5 m.
Olneya tesota (desert ironwood) a slow-growing, evergreen, spiney shrub-tree found in the driest places of south-west USA.
In the spring it is covered with clusters of white or purple flowers. Height 2-6 m.

Photinia serrulata (P. dentata) evergreen tree with young copper-bronze leaves which become a deep green. Bears white flowers in summer followed by red berries. Height 6-9 m; spread up to 5 m. Often pruned for hedge or shrub.
Pittosporum a genus of evergreen trees and shrubs which grow well in sandy soil. P. crassifolium, with long, glossy, dark green, oval leaves which are silver-grey on the underside, and clusters of brown flowers in the spring, makes a good windbreak in coastal areas. Height up to 6 m; spread 3-4 m. P. tobira is a shady, ornamental tree with leathery dark green leaves. Height 6-8 m; spread 5 m. Can be pruned for use as a shrub.
Prosopsis (mesquite) a genus of evergreen or semi-evergreen shrubs and trees that are outstanding in drought resistance and as windbreaks. P. juliflora is 4-6 m high while P. glandulosa torreyana grows to 10 m high and 12 m wide depending on water supply.
Pumica granatum (pomegranate) deciduous and drought resistant; can be grown as a small tree or fountain-shaped shrub. Trumpetshaped red flowers in spring are followed by large, round, hardskinned fruits. Height 5-6 m; spread 4-5 m.
Rhus a genus of evergreen and deciduous trees and shrubs that are drought resistant and do well in sandy soil. R. lancea (karee) is particularly suited to dry areas. Evergreen with a drooping habit, it has dense, glossy, dark green leaves and bears clusters of tiny white flowers in autumn and winter followed by small yellow-

brown fruits. Height 3-9 m; spread 3-7 m. R. ovata (sugar bush) an evergreen shrub growing up to 5 m high, is fairly widely grown in some dry areas.
Sophora a genus of deciduous and evergreen trees and shrubs that are drought resistant and prefer sandy soil. Foliage is delicate and fernlike, and the plants bear drooping clusters of flowers. S. Japonica (pagoda tree) is deciduous, gives light filtered shade and is fairly fast growing. Height 5-10 m; spread 3-6 m.
Tamarix (tamarisk) a genus of deciduous shrubs and small trees with plumed sprays of flowers in spring and summer. T. aphylla (Athel tree), with bright green foliage and pink flowers, is often used as a windbreak. Height up to 6 m; spread up to 4 m.
T. pentandra (salt cedar) bears dense clusters of tiny pink flowers and has downy blue-green foliage. Can be maintained as shrub if cut back. Height 2-5 m; spread 2-4 m.
Tecomella undulata grows in the driest parts of India and the Gulf area. Evergreen or nearly so, it is normally a stiff shrub of about 3 m, but can grow into a tree of up to 10 m. The bottom of the trunk is often clear of branches and is topped by a rounded rather open crown. Has narrow grey-green leaves and bears small clusters of large cuplike orange blossoms in spring.
Thespesia populnea (Aden apple, Portia tree) a quick-growing, drought resistant tree with small light yellow hibiscus-like flowers which turn purple by nightfall when they close. Height 4-6 m.

a genus of very hardy succulent type plants with
stiffish, long pointed leaves; some are almost stemless shrubs, others grow into large trees with picturesque or grotesque trunks.
Y. filamentosa, for example, is a nearly stemless shrub with a rosette of blue-green leaves with long loose fibres along their edges. The flowering stem bears clusters of white flowers and grows around 3 m high.
Acalypha wilkesiana (copperleaf) bushy, quick-growing evergreen shrub which is hardy and drought resistant, and does well in sandy soils. Leaves bronze-green mottled with red. Height 1-3 m; spread up to 1.5m.
Atriplex (salt bush) hardy, drought resistant shrubs with bluish- or silvery-grey leaves; various species are grown in arid areas.
Caesalpinia gilliesii (bird of paradise) does well in arid zones and is evergreen or deciduous, depending on winter cold. Has attractive filmy or fernlike dark green leaves on a rather open, angular branch structure. Bears clusters of yellow flowers during summer. Height and spread 2-3 m. C. pulcherrima is also hardy under arid conditions.
Carissa macrocarpa (C. grandiflora) (Natal plum) an evergreen shrub with dark green glossy foliage and starry jasmine-shaped fragrant flowers followed by smooth-skinned fruits, which resemble plums. Height 2.5-4 m; spread 2-3 m.

a large genus od deciduous and evergreen shrubs,
many of which may do well in hot-arid zones. Two that have proved to grow well in these areas are: C. pannosus (silverleaf), which is erect growing with small grey leaves on slender, arching branches. Small white flowers in spring are followed by dark red berries.
Height and spread 3-4 m. And C. lactea (C. parneyi), which has a graceful arching habit, dark green, rather leathery leaves and brilliant red fruits. Height 2 m; spread 2.5m.
Genista monosperma (white weeping broom) var. pendula is a tall decorative shrub with almost leafless weeping branches, which are covered with fragrant white pea-flowers in spring. Will resist drought particularly in summer. Height 2 m; spread 1.5 m.
Hibiscus a genus of deciduous and evergreen shrubs; species and varieties are available to suit all areas. H. syriacus (rose of Sharon) is a deciduous species which bears bell-shaped flowers (various colours available). Height 2.5-3 m; spread 1-2 m.
Ilex (holly) a genus of evergreen shrubs with spine-edged leaves and bright berries (usually red). I. altaclarensis 'Wilsoni' is one of the best for arid zones. Height 2-3 m.
Lantana montevidensis (L. Sellowiana) (purple sage) low evergreen shrub which makes a good ground cover; is drought resistant and thrives in sandy soil. Flowers are borne profusely throughout most of the yeara variety of colours is available. Height 300 mm; spread 1.5m.

Lippia citriodora (lemon verbena) a deciduous shrub with spreading habit which prefers sandy soil. Narrow pointed leaves are bright green; bears sprays of fragrant blue-white flowers during summer. Height 2-2.5 m; spread around 1.5 m.
Phormium tenax (New Zealand flax) leaves are long sword-shaped and stiffly vertical in a fan pattern. Dull red flowers are borne on long erect spikes. Height and spread 1-2 m; flower stems from 1.5-3 m high.
Pyracantha (firethorn) a genus of evergreen shrubs with a variety of forms and berry colours. The hardiest are the varieties of P. coccinea, which is generally a bushy round-headed species with height and spread of 2-4 m, although some are low-growing and wide-spreading.
Rosemarinus (Rosemary) evergreen shrubs from the Mediterranean region. R. officinalis, better known as a herb, is attractive all year with long, narrow, dark green leaves and clusters of lavender-blue flowers. Height 1-1.5 m; spread up to 1 msemi-dwarf varieties are also available. R. prostratus has a dense trailing habit, not growing much higher than 150-200 mm.
Russelia juncea (coral-bell bush) a low-growing herbaceous shrub which will stand neglect and drought. Has dainty, grasslike foliage with small, insignificant leaves and bears coral-coloured flowers almost continuously. Height 1-1.5 m.

Bignonia these are fast growing creepers, normally evergreen, but lose their leaves in areas with cold winters. They need protection from cold winds. Most of the plants formerly known as bignonias have been reclassified. B. grandiflora (Campsis grandiflora), which bears clusters of orange-red trumpet-shaped flowers in summer, and grows to a length of approximately 4 m, is only one of the species which can be used.
Ipomoea learii (blue dawn flower) a fast-growing, hardy evergreen climber which can become rampant. Has heart-shaped small leaves and bears blue flowers throughout much of the year.
Length 3-9 m.
Jasminum (jasmine) a large genus of evergreen shrubs, many of which have a climbing or semi-climbing habit; several species are grown in the hot-arid zones. J. officinale is a climber with fragrant white flowers and grows to a height of 5 m or more, with a spread of 1.5 m. J. sambac has dark green heart-shaped leaves and white sweet scented flowers, which are borne throughout the year in frost-free areas. Height 2 m; spread 1 m.
Plumbago capensis (plumbago, leadwort) a quick-growing, drought resistant evergreen shrub with a semi-climbing, rambling habit. Can be used as a ground cover, with support as a creeper, or as a hedge. Bears bright blue flowers through summer and autumn. Height about 2 m.

Senecio confusus a quick-growing climbing plant with orange-red flowers which can be grown in the hardest of conditions.
Thumbergia alata (black-eyed Susan) an effective evergreen climbing plant is supported. Bears bright orange flowers. Length up to 10 m. T. grandiflora, with pale-blue or white flowers, is a strong-growing climber, but tender to frost.
Asparagus sprengeri a low-growing perennial herb with light-green, fernlike leaves. When planted 1.5 m apart they eventually form a dense ground cover.
Carpobrutus a genus of prostrate tailing plants which do well even on pure sand. Have binding roots so can be used on sandy slopes to prevent erosion etc. Rapidly forms evergreen ground cover with fleshy leaves and large flowers (with, yellow or purple).
Polygonum capitatum (pink head knotweed) fast-growing and dense, and makes a good ground cover. Has heart-shaped leaves and bears tiny flowers profusely during spring and summer.
Height 100 m.
Portulaca (rose moss) a genus of annual and perennial succulents with low, spreading growth of fleshy foliage which does well as ground cover in dry, and even poor soil. P. grandiflora is low-growing with rose-like flowers (white, yellow, pink, red or orange).
Vinca (periwinkle) a genus of creeping or erect evergreen plants. V. major, a trailing large-leafed species with lavender-blue flowers, does well as a ground cover in dry areas.

Other plant forms include flowers. The most common in Saudi Arabia are: the yellow cassia, the pomegranate, the spiny echinops, thehibiscus, the centaurea sinaica (thistle), the acacia ehrenberigana, the anthemis deserti, the rumex vesicarius, the cistanche tubulosa, the echinops, and the opuntia.

The site is located on the eastern boundaries of the city of Jeddah in the area known to the people as the international exhibition area. The old international airport constitutes this area's western boundaries, while the University of King Abdul Aziz is the main facility that constitutes its southern boundaries. An existing highway system that connects the two holy cities of Medina and Makkah (Mecca) and that passes by the new international airport of the city of Jeddah, forms in conjunction with the mountains its eastern boundary, while a semi-developed area forms its northern boundary. The University is approximately one to three minutes drive from the site and owns all the land constituting the southern part of the international exhibition area. The old airport still exists, and is mainly used to receive small planes and private jets; at the same time, it functions as a secondary back-up to the main airport when problems of traffic congestion occur. The old airport is owned by the government of Saudi Arabia, and future development goals for the area is not known to me at this time.
In relationship to the site itself, it is located east of the proposed hospital for the Ministry of Health. In the vicinity of the site, land subdivision has been done for the development of a new residential community with a primary and a secondary school facility, a post office, a police station, a mosque, and an electrical station to serve the area

The only development that has been finished up to the present time is the construction of the primary and secondary road systems. The main approach to the site is through the fifty meter wide road (no name has been given to any of the roads yet) that is vehicular oriented (so is all other roadway systems) and which connects the two primary east and west roads to the site. Finally, the prevailing winds approach the site from the west where they are initiated and gain velocity when leaving the Red Sea to encroach upon the land.

In designing the shopping center, the architect should strive to have an architecturally unified buildings exterior and avoid the fragmental characteristic that is undesirable. Some of the basic elements usually used to unify the buildings architecturally are: the use of carefully related masses, repetition of stylistic decorations, ma erials, and color.
Islamic architectural style is desirable and recommended for this project, for it reflects the people's heritage, history, and in some instances, their beliefs.

6.26 The growth of private vehicle ownership and usage will result in increasing pressures to control the use of road space and the conflicts between moving traffic and stationary vehicles will be most acute in the commercial and business centre of the city. Consequently, the main car parking policies must aim to provide a balance between the capacities of the car parks and the road system planned to serve the central area.
6.27 Generally, parking demands fall into two categories, firstly, short-term parking related to shopping and business trips and secondly, long-term parking attributed mainly to workers employed in the central area. As shoppers and business callers are essential to the economic prosperity of the commercial centre, priority should be given to accommodating these parking demands in convenient sites within or close
to the central business area. However, whilst long term parking facilities can be located on more peripheral sites, such car parks should provide reasonable access to the centre and walking distances should, wherever possible, be less than 400 metres.
6.28 Clearly, these general locational policies for car parks must be related to specific proposals for access from the primary road system and the competing demands for land in the central business area. Further, any proposals to accommodate vehicles in off-street surface car parks must be examined not only in terms of the availability of land, but also the merits of developing multi-storey car parks and thereby releasing valuable land for commercial developments.
6.29 The traffic surveys carried out in 1971 indicated that 1,700 private vehicles terminated in the central area during the morning

peak period. However, by 1991, the central area sector was predicted to attract during the morning peak period, 15,400 private vehicles at the low population and 25,600 private vehicles at the high population.
6.30 Taking account of the local pattern of shopping and business trips, which is characterised by a large proportion of such activities occurring in the evening, and the size of the city, the distribution of parking purposes was derived for the orning period (0700-1500 hours)
by analysis of the various trip purposes. However, the duration of parking for shopping, business and other purposes is, on average one hour, whereas the average parking duration for work trips is about six hours. Based on these factors, we recommend that provision be made in the central area for 14,000 long term and 3,000 short term parking spaces for the low population. Similarly, for the high population, provision should be made for 23,500 long term and 4,500 short term parking spaces.
6.31 Accommodating these parking demands in surface level car parks would require 49 hectares for the low population and 80 hectares for the high population. Clearly, these land requirements highlight that it would not be practical to locate such surface car parks within the proposed commercial area. Consequently, Fig. 6.10 right, illustrates the principles of the recommended locational policy for parking in Jeddah.
The short term car parks are located close to the shopping and commercial areas and the long term car parks are located in peripheral sites to the north, west and east of the centre. In order to meet the parking demands of the high population, it will be necessary to pursue a policy of progressive development from surface to multi-storey car parks.
6.32 The penetration of traffic within the commercial centre should be restricted to commercial traffic delivering goods and private

traffic associated with the families residing in the centre. These policies of restricted vehicular penetration and peripheral parking provide a means of attaining a good and safe environment for shopping and business activities. For the continued prosperity of the central area it is essential to locate most of the short term parking spaces close to the main shopping and business centre and we recommend most emphatically that land shown as short term parking use in the centre of Jeddah is reserved for this use.
6.33 The car parking policies for main traffic generators, other than the central area, will vary according to size and location. Generally, District and Local commercial centres and industrial developments should be required to provide appropriate off-street parking facilities.

A. Design Guidelines:
a) Parking arrangement:
1. Parking arrangements should be designed to facilitate the customer's use and access of the shopping center.
2. The greatest supply of parking spaces should
be located near the heaviest approach direction.
3. The entrances of the shopping center should be designed to accommodate the parking arrangement and minimize the walking distance from the parking area to the shopping center.
4. It should be possible for the motorist to drive from one part of the site to the other without having to use the exterior roadway system.
5. Traffic adjacent to the main building entrance should be held to a minimum to prevent conflicts with pedestrians walking from their parking spaces to these entrances.
6. Parking stall should be oriented at angles other than 30 degrees to aisles and should be delineated by double striping. Motorists find it much easier to maneuver into and out of angle parking stalls and cause less interference to traffic in parking area aisles. Double striping promotes better positioning of cars within the parking space and makes it easier for occupants to enter or leave their cars.

7. Parking aisles should be perpendicular to buildings so that customers can walk along aisles rather than between cars to reach the shopping area.
8. Parking adjacent to main building entrances should not be permitted for fire protection purposes and to prevent congestion and interference with pedestrian movement. Stopping to allow a driver to drop off or pick up a passenger is permitted
at this location.
b) Parking signs:
1. Both information and control signs should be used to regulate traffic movement.
2. Use "YIELD" signs instead of "STOP" signs to establish right-of-way without requiring unnecessary stops where potential conflicts are low in magnitude.
3. "NO PARKING" signs should be used where necessary. B. Design Considerations:
The parking plan is essential not only because it regulates vehicular traffic on the site, but, in addition, it is the shopper's first contact with the shopping facility. It may condition the shopper for a positive and pleasant experience, or vise-versa. Therefore, the parking solution should be well thought out and integrated coherently with the design. The following design tips are provided:

1. Screening of service areas is advisable.
2. Use of landscape or other design solutions to break large asphalt areas is preferable.
3. Placement of lighting poles should be provided where needed to accommodate for right lighting, and held to an adequate minimum to enhance a humanizing parking area. An average of 60 ft. high poles or less is recommended.
4. A good shading design solution for day parking is desirable.

The Building Entries:
The entrances to the shopping center should have an inviting quality, and at the same time, be imposing enough to attract the shopper's attention. These entrances should have an exciting architectural quality that is three-dimensional and which could take many forms: for example, a colonnaded canopy. In nighttime hours, these entrances should accommodate special lighting effects and entrance signs that would harmonize with the overall graphic lettering program for the entire shopping center.
The Exterior Facade:
The usual trend preferred today in shopping centers, whether by store owners or developers for economical reasons, is to reduce to a minimum the number of show windows and public entrances on the exterior facade.
The Center's Interior
In a one story enclosed shopping center with one or two department stores, the design of arcades, malls, and courts (if provided), should create an inviting, exciting, and emotionally uplifting environment.
The interior court should become the focal point of the center, enhanced by design features as glace-space frame dome, special lighting fixtures, sculptures, fountains, landscaped areas, etc.. If more than one court exists, the shopping

center becomes more exciting when each court is given its own special character, shape, color, and decor. The courts should offer the shopper a place to sit, relax, and meet friends.
The arcades or artorarics of the shopping center leading to the main court and where various shops are located, should strive for an intimate character and subdued atmosphere, thus attracting the shopper's eye to the store displays. This also allows for a transition from a less elaborate area into a monumental court that serves as the highlight of the center.
An important consideration in the design of an enclosed shopping center is minimizing walking distances from one major part of the shopping center to the other. Where distances of 700 feet or more exist, there are both physical and psychological reactions to the "tunnel" effect. Such problems can be avoided by forming a z-shaped plan (usually at court intersection), thus creating a break approximately at midway. One way of enhancing the visual impact to the shopper is by stepping back the stores as they come closer to the court area which is the focal point around which the center evolves. Other examples of plans that will shorten walking distances to the shopper are:
- Plus sign. This plan allows for four major department stores at each end with the minimum walking distance to the center.
- Y-shaped plan. Allows for three major department stores.

- Multi-story center. Allows for vertical mode of transportation through escalators, stairways, etc., thus minimizing walking distances.
There is no doubt that there are other numerous ways and combinations in which the creative designer can avoid the "tunnel" effect, thus enhancing traffic flow and the ease of movement for the shopper.
The Mall, the Court, or the Focal Space in the Center's Interior: (From REGIONAL SHOPPING CENTERS)
The pedestrian mall has become the feature of today's shopping center, whether the project is in the suburbs or in the central business district. The pedestrian mall has the following characteristics:
a. The mall usually consists of the principal mall, the major pedestrian shopping street of the project, and one or more subsidiary approach malls or access routes connecting the main mall with the parking areas or adjacent streets.
b. With few exceptions, all stores have their principal entrance on the main mall or, less desirably, on approach malls, whether or not these stores have additional entrances to parking lots or adjacent streets.
c. The mall can be on one level or on two or more superimposed levels. Each mall level should, however, avoid slopes or steps within its own walkways to avoid hindrance to shopping and a source of accidents.
d. The mall can be (1) open, with weather protection consisting solely of continuous canopies along the store fronts, (2)

completely covered but open to the air, or (3) completely enclosed, necessitating heating in winter and air-conditioning in summer.
The trend has been almost exclusively toward the enclosed climatized mall except where weather conditions are ideal or some other factor makes the open mall preferable. Enclosed malls have been in the form of huge courts; they have been wide, narrow, straight, circuitous, empty, or filled with amenities; they have had one level or two or more levels; and they have been lighted by skylights or solely by artificial means (Fig. 4).
The trend has been steadily away from wide malls and court-type malls. Currently widths of 30 to 40 ft. are outnumbering widths of 50 ft. or more. The wider malls require more landscaping and features to avoid a barren atmosphere. They also require more cubage and hence are less economical despite the possibility of high rents from kiosks and similar features spotted along their lengths. Furthermore, and most important, narrow malls facilitate back and forth comparison shopping from one sid to the other and hence significantly aid the customer's exposure to the merchandise. A logical trend is toward stretches of narrow mall, generally devoid of amenities, punctuated by moderate-sized courts in front of department stores or elsewhere which become customer magnets. The courts have greater lighting intensity, greater height, and spectacular features such as fountains, lush landscaping, and monumental sculpture.
The length of malls generally should not be more than 800 ft. (preferably less) between department stores or other major features; but, in the case of more than two department stores, total length can

be substantially more.
With the advent of the pedestrian mall came the need to give it interest and glamour as an enhancement to the overall customer appeal of the center. This interest or glamour is normally non-income producing; but, in the case of small retail kiosks for such items as keys, stockings, photo supplies, and soft drink facilities, very high rents can be obtained because of the conspicuous and high-exposure locations.
Mall amenities generally include, in addition to landscaping, which will be elaborated on in another section, most of the following items:
Trash and ash receptacles, a mandatory aid in preventing litter.
Directories of one sort or another to facilitate finding specific stores.
Public telephone installations.
Seating groups and individual benches for resting, although many planners believe it is better to have frequent coffee stands both for better control and to produce income. Many also believe that, in downtown areas, it is often better to avoid benches so as to discourage loitering by undesirable elements.
Fountains, properly designed for public protection from water hazards. (Water seems to have a universal appeal.)
Kiosks of various sizes and shapes, generally less than 250 sq. ft., though there is a trend to larger ones.
Lockers (occasionally) for storing purchases while continuing to shop.
Sculpture or other art forms as major design features.
Miscellaneous items occasionally used to catch the public interest, such as birdcages, kiddy mazes, fashion mirrors,

closed-circuit TV, clocks, continuous music, fashion platforms, exhibit areas, etc.. It is noted that in the case of exhibit areas, it is necessary to provide adequate mall-access doors for bringing in large items to be exhibited.
Mall lighting should be low-keyed and incandescent, should lend interest to dark or monotonous areas, and should, except in major courts, allow the storefronts to be the main attraction. Natural light is often used in moderation to give variety of effect and sometimes to save power cost, but generally natural light must be limited in order to avoid dilution of the impact of the storefronts along the mall. As malls are customarily open late afternoons and evenings, adequate artificial illumination must be provided regardless of the extent of the natural light.
Floor: The choice of materials for the interior of the
shopping center relies on both functional and aesthetical qualities. Floor materials, for example, should be chosen for permanence and minimum maintenance. Such materials as terrazzo floors (about 2 in. thick) is one of the most desirable installations on a sand bed of concrete floor. Thinset terrazzo is a less expensive type of tile that can be applied directly over finished concrete floor when cost is a limiting factor. Interesting patterns in floor design 1 can be an enhancing aesthetical quality. Such patterns can be achieved with different color tiles or different materials, such as the combination of terrazzo and quarry tile. Carpeting is another material for floor covering that can be used.

Though carpeting has an initial high installation cost, it is usually offset by its low maintenance cost. Carpeting enhances the aesthetic quality of the shopping center through its color and provides for different design patterns when desired. Carpeting used throughout the entire shopping center is not advisable; instead, when used, it is best applied on large sunken areas or where the separation between the center court and adjacent floor areas is desired.
Walls and ceilings: Interior wall materials as the floor should be chosen for permanence and maintenance. Often the materials used for the exterior is also used for the interior to provide for continuity and to allow for individual storefronts to be featured and accented. Finished wall material above the main wall structure can be plaster, dry wall, metal, wall paper, etc.. As for the ceiling materials, an infinite variety of choices are found such as exposed structural steel, concrete beams, plaster, wood, etc.. In addition, the introduction of daylight through skylights or clerestries provides for a cheerful and inviting element to the shopping center.
It is advisable, though, to use indirect-diffused light for the shopping center to avoid the problems of discomfort caused by direct light in such a hot climate.
Lighting: General lighting in the shopping center should
be subdued, but adequate enough to stimulate people and provide a restful and inviting atmosphere. Daylighting, if implemented in the design, either through skylights or clerestory windows, should be indirect and diffused to

prevent direct light from becoming a source of heat gain for the area, thus increasing the cooling load required to attain a comfortable atmosphere. Daylighting should be provided for its illumination characteristics and for the feeling of openness it enhances; in addition, the skylights allow for the view of the blue sky. Lighting effects can be also achieved through the use of decorative pendants, chandeliers, architectural shapes, and specially designed wall and post lights. When the shopping center accommodates heavy traffic, not less than 20 footcandles of light should be provided excluding the contribution of show-window lighting. Show-window lighting is often affected by adjacent surroundings, and the illumination level required is determined by the items displayed. In general, show-window illumination should approximate 300 footcandles and should be designed for flexible multi-level illumination intensities. Window lighting's main purpose is focused on attracting the shopper's eyes to the displays in the window. Interior tenant signs are designed with regard to size and brightness. It is advisable for these signs to be uniform in size and compatibility with the rest of the store's signs in the shopping area. However, restrictions, in general, are usually opposed by store owners, consequently, the general designer of the shopping center can advise the owners, and these restrictions can be enforced, if necessary, in the leasing format.

The type of lighting suggested for use in such a project is high-intensity discharge lamp fixtures (HID). High-intensity discharge lamps include mercury vapor lamps, metal halide lamps, and high pressure sodium lamps. The main advantage of these lamps is high lumen per watt light output, and this efficiency with imporved color rendition, has made HID lamps highly acceptable for many commercial lighting installations. For reasons of safety, though, it is usually mandatory that incandescent and/or florescent lamps be combined with HID lamps to avoid the one to six minute blackout that results from instantaneous power interruption. Whether choosing incandescent, florescent, or HID lamps, it is important to keep in mind the importance of avoiding general lighting of high lumen output in comparison to store window lighting, thus not fulfilling the main purpose of attracting the shopper's eye to the various window displays. Finally, the appearance of the lights must complement the building design.
Cooling systems: The main purpose of the cooling system is to provide temperature control for the comfort of the people within the shopping center facility. an average temperature of 68-75 degrees Farenheit is suggested. It is important to keep in mind that the city of Jeddah has relatively high humidity at night, while it is hot and dry during the day. In addition to mechanical systems used to provide temperature control, other systems have been traditionally used by the people of this region throughout history. Systems

such as the use of light colored material for the walls and roofs to reflect solar energy, providing interior courtyards that become a cooling well when provided with water and plants, and various methods of shading techniques.
Artwork: Works of art when integrated in the design of
the shopping center enhance the center's festive and colorful environment, and help to create a marketplace set in attractive surroundings that makes shopping a gayer, more interesting experience. Proportion, scale, and character of the center are the important factors to be considered when implementing works of art in the design of the center. Works of art should reflect the tradition and history of the people, thus giving them a feeling of proudness and appreciation of their cultural heritage.
Graphic and Signage: Signage is implemented throughout the shopping center to regulate, inform, and direct the shopper to his desired destination. Various types of signs are found in the shopping center that range from directional signs in the parking area, store front signs, directory signs, rest room signs, to specific signage within the individual stores. With such a large variety of use of signage in the shopping center, it is recommended that these signs have a common integrated design characteristics to capture the essence of the shopping center and strengthen the unity of the center's integrated parts as a whole unit. This design consideration pleasantly directs the shopper to all of the spaces and enhances maximum communication potential. In

relation to store front signs, these signs may be in the form of individual letters of various materials such as stainless steel, aluminum, plastic, or porcelain enamel.
The lighting may be built in as part of the letters, or the letters may be lighted from another source.
Servicing involves the delivery of goods to the various stores and also the removal of trash and garbage. In the simple strip center, the servicing is customarily by an alley in the rear of the the strip of stores.
It is desirable to conceal the alley from adjacent neighborhood areas by a wall or landscaping.
In the one-level regional suburban center, servicing is customarily by one of the following:
a. Underground service tunnel, usually under the mall, connecting directly to tenant-leased basements which connect, in turn,
to the stores above. This system avoids all unsightly trash, keeps parked trucks out of the way, and avoids allocation of prime parking space to servicing. It also relegates nonselling activities to the basement, reserving the main floor for sales. The tunnel adds, however, 3 percent or more to the total cost of the construction and more or less necessitates the inclusion of basements. This, in turn, calls for realistic leasing and financing of these basement areas if they are to be self-supporting financially.
b. Service courts on the periphery of the building complex.
These are usually partially shielded from public view by masonry walls 6 to 10 ft. high or higher. Their cost is

minimum, but they occupy space that is expensive if land costs are high and that could otherwise be utilized for prime parking. The interiors of the courts are objectionable in appearance and can rarely be adequately screened. Furthermore, these courts can usually be made directly accessible to only a portion of the stores present. This type of project normally has no basement space.
c. Over-the-curb and sidewalk directly from the street. This is the cheapest and uses the least land, but it requires rigid enforcement of cleanliness by the project management, delivery of merchandise and removal of trash generally before or after business hours, and the mandatory inclusion of trash rooms in each store.
Generally speaking, markets, department stores, restaurants, and drug and variety stores have the greatest demand for adequate service facilities.
Service trucking routes on the site are often separated from customer routes, but this arrangement is generally not necessary as the relatively few number of trucks per day in a typical shopping center presents no traffic problem. In the case of sidewalk delivery, the parked trucks pose problems, and policing may be required to prevent the accumulation of trash.
In multilevel projects, the use of strategically placed freight elevators is necessary. These usually connect to fireproof passages at the rear of the stores (whether on an upper level or below grade) and often serve also as fire exits. With this type of project, necessitating service corridors, service courts can usually be fewer and more concentrated.

Mezzanines are occasionally used to provide storage and nonselling space. Such facilities have value in that they reduce the depth of space required and hence the land occupied, but they rarely produce savings in construction cost because of the need for greater height of store-building roofs for adequate clearances.
Security: The main purpose of installing security
systems in the shopping center is the protection of the facility against theft and fire hazards. It is advised that adequate lighting in the parking area should be provided, because panhandlers and car thieves normally will not frequent a shopping center that is well lit. It is also advisable that a sprinkler system for fire protection be installed for enclosed shopping centers. Other fire protection systems that can be used are: smoke detectors, heat sensors, and fire extinguishers. The owner of the shopping center can also install burglar alarm systems to prevent theft. These systems can range from holdup alarms to closed-circuit television systems depending on owner's preference.

SHOPS: (Basically edited from the book "SHOPS" by David Mun)
The complete range of goods for sale in shops can be said to fall within two broad categories:
1. Convenience goods those ought for daily needs and that are sold in supermarkets, pharmacies, and so on.
2. Durable or comparison goods those which customers compare for quality, variety, and price; for example, shoes, clothing, furniture, etc..

Clothing & footwear
These are generally considered to be 'comparison' goods
Small shops have fared well against competition from department & variety stores as they are more susceptible to quick changes of fashion
Bridal & evening wear: found mainly in the more exclusive areas
Fabric and haberdashery: now mainly found in department stores
SMaternity, baby & child: clothing for this category is usually sold in conjunction with other associated goods such as prams, cots, nappies, etc.
§Men's wear: can be advantageously sited with similar types of shops as customers like to have a wide choice of styles and prices
SWomen's wear: comment on siting same as for men's wear
§Footwear: most cater for men and women with segregated areas for each; children's footwear is found with women's as mothers tend to do most of the shopping; can be advantageously sited in area with similar shops as customers like to have a wide choice of styles & prices
Bridal & evening gowns Fabrics, haberdashery Nightwear, underwear Pattern books & stencils Gloves, hats, handbags
Utility clothing, associated furniture and equipment Toys
Coats, suits, trousers, shirts, jackets Raincoats, woollens Shirts, underwear, gloves, umbrellas, accessories, eg belts, jewellery etc.
Dresses, coats, blouses, shirts, jeans Underwear, hats, gloves, leather good & small jewellery
Casual, utility, fashion & sports footwear Sandals, slippers, wellingtons Polishes, creams, brushes & other leather goods eg handbags, belts

Clothing & footwear (continued) §Sportswear: this is often associated with shops selling sports equipment eg tennis rackets, golf clubs etc. Popular sports clothing, footwear eg tennis shoes Less popular sports eg aikido, scuba-diving Cheap goods eg darts boards, table games
Woollen goods: only in cold weather climates, and sales are dependent on season Sweaters, pullovers cardigans 9 Hats, scarves, gloves
Household goods
These are both General store: goods are distinctly separated & Genrally all large Generally
'convenience' and categorised: pieces of furniture all small
'comparison' goods Living room furniture & cheap
Dining room furniture items
Most of the goods are Kitchen furniture, appliances and accessories
for sale in composite Bedroom furniture
shops such as variety Bathroom accessories
stores, hyper-markets, Linen & towels
department stores, & China & glass
discount warehouses Lighting
Specialist stores may Outdoor furniture
deal in just one of the Wall & floor coverings
categories §Toys: toys for children & games for adults
§China & glassware: mostly expensive & hand made goods suitable for gifts
Second hand furniture: vary from antique furniture elegant shops to 'junk' in dilapidated warehouses in
Do-it-yourself: this is a rapidly growing industry Pain, brushes, Hardware, Books &
& the number & size of shops are increasing accessories, wall tools, iron- manuals
accordingly & floor covering mongery,
materials & timbers,
appliances gardening

GOODS CLASSIFICATION______________________
Other goods
As these cover a wide it includes both 'convenience' & 'comparison' goods Antiques* Art dealer and picture frames*
*Denotes shops which appreciably benefit next to other shops selling similar type of goods especially in areas of established reputation SBookseller Car, bicycle & motor cycle salesroom & accessories Best sellers, general fiction, popular nonfiction Vehicles, accessories & tools Literature, specialist subjects General fiction, paperbacks, cards, & stationery Accessories
§Chemist: large stores are branching out & widening their range of goods Prescriptions, general medicines Toiletries, Cosmetics photographic goods, stationery, household goods
Florists House plants, flowers Accessories guide books
§Gifts & souvenirs Mostly impulse goods
Hobbies, stamps, fishing, hunting, etc.*: require very small areas & are ideally suited in 'market hall' building types Mostly demand goods
§Jewellery: goods are both impulse & demand Watches, rings, bracelets, personal jewellery Silverware, clocks, coins Lighters, tie pins
Leather goods: goods are both impulse & demand
Pets & animal foods Pets, animal foods Accessories, guide books

GOODS CLASSIFICATION______________________
Other goods (continued)
Newsagents: large stores have a wide range of goods Newsprint, tobacco goods Stationery, ices, cards Confectionery, beverages, crisps
§Photographic goods Cameras & accessories TV, radio & electric goods Films, cleaning kits
§Records & music Latest releases, popular albums & singles Other records, cassettes, sheet music, cartridges Accessories, cleaning kits, music books, blank tapes, posters
Showrooms: manufacturers independently or in joint association with other manufacturers display & sell their products; goods may be sold or just be on exhibition with customers being referred to dealers Types of goods are cameras, furniture equipment varied: eg lighting, cars, kitchen & bathroom
Specialist equipment: comments as for showrooms above Types of goods are medical, business varied: eg religious, etc.
Sports goods Sports equipment & clothing Camping equipment & less popular sports eg scuba-diving Games, toys
§Toys: for all ages; specialist shops cater for adult games, eg chess centres

-9 1
In these shops goods Dry cleaner & launderette
are not sold, but a service is afforded for a fee
Hairdresser Hire service §Optician
Shoe repairs & key cutting
Travel & other agencies
There is considerable demand for these services particularly in middle to low income areas with a transient population; customers choose nearest facility, otherwise there is no competition
High demand in all areas; competition for clientele is great; customers choose premises for service & comfort of interior
Goods on general hire include: television sets, cars, clothing, mechanical & plant equipment
Here is a combination of direct goods sales eg sunglasses, glass frames & lenses, & a service from the optician
Only a small area is required; primarily should be sited where there is a large flow of pedestrians eg at transport terminals or incorporated in a composite shop
There are various types of agency: airline, boat, coach or railway company, tour operator, travel agent, theatre booking agent and bureau de change
Shop premises may be used by professional bodies to serve the community
Doctor's surgery Optimum sites are in semi-residential areas where the balance of
Dentist's surgery rents & catchment market is correct
Accountant's office
Architect's office
§Interior designer's office
Surveyor's office
Miscellaneous Uses
Shop sites used for Bank, bureau de change
general amenity Betting shop
services Employment agency
Estate agent
Funeral director
Gas & electricity showroom
Post Office
Public house
Rn ------- r~ i_

NOTE: The § sign in the above charts designates most
probable to exist and succeed in shopping area.
Food: will be taken care of with the existence of a
supermarket in the shopping center.
The following is a few examples of various small shop requirements for different activities or merchandise.
Men's and Women's Wear:
Selling area can be quite small. There should be hanging space for about 20 to 30 suits, a minimum counter of 1800 x 600 mm, one or two fitting rooms about 1500 x 1200 mm, and customer circulation space of about 10.0 m2 The number of fitting romms should be determined by the client on the basis of his assessment of turnover expected and quantity of stock available.
Size for individual cubicles vary depending on their function and the amount of space available. Recommended sizes are:
Limited space (eg for knitwear) 1.0 x 1.0 m or 1.2 x 0.9 m General space (eg for ready-to-wear goods) 1.2 x 1.2 m Assorted service (eg for tailoring services) 1.2 x 1.8 m Curaining is usually up to 2.0 m high. Where cubicles are fitted with doors, these may be wired to signal lights The sizes of stockrooms vary according to the quantity of stock to be held and the scope of the client's operations.
The workroom should measure approximately 3.5 x 4.5 m and should be located adjoining the fitting room and sales floor.

Service is always personal, usually from across a counter.
Personal goods for male or female customers are usually displayed on glass-topped counters. General goods are displayed in glass-fronted cabinets behind the counters. Popular shops require large amounts of window to display their comprehensive range of goods. The nature and size of the goods require that they be inspected from very close distances.
The top and front counters are usually made of glass with access at the rear.
Wall cabinets are used to display the larger merchandise such as clocks, pewter, and silverware.
Jewelry shops are considered high risk premises. The client should be consulted on security requirements.
Book thicknesses vary considerably, but the following dimensions may be taken as a guideline:
Spacing per Recommended
Type of Book Article (mm) Shelf Depth
Paperbacks Children's books 20-25 175
15-30 200-300
General fiction 30-45 200
Non-Fiction 30-50 250
Technical books 40-60 250
Service is mostly self-selection.
Window display is not usually important and shops only require small window beds to display the latest titles and bestsellers.

The interior should be planned as simply as possible to allow for customers to browse and, at the same time, to allow others to pass through the aidles without congestion.
Finishes are usually simple in subdued colors so as not to compete with brightly illustrated book jackets. Good lighting is essential to allow for the reading of small print.
A good sized storage room is required for receiving, checking, unpacking, and pricing new books.
Window display is not important and shops only require small windows to display the latest releases and top selling albums.
Interiors are usually open planned to allow staff and customers a complete view of sales floor.
Household goods (small goods):
Self-service is suitable for small items, therefore the plan can be similar to that of a supermarket but on a smaller scale.
Simple finishes are preferable. Floors and walls should be hard wearing, easily maintained, and in neutral colors.
Requirements should be established concerning a storeroom for receiving goods, checking, unpacking, and distribution. Adequate space should be allocated for surplus packaging material.

Although a specialized list of the range of possible shops has been provided, it is advisable that these facilities be accommodated within a multi-use building (or buildings) which provide modular spaces for individual shops. This will promote flexibility to respond to changing market demands which is vital to the continued success of a growing urban area. Therefore, by providing non~specialized retail space in the form of modular building areas, it is possible to respond to initial as well as the future retail needs.
Cashier's counter 4.5
Floor display 300.0
Office/toilet 20.0
Storage/workroom 100.0
Net Building Area 424.5
Gross Conversion Factor x 1.2
Gross Building Area say 500.0
Service area 100.0

Genera! Merchandise Store Functional Relationship Diagram
General Merchandise Store Conceptual Plan
Sti -ILL

10 in 1 2 3 4 5
1 Cashier's Counter
2 Floor Display
3 Office
4 Toilet
5 Storage/Workroom

Specialty shops will sell such items as women's, men's, and children's wear, shoes, hardware, cards and gifts, sporting goods, variety merchandise, and small appliances. Facility sizes may be anticipated to range from 150 to 300 square meters.
Show windows (2 at 2m2) 4.0
Sales area 150.0
Storage 36.0
Office 14.0
Toilet 6.0
Net Building Area 210.0
Gross Conversion Factor x 1.2
Gross Building Area say 250.0
Service area (50 m2 shared)
E :n ranee

Specialty Shop Conceptual Plan
1 Show Window
2 Sales Area
3 Dressing Rooms
4 Stock Room
5 Office
6 Toilet
Small shops will sell such items as candy, carpets and rugs, cosmetics, jewelry, flowers, gifts, novelty items, newspapers, prescription drugs, tobacco, toiletries, and limited apparel. Facility sizes may be anticipated to range from 50 to 100 square meters.

Cashier's counter 3.0
Magazines 4.5
Toiletries/drugs 10.0
Prescription counter/preparation storage 10.0
Telephones 1.5
Storage/office 15.0
Net Building Area 44.0
Gross Conversion Factor x 1.2 52.8
Gross Building Area Service area (50 m2 shared) say 50.0


1 Cashier's Counter
2 Magazines
3 Toiletries/Drugs
4 Prescription Counter
5 Telephones
6 Storage/Office

1. The building design shall accommodate both daytime and nighttime activities.
2. Parking space should be provided for a capacity of approximately 766 cars.
3. Special attention should be given to landscaping with planting of trees to act as wind breakers during the sandy days of the year.
4. The building structure will not exceed a l\ story limit.
5. The building's main surface color is to be white.
6. The building structure shall be enclosed to provide protection against the sun's radiation.
7. The building shape shall not be that of a square.
8. It is recommended that the building be elongated in some general east and west direction.
9. It is recommended that horizontal screens or louvers be used on the north and south sides.
10. It is recommended that vertical screens or louvers be used on east and west sides.
11. The building shall have a minimum of three exits.
12. The building shall be properly ventilated.
13. The general lighting should be subdued in order not to distract the shopper from the shop's front window displays.