Design guidelines

Material Information

Design guidelines a preservation planning tool for small town commercial area revitalization
Alternate title:
Preservation planning tool for small town commercial area revitalization
Barbeau, Marilyn M
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
54 leaves : illustrations, plans ; 28 cm


Subjects / Keywords:
Central business districts ( lcsh )
City planning ( lcsh )
Historic sites -- Conservation and restoration ( lcsh )
Central business districts ( fast )
City planning ( fast )
Historic sites -- Conservation and restoration ( fast )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )


Includes bibliographical references (leaves 52-54).
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for a Master's degreee in Planning and Community Development, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
Marilyn M. Barbeau.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
08673379 ( OCLC )
LD1190.A78 1981 .B35 ( lcc )

Full Text
DESIGN GUIDELINES A Preservation Planning Tool
For Small Town Commerical Area Revitalization
Marilyn M. Barbeau UPCD 790 Studio 3 University of Colorado Denver Fall 1981

Introduction ................................................ 1
What's Happening in Small Towns? .......................... 2
Historic Preservation, Where Is It Headed? ................ 5
Main Street: Where The Two Meet ............................ 8
Design Review and How It Has Developed ..................... 13
Design Guidelines .......................................... 16
Making It Work ............................................ 21
Findings and Conclusions ................................... 22
Appendices ................................................. 24
Appendix A Selected Design Guidelines Appendix B Selected Ordinances Appendix C Financial Techniques

The purpose of this project is to examine what is occurring within commerical areas of small towns of our nation and determine where design guidelines could provide a key to the revitalization of these areas.
In this regard I investigated what has occurred in selected small towns, visited several of these towns to view the current state of their corrmerical areas and evaluate the opportunities available to them. Additionally I have reviewed the literature to ascertain what is happening with historic preservation, downtown development, design review and how design guidelines can assist the community with their commerical area revitalization plans.

Small towns, after years of losing polulation to the large urban centers of the United States, are gaining in popularity and making a comeback. It is anticipated that by the end of this century we will once again be a "nation of small towns". This hasn't been the case since the Civil War.
Americans are moving to small towns for many reasons. One important reason is jobs. The improvements in the communication and transportation industries have facilitated the movement of manufacturing corporations to rural areas and smaller communities. These changes, coupled with energy exploration and development in these areas, have provided an increasing number of job opportunities which many people are following. Another strong motive is the desire for the simpler less complicated and stressful way of life traditionally associated with small town living.^
The recent trend of "back to basics" conjures up the image of the small town, the hot apple pie fresh off the stove, family get-togethers, barn raisings, people helping people. This devotion to local life and affairs is the spirit of a small town.
Recent census figures show a shift in population towards rural areas and smaller communities. Between 1970 and 1978, the population of rural counties rose 10.5 percent while that of urban counties rose by only 6.1 percent. The 1980 census figures provide further evidence of this trend. That is, there has been a lower percentage of population
^International Downtown Executives Association, "A Time for Small Towns," Center City Report, January 1981, P. 8.

growth in the industrialized states than in the less developed ones.
This influx of people to small towns are generating pressures which have direct consequences for downtown areas. Many downtowns throughout the country are now faced with the problems of deteriorating tax bases and abandoned storefronts. These problems are further exacerbated by the aggressive marketing and expansion practices of shopping centers. The saturation of larger urban areas with regional shopping centers has lead these developers into the lucrative community center market. Major retailers such as Sears and Penneysaswell as the "mom and pop" operations, are leaving downtown in favor of these centers.
Where does this leave small town commerical areas which have suffered from a process of decay that has spanded many years and perhaps several generations? The changes that have occurred over this long period of time cannot be changed overnight. The groundwork must be established today to provide an"avenue" for the revitalization process. Several aspects of key importance to establishing this groundwork are:
Realization by town officials that outlying shopping centers do not necessarily represent progress.
That providing city services such as utilities, roads, their maintenance and repair, police and fire protection to outlying
areas are costly.
That the erosion of the downtown tax base and the subsequent deterioration of existing public and private resources not being utilized, lends itself to increased criminal activity, resulting in an increase in the necessary police and fire protection, which are further costs to the community.

Recognition by town officials that each community has special qualities of their own which are derived from ties to the past.
The old buildings contain the rich architectural resources of
a community and are a vehicle through which the history of the town is revealed. These structures are a part of the community. They provide visual pleasure, a backdrop for the present and legacy for the future. The proper preservation and utilization of these structures is an important component in a community's effort to create new employment opportunities and generate tax revenues essential to the revitalization of the local economy.
An awareness by town officials that their community operates as a "closed economy" where local dollars recirculate through local businesses many times before leaving the trade area. In contrast, the management practices of many regional malls relegate local financial institutions into short term depositories for daily receipts which are ultimately transferred to banking institutions in larger metropolitan areas.
Only when the community and public officials alike realize the actual costs involved both in terms of dollars and community pride can a productive effort be made towards revitalization.

Historic preservation is the conservation of structures of historic significance or architectural value for future generations to enjoy.
That is, the management of change in the built environment. It has advanced from the days of "little old ladies" saving buildings as museum pieces to preserving and strengthing the historic fabric of an entire area. As John Steinbeck said, "How will we know it's us without our past..
Michael L. Ainslie, President of the National Trust for Historic Preservation has stated that, "We in preservation are now fully aware and prepared to form partnerships with government officials, neighborhood groups, downtown merchants, and yes, even real estate developers. No longer can we nor will we work in a vacuum, as has often been the case in the past----"
Recent studies have shown that the preservation of our resources saves money, uses less energy, creates more jobs than with new construction, reduces crime, increases municipal revenues through increased tourism, increases property and sales tax revenues and perserves the
rich heritage of the area. Preservation must be justified in these utilitarian terms in order to step forward into the future.
One of the great attractions of traveling is to see things that either deliberately or by accident have been saved. It's no wonder that thousands of americans travel abroad each year to view the antiquities and architectural masterpieces of the past which have been deliberately saved for the enjoyment and education of the present and
2Richard H. Jenrette, "Preservation Deserves Top Grade," Pres-Preservation News, April 1981, P.5.

future generations. Time has taken heavy tolls on these historic structures and each year many undergo restoration as is currently the case with the pyramids in Egypt.
People appreciate this ambience of old buildings and respond to their quality. Preservation is quality. Many developers are beginning to realize this and other positive aspects of preservation to include the the tax benefits which gives preservation equal footing with new construction.
Construction trade publications point towards the increasing activity of rehabilitation. For example, the October 1981 issue of Commerical Remodeling predicts $51.6 billion dollars worth of remodeling in 1982, an amount which is anticipated to exceed that of new construction. This reflects a continuing dedication to the rebuilding of our existing commerical structures, a portion of which involves preservation.
The economics of conservation and preservation encompass many factors and as such preservationists should not be naive to thing that they can rely on the economic forces of the market to preserve important art objects, artifacts and buildings. To do so would jeopardize a large number of these assets. The reason for this being that the market favors the short term solution or investor who is in immediate possession of the property rather than the larger social and economic interests of the community.^
Increasingly, the preservation of historic properties and areas is being viewed as an economic development tool. As such, greater sources
3 jonn Kenneth (jalbraith, "Preservationists wi ll Reap What they bow... Eventually,'' Historic Preservation, September/October 1980,Pgs. 26-29.

of political and financial assistance is available to support preservation activities. See Appendix C for financial techniques for commerical redevelopment.
Upon us is the challenge to recycle the small towns of America and to turn around the decline which has occurred in their commerical areas. Through preservation, efforts to rebuild, restore and revitalize, in the face of declining natural resources may be a successful solution to many of the problems facing our country today. To this end there are many tools used by preservationists which include:
t Survey identification.
Preservation plan.
Education regarding preservation feasibility, building technology, rehabilitation techniques, and real estate economics.
Revolving funds using facade easements and deed restrictions to insure a buildings future preservation.
Obtaining public recognition and protection of preservation resources by including them in local, state and federal inventories or registers.
Studying local planning, zoning and building codes, and other public laws and activities that effect preservation resources.
Tax benefits.
Municipal improvement programs.
t Transfer development rights.
Historic Preservation ordinances
Design Review.
Design Guidelines

Many programs are available to comnunities seeking to revitalize their towns. One that focuses on preservation is the National Main Street Center, a program of the National Trust for Historic Preservation.
The National Trust for Historic Preservation is a private, nonprofit corporation chartered by Congress in 1949 to facilitate public participation in historic preservation. Currently, the Trust encourages preservation activities through a number of programs. These programs include assistance to local and state governments and private organizations through consultation with staff experts, matching grants to encourage energy conservation is historic buildings, educational conferences and workshops, grants for the development of historic preservation, training and tours, publications and on-site training in restoration crafts. Additionally the Trust is coimiitted to saving important resources by accepting donations of significant historic properties through the endangered properties fund. This fund protects threatened historic properties through their acquisition, limited development and resale.
The Trust's National Main Street Center evolved from it's earlier (1977-1980) Main Street Project. The Main Street Project was developed as a response to requests from small towns in the mid-west seeking ways to save their older commerical areas from increasing abandonment and neglect. These areas generally encompass the more significant architectural resources of the community. Their neglect was generally the product of shopping center development occurring on the fringes of town and the lack of expertise to deal effectively with that development.

In an effort to combat these and other problems, downtown merchants bulldozed buildings to provide adjacent parking, plastered modern fronts and added oversized signs on historical buildings as a means of increasing their utility and initiating the look of their competition, the shopping center. However, most merchants found that these surface cosmetic treatments weren't the solution to their problems.
Their problems stemmed from, among others, poor merchandising techniques, less than attractive displays, poor maintenance and security,and lack of group management to effectively deal with these problems on an area wide basis.
The Trust selected Hot Springs, South Dakota (population 5,000); Galesburg, Illinois (population 38,000); and Madison, Indiana (population 13,500) as demonstration cities. In each case the Trust provided technical assistance and project management to assist the private and public sectors in the development of a program to develop solutions to their problems scaled to the ability of the community. These programs centered around four key elements:
Design and Image The enhancement of the town's physical character through attention to buildings, signs and public areas.
Organization Strengthening the ability of public and private leaders to work together to manage the downtown effectively.
Promotion Marketing the downtown area as a destination by scheduling events to bring people back downtown to enjoy, to shop and to be together again.
Economic restructuring Recruiting new businesses and finding

new uses for downtown buildings such as offices, housing and recreation.
The problems of these three towns were approached from the viewpoint of preservation through economic development. Preservation was seen as a vehicle which could unite the businessman, public officials and citizens alike to initiate comprehensive physical and economic revitalization efforts. Preservation allowed these people to work with what they already had. This doesn't imply that each of their main streets should be frozen into the past or become a Williamsburg or Disneyland. Rather, by using the elements of quality that have survived as assets and by building upon this foundation a positive physical and emotional image for everyone who embraces main street can be achieved.
Many of our main streets have a number of special assets. For example, a location in the center of the community; close to cultural and public institutions; convenient to office workers and adjacent residential neighborhoods; architectural heritage; diversity of goods, and services as well as businessmen with strong ties to the community.
These communities need to rediscover their individual assets and through incremental but perceptual change devise an "avenue" to the future which develops leadership and furthers the public and private partnership necessary for a successful main street revitalization program. Main Street is everyone's business. To paraphrase Harry S. Truman, you can tell a lot about a town by the way it keeps it's buildings. Main Street's appearance should tell the public that it is an attractive place where many activities can be enjoyed. At the same time it should demonstrate to merchants that good design is good for business.

In the three original main street towns the Trust's expenditures on project management, free design services, and a modest incentive awards program produced an average leverage ratio of 11 to 1. That is, for every dollar the Trust raised privately to spend on the project, $11. were invested locally; virtually, no Rublic funds were involved. Over a three year period store fronts were improved, new jobs were created as a result of new businesses or the expansion of existing ones in the area, and increases in sales tax revenue were documented.
As Mayor Parsons of Hot Springs, South Dakota, said, "While economic improvements and visual changes are significant, it is important to recognize the positive feelings that now exist about our downtown".
This type of a response goes a long way in the revitalization of an area.
The Trust's main street approach emphasized self-reliance, fore-sightness and imagination. These factors, when combined with local public and private iniative, were key variables which helped guarantee
the turn around of the downtowns of Hot Springs, Galesburg and Madison.
Looking into the future, main street project director Mary Means said, "High energy costs could make outlying centers obsolete themselves soon after they cause the death of many centrally located energy efficient main streets".^ Michael Hirschfeld, president of Garrick-Aug Associates, the largest retail space brokerage firm in the nation said of shopping center, "They'll either be recycled as something else or be the 21st century's ghost towns". Mr. Hirschfeld feels the evidence of this
^Mary C. Means, "Main Street: View from the Center," Center City Report, December 1980, Pgs. 8-9.
^Mary C. Means, "Main Street: Target on Retailing?" Center City Report, February 1981, P.7.

demise is already present in the form of urban malls that are beginning to appear across the country.^
Some reasons behind these predictions are changes in the management practices of many larger shopping center anchor tenants which puts them in competition with smaller tenants, higher costs for transportation and larger numbers of working women, many of whom come into the cities each day where they also do their shopping.
Rouse and Company, developers of shopping centers and urban malls is saying that cities are actively seeking downtown revitalization projects and this revitalization is under way in many cities now and will accelerate in the next ten years. A key ingredient in this acceleration will be the cooperation of municipalities both large and small in laying the groundwork for the development of urban malls.
During these current times of reduced federal expenditures, the Main Street approach may be an answer for small towns coping with downtown deterioration; however, they need to plan now to preserve their scarce resources for the future.
^"Shopping Malls Face Doom," Denver Post, May 24, 1981.

When you are working in the community trying to repair, rehabilit ate and restore those assets identified as being worthy of preserving, how do you maintain that which is existing while accomplishing the necessary infill in a harmonious manner with the existing fabric of the area?
Previously I mentioned various preservation planning tools. One of the tools used to implement design goals is design review ordinances. These ordinances are being developed by more and more communities to regulate visual quality. Many review boards monitor changes around buildings to include landscaping features, fences, walls, exterior lighting, signage, and parking lots; therefore, the term design review is used more often than that of the more traditional term architectural review.
Charleston, South Carolina established the first historic district with architectural controls in 1931 and was followed by New Orleans, Louisiana in 1937. Since 1937 more than 800 jurisdictions have provided for design review.
Design review ordinances may be an amendment to the zoning ordinance, as in the case of Telluride, Colorado, or a separate ordinance as developed in Hot Springs, South Dakota. Such ordinances set forth the rationale and purposes of regulation, specify the membership, duties and powers of the regulatory board, and provide for procedures

and guidelines for the decision making process. See Appendix B for selected ordinances.
The legality of design review has been the subject of much debate involving three elements: the right to regulate, the extent of regulation, and the standard to be used in regulation. The right of a community to extend its police power to regulate aesthetic values in the public interest was established in 1954 in the case of Berman versus Parker. In this case the court held that, "The concept of public welfare is broad and inclusive... The values it represents are spiritual as well as physical, aesthetic as well as monetary. It is in the power of the legislature to determine that the community should be beautiful as well as healthy, spacious as well as clean, well balanced as well as carefully patrolled.
With the legal framework in place to allow for the regulation of aesthetics, one of the main concerns is the "Taking" issue. That this, depriving a citizen of his property without a public purpose and just compensation, as guaranteed by the Fifth Amendment to the U.S. Constitu-ti on.
The permitted extent of regulation connected with historic preservation has been the subject of many recent court cases. In Maher versus City of New Orleans, (197G) the court decided in favor of the historic district regulation and held that no violation of the Fifth
^Berman v. Parker, 348 U.S. 26, 33(1954).

Amendment had occurred.8 More recently, on June 26, 1978, the U.S.

Supreme Court in Penn Central Transportaion Company et aj_. versus City of New York et aK held that no taking has occurred even though the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission had denied the owners of Grand Central Terminal a Certificate of Appropriateness for the construction of a high rise office tower on the site. This was considered a "Euclid" decision for landmarks. The court set the following test: No taking will have occurred if "the restrictions imposed are substantially related to the promotion of the general welfare ... and if the owner is left with a reasonable beneficial use of the landmark site."9 The taking issue will have to be decided on an individual case basis but it is important to note that the legal limit of design control is expanding.
Another issue is that of "due process" or providing a fair hearing according to reasonable standards. Both procedural and substantive standards are necessary to assure due process. The application of these standards must be uniformly applied to provide equal protection as guaranteed by the Fourteenth Amendment of the U.S. Constitution.
8Maher v. City of New Orleans, 426 U.S. 905(1976).
9penn Central Transportation Co. v City of New York, 98 S. Ct. 2646, 2651 (1978).

A preservation planning tool, design guidelines establishes criteria to be used to evaluate the design in designated areas. This could be new construction, demolition or the rehabilitation or remodeling of existing structures in the community. However, the real guidelines are the buildings and landscape features which define an area's character, but unless the principles and relationships they represent are transulated into words and pictures many people will not recognize themJ0
Design guidelines, in their strongest form would be as objective standards incorporated into a design review ordinance with the attendant legal ramifications previously discussed. These guidelines can also be used as suggestions which are desirable to safeguard the visual quality of an area. These suggestions would raise no legal issues and if endorsed by a community, business or preservation group and actively publicized, could bring some cooperation. Should the muncipality decide to adopt them as part of their building program greater cooperation could result. A function of design guidelines are to:
Provide design review members with an objective basis for decisionmaking to improve the quality of growth and development.
$ Identify the most important design review concerns in the area.
Increase public awareness of the architectural character of the area and the elements which contribute to it.
Inform area property owners regarding rehabilation and maintenance techniques which respect the existing architectural fabric.
^Alice Meriwether Bowsher, Design Review in Historic Districts: A Handbook for Virginia Review Boards, 1978.

Speed the processing of routine alterations through the establishment of clear procedural and substantive standards.
To develop design guidelines for an area, one needs to develop preservation criteria. This criteria might focus primarily on the architectural aspects, of an area or include such development regulations as land use, setbacks, density, signs, and so forth. Collectively, the criteria and resulting guidelines should support the preservation goals for the area.^
One of the first priorities for the establishment of perservation criteria would be a survey of the area to determine its distinctive qualities to include the dominant, unifying, and sub-elements present in the area. Once the survey has been completed the information must be synthesized and discussed with various groups in the community.
This is very important and should be a qive and take process to determine those SDecial visual and soatial qualities in neeH of preservation that the community can suDDort. Preservation criteria could include:
Building heights.
t Orientation, spacing, site coverage.
Facade porportions and window patterns.
Architectural details.
Materials, textures, and color.
Roof forms.
^Weiming Lu, "Preservation Criteria: Defining and Protecting Design Relationships," Old & New Architecture:Design Relationship, Preservation Press, Washington D.C.: 1980.

t Landscaping, walls, fences, lighting and so forth.
More and more communities across the country are using design guidelines; however, the type of guidelines used vary from those based on very broad and general principles such as, "meet and carry out the design objectives of the project and achieve sound urban design throughout the area, harmonious with the architectural character of Salem." (original Salem, Mass. Urban Renewal Authority guideline) to the establishment of perscribed relationships among various building elements, as illustrated in Savannah, Georgia's guidelines. See Appendix A for guidelines.
Some communities have developed design guidelines for the revitalization of their downtown areas. These are generally either suggestive in nature or follow the carrot and stick approach. That is, there is a reward of either free design assistance, low interest loans, favorable tax treatments, or something similar. Design guidelines used as part of a design review ordinance for downtown revitalization generally occur in designated historic districts where such designation gives added preservation protection and federal tax incentives. However, design guidelines are used they are only guides and as such cannot guarantee design excellence, but rather the hope is to preclude the introduction of insensitive construction into an area.
Below are three towns which are using design guidelines in the revitalization of their commerical areas.
Frankfort, Kentucky (population 21,356), has published A

Guide For Downtown Improvement which provides historic building owners and merchants in the downtown area with design guidelines for the improvement of their buildings. Additionally, many of the commerical buildings are illustrated showing their present condition along with recommended improvements for renovation.
This is a voluntary program and as such is only suggestive although guidance in design considerations is available at the City Planning Preservation Office.
Easton, Pennsylvania (population 30,256), has issued the Easton Design Guide which illustrates the richness and variety of its architectural heritage by pointing out various preservation criteria. Design possibilities, with respect to the buildings, streetscapes and site design, are illustrated as are other features such as landscaping, walls, fences, and ekterior lighting. Design and financial assistance are available through the City Redevelopment Authority for facade restoration of commerical property in a designated area. Design approval by the review board of the Downtown Improvement Group is necessary before the Redevelopment Authority administers a contract and provides project management.
Telluride, Colorado (population 1536), has a Historic and Architectural Review Board authorized by the Historic Preservation District Regulations amendment to the zoning ordinance. Both substantive and procedural standards have been established and published in, Building in Telluride: A Handbook for Builders, Pro-

perty Owners, Architects and Developers. Telluride's commerical district as well as the whole town is a National Register Historic District. Guidelines were developed for the various treatment areas. The main street commerical area is one of seven treatment areas. Preservation criteria considered important to the physical character of the town is set forth with guidelines to be followed in the design of new or rehabilitated buildings.
In Colorado, the use of design guidelines as substantive standards in support of a design review ordinance could be considered essential in light of the 1979 Colorado Supreme Court decision in the case of South of Second versus Georgetown. Here the court went beyond the original issue of clarity of their design review ordinance to find that the
whole ordinance was illegal since there were no written standards for
the review board to use in making its decisions.

'^South of Second et al_. v. Georgetown, Colorado et aj_.79 SA 7.

Making design review work involves a program of:
Established procedures that are consistently followed and periodically reviewed for appropriateness.
Public and private support that is promoted through clear and concise written information.
Adequate training for design review boards members in design and administering regulatory functions. This is especially important in small towns where persons with expertise in architecture, planning, urban design and preservation are generally not available to serve on such boards.
Providing technical staff support for review boards. Substantive and procedural support by municipalities can have a great impact on the quality of design to include various design solutions, when contrasted with review boards that receive only a minimum of outside support.
Monitoring review board decisions to ensure that the results are not just conforming to what has been previously approved, but allows for the vitality and diversity of style and character which can provide a cohesiveness for an area.

The revitalization of a small town's coimerical district can be a rewarding experience, not only for the merchants and local governments, but especially for the community itself. How exciting to walk down a rehabilitated main street and experience the nostalgia and feelings of the past as the result of collective efforts of people working together again to preserve their heritage and identity of their community.
Preservationists and communities alike are becoming more aware that new and rehabilitated structures if not designed sensitively and to be compatible with the surroundings can damage and ultimately destroy the ambience of historic buildings, thus providing an economic as well as an aesthetic threat. As James Biddle, past president of the National Trust for Historic Preservation has said, "What we have saved from the wrecking ball we do not want to lose to a more subtle degradation of our architectural heritage a process that might be called architectural strangulation".
There has been vigorous growth in the establishment of historic preservation ordinances and their accompaning review procedures. The number has almost doubled over the past two years. This evidences a shift in public attitudes and values with respect to the preservation of our heritage.
The public response to adaptive use projects and the combination of preservation with new infill has been quite positive. It is inspired partially by nostalgia; but, also by practical considerations of energy conservation, construction costs, jobs, and so forth, and when contrasted

with traditional urban renewal policies which have demolished whole areas to make way for new, wins hands down.
The rehabilitation of old buildings should preserve the integrity of the original structure while new construction through various preservation criteria should establish appropriate and harmonious relationships with the adjacent structures and area to provide a richer visual environment and add new meaning to the streetscape. As a result the design review process should be looked upon as an opportunity to plan and review changes, thus channeling this growth in a positive environmentally sensitive manner.
In conclusion, design guidelines provide a preservation planning tool with which to judge the appropriateness of design. When administered with imagination, knowledge, and common sense they can promote the increased vitality of an area. As we have seen, design guidelines, which have been legitimatized by recent court decisions, can be extremely useful to a community in their revitalization goals. But, this use depends upon the political climate and expertise of the community and those responsible for implementation of the design review process. Their development can be used to provide a community awareness and education program alerting the public to the valuable assets within their midst and how these architectural resources, if not properly managed, will be lost to us as a nation forever.

Appendix A Appendix B Appendix C
Selected Design Guidelines Selected Ordinances
Financial Techniques for Commerical Redevelopment


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Excerpts from A Guideline for Downtown Improvements.


Tripartite divisions of the facade into areas of grouped windows are common to many of these buildings. Pediments, columns and pilasters borrowed from classical Greece and Rome embellish the wall surfaces. The window openings of the Beaux Arts Classical style reveal a transition to a more modern aesthetic. The smaller windows of earlier buildings are being replaced by larger groupings of windows, thus diminishing the proportion of building mass to window opening.
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Excerpts from Easton Design Guide. Easton,Pennsylvania
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Decisions about the built environment are both pragmatic and aesthetic. Old buildings give Easton a special character. They have strong emotional appeal and are an important resource. Whenever possible, they should be retained and reused. Often, however, older buildings must be adapted to the requirements of today's economy. If done carefully, taking full advantage of the character inherent in the older building, a new sense of vitality and excitement can result from the adaptive reuse of an old building.
Some old buildings, still intact, can lx* restored to their original condition without extensive reconstruction. Others have been greatly altered over the years. These buildings can be reconstructed, that is, rebuilt to conform to the original design of the building. Or, they might be renovated in a style unlike the original design. If a building is to be adapted with an alternative design, it is important that the new design honestly express the materials and technology of the present while being compatible with the proportions of the original structure.
Proportion and form are just as important in new construction. A new building should be an expression of modern architectural thought yet not overpower its neighbors. Mew architecture should be proportioned to compliment the buildings nearby and should recall something of their color, form and materials.
There are no simple rules that determine ideal aesthetic relationships or architecture, but the ability to analyze the form and proportions of a building is essential for making good design decisions.
Like the three Easton buildings on the opposite page, every building has a proportional framework or grid. The building walls between the door and window openings form a horizontal and vertical pattern. The main horizontal divisions occur between the base, the body and the cap. The relationship of these parts varies in different building styles. In some cases, the body is much larger than both the cap and the base. On other buildings, those with mansard roofs for example, the cap is of similar size to the base. The body of the building is usually further divided by horizontal rows of windows. These divisions create a visual rhythm in the building wall.
The vertical divisions occur between structural bays or windows. In some instances, the vertical spacing between the windows is regular, evenly dividing the building into several sections of equal dimensions. Other buildings, however, are vertically divided into sections of different sizes, recalling design features on the cap and the base.
Changes and alterations to older buildings should be designed within the proportion framework of the original building to ensure a compatible design. A building with suitable proportions, however, can still be unattractive if the materials and detail work are inappropriate oi ol poor quality Texture, color and detail are just a few of the many factors that enhance a good design and make it suit the neighborhood. These factors all affect the proportions and scale of the building and contribute to its character or personality.

When considering the renovation of an old storefront, begin with a careful analysis of the facade. Find out how the building looked when it was built. Old post cards, or photographs showing the buildings as they looked provide helpful clues and are often available at the library, the Historical Society, or the Office of Historic Preservation.
The first step in any storefront renovation is to remove unnecessary signs and false sheathing exposing the building wall underneath. The proportions of any new design should be based on what remains of the original facade. In many cases, the upper levels of a building have not been altered but the first floor has undergone major changes. Be sure the new work unifies
the facade enhancing the design of the upper stores and respecting the proportion framework of the building. Window displays and lighting are an important element in storefronts and merit as much design consideration as the storefront itself.
The examples on these pages illustrate a range of design possibilities. Each of the alternatives is designed as a unified part of the entire building making the storefront an integral part of the whole facade. Most suitable to the historic character of Easton is the design that recaptures the original flavor of the building. The other designs, however, retain the scale and proportion of the original building and unify the facade, carefully integrating old and new.

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flew construction design on a city site should respect the proportion grid of the adjoining buildings. New architecture very different in scale from its neighbors overpowers and detracts from the streetscape. Height, window placement and choice of materials should be guided by the size and style of the surrounding buildings spacing. Within the appropriate proportion range, however, there are a number of acceptable design solutions. A new building can differ in form and material from its neighbors and yet retain the continuity of scale.
In fact, the contrast between the older buildings and the new structure can enhance the entire street il the sense of scale and proportion is recalled in both. Attempts to copy an older style in a new building are not appropriate. They neither have the charm of Eastons genuine old buildings nor do they express the tastes and technology of contemporary times.
New buildings that are freestanding without adjacent buildings should be well integrated into Eastons natural environment. They should be located in such a way that they do not obscure views of the rivers from elsewhere in the city.
And, they should be of materials and form that compliment the immediate surroundings.

Principles for the Built Environment
1. Older buildings should be preserved and adapted to fit todays needs while retaining as much of their original character as possible.
2. Do not try to disguise buildings to look like something they never were. Buildings should be either restored to their original design or renovated in a style that honestly expresses the material and technology of the present.
3. Recognize the proportional framework of the building. Try to work within that framework rather than changing it. Materials used on the first floor should be sympathetic in finish and color to the upper part of the facade.
4. Retain the window spacing or opening sizes.
Where the openings have been filled in, unbrick them, if possible. As a temporary, low cost measure, a sense of original scale and proportion can be regained by painting the infill panels or arch outlines to distinguish them from the facade surface.
5. Maintain as much of the small detail on a building as possible. If the trim details are gone, replacement pieces should be made. If the original design is too complex to duplicate, simplified forms of similar proportion can sometimes achieve a desirable effect.
6. Commercial signs should be designed as an integral part of the storefront and building facade. If possible, older buildings should use signs that recall the shape, size and location of signs that were original to the building. If this is not possible, the signs should fit into the proportion framework of the building without covering architectural detail.
7. Attend to exterior housekeeping. Clean windows, fresh paint, and cleaned masonry make a difference to any building and every street.
8. New construction should be designed to blend with its environment. If adjacent to older structures, the new design should reflect their proportions and color. If the building is free standing, the natural setting should play a part in determining the design and its placement.

The material that follows is not meant to replace an architect, designer or landscaping consultant. Rather, it gives information to familiarize the property owner with some of the issues to be considered when making plans to clear and/or paint his building or to landscape his property.
Masonry Cleaning:
1. Water blasting: Will clean light dirt but is not effective for heavy stains or paint unless the surface beneath the paint is glazed.
2. Chemical cleaning: Will remove most dirt and paint from surface without damaging masonry. Heavy blasting pressure may damage mortar joints.
3. Sand blasting: Other cleaning techniques are preferable. Sand removes hard outer facing of brick exposing softer core. Brick is then easily eroded by weather and prone to rapid soiling. Sand also erodes crispness of detail and ornament. Sand blasting is less damaging to stone, but heavy pressure should be avoided.
1. Water or chemically cleaned brick; Should be painted or treated with a 5% silicone solution to protect it from the elements.
Brick must be absolutely dry before solution is applied. Should be re applied every 3-5 years.
2. Sand blasted brick: Should be sealed with 10% silicone solution to prevent severe damage to bricks from moisture absorption. Should be re-applied every 3-5 years.
Mortar Repointing:
1. Color: Hew mortar should be carefully colored to match old. Original sand colors and weathering effects are hard to duplicate. Try small area to test color. Let set and dry for 24 hours. Check color comparison from sheet.
2. Method: Removing unsound mortar and repointing should be done by hand to achieve joints that match the old sections.
1. Preparation: Peeling or blistering paint should be wire brushed or scraped off. Surface to be painted should be clean and dry. If painted surface has cracks or fissures, the old paint should be removed before new paint is applied. Caulk joints between wood trim and masonry before painting.
2. Never paint stone or tile. Paint will not adhere to the surface.
3. Color selection: Color should be in character with the style and vintage of the building. If basing color selection on color of old building remember that the sun and weather fades color and the original hues were more vivid. If using two or more colors, use them consistently throughout the building facade. Color selection is an important and complex task. It is strongly suggested that an architect or designer familiar with both historic buildings and contemporary design be consulted to ensure a well coordinated color scheme.
LIGHTING SIZES AND SHAPES Elements of the city during the day as well as at night, the size and shape of the light standards and fixtures are as important as the quality of light they cast.
Low Level: Height below eye level.
Light can wash walls, steps, greenery or pavement.
Walkway: 10' 15'
Variety of fixtures and light patterns.
Should be spaced no more than 30' apart.
Should be decorative and cast a light of warm tone.
Parking and Roadway Lighting:
30' 50'
Should light roadway without illuminating entire area. Suitable for highways.

Excerpts from Building in Telluride, Telluride, Colorado
The s i gn i ficant factor is that theke is a strong alignment of horizontal elements. This a 1i gnment occurs at the first floor with the alignment of window moldings, and at the upper levels with the alignment of cornices. This is one of the strongest characteristics of the street.
guiptlint: tiit horizontal align mint crtattd by window
2. Buildings create a strong edge to the street. They are aligned on the front lot line (there is no setback of the facades).
* Where facades must he set hack, alignment should he preserved by using columns, hedges, fences, low walls, or other screen to define the site's edge.

Buildings are dense on Main Street. Although there are gaps, buildings are usually built to the side lot lines.
The street floors arc clearly distinguishable from the upper floors. The street floors arc predominantly glass with a small percentage of opaque materials.
Upper floors arc the reverse; opaque materials dominate, windows are small openings puncturing the wall.
* The street floor should be predominately glass.
* Upper floors should be perceived as being more opaque than the lower floors.
Finished wood and brick are dominant materials, though metal and stone arc also found. (Finished wood usually means painted wood).
* Other materials are acceptable only if the other guidelines are adhered to.
In other words, material selections are less important on Main Street than other criteria. The materials become more critical when other criteria are not strongly met.
* Rustic, unpainted or unfinished siding materials are strongly discouraged.
Most entrances to buildings are recessed. Doors are topped with transom windows.

Each building as a composition of smaller components such as flat fronts, bay windows, cornices and street level display windows. These elements are important to the character of the street.
* Windows arc similar sizes and shapes are particularly encouraged.
* Rectangular shapes arc predominant.
There is a strong repetition of similar facade elements. In particular, windows, details, ornaments and cornice moldings reoccur frequently.
* Duplicating or mimicking historic details
is discouraged.
* Pay particular attention to placing new signs on existing buildings when renovating. The signs should not obscure existing details. It is best to mount them so they fit within "frames" created by the decorations and components of the facade.
* Other graphics applied to exterior walls, such as painted decorations and murals, also should not obscure building details.

1. Every reasonable effort should be made to provide a compatible use for buildings which will require minimum alteration to the building and its environment.
2. Rehabilitation work should not destroy the distinguishing qualities or character of the property and its environment. The removal or alteration of any histone material or architectural features should be held to the minimum, consistent with the proposed use.
3. Deteriorated architectural features should be repaired rather than replaced, wherever possible. In the event replacement is necessary, the new material should match the material being replaced in composition, design, color, texture, and other visual qualities. Repair or replacement of missing architectural features should be based on accurate duplications of original features, substantiated by physical or pictorial evidence rather than on conjectural designs or the availability of different architectural features from other buildings.
4. Distinctive stylistic features or examples of skilled craftsmanship which characterize older structures and often predate the mass production of building materials, should be treated with sensitivity.
5. Many changes to buildings and environments which have taken place in the course of lime are evidence of the history of the building and the neighborhood. These changes may have developed significance in their own right, and this significance should be recognized and respected.
6. All buildings should be recognized as products of their own time. Alterations to create an appear ance inconsistent with the actual character of the building should be discouraged.
7. Contemporary design for new buildings in old neighborhoods and additions to existing buildings or landscaping should not be discouraged if such design is compatible with the size, scale, color, material, and character of the neighborhood, building, or its environment.
8. Wherever possible, new additions or alterations to buildings should be done in such a manner that if they were to be lemoved in the future, the essential form and integrity of the original building would be unimpaired.

Duplicating old mortar in composition, color, and textures.
Duplicating old mortar in joint size, method of application, and joint profile.
Repairing stucco with a stucco mixture duplicating the original as closely as possible in appearance and texture.
Cleaning masonry only when necessary to halt deterioration and always with the gentlest method possible, such as low pressure water and soft natural bristle brushes.
Repairing or replacing, where necessary, deteriorated material with new material that duplicates the old as closely as possible.
Replacing missing architectural features, such as cornices, brackets, railings, and shutters.
Retaining the original or early color and texture of masonry surfaces, wherever possible. Brick or stone surfaces may have been painted or whitewashed for practical and aesthetic reasons.
Repointing with mortar of high Portland cement content which can create a bond that is often stronger than the building material. This can cause deterioration as a result of the differing coefficient of expansion and the differing porosity of the material and the mortar.
Repointing with mortar joints of a differing size or joint profile, texture, or color.
Sandblasting brick or stone surfaces; this method of cleaning erodes the surface of the material and accelerates deterioration.
Using chemical cleaning products which could have an adverse chemical reaction with the masonry materials, i.e., acid on limestone or marble.
Applying new material which is inappropriate or was unavailable when the building was constructed, such as artificial brick siding, artificial cast stone or brick veneer.
Removing architectural features, such as cornices, brackets, railings, shutters, window architraves, and doorway pediments. These are usually an essential part of a buildings character and appearance.
Indiscriminate removal of paint from masonry surfaces. This may be historically incorrect and may also subject the building to harmful damage.
From Guidelines for Rehabilitating Old Buildings, U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development and U.S. Department of the Interior, 1977.

4.1 Unique Features
Potential: Each community has unique features which set it apart from all others. These assets are the principal resources a community has to build upon and to exploit for successful downtown revitalization. The key is to develop and enhance the special character of Main Street so that it will attract and continue to appeal to a variety of people.
To identify potential, a community should understand the assets it has which set it apart from other communities. These assets may be found in:
the natural environment: a river or lakefront, a mature stand of rare trees, the topography;
the buildings: traditional streetscape along Main Street which reflects the distinctive social and historical flavour of the community, historic buildings, architecturally unique structures;
man made features: bridge, water tower, clock tower, bus or rail station;
tourist attractions: craft shops, museum, theatres, fall fair, ethnic festivals;
community activities: farmers market, sidewalk sales, parades.
Figure 16. A typical under utilized riverfront today.
Problems: Whether or not a community has begun to develop its unique features, current problems should also be assessed. These will be problems affecting the present use of downtown and its par-
ticular identity. A number of the most common problems are outlined below:
the natural environment: flooding, erosion, climate (rain, snow, sun, wind);
buildings: inappropriate existing building improvements (eg., paint is not colour coordinated, materials not durable); rundown buildings; vacant buildings, poor access/egress to buildings; not linked effectively with the core area;
man-made features: a foot-bridge or clock tower which are rundown, under-utilized, abandoned, have poor access or location;
tourist attractions and downtown activities: not coordinated with one another, poor access or location, poorly identified and advertised.
Solutions: Create new opportunities and clear-up current problems.
A number of possible solutions are set out below:
Natural environment
construct a riverfront walkway (illustrated)
construct a pedestrian bridge over the river
create a pedestrian walkway from Main Street to the river with a rest area overlooking water
exploit a hilly location by improving pedestrian use and opening vistas of the downtown
renovate historic and/or interesting buildings
utilize abandoned buildings for new purposes -- theatre, day-care centre, library, senior citizens housing, hotel, restaurant
repair and coordinate restoration of traditional building facades on Main Street
Man-made Features
renovate unusual structures for new public use or repair for improved image
Tourist Attractions and/or Downtown Activities
initiate a farmers market, craft market or other activities
improve museum or other cultural attractions
Design Considerations
Trendy design or ideas can fade quickly. Revitalization of unique features should concentrate on achieving long term results and a lasting impact.
Renovation of certain features such as an historic building for a theatre or a pedestrian bridge should be done only if they serve a useful purpose. In most cases, the usefulness or function of a feature is as important as its visual impact.
Rehabilitation of historic buildings should take into account the immediately adjacent properties their condition, style and use.
Excerpts from Main Street: Planning and Design Guidelines
Ontario. Panada

Figure 15. Riverfront walkway A suspended walkway has been constructed and shopkeepers have opened new rear entrances to their stores An outdoor cafe and public docks add interest and help to attract mo-e visitors

The Common Council of the City of Hot Springs hereby authorizes the establishment of an historic preservation commission, hereinafter referred to as "The commission," to preserve, promote and develop the historical resources of the City in accordance with the provisions of SDCL Chapter 1-19B.
Section 2 Composition of Historic Preservation Commission
The commission shall consist of not less than five nor more than ten members, who shall be appointed by the Mayor and approved by the Common Council. Commission members shall be appointed with due regard to proper representation of such fields as history, architecture, urban planning, archaeology and law. All conmission members shall reside within Hot Springs and shall serve a term of three years, except that when the commission is first appointed, the lengths of the terms shall be varied in such a fashion as to assure that no more than one-third of the terms expire in any given year. Thereafter, appointment of each member shall be for a full three year term, unless the appointment is made to fill a vacancy. Said members shall be eligible for reappointment as specified by the Common Council. The conmission may employ such qualified staff personnel as it deems necessary.
Section 3 Historic Preservation Commission Officers
The commission shall elect officers from its membership to consist of a chairman, vice-chairman and secretary who shall serve a term of one year. The commission shall hold an annual organization meeting for the prupose of electing officers.
Section 4 Historic Preservation Commission Rules and Regulations
The historic preservation commission shall adopt bylaws and/or rules and regulations to govern the official proceedings to include the recording of minutes of all official proceedings of the commission, provided that said rules and regulations are not inconsistent with the provisions of SDCL Chapter 1-19B.
Section 5 Powers and Duties of Historic Preservation Commission
The historic preservation commission established pursuant to Article IV, Section 1 of this ordinance shall be authorized to:
a. Conduct a survey of local historic properties, complying with all applicable standards and criteria of the statewide survey undertaken by the cultural preservation office of the Department of Education and Cultural Affairs.
Excerpts from Hot Springs, South Dakota Historic Preservation Ordinance

b. Acquire fee and lesser interest in historic properties, including adjacent or associated lands by purchase, bequest or donation. All lands, buildings or structures acquired by the commission with funds other than those appropriated by the City may be acquired and held in the name of the comnission, the City, or both.
c. Preserve, restore, maintain and operate historic properties under the ownership or control of the commission.
d. Lease, sell, and otherwise transfer or dispose of historic properties subject to rights of public access and other covenants and in a manner that will preserve the property.
e. Contract, with the approval of the Common Council, with the State or the Federal Government, or any agency of either, or with any other organization.
f. Cooperate with the federal, state and local governments in the pursuance of the objectives of historic preservation.
g. Participate in the conduct of land use, urban renewal and other planning processes undertaken by the City of Hot Springs.
h. Recommend ordinances and otherwise provide information to the Common Council for the purpose of historic preservation.
i. Promote and conduct an educational and interpretative program on historic properties within the City of Hot Springs.
j. Enter, solely in the performance of its official duties and only at reasonable times, upon private lands for examination or survey thereof. However, no member, employee or agent
of the commission may enter any private building or structure without the express consent of the owner or occupant thereof.
Section 6 Notice to Tax Assessor on Historic_ Properties
Upon the adoption of this ordinance or any subsequent amendments designating historic properties within the City, the historic preservation commission shall give notice of such designation to the tax assessor or Fall River County. The designation and any recorded restrictions upon the property limiting its use for preservation purposes shall be considered by the tax assessor in appraising the property for tax purposes.

Nothing in this ordinance in general nor specifically in this article shall be construed to prevent the ordinary maintenance or repair of any exterior feature in or on an historic property that does not involve a change in design, material or outer appearance thereof, nor to prevent the construction, reconstruction, alteration, restoration, demolition or removal of any such feature when the building inspector of the City of Hot Springs certifies to the commission that such action is required for the public safety because of an unsafe or dangerous condition.
Section 1 Notice by Owner Before Demolition
No historic property designated by this ordinance or amendments thereto may be demolished, materially altered, remodeled, relocated, or put to a different use until the expiration of a one hundred-eighty (180) day waiting period that commences with delivery to the commission of written notice to the owner's proposed action. During this one hundred-eighty (180) day period, the commission may negotiate with the owner and with any other parties in an effort to find a means of preserving the property.
Section 2 Waiver of Waiting Period
The cormission shall have the discretionary authority to waive any portion or all the one hundred-eighty (180) day waiting period required by Article V, Section 1, provided that the alteration, remodeling, relocation or change of use is undertaken subject to conditions agreed to by the commission ensuring the continued maintenance of the historical, architectural, archaeological or cultural integrity and character of the property.
Section 3 Reduction in Waiting Period Extreme Hardship
The commission may reduce the waiting period required by Article V, Section 1, in any case where the owner would suffer extreme hardship unless a reduction in the required period was allowed. Mere loss of profit shall not be construed as extreme hardship for the purposes of this section.

The Town Council finds that renovations to existing structures, moving and demolition of structures, additions to existing structures, and new development can have a substantial impact on the integrity and character of the Town of Telluride. Some harmful effects of one land use upon another can be prevented through zoning, planned unit development, subdivision controls and building codes. Other aspects of development are more subtle and less amenable to exacting rules promulgated without regard to specific proposals. Among these are the general form of the land before and after development, the spatial relationships of the structures and open spaces to adjacent and hereby land uses, and the appearance of buildings and open spaces as they contribute to the area being developed and the Town as a whole. These matters require the timely exercise of judgment on a case-by-case basis by a public review board. Therefore, provisions are made for the appointment of the Historic and Architectural Review Commission to advise the Planning and Zoning Conmission, Board of Adjustment, Building Inspector, and Town Council in matters pertaining to this section.
The intent of this district is to preserve, maintain and enhance the historic and architectural integrity of the Town, which is a National Historic Landmark District, designated by the U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service under the Historic Site Act of 1935.
Excerpts from Telluride, Colorado
Historic Preservation District Regulations

The purposes of this overlay district are:
1. to preserve the character and quality of this designated National Historic Landmark District;
2. to foster the attractiveness and functional utility of the community as a place to live, work, and visit;
3. to raise the level of community expectations for the quality of its environment;
4. to promote those qualities in the environment which bring value to the community.
Section 704.1: The Historic and Architectural Review Commission shall examine all plans for the erection, movement, renovation, restoration, alteration or demolition of any structure or sign before a building permit is issued.
Section 704.2: The erection, movement, renovation, restoration, alteration or demolition of any structure or sign shall be prohibited unless a Certificate of Appropriateness has been granted by the Historic and Architectural Review Commission subsequent to review and analysis by that body, unless the work is considered to be ordinary maintenance and repair as defined in this ordinance.
Section 704.3: The Historic and Architectural Review Commission in examining applications for a Certificate of Appropriateness is to consider the variuos aspects of design with special emphasis on the following:

1) How the proposed development relates to adjacent buildings and buildings within the Treatment Area;
2) How the proposed changes impact the neighboring land uses with respect to light, views, open space, access, traffic, natural conditions and hazards;
3) How the proposed development impacts the historic and architectural features of Telluride;
4) To what degree existing historic and architectural features are maintained and enhanced.
5) The condition of proposed improvements and whether or not they are a hazard to public health or safety.
Section 704.4: The Historic and Architectural Review Commission shall evaluate all applications for a Certificate of Appropriateness using the General Standards for Review and the specific Design Guidelines for the appropriate Treatment Areas as outlined in the handbook entitled Building in Telluride, Section IV.
Whenever the Commission shall disapprove an application or approve with such conditions as the proponent feels are unacceptable, the proponent and/or his/her representative shall have the right to appeal and be heard before the Town Council.
The time for filing a notice of appeal by the proponent with the Town Clerk shall be within thirty (30) days of the date of the decision of the Commission.

Whenever the Commission shall approve an application, any landowner within one hundred (100) feet of the proposed project, excluding rights-of-way, shall have the right to appeal to Town Council. The appeal must be filed in writing within 72 hours of decision. No building permit shall be issued during the appeal period.
Each filing shall be accompanied by a check or money order for $15.00 to cover the costs of appeal.
The basis of appeal shall include, but are not limited to the following:
1) Failure to comply with the purposes and objectives as defined in the ordinace;
2) Improper motive;
3) Inconsistency with past decisions:
4) Undue interference with the design integrity of the proposal;
5) Economic discrimination;
6) Prevention of desired or needed land uses;
7) Considerations by the Commission of irrelevant information such as race, ethnic origin, incomes or other attributes of the proposed occupants;
8) Unwarranted restriction of building type, material or method.
The Town Council may, on appeal, affirm, with the same or different conditions reverse or remand the Commission with instructions. Town Council shall hear and decide any appeal at their next regularly scheduled Town Council meeting. Thereafter, any aggrieved party may within thirty (30) days appeal the Town Council's action to the court of the county.

Local Development Companies (SBA 502 Program)
Section 312 Rehabilitation Loans
Community Development Block Grants
EDA Programs
Urban Development Action Grants Tax Related Programs
Tax Incentives for Historic Preservation
Deferred Property Taxes on Improvements
Tax Increment Financing
Improvement Districts
Downtown Redevelopment Authorities
Industrial Revenue Bonds
Sign Ordinances and Loan Funds
Public/Private Sector Financial Arrangement 0 Community Reinvestment Act
Joint Development Financing Techniques
Historic Preservation Grants (National Trust for Historic Preservation)
Grants from the National Endowment of the Arts Incorporated above is just a listing of different financial
techniques used in redevelopment. A further investigation into ttie specific requirements of each town is necessary to determine the applicability of these techniques.
Recent cuts in federal programs could have adversely effected those Programs listed.

Brown, Patricia Leigh, "Main Streets Get Street Wise," Historic Preservation, March/April 1979, Pgs. 29-34.
Booz, Allen & Hamilton Inc., Assessing the Energy Conservation Benefits of Historic Preservation: Methods and Examples,
Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, 1979.
Bowsher, Alice M., Design Review in Historic Districts: A Handbook for Virginia Review Boards, 1978.
Cambell, Robert, "Lure of the Market Place: Real Life Theater,"
Historic Preservation, January/February 1980, Pgs. 47-49.
Cole, Barbara; Cooper, David, Building in Telluride: A Handbook for Builders, Property Owners, Architects, and Developers, Telluride Colorado: 1980.
City of Boulder, "Survey for Urban Malls," Boulder Colorado: 1978.
City Development Department, Kansas City Urban Design Guidebook,
Kansas City, Missouri: 1978.
City of Hot Springs, Historic Preservation District Ordinance,
South Dakota: 197b.
Denver Planning Office, 16th Street: Design Guidelines for Building Facades, Storefronts and New Development on the Transitway Mall, Denver, Colorado: 1981.
De Vi try, Gilbert and Bradley, Eastori Design Guide, City of Easton, Pennsylvania: 1980.
Galbraith, John Kenneth, "Preservationists Will Reap What They Sow... Eventually," Historic Preservation, September/October 1980,
Pgs. 26-29.
International Downtown Executives Association, "A Time for Small Towns," Center City Report, January 1981, P.8.
Jenrette, Richard H. "Preservation Deserves Top Grade," Preservation News, April 1981.P.5.
Johnson, Carrie, "Preservation in the 1980's: A Dynamic Movement
Looks at Itself," Historic Preservation, November/December 1980, Pgs. 33-39.

Little, John J., "South Dakota Proves Historic Preservation Both Feasible and Beneficial," Western Planner, June 1980, P. 11.
Means, Mary C., "Main Street Project...Preliminary Observations,"
National Trust for Historic Preservation, Washington D.C.: 1970.
Means, Mary C.(editor), "The Three Pilot Towns: A Progress Report",
Main Street Project, National Trust for Historic Preservation, September 1980.
Means, Mary C., "Main Street: Target on Retailing?" Center City Report, International Downtown Executives Association, February 1981,
P. 7.
Means, Mary C., "Main Street: View From The Center," Center City Report, International Downtown Executives Association, December 1980.
Pgs. 8-9.
National Trust for Historic Preservation, America's Forgotten Architecture, Pantheon Books, New York, 1976.
National Trust for Historic Preservation, Historic Preservation Plans: An Annotated Bibliography, Preservation Press, 1976.
National Trust for Historic Presevation, Old & New Architecture:
Design Relationship, Preservation Press, Washington D.C.: 1980.
Preservation/Urban Design^ Incorporated, Hot Springs, South Dakota Main Street Study, National Trust for Historic Preservation,
August 1978.
Project Planning Branch, Ministry of Housing, Main Street: Planning & Design Guidelines, Corrmunity Renewal Branch, Ministry of Housing, Ottawa, Canada: 1980.
Robinson, Nicholas A., Historic Preservation Law, Practicing Law Institute, New York: 1979.
Shlaes & Company, The Main Street Project: Economic Findings and
Recommendations, National Trust for Historic Preservation, 1978.
Shlaes & Company, Real Estate and Economic Report, Main Street Project, National Trust for Historic Preservation, Hot Springs, South Dakota: 1978.
Stanwood, Les, "The Saga of A Historic District," Historic Preservation, November/December 1981, Pgs. 24-29.

State Historical Society of Colorado, Good Neighbors Building Next To History, State Historical Society of Colorado, Denver,
Colorado: 1980.
Thoresen, Robert, "Historic Districts Aren't Obsolete, But...,"
Historic Preservation, July/August 1981, Pgs. 46-47.
Town of Telluride, Zoning Ordinance, Telluride Colorado: No. 415, 1980.
U.S. Department of Interior, "A Federal Preservation Agenda for the '80's," Preservation News, Octover 1981, P. 7.
Weinberg, Nathan, Preservation in American Towns and Cities, Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado: 1979.
________, "A Boom in Small Towns," Newsweek, March 16, 1981.
________, "Commerical Revitalization," Conserve Neighborhoods,
National Trust for Historic Preservation, No. 7, Summer 1979.
________, "Main Street," Preservation News Supplement, National
Trust for Historic Preservation, May 1978.
________, "Shopping Malls Face Doom," Denver Post, May 24, 1981.
________, Standards for Rehabilitation and Guidelines for
Rehabilitating Historic Buildings, U.S. Department of the Interior, Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service.
________, Tax Incentives for Historic Preservation, National Trust
for Historic Preservation, Preservation Press, 1980.
________, The Contribution of Historic Preservation to Urban
Revitalization, Advisory Council on Historic Preservation,
U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington D.C.: 1979.
________, "The National Trust and Main Street Revitalization,"
National Trust for Historic Preservation, Midwest Regional Office, Chicago Illinois: 1980.
________, "The New Approach to Bolster Main Street," Denver Post,
Empire Magazine, September 7, 1980.