Citation
The Killington Village recreation center, Killington, Vermont

Material Information

Title:
The Killington Village recreation center, Killington, Vermont
Creator:
Andreas, Frederick M
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
156 leaves : illustrations, chart, maps (some folded), plans ; 22 x 28 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Resorts -- Designs and plans -- Vermont -- Sherburne ( lcsh )
Resorts ( fast )
Vermont -- Sherburne ( fast )
Genre:
Designs and plans. ( fast )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Designs and plans ( fast )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 137-138).
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
Frederick M. Andreas.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
13107614 ( OCLC )
ocm13107614
Classification:
LD1190 .A877 ( lcc )

Full Text

The Killington Village Recreatio Killington, Vermont /
Fred Andreas
Center
A+P
LD
1190
A72
1983
A877


r
"N
The Killingfon Village Recreation Center Killingfon, Vermont
Thesis Preparation Report December 1982
Master of Architecture Thesis May 1983
Frederick M. Andreas School of Design and Planning University of Colorado Denver, Colorado
KD


I
I
Table of Contents
Page
Site Analysis .......................... 1
Master Plan................................ 19
Climate..................................... 32
History..................................... 33
Zoning ..................................... ^4
Code .................................... ^9
Energy ................................ 1*11
Marketing.................................. H9
Space Planning............................. 1^3
Schedule .... *......................... 133
Bibliography ............................ 136
Appendix................................... 139


r
v
2.
>
Site Analysis
The site for the Killington Village and Village Recreation Center is on heavily wooded, moderately sloping terrain. The terrain slopes to the northeast with the average slopes ranging from 10% to 20%. The approximately 400 acre site that was acquired through a trade with the State Forest Service, is mainly covered by the recently completed golf course. As a result, approximately half of the trees have been cleared from the lower portions of the site.
Views
The Village site itself is located on a knoll that dips 50 feet before returning to a similar elevation (20 feet lower) at the ski lodge Snowshed. The Village site, then, has a view to the southwest looking down on the ski lodge and up to the surrounding ski mountains. Views from the knoll to the northeast are of the lower surrounding mountain side. This panorama covers the entire north and east from the site.
fflD


The views are then blocked by steeply sloping hills directly to the southeast of the site (please see the site map). Views from the recreation center itself will be from west-northwest swinging through a 130 arch to the southeast.
This main view corridor will include the gently sloping golf course in the foreground and the surrounding mountains beyond. Views to the southwest from the recreation center toward the ski mountains, will be minimal due to the Center largely being located over the top of the knoll. As one of the building's functions is a golf clubhouse, the building's proximity to the course is essential, clearly placing the Center on the furthest side of the knoll from the ski area. As the building shall be from three to four levels, the top level or mall entry level will maintain a view of the ski area beyond
the pedestrian mall.
Winds
Winds on the site are only one direction erratic. Monthly prevailing data is listed below, yet this data is almost meaningless at the site. Killington is known for its unique and erratic weather patterns and winds.
Average Prevailing Winds
Month Winds from
January WNW
February WNW
March WNW
April NW
May S
June s
July s
Augus t s
September s
October s
November s
December s


r
As an example of the erratic wind, the following data is from the Killington Base Lodge where weather data is compiled. As can be plainly noticed, the wind direction may shift 180 in the span of eight hours. Designing for wind in a direction specific way would be a mistake in this project. Certainly cross ventilation techniques are appropriate but only if they are not directional.
January 1982
Day Time Wind Speed mph Wind Direction From
1st 08:00 19.8 SE
16:00 9 (SW)
24:00 15 N
2nd 08:00 17 W
16:00 6.6 E
24:00 3.5 W
3rd 08:00 5 NE
16:00 8.1 E
24:00 0 (SE)
4 th 08:00 8.6 SE
16:00 4.4 E
24:00 9.7 W

February 1982
Day Time Wind Speed mph Wind Direction From
10 th 08:00 2.6 NE
16:00 8.8 N
24:00 16.4 W
11th 08:00 20.8 SW
16:00 20.2 NW
24:00 2.3 S
12th 08:00 7.2 N
16:00 4.5 NW
24:00 1.9 S
13th 08:00 .4 N
16:00 10.4 W
24:00 9.7 W
A complete climate analysis may be found in the
Climate section of this report.
Vegetation
Vegetation on the site is primarily of the
third generation or terminal type, that is,
oak, maple and other larger hardwood trees.
Their population runs from very dense near the
existing parking lot to totally cleared near the
lower portions of the site near the golf course.


Brush and low vegetation is at a minimum. One agreement with the Forest Service, involves the requirement of reducing the environmental impact of the Village project on the site. To this end, not only will contour changes be held at a minimum, particularly as they effect the surrounding Forest Service land, but vegetation stripping should be held at a minimum. The large trees should be preserved at all costs; they not only will reduce the impact but also add considerably to the aesthetics of the project. Contours
Contour changes in general, that effect the drainage of the Forest Service's land, are prohibited. The natural slope of the site is one of the nice natural features and should be preserved. The Recreation Center in the master plan is the connecting link between the lower golf course and the mall center at the top of the knoll, a vertical distance of approximately 60 feet. As a connecting link, the opportunity
to use the slope to an aesthetic advantage is obvious. A three or four story building would nicely step up the hill connecting the tee off area to the upper mall level. In addition, large contour changes would obviously adversely effect the larger vegetation. With these possibilities in mind, contour changes will be very minimal. Soils
The soils over the site were analyzed by Knight Consulting Engineers, their report is included in this section. Generally the top surface consists of sandy loam, sandy till, fractured rock and organic peat. From 5 to 9 feet below the surface, rock and boulders were mixed with till. Gneiss bedrock ranged from 4 to 10 feet below the surface with the mean around 6 feet below the surface. These results indicate the need to reduce the amount of excavation and would indicate the need for pier or pile foundation system bearing directly on
the bedrock


Master Plan Orientation
The master plan has been laid out on a southwest northeast orientation, largely because of the needed sawtooth orientation to the existing state owned parking lot, orientation to the slopes and the desire to have a grand avenue connecting the mall's center with Snowshed, the existing ski lodge. While this does not exclude solar orientation, it does make an already difficult problem more difficult. The master plan has most major buildings "laid out," as is the mill and pedestrian walkway. Included in this plan is the location of the central mall area surrounded by the Recreation Center in the center, the hotel to the southwest and the convention center to the southeast. The three facilities encircle and frame the mall's center. This three-way relationship is rather inflexible; to change the positioning of one will effect the positioning of the other two facilities. Their positions define a public space and public facilities as the
Village's center and allows other public functions, such as restaurants and shops, to occur in that same public area. Due to these factors, the positioning of the Recreation Center is rather inflexible. This problem is compounded by the need to have the Recreation Center near the golf course as it will partially function as a club house. Certainly the Center will be separate from the hotel complex, yet directly adjacent to it. The extent of this separation will be determined by the above restrictions.
Three options for the site are in the following three maps. The final decision will largely involve the final floor plate size and its ability to relate in two opposite directions.










11


Figure 29. Killington Ski Village Master Plan Model
Figure 30. The site from the 18th green (Note Killington Mountain four lift)
Figure 31. Snowshed Lodge with site beyond in the wooded center area


Knight Consulting Engineers, Inc.
Soils and Structural Engineering P. O. Box 2304, South Burlington, Vt. 05401
Stephen C. Knight, Jr., P. E.
Roger W. Dorwart, P. E. Elroy L. Langdell, P. E.
Gill Barlow. P. E.
Donald J. Parker, P. E.
Tel.: 802-879-6343

PROJECT: Sherburne Corporation Development FOR: Robert Burley Associates
DATE: March 29, 1982
SUBJECT: Log of Test Pits Dug March 24, 1982, with a backhoe.
xxxxxxxxxxxxxx
APR
TEST PIT OBSERVATIONS
8
-doc
TEST PIT #1 0-1' Dark Brown organic peat
1 2 * Brown sandy loam
2' -5' Light brown medium dense glacial till
5' -8' Large pieces of fractured rock
8 Bottom of pit-unable to dig further-
weathered gneiss
TEST PIT #2 0-6" Dark brown organic peat
6"-2' Brown sandy loam
2'-6' Light brown medium dense glacial till
6' -9' Boulders (l'-2'Diam.)
9L12.5' Light brown glacial till
12.5' Bottom of test pit- no bedrock encountered.
TEST PIT #3 0-6" Dark brown organic peat
6"-2' Brown sandy loam
2' -5' Light Brown medium dense glacial till
5' -9' Boulders and fractured ledge.
9' Bedrock- weathered gneiss strike approximately
NE-SW, dip 10-15 SE
TEST PIT #4 0-2' Brown sandy loam
2f -4' Fractured rock
4' Bedrock weathered gneiss, strike approximately
NE SW, dip 10-15 SE
TEST PIT#5 0-1.5' Brown sandy loam
1.5'-5' Light brown sandy till
5' -7' Boulders and fractured ledge
7' Sound bedrock gneiss
TEST PIT #6 0-2' Brown sandy loam
2'-7' Light brown glacial till
7' -8' Fractured, weathered rock
8' Sound bedrock gneiss
Roger W. Dorwart, P.E. President




MASTER PLAN


r
v

Master Plan Description
A master plan was designed in 1981 and revised in 1982 by Robert Burley Associates,
AIA Waterfield, Vermont. The plan calls for approximately 1.2 million square feet of development over the next 10 to 15 years. The PUD site covers 400 acres, broken into five development phases. The Killington Ski Village, a pedestrian villiage, includes such year round facilities as: golf course, hotel, convention center, recreation center, retail shops and stores, restaurants and bars, skiing, golf and tennis support facilities, condominiums, all connected by a pedestrian mall. Phase one includes an already completed golf course, a recreation center (the subject of this thesis), hotel and central mall area.
The Ski Village site is located directly adjacent to the main ski lodge at the base of one of Killington's six ski mountains. The land was traded by the Vermont State Forest


Service in exchange for Killington owned land in northern Vermont. As the land is surrounded by public land from the Calvin Coolage State Forest, certain agreements will remain in effect throughout the project.
First, the landscape may not be altered in any way that may effect the vegetation of the surrounding state lands. To this end, the master plan calls for much of the naturally occurring vegetation to remain. Secondly, no changes on the site are permitted that could effect the drainage of the surrounding forest lands. To this end, slopes will remain as close to their original grade as possible, vegetation will be saved and replanted, harder surfaces such as parking and drives will require flood ponding, and any grade changes must take into account drainage, slope and vegetation.
Final revisions are being worked out by Burley Associates and will be resubmitted by 1983. Selection of a development company and
architect for the recreation center and hotel
should be complete by summer 1983. Phase one should be complete within two years.
The present plan is to sell or lease options to the Killington Village to separate development and or architectural firms.
Development would be at the developer's expense yet they must adhere to the requirements of the master plan. The developers may either operate their facility, lease it to a concessionaire or sell the facility outright. Sherburne's profit comes from the proceeds of the sale of the land or the revenues from the lease. The advantage for Sherburne Corp., in this arrangement, is that there will be an immediate increase of facilities, drawing the additional business with no investment capital involved. It is highly recommended that the Village Recreation Center be owned and operated by the Sherburne Corp. as its function is directly related to their primary business activities. Facility leasing


arrangements could later be worked out with the hotel and condo owners.
With separate developers involved in each part of each phase, it was determined that design guidelines were needed to create a continuity among the separate parts of the project. Sherburne's Planning Department was recently expanded to handle design reviews and coordination of the various phases. Bob Burley Associates was contracted to develop the master plan, schematic model, general Village programming and develop the following design guidelines.
-24-


r
v.
Design GuidelinesMaster Plan
GENERAL
Type of construction to be IB, non-combustible per 1981 BOCA.
"Buildings and structures of Type I construction are those in which the walls, partitions, structural elements, floors, ceilings, roofs and the exits are constructed and protected with approved non-combustible materials."
"Fire-retardant treated wood may be used as specified in Table 401 of Section 1408.5."
PHILOSOPHY
The intent of the Building Vocabulary is to reduce the scale, thus the apparent bulk of the forms. A range of form, materials, colors and textures is permitted in order to encourage variety and interest in each parcel; however, limitations are also given to ensure a high visual standard and harmony of projects.
Building forms are basically horizontal, visually anchored to grade,and rectilinear.
The massing is traditional; however, contemporary in detailing and construction methods.
Where there is an apparent conflict between these standards and a design which meets the intent of the standards, such conflict will be resolved during the design review process at the risk of the applicants.


KILLINGTON VILLAGE CENTER
II. BUILDING FORM
ELEMENT PREFERRED PERMITTED NOT PERMITTED
major slopes minor slopes 8/12 same as major 10/12 to 6/12 12/12 to 4/12
2. Wall-Plane: all floors except one (typically pedestrian level); broken by generally continuous horizontal plane all floors except two (typically pedestrian and middle or top); broken by horizontal plane more than 2 floors unbroken by projected forms
3. Fin Elements/ Columns: only as roofline connector-extenders no more than 3 stories vertical repetitive vertical bay use higher than 3 stories
4. Dormers: minimum use recessed shed form with major roof slope interruptions gable, hip, or extensive shed applications
5. Open Space Closure:
opposite residential use: opposite non- residential use: facing 5-7 story walls: maximum length 1H:1W closure: one story two story three+ stories on north exposure: 60' wall to wall ratio 1H:2W 1H:2W 40' wall to wall 1H: 1W up to 40' up to 60' under 40' wall to wall less than 1H:1W less than 1H:1W all longer than 40' longer than 60' less than 1H:2W
6. Ridge Line Length At One Ridge Height:
majorNW-SE: minorNE-SW: varied varied up to 120' long 60 longer than 120' longer than 60*


ELEMENT
PREFERRED
PERMITTED
NOT PERMITTED
7. Roof Forms:
8. Ridge Line Orientations
major: minor:
non-ridge roofs:
9. Exterior Windows:
general, except as below:
behind projected wall forms:
10. Exterior Doors:
11. Mechanical Equipment:
12. Sun Exposure:
13. Bulk Visibility:
gables, sheds on or to gables, hipped lower gables at corners, sheds to terraces or balconies
lights and units with vertical orientations; set back into wall, casement or awning
custom wood with flush vertical boards
concealed
maximum sun exposure within form/bulk limits
public pedestrian sees out to top roof plane 3 of 4 sides of space
major cross gables
NW-SE required NE-SW required all in major-minor grid
bay, oriel, and horizontal sliding
no limits with dark frames
flush solid-core wood or full glazed with flush frame, where required
disguised in form vocabulary
ridge line sheds, hips, gambrels, as noted, flat except on lower terraces, curved, etc., except on tower(s)
(as % of total built) less than 75% length more than 25% length
lights and units with wider than 1:1 orientations; non-rectilinear openings; muntins, or false elements; double hung
plastic, pressed metal representing wood
exposed where conflicting with formal vocabulary
violate solar rights of other parcels
public pedestrian sees no top roof planes on any side of space


36
r
\
ELEMENT PREFERRED PERMITTED NOT PERMITTED
14. Wall Corners:
(at room or balcony 90, except at bays and vertical edge) lower commercial floors
voids below bulk above; non-90 angles
15. Walls At Ground Lines:
public uses
residential uses
unoccupied uses and blank walls except for vehicular egress
16. Chimney And Fireplaces: few, large, masonry, off top floors of
ridges and walls; public residential
areas only developments
exposed pipes and metal fittings, wood enclosures
SOURCE: Bob Burley Associates.
ED
v.


PEDESTRIAN TRAFFIC
Pedestrian traffic within the Village is a series of sheltered and connecting lanes, which are totally separated from all types of vehicular traffic. Access to the Village from the parking areas is through two designated gateways at each end of the state parking lot. Pedestrians may also enter the Village from various access points along the golf course in the summer, two lift stations in the winter, and from the Snowshed Lodge (via a bridge) in all seasons.
All activities within the Village have direct frontage or access off of the sheltered pedestrian lane. The lanes will be paved and covered in all seasons; however, they will have operable wall panels in many areas which can be opened during the warmer months. The entire Village, parking levels, commercial levels and dwelling units will be designed to be accessible to the physically handicapped .
Outside of the Village complex there will be a pedestrian path that will link the Village to the golf course, tennis courts, condominium units and all other outlying activities. This path will be paved and regularly maintained, but not covered.
Retail and commercial functions are all located at the same level as the pedestrian lane, allowing for direct visual exposure to pedestrians.
VEHICULAR TRAFFIC
Vehicular access to Killington Village is via the Killington access road off Vermont Rte. 4.
Upon arriving to the Village area, all traffic will pass through an interchange from which all Killington Area functions may be reached; information center (with short-term parking), state parking lot, Ram's Head parking lot, Roaring Brook Road and the road to the upper parking lot.
Hotel guests will use a short-term vehicle pullover located off Roaring Brook Road.
This pullover will also serve as a check-in area and loading/unloading point, where guests may opt to use a valet service for parking their cars in the underground lot below the hotel.
SERVICE/EMERGENCY
Service and emergency vehicles will approach the Village along the same routes as all other vehicles. Once at the Village, they will use designated service areas off the state parking lot, Roaring Brook Road, or an emergency and service loop road (indicated on the map). In all cases, the service areas are separate and screened from the other vehicular and pedestrian routes.
PARKING
All parking areas for the Village are accessible from the main interchange. The parking options are the following: surface parking, short-term surface parking, and below-grade parking. Each function within the Village will be assigned a parking type and location.
Retail and commercial shoppers will use the state parking lot and its two main entrance points. There will be a limited number of


short-term parking located next to the grocery.and any other convenience shops to allow for quick trips into these stores.
Employee parking for the entire Village will be in the lower side of the state parking lot.
UTILITIES
The following utilities will be provided by the Killington Corporation to the Village:
a) Domestic water connection
b) Sanitary sewer connection
c) Storm sewer connection
d) Fire protection standpipe connection
e) Electrical service will be provided by CVPS Corp. and extended from existing transmission lines underground to each development parcel.
Cost to connect to the designated points will be borne by the developer.
GENERAL SITEWORK
A simple and cohesive assembly of general sitework elements are preferred for the Village. Natural materials used in a straightforward way is the priority for these elements, and will be used as often as possible.
Retaining Walls
All exposed areas of retaining walls are to be of native stone, laid in a random pattern. Concrete can be used to reinforce the walls. No retaining wall may be higher than 6'-0" without a break.
PAVING (PEDESTRIAN)
Paving will not only be used to create a safe and easily maintained walking surface, but also as an element that will visually connect the many different elements within the Village. A common paving material will be used; however, patterning and other enriching elements can also be used to individualize each section in the Village (see following page).
FURNISHINGS
Site furnishings are to be used to create a more comfortable and exciting environment. They should not only be styled and arranged to compliment the surrounding architecture, but also to reinforce the street character of the Village. Site furnishings should not dominate the street, but enliven the spaces in which the building facades are the main focus.
SOURCE: Bob Burley Associates.


Preferred
Public Way (Interior)
Paving material cannot be changed to insure visual order; patterning can be changed. All pavers must be alternatively set; no loose joints.
Public Way (Exterior)
Same as interior. Joints can be loose for drainage; surface must be flush with any abutting interior surface of similar material.
On Grade Paths
Ease of maintenance and public safety are key elements. Some paths will be plowed in winter months.
On Grade Stairs
Same as on grade paths.
Exposed aggregate concrete
Exposed aggregate concrete cast in place
Above Grade Stairs
Stairs should be integrated Wood (fire-with the adj. bids, and/or treated)
decks.
Pedestrian Bridge
Bridge will be treated the Wood (fire-
same as the public way. retardant),
During snow season, it will be skied on and also have a section cleaned for walking.
Should be drained.
Permitted/ Required Not Permitted
Exposed, aggregate cone, w/l" edging and joints. Any area of cone, larger than 8 s.f. without joints
same as above same as above
Concrete, edged dark stone. Loose gravel, unedged stone.
Concrete RR ties, loose gravel and wood edge
Metal Concrete
Exposed aggregate concrete with redwood joints Areas of concrete large than 8'.


in\
*)
AM* f S'-
A-*/*"
1
yXls'c& tin/t-SCOK f>,7Wdry U*Sa*?* ** 'VyW>'A-t^
. ftyierTif
^"j ri/fic*./Y"
A -
£ i/'erAc*/A.tu&f*- /iTiStri
Bob Burley Assoc-
mo)
v


r~-r
tl
| \J >/'* ' ,;i 7 1' V

.<*v -u/i.i'/s:
;v,/7:

* / r/iu* ^Ar
Miv 4^ *?e/sh -
Al/*^ gi//
'-C&4/' tes **CfKf)
i'lTKfiRtU.
rewire
IHHMIIOI**
5*%> f>Mc W*y
--------- tyggg>Act/t*zf fkdgffaa* it.
/rcnra ty tbs'/Mf/toe*,*)
*// v/guss, /urt itmy> H,n
JjjCt ix'g.psu'&s-t stty/gs -fst+a^4s
/6 is/ea/s, gag*# su a^/z/,
/ '4-r'tliy OAggff
*Jr~
Bob Burley Assoc.
HD
v.


CLIMATE


r
v
Climate
Anyone living in the state of Vermont could tell you without reviewing any climate graphs that the climate is cold. An analysis of the climate graph clearly classifies the climate as cold with moderate summer temperatures and severe winters. Rainfall and other precipitation occur in greater amounts in the summer and fall yet remain between 2 to 3% inches per month throughout the year. Relative humidities generally follow the rainfall patterns and remain high throughout the year with highs near 90% and lows never falling below 50%. The high humidity is one of the major factors in the uniform temperature curves.
Generally Vermont's climate is characterized by: (1) changeability of weather, (2) large range of temperatures on a daily and annual basis,
(3) great differences between the same seasons of different years, (4) equable distribution of precipitation, and (5) considerable diversity from location to location. These differences are


largely due to elevational and terrain differences coupled with relative location to numerous large bodies of water in and around the state. Due to those differences, the state has been divided into three climatological regions (Western, Northeastern and Southeastern) according to regional similarities.
Prevailing westerly and southerly winds dominate the air movement in the state yet local geographical differences account for wide local variances. The mixing of extensive air masses originating in higher and lower latitudes with the prevailing wind gives rise to a large number of low pressure storm systems and unique microclimates.
Solar radiation data is useless without the microclimate data on cloud cover and percent sunshine. Large variations in cloud cover and therefore solar radiation will occur between areas of surprising proximity. These differences occur due to a combination of cold dry air
pouring down from sub-arctic Canada; warm moist air streaming up from the Gulf of Mexico and cool damp air from the North Atlantic. Further solar analysis may be found in the Energy section of this report.
Temperatures in Rutland are generally extremely cold in the winter months (-11 c, -10 c in January and February) and warm in the summer months (25 27 c mean summer temperatures). Temperatures at Killington average from 3.5 -11c below those of Rutland; no mean temperature or microclimate data at Killington is available. Precipitation in the form of either rain or snow is high throughout the year, creating a damp and humid environment. Solar radiation gains will be minimal due to microclimate cloud cover which is as high as 70% to 80% for most months.
Given this data, building form should:
(1) face as much south as possible for minor solar gain in the spring and fall months,
(2) utilize compact planning to minimize floor


to wall area ratio and exterior exposure
(3) double bank rooms for thermal considerations,
(4) medium sized openings should be utilized in walls that provide a mass time lag, (5) roofs should have large overhangs and thick insulation or large heat capacity, (6) to prevent summer overheating on west, east and south facing walls, lighter colors should be utilized with glare considerations for the low winter sun,
(7) openings should occur in the south, west and east walls with few openings in the north wall for natural ventilation, and (8) double glazed windows and air locks should be used.

OD


era
iuvonniviNOonv. *
VIA
. DKI
1-44 AON
4*14 OO
4*U 4414
4 #4 onv
ru Ainl
1*14 -
44 AVM
**44 04V
3*1* ovu
4*44 014
1*04 \vl
a
i mx.**om
U oil M tf .ZL N .( .cr (£91 I (9 I lAONVIind
1 Icciloi i* |*l Im|4*-|| |*(I!*** f
hi r w
Ii In he!* |o*&i It*I** U**o
5e *t*
it IiiUa
l*< i**4 1*4*1*
-or
Ol-I0| I- II
.. I.
II I*
itl ( 'oi
M ,/
4 II (I 41
4: * *1
I
I4 ^ *01 >!
i j
41 4 1 n-|ot
111 441 *r-'*i
I
| M ; M I *1
*4l
I
*
*4 0*4 0*11
*1 **
4*6
nj4*4
t;f 4*%l *
0*lo*4l
I
4 10*1f
I*
4*1
0*11
0**l
4*11
II 41 14 4ft 44 14 14 44 44 44 14 04 (t
II 144 *4
441 *4 I
I
4l #4 I 14 U*6
II: **4
{
*4114*0 4||04 4 <{4*4 41*4 *% 14 J 44 4
III 11*4
44*1 10*4 !* I 41*4 44*4
l*,-
l**
I*'
! tf *r | 04*1 144*:
I ,
ii lo
!i !o
4f 4
4* <1
1 0( 41
44 *
1*41
4*11
4*04
<*
*44
4*44
4*44
1*44
1*44
4|
0*4* 4*04 44 4*l 4*44 4*44 I 4*4% 4*41 fit ?**!
4*0* |*C I
rrn

|AVO 40
oiown* sviw
:i [*
11114 mOH%
115 i n
' if1
r ?
*=-i!
Ml ii ij
NIW j VX SAVd JO rfiiwns nviw
zz
i i
11
r
I1H3NII nvioi NOtlV 1140104
I i. 10SUV014H11
V %
D|DQ aDUII|3
J


STATION
STATION INDEX NO. DIVISION COUNTY LATITUDE LONGITUDE ' ELEVATION ( IN FEET I OBSERVATI ON TIME AND TABLES
LOCAL vnr TTHF
TEMP PRECIP a > ui 1 W 5 * I M a
WOONSOCKET 14 2 3 0 1 PROVIDENCE 4 i 5 1 7 1 3 0 w 1 1 5 8 H
VERMONT
BALL MOUNTAIN LAKE 0 2 7 7 0 3 WINDHAM 4 3 7 7 2 4 8 W 113 0 8 8 c
BELLOWS FALLS 0 4 11 0 3 WINDHAM 4 3 8 7 2 2 7 W 3 0 0 8 3
BETHEL 4 N 0 b b 1 0 1 WINDSOR 4 3 5 3 7 2 3 8 W b b 0 7
BURLINGTON WSO AP R 10 8 1 0 2 CHI T T E N 0 E N 4 4 2 0 7 3 1 W 3 3 2 M I D M I D / c H J
CANAAN 12 13 0 1 ESSEX 4 5 0 7 1 3 2 H 10 4 0 7
CAVENDISH 12 4 3 0 3 WINDSOR 4 3 2 3 7 2 3 b W 8 0 0 1 1 H
CHELSEA 1 3 b 0 0 1 ORANGE 4 3 5 1 7 2 2 7 w 8 0 0 7 7 H
CHITTENDEN 14 3 3 0 2 RUTLAND 4 3 4 2 7 2 . 5 7 W 10 0 0 7
CORNWALL 15 0 0 0 2 A 0 D I S 0 N 4 3 5 7 7 3 1 3 W 4 10 1 0 1 8
DANVILLE 17 15 0 1 CALEDONIA 4 4 2 5 7 2 8 w 13 10 7
DORSET 1 S 1 7 B b 0 2 BENNINGTON 4 3 1 5 7 3 b w 18 0 1 8 1 8
ENOSBURG FALLS 2 7 b 1 0 1 F R A N K L IN 4 4 5 5 7 2 4 *5 W 4 2 2 1 7 1 7 H
ESSEX JUNCTION 1 N 2 8 4 3 0 2 CHITTENDEN 4 4 3 1 7 3 7 H 3 4 4 9
GILMAN 3 3 4 1 0 1 ESSEX 4 4 2 5 7 1 4 3 W 0 5 0 7
HUNTINGTON CENTER 4 0 5 2 0 2 CHI TTENDEN 4 4 1 7 7 2 5 8 W 7 0 0 8
LUDLOW 4 7 4 7 0 1 WINDSOR 4 3 2 4 7 2 4 3 W 12 0 0 7
MANCHESTER 4 0 8 2 0 2 BENNINGTON 4 3 1 0 7 3 4 W 8 b 0 7 c H
MONTPELIER F A A AP 5 2 7 8 0 1 WASHINGTON 4 4 1 2 7 2 3 4 W 112b M I 0 M I 0 H
MOPR1SV ILLE 2 5 3 7 b 0 1 LAMOILLE 4 4 3 4 7 2 3 b W b 0 0 6 8
MOUNT MANSFIELD 5 4 1b 0 1 LAMOILLE 4 4 3 2 7 2 4 1 W 3 15 0 1 7 1 7 H
NEWPORT 5 5 4 2 0 1 ORLEANS 4 4 5 b 7 2 1 2 W 7 b b 1 8 1 8 c H
NORTH DANVILLE 5 b 3 2 0 1 CALEOONI A 4 4 2 8 7 2 7 W 114 0 M 1 0 M 1 D c
NORTHFIELD 3 SSE 5 7 4 0 0 1 WASHINGTON 4 4 b 7 2 3 7 W 14 10 1 1 7 c
PERU b 3 3 5 0 3 BENNINGTON 4 3 1 5 7 2 5 4 w 1 b 7 0 7 H
POWNAL 1 NE b 5 0 0 0 2 BENNINGTON 4 2 4 7 7 3 1 3 H 114 0 7
READSBORO 1 SE b 7 b 1 0 3 BENNINGTON 4 2 4 5 7 2 5 b W 112 0 8 8 H
ROCHESTER b 8 1 3 0 1 WINDSOR 4 3 5 1 7 2 4 8 W 8 3 0 7 7 H
RUTLAND b 1 1 5 0 i RUTLAND 11 3 b 7 2 5 R H b 2 n i n 1 R M
ST ALBANSB A DI 0 7 5 3 5 53 FRANKLIN 4 4 58 ) 5 5 w 3 10 M 1 D M 1 D
SAINT JOHNSBURY 7 0 5 4 0 1 CALEOONIA 4 4 2 5 7 2 I u b 1 1 1 b 1 b c H
SAL 1 SBURY 2 N 7 0 18 0 2 ADDISON 4 3 5 b 7 3 b W 4 2 0 8
SEARSBURG STATION 7 15 2 0 3 WINDHAM 4 2 5 2 7 2 5 5 w 1 5 b 0 8 c
SOUTH HERO 7 b 0 7 0 2 GRAND ISLE 4 4 3 8 7 3 1 8 w 1 1 0 2 1 2 1 H
SOUTH LINCOLN 7 b 1 2 0 2 ADDISON 4 4 4 7 2 5 8 w 2 0 2 0 8 9
SOUTH LONDONDERRY 7 b 1 7 0 3 WINDHAM 4 3 11 7 2 4 1 W 10 5 0 9
SOUTH NEWBURY 7 b 4 b 0 1 ORANGE 4 4 3 7 2 5 w 4 7 0 7
UNION VILLAGE DAM R 8 5 5 b 0 3 ORANGE 4 3 4 0 7 2 1 b w 4 b 3 8 c H
VERNON 0 b 0 0 0 3 WINDHAM 4 2 4 b 7 2 3 1 w 2 2b 0 8 H
WAITSFIELD 2 WSW 0 b 4 4 0 1 WASHINGTON 4 4 1 1 7 2 5 1 w 8 2 0 7
WARDSBORO 1 SW 8 7 5 5 0 3 WINDHAM 4 3 2 7 2 4 8 w 13 10 8
WATERBURY 2 SSE 8 8 15 0 1 WASHINGTON 4 4 1 1 7 2 4 5 w 7 b 0 M I D M 1 D H
WEST BURKE 10 11 0 1 CALEDONIA 4 4 3 1 7 1 5 1 w 10 0 7 7 H
WH I T I NGHAM 1 u 17 3 5 0 3 WINDHAM 4 2 4 8 7 2 5 5 W 14 0 2 8
WOODSTOCK 2 WSW 118 4 0 3 WINDSOR 4 3 3 7 7 2 3 3 W 7 50 B 8
INDEX
NEW ENGLAND JUNE 116?
OBSERVER
WASTEWATER TRTMT PLANT
U S CORPS OF ENGINEERS NEU ENGLANO POWER CO
VICTOR R PERK INS
NATL WEATHER SERVICE FREOERICK W COWAN CENTRAL VT PUB SERV CO GORDON T HEATH
EDMUND H DAVENPORT
MALCOLM B HARDING III
OTIS F BRICKETT CHARLES B GILBERT
0 SHEA PUBLISHING CO
WILLIAM P HALL
GEORGIA-PACIFIC CORP MRS MAUDE G SHATTUCK MRS LAUREL TUCKER AUSTIN FOX F A A
INACTIVE 01/30^81 MOUNT MANSFIELO TV INC MRS PEARL T OREW
INACTIVE 12/17/71 WILLIAM E OSGOOO
WILLIAM F CASS
MRS RUTH FALKNER
NEW ENGLAND POWER CO RODNEY L JOHNSON
l hk.I
ti R s r. f n b r. f_____________L
RADIO ST ALBANS INC FAIRBANKS MUSEUM SALISBURY ST FISH HATCH NEW ENGLAND POWER CO RAY W ALLEN CAPT HARRY F WISEMAN ROBERT MC COMB MRS ISABEL WHITNEY
U S CORPS OF ENGINEERS NEW ENGLANO POWER CO HENRY J PERKINS m
DR COURTNEY C BISHOP w
DAVID R MAC LEAN GILMAN W FORD NEW ENGLANO POWER CO WILLIAM R GOULD SR
SEE REFERENCE NOTES FOLLOWING STATION INDEX
3 5


AVERAL^E. HOURLY T^MF^ rOf< 2WI7AY
LOCATION J RUTLAND VT month: i
HOUR TEMP HOUR TEMP
1 15.37 L3 0
n 13 87 14 30.3
3 12.63 15 30.11
4 11.68 16 29.57
5 11.07 17 28. o9
6 11.14 18 27.51
T / 12.9 19 26.07
8 15.9 20 24.42
9 19.64 21 22.63
10 23.53 22 20.75
11 26.94 23 13.87
12 29.31 24 17.06
MEAN = 19.99
LOCATION : RUTLAND UT MONTH
HOUR TEMP HOUR TEMP
1 35.83 13 0
2 34.64 14 JO 2
3 51.44 15 55.9
4 48.44 16 55.02
5 45.13 17 53. s 2
6 41.81 18 51.76
"? / 38.79 19 49.5<*
8 36.33 20 47.08
9 34.65 21 44.52
10 33.92 22 41.98
11 34.19 23 39.6
12 35.45 24 37.52
MEAN -- 41.8


LOCATION J RUTLAND VT month: 7
HOUR TEMP HOUR TEMP
1 59.26 13 0
2 58.12 14 31.2
3 78.08 15 80.87
4 75.4 i 6 . 79.9
5 72 22 17 78.34
6 68.79 18 76.29
7 65.42 19 73.85
a 62.38 20 71.16
9 59.94 21 68.38
10 58.3 22 65.65
11 57.61 23 63.13
12 57.93 24 60.96
MEAN = 6 5 5*4
location: RUTLAND UT MONTH. 10
HOUR TEMP HOUR TEMP
1 43.03 13 0
2 41.42 14 O 1 7
3 40.2 15 61.45
4 39.41 16 60.74
5 43.42 17 59.58
6 40.76 18 58.03
7 39.31 19 5o. 15
8 39.24 20 54.02
9 ' 0 n j Cl 21 51 .7
10 -.3.11 22 49.4
11 46.56 23 47.1
12 50.5 24 44.95
MEAN = 46 i. 34


Mean Maximum Temperature (F.), January
Based on period 1931-52
Isolines are drawn through points oi approximately equal value. Caution should be used
in interpolating on these maps, particularly in mountainous areas.


r
Mean Minimum Temperature (F.), January
o\J
o NEW ENGLAND, EXCEPT MAINE
STATION LEGEND O Proztftlett+fi, atof*
O --O- Proe+ttoff* 9*4 Temfoeotoro
Procpitofte*, Tomforoforo 9*4 Erofoeotto*
^ Q rpo oi ff* O Ato*-ro4t4mf;
Becotfmf, O Bot* tyfot
Dmvito c*teto eomfmmtmte a4ketc too 9ro4o04tf/ of mote 4et9t!e4 metoototofKot 49to
iik*.
Based on period 1931-52
Isolines are drawn through points of approximately equal value. Caution should be used
_______^n_inter£olatijo

Baaed on period 1931-52
Lsoline* are drawn through point* of approximately equal value. Caution ahould be uxed
in interpolating on these map*, particularly in mountainous area*.
J


r
Mean Minimum Temperature (F.)/ July
Based on period 1931-52
Isolines axe drawn through points of approximately equal value. Caution should be used
in interpolating on these maps, particularly in mountainous areas.




Climate Computer Run
OK, LD r
AR7521>FANDREAS (ALL), Records^ 3, Quota= 3 / 100 F i 1 e s= 1 VT
OK, COMO
DR. SEG AR7521>LPDDL >CLIHATE
: VERSION 3
DATA INPUT : MANUAL OR DATAFILE (M/D)
M
1 CL I MATIC DE5IGN USING MAHONEY TA3LE5
0 THIS IS A PROGRAM TO EXTRACT RELEVANT' DESIGN RECOMENDATIONS FROM EXISTING CLIMATIC DATA
THE INFORMATION REQUIRED FOR THE PROGRAM WILL BE
1. NAME OF CITY AND LOCATION.
2. TEMPERATURE MONTHLY MEAN MAXIMA h MINIMA.
3 RELATIVE HUMIDITY MONTHLY MEAN MAXIMA V. MINIMA.
4. RAINFALL MONTHLY.
5. WIND PREVAILING ?< SECONDARY.
INFORMATION FOR 2,3 AND 4, CAN 3E FOUND IN "TABLES OF TEMPERATURE. RELATIVE HUMIDITY AND PRECIPITATIONS FOR THE WORLD", PUBLISHED BY H. M. S. O. (LONDON, 1 958 > FOR LOCALITIES NOT LISTED, AND IF DATA CANNOT BE RELIA3LY EXTRAPOLATED FROM LOCATIONS OF SIMILAR GEOGRAPHIC SPECIFICATION WHICH ARE PUBLISHED, THEN THE FORMAT OF THE CLIMATIC DATA AVAILABLE FROM THE LOCAL METEOROLOGICAL BUREAU IS SUITABLE FOR DIRECT INCLUSION IN THE PROGRAM
(NOTE: TERMINATE LINES OF INPUT WITH A CARRIAGE RETURN CR>>
OTO EACH QUESTION REPLY WITH 12 MONTHS DATA ON ONE LINE SEPARATED BY COMMAS.
TYPE IN THE NAME OF THE CITY, AND LOCATION RUTLAND VT
ODO YOU REQUIRE DETAILED INFORMATION LISTED ON THE TERMINAL ?(YES/NO) :
Y
OTEMPERATURE
NOW ENTER TEMPERATURES (JAN->DEC) SEPERATE EACH VALUE<12 PER LINE) WITHR A COMMA .
AVERAGE MONTHLY MAXIMUM TEMPERATURE
gO. 3, 33. 5, 42. O, 56. 2, 68 4, 77. 2, B1 2. 70 ?, 71 7. 61 7, 47 ?. 34 H
HD


TtTi-----v
f
AVERAGE MONTHLY MINIMUM TEMPERATURE
10. 8,13. 2,22. 8,33. 9,43. 7, 53. 6, 57 b, 55 b, 48 9,389 1,30 6,17 9
TEMPERATURE SCALE(C OR F)
F
OHUMIDITY
AVERAGE MONTHLY MAXIMUM HUMIDITY (9AM >
69, 71,72, 75, 75, 79, 80, 84, 88, 82, 82. 78,
AVERAGE MONTHLY MINIMUM HUMIDITY (3 PM ).
63, 61,58, 53, 52, 58, 54, 58, 64, 62, 71.72 ORAINFALL
AVERAGE MONTHLY RAINFALL
1 97,1 90,2. 16,2. 67,3 30,3. 47, E3 19,3. 589, 3 16,2 43,3. 01, 2. 77
ORAINGUAGE SCALE (INCH OR MM)
INCH
OIS INFORMATION AVAILABLE ON WINDS
Y
OWIND
PREVAILING AND SECONDARY
JAN: PREVAILING :
S SECONDARY :
FEB. PREVAILING :
S SECONDARY :
MAR: PREVAILING :
N SECONDARY
APR PREVAILING
S SECONDARY
k
mm


r
MAY: PREVAILING
S SECONDARY
JUN: PREVAILING
S SECONDARY
JUL PREVAILING
S SECONDARY
AUG: PREVAILING
S SECONDARY
SEP: PREVAILING
S SECONDARY
OCT. PREVAILING
S SECONDARY
NOV: PREVAILING
S SECONDARY
DEC PREVAILING
S SECONDARY


V
CLIMATIC DATA FOR RUTLAND VT
TEMPERATURE(DEGREES CELSIUS) AVERAGE DAILY MAX AVERAGE DAILY MIN
HUMIDITY (RELATIVE 7.)
AVERAGE AT 9A. M (MAX) AVERAGE AT 3P. M. (MIN)
RAINFALL ( IN M. M. )
MONTHLY AVERAGE
40 5k M
72CV.^V
JIND
PREVAILING
SECONDARY
TABLE-1
AV DAILY MAX.
AV DAILY MIN DIURNAL RANGE
GREATEST AV DAILY MAX = AMT 78
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
-0 9 0 8 r> 6 13 4 20 2 25. 1 27 3 26. 1 22 1 16 5 8 4 1 3
118 -10 4 -5. 1 1 1 6 5 12. 0 14 2 13. 1 9 4 3 9 -0 8- -7 8
69. 0 71 0 72. 0 75 0 75. 0 79. 0 80. 0 84. 0 88 0 82 0 32 78 0
63. 0 61.0 58. 0 53. 0 52. 0 58. 0 54. 0 58. 0 64 0 Os 2. 0 71 ~ t / c: v..*
50. 48. 55 68 84 88. 81. 91. 80 62 7 A 7 0
s S N S S S S S S q c
* * * * # * * *{* si *
IR T£MPERATURE(DEGREES CELSIUS)
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP CiCT NOV DEC
-0. 9 0. 8 5. 6 13. 4 20 2 25. 1 27. 3 26. 1 22 1 16 5 8 4 1 O
11.8 -10. 4 -5 1 1 1 6. 5 12 0 14. 2 13. 1 9 4 3. 9 -0 8 -7 G
10. 8 11.3 10 7 12. 4 13. 7 13. 1 13. 1 12. 9 12. 7 12. 27 3
LEAST AV. AMR -
DAILY MIN = 39. 1
-11 8


>
mm
v


¥¥
r
TABLE-2 HUMIDITY, RAIN AND WIND
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP DC i NUV DEC
RELATIVE HUM IDI TY (*/.)
MONTHLY MEAN MAX(AM ) 69. 71. 72. 75 75. 79. 80 84. 88. 82 ~ T t o
MONTHLY MEAN MIN(P. M. ) 63 61 58 53 52 58. 54. 58. 64 62. 71 7 ->
MONTHLY MEAN AVERAGE 66. 66. 65. 64 64. 69. 67. 71. 76. 7 * *T 7 s
HUMIDITY GROUP 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4
RAINFALL(IN MM > 30 48 33 68 84 88. 81 71. 80 62 VA 70
ANNUAL TOTAL RAINFALL 854
WIND-PREVAILING S S n S S S S S S El r^ C.;
-SECONDARY
1 * * * * # # * w * * * * * # * * -st * tt -> 4 \
TABLE-3 DIAGNOSIS
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OC T NOV DEC
HUMIDITY GROUP 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4
TEMPERATURE (DEGREES CELSIUS)
AV DAILY MAX -0 9 0. 8 5. 6 13 4 20 2 25 1 27. 3 26. 1 22. 1 16 5 8 4 1 3
DAY CO FORT MAX 26 0 26 0 26 0 26. 0 26. 0 26. 0 26. 0 24. 0 24 0 24 0 24 0 24 o
DAY COMFORT: MIN 19. 0 19 0 19. 0 19 0 19 0 19. 0 19. 0 18. 0 18 0 18. 0 18 0 18 0
AV DAILY MIN -118 -10. 4 -5. 1 1. 1 6. 5 12. 0 14. 2 13. 1 9 4 3 9 -0 8 -7 8
NIGHT COMFORT:MAX 19 0 19 0 19. 0 19. 0 19. 0 19. 0 19. 0 18. 0 18 0 18 0 1 8 0 18 0
NIGHT COMFORT:MIN ('THERMAL STRESS 12. 0 12 0 12 0 12 0 12. 0 12. 0 12. 0 12. 0 12 0 12 0 4 J Cl J 12 Q
DAY C C C C - - H H Q r
NIGHT C * C -* c -* # # C C -tt * * # * # # * * # C # * c - -* m


r
TABLE-4 INDICATORS
TOTALS JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV
HUMID: HI: 0
H2: 1 +
H3: 0
ARID: AI: 7 + + + + + + +
A2: 0
A3: 7 + + 4* + + + +
* * ***** ********** * * ***********#^^ TABLE-5 SKETCH DESIGN RECOMMENDATIONS
LAYOUT
BUILDINGS SHOULD 3E ORIENTATED ON AN EAST WEST AXIS WITH THE LONG ELEVATIONS FACING NORTH AND SOUTH TO REDUCE EXPOSURE TO THE SUN. THE BUILDING MAY BE TURNED SLIGHTLY TO CATCH THE PREVAILING BREEZE OR TO ALLOW LIMITED SOLAR HEATING DURING THE COLD SEASON, v SPACING
(COMPACT PLANNING IS ESSENTIAL :AIR MOVEMENT
ROOMS SHOULD BE DOU3LE BANKED OPENINGS IN WALLS
(MEDIUM SIZE OPENINGS SHOULD BE USED (25 TO 407.).
OPENINGS IN THE EAST WALL ARE DESIRABLE ONLY IF THERE IS A LONG COLD SEASON. OPENINGS IN WEST WALLS ARE DESIRABLE IN COLD AND TEMPERATE CLIMATES BUT MUST BE AVOIDED IN THE TROPICS.
C WALLS
EXTERNAL AND INTERNAL WALLS SHOULD BE HEAVY WITH HIGH HEAT CAPACITY ROOFS
CA HEAVY ROOF WITH A LARGE HEAT CAPACITY (OVER 8 HOURS TIME LAG) SHOULD BE USED.
TABLE-6 ELEMENT DESIGN RECOMMEMDATIONS
31ZE OF OPENINGS
SMALL OPENINGS, BETWEEN 15 AND 257. OF THE WALL iREA SHOULD BE USED 0 30SITION OF OPENINGS PROTECTION OF OPENINGS
V_______________________________________________
HD


FLOORS WITH OVER
8 HOURS
OEXTERNAL AND INTERNAL WALLS AND OHEAVY, HIGH-HEAT CAPACITY WALLS TINE LAG, SHOULD BE USED
TO REDUCE THE HEATING EFFECT OF SOLAR RADIATION, SHOULD HAVE A LIGHT-COLOURED SURFACE CARE NUST TO PREVENT GLARE FROM BRIGHT REFLECTED SUNLIGHT OROOFS
THE WALLS BE TAKEN
OA HEAVY ROOF WITH OVER 8 HOURS OEXTERNAL SURFACE TREATMENT
TIME LAG SHOULD BE USED
**** STOP OK, COMO -END


\ ^ ..TEMP, . t^plATPkl BTU/^rVpY 5Ukj5HIHP. -HP
! ; 'll
o* +
rAL-L. | h/t*]

HISTORY


r
v.

History
State History
In 1777, with 30,000 persons settled within the territory between New Hampshire and New York, Ethan Allen and his family set up an independent government, defying their Canadian governor.
After the war, when the population reached 80,000, a movement developed to keep Vermont from joining the union, therefore not becoming the fourteenth state until 1791.
History of Sherburne
In the year 1761 the town of "Killington" was chartered to Ezra Stiles and B. Ellery of Newport, Rhode Island by Governor Benning Wentworth of New Hampshire, acting as King George Ill's official agent. The original grant contained 24,640 acres divided into 72 rights of 336 acres each. The first road from Woodstock to Medway (now Mendon) was roughly completed in 1791. In 1790 the town of "Killington's" population was 32, by 1820 it had gone to 154; it reached a high point of 578 in 1850.


Development
A 1764 map of Vermont shows a small road paralleling the Queechy River; by 1800 there were about two dozen houses between West Bridgewater and Killington (see the map).
School houses popped up among the scattered farms. Around the year 1790 two school districts "North" and "South" Sherburne were established.
In 1814 the first formal school was formed and by 1842 there were eight districts and schools. Most houses in the area were built by the late 1800s. Killington Basin
Until 1957 there was only one road leading up into the flatland called West Hill, where there was the largest concentration of farms within the Town of Sherburne, with about 14 large and active farms in 1880. Lumbering activity was high from then to about 1918 at which time there began a general decrease in both farming and lumbering, leading to the eventual abandonment of the farms until the last farm, the Bates farm, was
73 \
abandoned in 1952. In 1956 the Sherburne Corporation, founded by Preston Smith, purchased the old 50 acre Bates farm and leased the remaining 3,300 acres from the Coolidge State Forest to form Killington Ski Area. Killington Mountain's elevation is 4,241 feet; with a base elevation of 1,160 feet the area claims vertical drop of 3,081 feet.
By 1964 there were 4 chairlifts and 2 lodges opening two mountains to skiing. By 1968 there were a total of 5 chairlifts, the start of a gondola and 4 lodges opening three mountains to skiing. By 1976 there were 11 lifts and 6 lodges opening four mountains to skiing. Today Killington has 15 lifts, with a capacity of 20,000 passangers per hour, 8 lodges serving six mountains; coupled with the largest vertical drop in the east, it has become the largest eastern ski area and one of the more popular areas in the country.
___________________________________OX)


The company currently leases land for many of its facilities on 100 year lease initiated in 1960. The state will not allow any similar development of its lands within 10 miles, giving Killington exclusive rights to the area's markets.
A tennis summer school was started in 1976. Sherburne Corporation is constantly looking for opportunities to expand its business in general, however particular attention has been paid to its lacking summer business. The tennis camp coupled with the Killington Playhouse, newly completed golf course and other facilities has helped increase the summer business to 13% of the total revenues.
The idea for the Killington Village was bom from the need to accommodate the large number of winter customers and increase Killington's attraction to summertime vacationers with increased facilities.
With Killington's growth history, the need and potential market for a project of
the scale and scope proposed is well
established.


8i.o4
SHERBURNE TOWN REPORT 1981
0 0 O O O O O O 0 O 1 O l O
00 CM vO O -r CO CM v£> 0 -3" OO CM
f"* v£> sD LA -3- -3- rr\ fA CM
1980
1970
I960
1950
19l0
1930
1920
1910
1900
1890
i860
1870
i860
1850
181.0
1830
1820
1810
1800
1790


FORM


r
K
Form
As was discussed in the history section, Vermont is teeming with rich, distinctive architecture. Much of the local architecture goes back to the mid 1700s when the nation was just starting. Much of this local architecture within the New England states has roots that were based on old English and Dutch architecture.
Vermont architecture may be divided into several distinct types: village and city, rural and institutional. Each of these groups, while being distinct from the others, is related in general form. Noticeable common motifs involve materials, general forms, fenestration, site and solar orientation, porch spaces, entrances, materials and roof treatments, and shapes.
Newer non-vernacular forms have started creeping into the areas surrounding the new ski centers. Many of these buildings are most unfortunate as they ignore the Vermont landscape and heritage and import California, Colorado, or even Swiss


Figure 1. Dartmouth College, New Hampshire
Figure 2. Downtown Woodstock, Vermont
styles on the rolling New England landscape. These styles seem to imply that skiing started
in any one of these other areas, and not in Vermont; that in order for the architecture to say skiing and recreation it must be transported. Village Architecture
Village and town or city architecture in Vermont is rather formal in form. Symmetry is one of the most noticeable ideas in form.
Windows tend to repeat themselves across the entire facade in an unmistakable rhythm repeating the exact size, shape, trim, and spacing. If the rhythm is broken it is only to create a double set once again echoed in a symmetrical way on the other mirror image of the facade. Entrances are called out in a dramatic way with arches, large lentiles, extended cornices, special entry treatments (columns, bannisters, railings, arch windows, etc.), special porches, covers or awnings. Typically the entries are in the center of the main facade with windows symmetrically arranged to either side. Towns and


Figure 3. Rutland, Vermont
figure 4. Rutland, Vermont
TM---v
villages obviously contain public, residential and institutional buildings, however these exterior treatments are universal. The large overwhelming difference is in the use of material and scale. Public and institutional buildings tend to be mostly of stone or brick with interior post and beam timber construction. This is not absolute as many churches are made of wood, but seems to be the rule.
Residences are generally rectilinear in floor plan and elevation, with the largest number of glazing units facing south. To enhance the concept of solar energy in the 1700s many homes reduce the number and size of openings to the north. Residences are clearly set within their surrounding landscaping and generally have clearly defined yards and semi-enclosed areas for entry. The ideas of formal symmetry, entry definition, fenestration type and treatment and facade design are clearly demonstrated on most
all residences. Noticeable differences from other


Figure 5. Woodstock Public Library
Figure 6. Woodstock Inn, Woodstock, Vermont
building types are the exclusive use of wood and operable shutters. Residences may be connected together in rows or attached to an adjacent barn structure or shed but generally stand by themselves.
The public spaces of towns are almost always centered around a town square. The square is exclusively a generous, grassy space with trees and a gazebo in the center. These parks form a secondary center for the town, generally located directly off the main business district. An ideal spot for town halls, libraries, court houses and other public buildings to face. These spaces then become the center of non-business public activity. Another noticeable town form is the wooden covered bridges. Woodstock,
Vermont has such a bridge in the center of town. It functions to connect the center of town with a residential section across a river. It serves not only vehicular traffic but attracts many pedestrians with its wide walkways and overlooks.


Figure 8. A Woodstock covered bridge
TT5-----\
The towns and villages are in every way pedestrian places. They are comfortable,, formal, green pleasant spaces whose scale invites visitors into the surrounding quaint and friendly buildings.
This was the way towns were built in the 1700s as vehicles were all but unheard of. Towns were built by the settlers for the towns people. Much may be learned from these spaces.
Rural Architecture
Prior to the skiing boom, Vermont had two main means of income, farming or logging and textile manufacture. While the textile mills were located in towns and villages, farming remained obviously in the countryside, removed from the villages. While this is a statement of the obvious, it has great meaning to architectural forms. While village forms are largely formal, symmetrical, separated structures with a defined yard or transition space, the rural forms reflected more the function of their setting.


Figure 9. Vermont farmhouse
Figure 10. Vermont Mill
V
66 >
Isolated in the countryside, and in the severe winters, the structures of the working farm almost always were directly connected. The house, shed, pantry, storage and elevator rooms and barn became one long drawn out structure.
The houses maintained their house statement, though less ornately than their village counterparts, through simple symmetry, shutters, clearly defined yet simplified entries, moderately to steeply sloped roofs, and formal window patterns. These were often exposed more to the south or west and almost always covered to the north in the "saltbox" style with the roof or more commonly by the string of sheds and barns.
In general, symmetry in the exterior facades seldom if ever was expressed on the interior space planning. This was probably more a result of "fitting" non-symmetrical functions into a formalized symmetrical facade than a "statement" of some sort. In either case this tendency of symmetrical exteriors contrasted by
_______________________________________mo


r
Figure 11. Vermont farmhouse
Figure 12. Vermont farmhouse
V.
-----------------------------------------------9T-
asymmetrical interiors is consistent through most all building types throughout Vermont.
The shed, storage, canning, slaughter sheds were built in a different vocabulary than the house. As the barn itself remained within the "barn style" the shed served as a transition not only in function but also as to exterior form and treatment. With the three buildings physically tied together the farm unit separates the functions of day to day life, yet allows an easy access between them. Lastly the farm house is set on a small, neat, defined yard carved out of the surrounding farm land. Each space allows a comfortable transition from the landscape to the exterior space. From the farmland to the yard, the porch, the vestibule, into the home; care was taken in the entry of the space.
Public Buildings
Public buildings generally occurred within villages and towns, though not necessarily.
It is not uncommon to find a church or town hall


Figure 13. Rural Vermont
Figure 14. Rural Vermont
7^---\
in the middle of nowhere. While most of the design and form ideas behind village architecture apply to public and institutional buildings, these places have something extra. All of them seem to say "welcome." They define transition spaces with covered porticos, covered porches or balconies above to being the building's interior space outside. These spaces may have columns supporting a large, heavy cornice or moderately sloped roof, may have large archways, semi-inclosed entry porch areas, or grand stairways. All say one thing"people."
One ingredient for a successful architectural solution to a Village Recreation Center is its form. Clarity should be important. What does the building's form say to the visitors to Vermont, what statement does the building make to a newcomer or an employee, where were these forms derived from, what do they relate to. The present Killington mountain area is a hodgepodge of Swiss, Colorado, California, mining, chalet, rustic, old,


r
Figure 15. Not Steamboat Springs, Colorado but Killington, Vermont!
Figure 16. New England Lodge
V
by N
new, borrowed stuff. The access road has everything from Swiss chalets and barn wood shed restaurants, to a gaudy oriental set of railroad cars, acting as a nighttime hot spot. Killington Ski Area itself has everything from alpine sheds and interlocking "A" frames to a gigantic barn lodge. The moment the ski area is left behind and the visitor leaves the dizzy experience of the access road, there is an immediate return to the familiar architecture of rural Vermont, with intermittent towns and villages.
Killington Village, while not in direct proximity to a village or town, is creating a village and town center within the context of Vermont. Within this direction is the obligation to relate to the scores of other New England towns. Relating not copying the other Vermont village styles will firmly place the Village within a Vermont village context. Rural architecture is important to consider because
OD
it surrounds the area.


r
Figure 17. Master Plan Model
V
7TT\
Aspen, Colorado is one example of a fairly successful ski village because the town's forms are derived from the Colorado mining town it originally was. In that sensitivity of historical forms, Aspen clearly relates to the surrounding Colorado towns; it is a Colorado mining town.
Killington Village in general and the Killington Village Recreation Center in particular could be as successful if care is taken in the sensitivity and clarity of the forms and what those forms say to Vermont's visitors.
The Village Center Recreation Center will incorporate many of the form and design concepts found within the surrounding Vermont towns.


r
Killington Architecture
7T----\
V
Figure 19. King's Four Bar
Figure 21. Lodging Center


Figure 22. Killington Ski Lodge
Figure 23. Killington Training Center
Figure 24.
A Rutland Vermont boarding inn


Figure 26. Formal New England architecture
V
Figure 27. A Woodstock gas station
Figure 28. Woodstock Town Hall


ZONING


V
77
Zoning Requirements
The "Town of Sherburne Zoning Regulations" are set forth in the Vermont Planning and Development Act (Act, 24, V.S.A., Chapter 117, Section 4401) adopted June 1979.
The following regulations apply to the "Ski Village District" within the PUD that has already been submitted in the form of the Robert Burley Associates* Master Plan. All areas of the village with the exception of any one and two family dwellings are considered part of the PUD (240).
Front Setbacks ............... minimum 25*
Side Setbacks ................ minimum 50'
Rear Setbacks ................ minimum 50'
Maximum coverage ............. 60%
Minimum lot area..............5 acres
The open storage of materials and refuse containers shall be screened from view from the public highways by fences or coniferous trees
and shrubs.


In determining the percentage of coverage of a lot, porches, or carports open at the sides but roofed, and all principal and accessory buildings shall be included (418) .
All access roads shall be located not less than 100 feet from the intersection of right of way lines of intersecting streets. No lot may be served by more than one road nor wider than 50 feet (420).
No space required to satisfy the zoning regulations including setbacks, coverage or lot area may be counted as open space (424).
New height restrictions were adopted in the November 1982 elections. Buildings may not be greater than five stories in height or 37 feet to the highest occupied floor level.
Parking requirements for places of public assembly shall be one parking space provided for every 200 square feet of floor area.
7T5-----\
For every 10,000 feet of floor area one off-street loading space is required. This space is not included in calculating the parking (434).
Property that abuts Forest Reserve land must maintain a screened 25 feet setback for parking and loading spaces. The Ski Village PUD establishes the required parking in underground garages under the hotel, condominimum and convention center areas (436).
Commercial land development must be screened and hidden from adjacent property where residential is permitted by zoning permit; this must take the form of a fence or natural plantings.


r
v.
--------------------------------------------rrx
Planned Unit Development (505)
A site plan was submitted to the Planning Commission showing the location, height and spacing of buildings, open spaces and landscaping, utilities, drives, parking and unloading spaces.
This submission included the Master Plan developed by Robert Burley Associates and included physical conditions of the site, description of buildings and their uses, the villages intent and general physical form.
The site was the result of a land trade between the State Forest Service and Killington.
As the land was previously Forest Service land, a separate PUD zoning designation was created to accommodate the new 400 acre plot of land.
All setback requirements are for the PUD as a whole and not for individual buildings. Parking requirements apply for all structures within the PUD, however parking spaces may be provided on adjacent land providing that land lies within 300 feet of the entrance to the principle building of
ED
the PUD.


CODE


r
v
min
Code
The 1981 BOCA code is enforced in Vermont.
This code is quite different from the Uniform
Building Code as to classification format and
requirements. I shall therefore be fairly explicit
in the code requirements. The majority of the
project could be classified A-3 or Assembly-3,
however is classified mixed use for the entire
project (301). A-3 includes assembly, recreation,
and restaurant functions. The ski shop portion
would fall under Mercantile classification and
therefore create a mixed use designation.
When a building is occupied for 2 or more uses, not included in the same use group, the mixed use will be separated by the highest rated fire separation and the provision of the code applying to each use shall apply to such parts of the building as come within that particular use group; if there are conflicting provisions, either the requirements securing the greatest public safety shall apply to the entire building, or if the uses are completely separated by fire walls having a fire-resistance rating corresponding to the highest fire rating (3 hours) then each use group shall then comply with the provisions applicable to that group.
HD


There are three possible construction types which would be applicable for the project.
Types of Construction
Type I construction are buildings in which walls, partitions, structural elements, floors, ceilings, roofs and exits are constructed and protected with approved noncombustible materials. Fire-retardant wood may be used with restrictions stated in BOCA. 1A and IB are secondary designations and neither has any height nor area restrictions (402).
Type III construction are buildings whose walls, partitions, structural elements, floors, ceilings, roofs and exits are constructed of approved noncombustible materials meeting the restrictions set forth in table 401 BOCA. The two protected designations are the only two possibilities for construction types due to the height restrictions summarized below (403).
Type III buildings are those in which exterior, fire and party walks are constructed of
masonry or other approved noncombustible materials
and floors, roofs; interior framing is of wood, metal or other approved material. Fire-resistance for masonry, bearing and structural walls will meet the restrictions set forth in table 401 and as specified in section 404. Type 3A and 3B are the only types applicable due to the height restrictions.
Allowable Area
Restrictions for A Occupancy:
1. Type 4B construction not allowed (617).
2. The main entrance and exit discharge must occur on at least one street (617).
3. For recreation buildings, the area restrictions are waived and unlimited area is permitted, providing:
a. Direct exits are provided for all occupants in all areas (507).
b. The recreation area is conspicuously posted as to use and occupant load.


c. The building is equipped with a manual fire alarm system.
d. All other areas are equipped with automatic sprinkler systems (507).
Statistics for A-3 Occupancy Type Construction
Type I 1A IB Type 2A II 2B Type 3A III 3B
height (stories) UL UL 5 3 3 3
area UL UL UL UL UL UL
height (508) if sprinkled UL UL 6 4 4 4
*UL unlimited Table (505)
Structural requirements: see sections 9, 10, 11,
12, 13
Fire Separations
All exterior bearing fire walls supporting a combustible roof will be continuous from foundation to 2 feet 6 inches above roof line. Walls supporting a noncombustible roof may terminate
below the roof deck. Walls supporting
combustible roofs in type 3 and 4 construction may terminate on the underside of the roof if
properly firestopped and fireproof sheathing is used (1407).
Fire doors and vertical shaft requirements may be found in (1403) (1410) and (1412). Vertical opening requirements 1406.2.1 Skylights (1426.3.1).
Grading in
_____Fire Grading_________________________hours
A-3 Assembly-recreation centers 2
M Mercantile 3
Fire-resistance
Fire-retardant wood may be used in Types I and II construction for partitions, structural elements and sheathing provided that material provides the required fire rating (1403).
Structural members must either provide the required fire resistance designated in table 401 or be covered on all expances by material providing the required fire resistance (1411).


Fire-resistance Ratings of Structure Elements in Hours (401)
Structural Element 1A IB 2A 2B 3A 3B
1. Fire separation of 30' or morebearing walls 4 3 2 1 2 2
2. Fire separation of less than 6? bearing 4 3 2 1.5 2 2
non-bearing 2 2 1.5 1 2 2
3. Fire walls and party walls 4 3 3 3 3 3
4. Fire enclosure of exits, exit hallways and stairs 2 2 2 2 2 2
5. Exit access corridors 1 1 1 1 1 1
6. Interior bearing walls, partitions, columns, girdes, trusses and framing: more than 1 floor 4 3 2 1 (404) 1
1 floor support 3 2 1.5 1 (404) 1
roof only 3 2 1.5 1 (404) 1
7. Structural members supporting wall 3 2 1.5 1 1 1
8. Floor systems including beams 3 2 1.5 1 1 0
9. Roof construction including beams, trusses, and framing arches and roof deck 15* or less high 2 1.5 1 1 (404) 1
15 to 20' high 1 1 1 0 0 0
more than 20 high 0 0 0 0 0 0


Fire-resistive ceilings which constitute an integral part of a floor or roof assembly to meet required fire-resistance, may have mechanical openings (with dampers) of no more than 100 inches^ in 100 feet^ (1412).
Roof construction shall provide the required fire-resistance in table 401 with either noncombustible materials or assemblies of protective noncombustible materials (1413).
Firestopping is required in stud walls and partitions at ceiling, floor and roof levels; at connections between vertical and horizontal spaces; at stair stringers; at mechanical openings in exterior corners; in hollow or concealed spaces (1420).
Balconies in Type I and II construction must be made of noncombustible materials; Type III construction may have fire protected materials. Aggregate length of balconies shall not exceed 50% of the building perimeter at each floor (1425).
-----------------------------------------mv
Any roof, structure (skylights, etc.), within the fire limits of the building shall be constructed of noncombustible material. If the skylight angle is less than 45 then the glazing of a skylight shall be 4 inches above the roof line.
Roof Coverage (1427)
Class A Class B Class C
includes masonry, tile, concrete, slate, asbestos metal- sheets, shingles light fire resistance
uses all types Type 1 Type 2, 3, 4A
Refuse vaults shall be of three hour construction
(1608).
Interior finish's fire requirements (1421.00, 1404, 1424).
ED


Means of Egress
Floor Area per Occupant: (806)
Type Floor area/ occupant
assembly 15 net
business 100 gross
mercantile (grade : floor) 30 gross
other 60. gross
shipping 100 gross
Length of Exit Access Travel 807:
Use group Without Sprinklers With Sprinklers
A 150 200
B 200 300
M 100 150
All exits must be from as remote an area of the space as possible and provide access in separate directions (807).
Capacity per unit egress width (808).


Use Without With
Group ________Sprinklers Sprinklers
stairs ramps corridors stairs ramps corridors
A 75 100 113 150
B 60 100 90 150
M 60 100 90 150
1 unit of egress width = 22 inches.
Exits need only be designed and sized for the occupant load of the floor that is served by that exit, with no corridor or passageway less than 44 inches nor greater than 88 inches (809) (814). Minimum number of exits per occupant load (809).
Road minimum number of exits
500 or less 2
501 to 1,000 3
1,000 + 4
All parking structures shall have at least two exits from each tier with the maximum distance of travel not to exceed 300 feet (809).
md


Direct exit access is to be provided to all required exits; turnstyles or grates are prohibited as exit access (809).
No dead end corridors may exceed 20 feet in length (809).
All corridors serving as exit access shall have a fire-resistance rating of at least one hour.
All interior and exterior exit elements shall have direct access to a public way or an unenclosed grade passageway to a public way (810).
Exits may discharge into an interior vestibule with self closing doors and wire glass.
Spaces occupied by 50 or more people of 2,000 2
feet shall have two means of egress (811-812).
Door width will not be less than 32 inches or greater than 48 inches. Panic hardware is required for all Croup A uses serving more than 100 people. Safety glass is required on
all glass doors.
Doors in a service shall
---" ' ' ' Bfl"
have a space between them of not less than 7 feet when measured in a closed position (812). Revolving doors shall not be used for exit doors.
Separation between fire areas shall be provided by a two hour separation wall (814).
In multi-story buildings, there shall be at least one interior enclosed stairway or smoke-proof enclosure on each side of a horizontal exit (814).
Interior stairs. Minimum headroom in all parts of the stairway shall not be less than 6 feet 8 inches.
The least dimension of landings and platforms shall not be less than the required stairway width (816).
Stairways shall not have a vertical rise in excess of 12 feet between landings (816).
Tread and riser size: (816)
Maximum riser Minimum riser Minimum tread
7 in.
4 in.
11 in.


Winders shall not be used as exit stairs.
Winders shall have a minimum tread width of 9 inches at 12 inches from narrowest end (816).
For spiral and circular stair requirements see (816.7) and (816.7.1).
Handrails shall not be less than 30 inches or more than 34 inches vertically above nosing of treads and shall extend 18 inches beyond the top and bottom step (816).
Guards for open stairways shall be no less than 30 inches nor more than 6 inches above the floor. Guards for floor areas shall be no less than 42 inches in height (816).
Firedoors are required for all fire-separations and exits and shall swing in the direction of egress (816).
No more than three communicating floor levels are permitted without enclosure or protection (816.10).
Interior access to the roof is required for all buildings with a 4/12 roof pitch or less
(817).

Smokeproof enclosures and vestibules (818). Exterior stairways and exit accesses and balconies in climates subject to snow or ice shall be protected to prevent their accumulation (819). They shall also be located at least 10 feet from adjacent buildings unless separated by three-fourths hour fire walls.
Balconies, stairs, porches shall conform to the type construction of that building type (819).
Elevators are not accepted as elements of exit and shall not be installed in a common enclosure with a stairway; the path of travel on any exit stairway shall not pass directly in front of any elevator hoistway door (2109). Fire Protection Systems
Building height Standing pipe size (1711)
3 stories/40 ft. 2 1/2 inches
4 stories/50 ft. 2 1/2 inches
5 stories/65 ft. 4 inches
mm


All parts of the building and every floor must be within 130 feet of the nearest standing pipe. In buildings grouped with an interior smokeproof enclosure vestibule, at least one standing pipe hose connection shall be located in the vestibule. The standing pipe shall maintain sufficient residual pressure of 65 psi at the topmost outlet of each standpipe with 500 gpm flowing (1711).
Sprinkler systems may be connected to the domestic water supply providing the supply system has adequate pressure and size to operate both systems simultaneously.
Manual fire systems (1717).
Vertical Openings
Vertical shafts open to the exterior shall be constructed of materials specified for exterior wall construction and required fire-resistance rating. Interior vertical shafts shall be of material consistent with the required construction of the building type (see table 401) (1410).
m
>
Fireblocking is required in vertical concealed spaces of all stud walls and partitions, including furred or studded spaces of masonry or concrete walls at ceiling, floor or roof levels; at connections between vertical and horizontal spaces; in stair stringers and bottoms of runs; around vents, pipes, ducts and chimneys (1420).
An automatic fire suppression system shall be installed throughout all floor areas connected by an open well or atrium except where fire separation assemblies conform to table 401 (631).
An atrium connecting not more than three floors may contain an exit. Atriums over three floors require fire separation (631) (816.10).
Smoke control system shall be designed to control the migration of smoke inside an atrium such that if smoke is detected all air supply to the fire floor is shut down along with the return air to all other floors (631).
DQD


Atriums 55 feet or less in height shall have a smoke exhaust system on the ceiling of the atrium exhausting at a rate of 4 to 6 air changes per hour with an intake at the lowest level of the atrium (631).
Atriums in excess of 55 feet shall have the same exhaust system except air intake shall be introduced mechanically and directed upward (631).
Smoke detectors and controls and suppression systems are to be interconnected according to
(631.2) .
Atrium spaces shall be separated from adjacent spaces by a one hour separation.
Glass wall may be used forming a smoke partition, if sprinklers are spaced 6 feet O.C. on each side of the separation, if there is an atrium walkway, or on the room side without a walkway
(631.2) .
Adjacent spaces of any three floors of an atrium shall not be required to be separated from the atrium, however these spaces are
included in the atrium volumn (covered above)
(631.2) .
In other than the lowest level of the atrium, when the required means of egress is through the atrium space, the exit access travel distance shall not exceed 150 feet (631.2).
Floor openings or unenclosed supplemental stairways shall be permitted when protected on every floor with an automatic exhaust system
(613.3) .
An approved automatic exhaust system may be a separate unit or integrated with an approved air handling system and simultaneously controlled to detect smoke; subsequently overriding the normal mechanical air handling and ventilating systems and closing dampers and return air ducts (613.3).
Draftstops are required on all floor openings at each story, enclosing the perimeter of the opening and extending from the ceiling downward at least 18 inches on all sides.


Sprinklers are to be provided around perimeter of the opening (613.3).
Light and Ventilation
Daylighting illumination shall be adequate to provide an average illumination of 6 foot candles (64.6 lux) over the area of the room at a height of 30 inches above floor level (702).
Natural ventilation is based on a volume of 3
400 feet per occupant as a standard for habitable and occupied rooms (703).
The light transmitting properties and area of the devices used shall be adequate to meet the minimum daylighting and ventilating requirements specified.
Windows and doors may be used as a natural means of light and ventilation; when so used their aggregate glass area shall amount to no less than 8% of the floor area. In order for a window to be credited as a source of natural light and ventilation it must open directly onto a public
space (706.3).
9W "'
Habitable rooms will have a ceiling height of not less than 7 feet 6 inches. Hallways, corridors, kitchens, etc., shall have a ceiling height of not less than 7 feet. All exit access shall have a ceiling height of 7 feet 6 inches.
If a ceiling is sloping, the requirement is only for half the area of the space. A furred ceiling may not be below 7 feet with only two-thirds the area required to be 7 feet 6 inches (706.5).
Habitable rooms shall have a minimum floor
2
area of not less than 70 feet and shall not be less than 7 feet in any dimension (706.6).
Bathroom ventilation may be accomplished by windows opening to the outer air, a skylight, a vertical shaft or shaft with lowered openings,
2
provided that the window is a minimum of 3 feet (711.2). Individual vents or ducts shall be constructed of approved materials with a
2
minimum cross sectional area of one-half feet
2
and one-third feet for each toilet above two in
__________________________________________ODD


number. Ducts shall supply a minimum supply of
2
2 feet of fresh air per feet of room area
(711.4).
Mechanical ventilation systems must provide air changes once every 12 minutes with no recirculation in bathrooms, laundries (711.6).
Artificial illumination shall be provided in all bathrooms to afford an average intensity of 3 feet (32.3 lux) measured at 30 inches above the floor (711.7) .
If natural light and ventilation cannot meet the minimum requirements of the code, the difference shall be made up by artificial light.
The glazed areas of windows need not operate if a mechanical ventilation system is provided. Ventilation systems shall be kept in operation at all times during normal occupancy (704). Skylights
Skylights will be mounted at least 4 inches above the roof plane or in the case of
domed skylights between 5 to 10 inches. All skylight edges must be protected by a metal or noncombustible frame (2405).
<*+

Maximum area of skylight may not exceed 2
100 feet The collection area of all skylights may not exceed 33% of the floor area when Class G-l materials are used and 25% when Class C-2 materials are used.
Skylights shall be separated from each other by a minimum of 4 feet. If an exterior wall is fire rated, skylights may not be within 6 feet of the wall.
Aggregate area of skylights may be increased 100% if sprinklers or fire vents are used. Electric Wiring
Exit, emergency and stairway must be illuminated to 3 f.c. or 32.3 lux (2001).
Toilets and bathrooms must be illuminated to 3 f.c. or 32.3 lux (2001).
ED


Sanitation and Plumbing
A smooth, waterproof, nonabsorbent readily
cleanable material must surround all bathroom
fixtures 4 feet above the floor and on the
surrounding floor area. Shower floors shall be
of similar material and extend up the wall to 6
feet above the floor line (2200).
Public Swimming Pools
A pool may not be located within 6 feet
of a property line or 10 feet from a street
property line (627.4). *
To a depth of 5 feet from the top, the wall
slope shall not be more than 2 feet horizontal in
5 feet vertical. The slope of the floor on the
shallow side of transition point shall not exceed
one unit vertical to seven units horizontal (1:7).
The transition point between shallow and deep
water shall not be more than 5 feet deep (627.5).
Pools shall be provided with a recirculating
shimmer or overflow gutters. Shimmers must be
2
placed one per 1,000 feet of surface area.
Where overflow gutters are used they shall be
not less than 3 inches deep and pitched to a slope of 1:48 (vertical to horizontal) (627.5).
All public pools shall have walkways not less than 4 feet in width extending around the pool and covered with a slip-resistant surface
(627.5).
One or more means of egress shall be provided from the pool with handrails and nonslip surfaces (627.5).
Pool water turnover shall be at least once every eight hours. Pool must be designed and equipped to be completely emptied of water and the discharged water disposed of without a nuisance to adjoining property (627.6).
Filters, pumps and equipment shall be enclosed in such a manner as to be accessible only to authorized persons. Construction and drainage shall be such as to avoid the entrance and accumulation of water in electrical areas
(627.8).


Any pool situated outdoors must have an enclosure at least 4 feet in height, with self latching latches placed 4 feet above the ground.
A natural barrier, hedge or other approved material may be used as an enclosure, provided it gives the same protection as a built enclosure (627.9).
Handicapped Requirements
Handicapped access is required for all areas of the building except balconies, storage and mechanical area. The number of required parking spaces (12 feet wide) for the handicapped shall be determined by table 515.4 BOCA. These parking spaces must be located as close as possible to entrance ramps, walkways and elevators (515.4).
Inclined curb ramps or cuts must be provided with a width of not less than 3 feet and flares with a slope of 1:8. At building entrances ramps or uninterrupted walkways shall have a width of not less than 5 feet and a gradient of not more than one vertical in 20 units horizontal (515.4).
At each grade floor exit there shall be a hard surface area extending the full width of the door extending 5 feet on either side of the door. Floor grades may not exceed 1:50. Each part of the building except as noted above must be accessible to the handicapped by ramps, passageway or elevator (515.0). Light switches, fire alarms, controls are not to be more than 4 feet above the floor level. Five percent of the public telephones must be accessible to handicapped (515.6).
Toilet rooms must have at least one toilet, lavatory, and accessories accessible to the handicapped. The toilet room shall have a clear space beyond the room door opening of not less than 5 feet. The clear width between the face of a toilet compartment and the wall shall not be less than 48 inches, the compartment must be at least 42 inches wide, 72 inches long and have an outswinging door at least 32 inches wide. Handrails are to be provided on each side 42


inches long and mounted 33 inches above the floor. The toilet shall have a seat between 16 to 19 inches above the floor line. A lavatory shall be a maximum of 32 inches above the floor line; 5% of all drinking fountains must be accessible to the handicapped (515.8).
Checkout lanes must have at least one lane on each floor which is not less than 36 inches wide. Buildings with turnstiles must provide a clearly marked alternate route at least 36 inches
wide (515.11).


r
v.
Mechanical Code
HVAC
Plenums: The use of uninhabited basements, cellars, cavity walls, areas above ceilings or attic spaces as supply, makeup, exhaust air or return air plenums or ducts is prohibited.
Further, these spaces may not be used for storage and must be substantially enclosed.
The entire ground surface of underground spaces shall be covered with a fire resistant vapor barrier.
Duct specifics as to size, gage, material and use may be found in (M 302).
Outside air intake for ventilation air shall be located at least 10 feet from any flues, vents, chimneys, meters, regulators, plumbing, alleys, parking lots and must include protecting guards and include smoke detectors (M 302).
Access to attic spaces shall be provided by a permanent stairway or ladder (M 304). In the event that mechanical equipment is in the attic


space, a catwalk from the access to that equipment must be provided (M 304).
Roof equipment requirements may be found in section (M 305).
Crawl space minimum height is 30 inches from the ground level to the bottom of the floor joist; where access to equipment is necessary, access to these spaces may not be through the above floor (M 306).
Ducts carrying flammable vapors or dust shall have a clearance of 18 inches from combustible materials. All ducts passing through walls, floors, partitions shall be sealed with noncombustible material (M 310).
Exhaust Duct Clearances (M 310)
Duct gas temperature Largest dimension Clearance
to 600 F 8 in. 9 in.
600-900 8 in. 18 in.
over 8 in. 24 in.
1,000 + lined all sizes 24 in.
Commerical Hoods and Fans
All working appliances shall be provided with ventilating hoods and exhaust ducts and provided with a fire suppression system. All hoods and ducts must be made of steel and have a clearance of 18 inches from conbustible materials (M 312).
Exhaust ducts shall not pass through fire resistance rated walls. If ducts pass through partitions or walls of combustible construction, the clearance shall be 18 inches (M 312).
Exhaust fan motors must be located outside the air stream.
Duct systems shall create a conveying air
velocity in exhaust ducts of not less than 1,500
fpm and not more than 2,200 fpm.
Exhaust hood minimum air velocity shall be
a minimum of 100 cfm per square foot of hood
2
area or 150 cfm/ft. if the hood is exposed on four sides. A minimum of 3 inches of hood


overhang for every foot above the appliance is required (H 312).
Fire Dampers
Dampers must be located in ducts penetrating fire walls of 3 hours or more: through a fire separation wall; through a fire-resistance rated shaft wall; through ceilings of fire-resistance rated floor or roof assemblies or fire-rated corridor walls (M 315).
Underground duct systems installed in or below concrete floors or slabs must be fully encased in at least two inches of concrete (M 316).
Steam and hot water heating systems are in article 4 MBOCA. Gas, liquid and solid fuel piping and equipment are in articles 5 and 6 MBOCA.
Chimneys, Vents and Fireplaces
Masonry chimneys shall be supported on designed noncombustible foundations. Flue passageways within the same chimney must be
separated by 4 inch masonry. Chimneys passing through a roof may not change size or shape within a distance of 6 inches of the roof rafters.
Type of Masonry Chimney (M 702)
Sound Square or Rectangle Lined with Firebrick
Fireplace 1/12 of 1/10 of 1/8 of
opening opening opening
minimum minimum minimum
of 50 in2 of 64 in2 100 in2
Masonry chimneys for heat producing appliances shall be constructed of solid masonry, concrete or rubble stone. Appliances and their required chimney construction are listed below. All wood joist, headers, rafters, studs shall have clearance from the outside face of the chimney. Wood girders may rest on a masonry shelf provided there is at least 8 inches of masonry between the flue and the
member (M 703).


Type Masonry Thickness Clearance Termination Height S tone Thickness
Low heat 4 inches 2 inches 3 feet above 12 inches
roof
Medium heat 8 inches 4 inches 10 feet within 12 inches
25 feet
High heat 10 inches approval 20 feet within NA
50 feet
Incinerators 8 inches 4 inches 8 feet NA
Fireplaces 8 to 4 to 6
12 inches inches


Metal chimney specifications are in sections M 710 M 714.
Venting and exhausting systems are found in section M 716 M 718.
Mechanical cooling specifications may be found in article 8 MBOCA.
Inside incinerators shall be located in a room used only for the purpose of incineration and be separated from the remainder of the building by two hour fire rated construction.
Two means of egress are required from an incinerator room with more than 300 feet of floor area (M 902). Other requirements for incinerators may be found in sections M 900 M 904.
Fireplace structural walls must be at least 8 inches thick with firebrick liner or 12 inches without a liner. The firebox shall be 20 inches in depth and open on all sides if all openings are within one room (M 905).
Fireplaces must have a hearth of noncombustible material. Fireplaces with an opening
2
of less than 6 feet ,the hearth will extend at
least 6 inches in front and 8 inches on the sides.
2
For those greater than 6 feet the hearth will extend at least 20 inches forward and 12 inches on either side (M 905).
Ventilation
Ventilation will be provided and maintained for all areas of use preferably by exhaust methods. In all cases exhaust will exceed supply (M 1009).
Required Ventilation (M 1009)
Locker area 2 2 cfm/ft or 30 cfm/locker
Swimming pools Public Bathrooms 15 40 cfm/occupant cfm/water closet (2 cfm/ft^
Corridors 1, 2 ,5 cfm/ft floor floor)
Locker rooms in conjunction with toilets and swimming rooms must have tempered outside air as supply which may be exhausted through the adjoining toilet or swimming room. Shower rooms must be provided with an exhaust system (M 1009).


Toilet rooms must be ventilated by:
1. Operable windows
2
2. Individual vents of .5 feet each
2
+ .33 feet for every toilet over two.
3. Operable skylight
4. Mechanical ventilation Recirculation of ventilation air:
1. Any portion of air that exceeds the required ventilation air may be recirculated.
2. 67% of the air may be recirculated if dust levels are low.
3. 85% may be recirculated if filters are used.
4. Outdoor air may not be less than 5 cfm/person (M 1009).
Energy Conservation M 1301
Indoor design temperature shall be 70 F for heating and 78 F for cooling.
Indoor design relative humidity for heating shall not exceed 30% (M 1301).
100
Fan systems will be designed to use up to 100% of the fan's capacity for cooling with outside air whenever it will lower the usage of energy (M 1301).
All ducts in unconditioned spaces will be insulated to provide an R value of:
Simultaneous heating and cooling of spaces is restricted; specifications are located in (M 1301.4).


I
I
ENERGY


r
v
Energy
Energy conservation in this project is essential. With the extremely cold temperatures, high wind and large amount of precipitation, energy conscious design could have a dramatic impact.
A comparative land profile for a comparable
building of similar usage was the subject of an
energy analysis this past term. The building, a
2
variety store of 53,000 feet located in Rutland, Vermont used a total of 1.201 mkwh of electric energy to energize the building. This translates into a yearly energy bill of $87,476.00 per year. This building's usage profile should be a reasonable estimation of the Recreation Center's usage. Both buildings have a skin dominated load pattern approximately 80% to 90% of the time. Load domination should take over for several hours during the day when there is a large influx of peoplefor example around lunch time and in the early evening. Sherburne Corporation


has used fully electric utilities in all their buildings, except for one lodge. The conclusion of the Central Vermont Public Service Company is that these would be two similarly loaded buildings.
Generally as to form, the wall to floor area ratio or the surface to volume ratio should be minimized, the building should be as compact as possible. Rooms should be double banked where possible, interior heat generation (cooking, pools, saunas, people) should be recycled and reused. Overhangs should be large to protect from the large amount of precipitation. Double or triple glazing should be utilized to reduce the heat transfer, yet there should be some additional glazing facing southeast to help with the early morning start-up. The strategy for the reduction of heat flow through the building's envelop is a unique problem and a potential "form-giver."
TTHS
Insulation is one obvious solution. The Energy Code that is enforced in Vermont requires R-19 in the walls and R-30 in the ceiling.
Several computer programs are available to help in the study of the insulation amount; as compared to the cost of various heat loses; three such program examples are included in this report, "The Optimization of Insulation," "Insulation Cost Benefit," and "Annual Heat Loss." All three are only examples of schematic design assumptions and should be calculated at each progressive design step. With the assumptions used for pre-design phase, it is shown that an optimum amount of insulation may be up to 10 to 11 inches. An important consideration for early design phases. Once a reasonable thickness of insulation and envelope is developed, its cost payback and annual heat loss may be checked, early in the design process.
The use of solar concepts is of course possible, yet close examination is required before


that avenue is automatically pursued. As is shown by the solar angle chart, the winter altitude of the sun is fairly low and the length of available sun is short. With the 44
N latitude and the high mountains surrounding the site, the amount of mid-winter sun available is small. This is further compounded by the 75% + cloud cover in the months of November to March (please see the climate data sheet in the Climate section). Add to these factors the extreme cold, high winds and the Master Plans southwest-northeast grid orientation; the possibility of a solar solutions seems remote.
Solar gain spaces may become important in the spring-early summer and early fall periods.
The temperature differential is certainly much less, as is the average cloud cover (65% cover as compared to 75%). Certainly with the somewhat higher sun angle, a greater percentage of sun and less potential heat loss from solar glazing areas,
the possibility of isolated solar gain spaces could be considered in cool periods of the year. An interesting possibility could involve isolated solar areas that double as airlocks in the frigid periods of the winter.
Another consideration involving form and energy concerns the idea of mass. Certainly if a space is to be used as a solar gain space, mass is essential in that space to ensure comfortable temperatures with a mass decrement and time lag.
A mass within the building itself could help flatten the temperature variations, absorbing the excess heat of the load dominated periods and radiating the stored heat back to the space as the loads are reduced. A large mass within the building itself, however, is a poor idea in that that mass at all other times, cold winter days, cloudy days, -30 F days, must be heated. With sporadic sun and a questionable time lag the mass would require a large energy boost for morning start-up. A poor idea at best.


Daylighting may be an area of attacking energy consumption. Not from a cooling load standpoint as in commercial buildings, but in a direct energy savings. Aesthetics is another argument for daylight. Care must be taken so as to not lose large amounts of heat through large expanses of glass. The careful design of sunlit spaces could enhance both the exterior and interior form.
It appears from preliminary study that isolated sunspaces doubling as airlocks, incorporating mass; a well insulated envelope; double to triple glazed windows; daylighting scheme and recirculating ventilation system; is the most effective way to deal with energy responsiveness. Full solar radiation and angle data are included in this section for further consideration.
Cooling of the building should be easily accomplished by natural methods, cross
ventilation, use of winds, etc., as the summer temperatures rarely go above 85 F and usually remain in the 70's.
The most obvious method of reducing the cost of energy, over the case study building, would be to utilize liquid propane, gas or oil systems. The cost of electric energy is approximately five times greater than any of these other solutions, however less costly at first cost. This initial cost could easily be recovered in a short time, considering the heating load and would be a wise investment.
Careful study on the various energy strategy options, a careful design approach, and a reasonable investment, should yield a workable building, responding in form to the environment and climate in a sensible way.
The following section is from the Energy
Conservation Code 1981 BOCA.