Citation
Lakewood Performing Arts Center

Material Information

Title:
Lakewood Performing Arts Center
Creator:
Brace, Constance Munro
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
60 leaves, [12] leaves of plates : illustrations, charts, maps, plans ; 28 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Centers for the performing arts -- Colorado -- Lakewood ( lcsh )
Centers for the performing arts ( fast )
Colorado -- Lakewood ( fast )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 58-59).
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
Constance Munro Brace.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
09657258 ( OCLC )
ocm09657258
Classification:
LD1190.A72 1983 .B6739 ( lcc )

Full Text
LAKEWOOD
PERFORMING
ARTS
CENTER


Lakewood
Performing Arts
Center
A Thesis Project Spring 1983
University of Colorado
Denver
Master of Architecture
Constance Munro Brace


with thanks to
Mom and Dad


ADVISORS
Cindi Merrill Assistant to City Administrator City of Lakewood
Gary R. McDonnell Director of Parks and Recreation City of Lakewood
Chester C. Nagle Professor University of Colorado at Denver
Ron Rinker Architect 3arker, Rinker, Seacat & Partners, Architects


INDEX
Page
INTRODUCTION
. Feasibility Study................................................. 1-4
. "Concept Lakewood".................................................. 4
. Goals of Project.................................................... 5
SITE ANALYSIS
. Site Description.................................................... 6
. Vicinity Map...................................................... 7
. Site Plan........................................................... 8
. Soils Report........................................................ 9
. Site History...................................................... .10
. Context Description............................................. 11-17
CLIMATE ANALYSIS
. Climatic Summary................................................... 18
. Climatic Data
Temperature................................................. 19
Precipitation.............................................. 20
Humidity, Wind Speed, Sunshine.............................. 21
. Mahoney Method of Climate Analysis.............................. 22-24
. Average Daily Temperature Profiles................................. 25
. Temperature and Humidity Plots..................................... 26
. Sun Chart.......................................................... 27
CODE ANALYSIS
. Lakewood Zoning Ordinance.......................................... 28
. Uniform Building Code........................................... 29-37
. B.O.C.A. Plumbing Code............................................. 38


Index (Continued)
Page
ARCHITECTURAL PROGRAM
. Summary....................................................... 39
. Space Allotments .......................................... 40-41
. Acoustical Elements........................................ 42-45
. Theater Design Elements.................................... 46-56
BUDGET.............................................................. 57
APPENDIX
. Bibliography............................................... 58-59
. Interviews.................................................... 60
Design Drawings


Introduction


THE BEGINNINGS
The idea for a performing arts center for Lakewood stems from the interest and foresight of Charles E. Stanton. In early 1981, the city received his proposal for such a facility, as well as his donation toward "developing some thought and plans for the proposed cultural center". These funds were used to conduct a preliminary feasibility study. The following information has been excerpted from that report.
CULTURAL ARTS CENTER FEASIBILITY STUDY FINDINGS: METROPOLITAN AREA
1. Art activity has grown at a faster rate than the development of foundations of support or the growth of arts organizations' management capabilities.
2. The arts community named lack of funds as the greatest single barrier to achieving their goals. Other major barriers to goals achievement listed were: need to improve administrative capabilities, need for more media attention and the need for larger or better facilities. The later need for facilities was the third most frequently mentioned barrier in general.
3. The Metropolitan Denver Arts Alliance (MDAA) is attempting to fill the need for cooperative effort in meeting common arts needs.
4. A very substantial gap exists between the level of activity and support among the largest arts organizations and that in the rest of the arts community. The 22 largest organizations represent about fifteen percent (15%) of arts organizations, yet they spend nearly $23 million or about ninety-two percent (92%) of the total metro area arts expenditures.
5. The arts in metro Denver are in a period of major growth. More than half of the arts organizations were founded in the past eight years and two-thirds were not in existence before 1970.
6. Fifty-two percent (52%) of arts organizations' expenditures were covered by earned income (i.e. ticket sales) in fiscal year 1980. Thirty percent (30%) of total income came from businesses, foundations and individuals. Twelve percent (12%) of income came from governmental sources.
I


7. When asked in the Cultural Explorations survey what services they were currently lacking that they need, most frequently mentioned by twenty-two percent (22%) of the organizations were services in communications and promotions. I he next most frequently mentioned "lacks and needs" were for facilities, by nineteen percent (19%).
8. According to the survey, city governments are seen as having the responsibility to make sure good facilities for the arts are available at reasonable cost and also for promoting and giving credibility to cultural activities.
9. Facilities were the second most frequently mentioned general need over the next five years; more funding was the most frequently mentioned need.
10. Part of the dilemma faced by Colorado Contemporary Dance (CCD) "is a numbers game involving theatre seats. The Colorado Women's College theatre, regularly used for the series, has only 700 seats, which means that not enough tickets can be sold at reasonable prices to break even on an expensive troupe like Graham's." "Yet, the auditorium is too big and too expensive to use for less widely known troupes, and the new DCPA has no space for dance. The theatre stages are too small and in use most the year, and Boettcher Hall is in the round, while almost all choreography is designed for a frontal, proscenium stage." This quote is from The Rocky Mountain News, February, 1981. Also in that article, the president of CCD states "what this town needs is a good 1,200-seat theatre."
11. Following are Denver area auditoriums and their approximate seating capacities:
Arvada Center 500 seats
Bonfils Theatre 550 seats
Loretto Heights Houston Arts Center (Colorado 750 seats
Women's College) 750 seats
DCPA Theatre I 600 seats
DCPA Theatre II 700 seats
Boettcher Concert Hall 2400 seats
Auditorium Green Center (Colorado 2400 seats
School of Mines) 1380 seats
Macky Auditorium (University
of Colorado) 2200 seats
2


12. Cultural facilities are not solely self-supporting. Although theatres and other facilities can be rented out, rental income is usually no greater than 1C% of total income. The performing arts are better able to cover their expenses with ticket sales than are galleries and museums.
13. Artistic intimacy and local community artists' goals are achieved with a 500-700 seat theatre.
14. Touring events would be required to even partially support a 1200 seat theatre.
15. Problems are encountered when attempting to sell tickets over $10.00 for suburban center performances.
FINDINGS: LAKEWOOD
1. Out of 61 responses to the Sentinel questionnaire, only one was negative. The remainder were in support of a facility for cultural arts (and especially theatre) in Lakewood.
2. Lakewood currently has two very active acting groups: Adult Childrens Theatre (ACT) and the Lakewood Players. Other dance, instrumental, vocal and visual arts classes/associations/ciubs exist also.
3. Red Rocks Community College is considering the construction of a gallery on campus. They are interested in pursuing a reciprocal use agreement between their gallery and a community theatre.
4. In February, 1981, representatives of ACT and Lakewood Players identified their need for a theatre, practice areas, set building areas and storage.
5. The Historical Village at Beimar could complement a performing arts facility on nearby property.
6. Possible funding sources exist for development of a center. However, a specific bond issue might be necessary for this purpose. The Arvada Center was developed through a bond issue.
7. A commitment on the city government's part and from the community is needed to ensure ongoing financial viability of a cultural center.
3


8. Meeting space for community organizations is in great demand in Lakewood.
9. There is no existing facility in Lakewood to accommodate large groups' (500-1500) meeting needs.
10. Organizations who might be users of a Lakewood facility include the Morrison Opera Company, Jefferson Symphony and Colorado Chorale.
11. Any cultural center in Lakewood would compete with the Arvada Center for seme ticket sales. Specifics would need to be determined.
The feasibility study indicates a need for a mid-range (1200 seat) theater. The local arts groups currently perform in an inadequate auditorium without backstage support facilities or proper acoustics. The Green Mountain Recreation Center only seats about 125 people, and so the theater groups must perform more often, at greater expense, to serve their community. Thus, it is extremely difficult for these groups to break even financially. Also, there are scheduling problems as a number of groups compete for the same space. There is great need for classroom space, as weli as a rehearsal space.
"CONCEPT LAKEWOOD"
In 1975, the City of Lakewood completed a master plan which was expanded and improved on in 1977. One of the expressed goals of this plan, "Concept Lakewood", was to "develop cultural facilities and programs within the community which will serve the needs of Lakewood citizens".
Eeyond this obvious connection, the proposed cultural center also reinforces the master plan in another manner. The plan's major objectives are to promote a community identity and to develop an overall community structure. It seeks to do so, in part, by controlling and structuring the expansion of the city in a logical manner which will reinforce the community rather than fragment it. To do this, the city chose to promote development of "community activity centers" as an alternative to strip development. These areas would blend complementary activities into 'nodes' rather than collecting them along strips. One such activity center is the Villa Italia Shopping Center. With the reconstruction of Belmar Park and construction of the new municipal center (both of which are within the activity center location), the addition of the Performing Arts Center helps to fulfill this concept.
4


GOALS
The objective of this thesis will be to design a performing arts center which will satisfy the aesthetic and functional needs of the community of Lakewood.
The building designed for this project should become a focal point for the community, stimulating interest and involvement by the residents of the area. It should promote pride as a community.
Architecturally, the building should be exciting and beautiful, fostering pride of ownership in the citizenry, as well as attracting attention through the Denver metropolitan area. The building must complement the Lakewood Municipal Center, now under construction adjacent to the project site. In this way, the two structures will work together in establishing a community core. The construction of the Performing Arts Center should round out this activity center, fulfilling the urban design concepts of the master plan.
Functionally, the Performing Art3 Center must be flexible enough to provide a number of services:
1. The theater must accommodate the intimacy of small theater groups while providing a large enough arena to attract national touring companies.
2. The theater must provide enough flexibility acoustically to hold dramatic, dance, orchestral or musical productions.
3. The center must have adequate rehearsal and training space to promote further community involvement. The center should act as a focal point for continuing education.
4. The center should provide for meeting spaces to stimulate use at all times by groups within and outside of arts programs.
5. The center should have a gallery space to provide connections with the range of artistic expression.
The structure should be designed at reasonable cost while retaining maximal quality. Maintenance costs must be kept to a minimum.
It is recognized by the city that establishment of such an arts center necessarily entails creation of a small administrative staff to manage and promote the facility.
5


Site Analysis


SITE DESCRIPTION
The Performing Arts Center will be located on a parcel of land which includes property owned by Charles E. Stanton. It is anticipated that Mr. Stanton will donate his land for the purpose of constructing a cultural facility, and the remainder of the parcel will be purchased by the city.
The land is iocated near the intersection of Wadsworth Boulevard and Alameda Avenue in the City of Lakewood and County of Jefferson (please see location map). On the north, the site is bounded by South Allison Parkway (as yet incomplete). Beyond South Allison to the north is vacant land, with a commercial strip along Alameda beyond that. To the east, the site is bounded also by vacant land, and beyond that is a commercial area across Wadsworth Boulevard including Villa Italia Shopping Center. To the south, the site is bounded by Irongate, an office complex, with the Belmar Historical Museum beyond that. To the southwest and west, the site is bounded by Belmar Park, with views to Kountze Lake (now under reconstruction) and the Rocky Mountains. The park itself is bordered by single family and low-rise, multi-family residences. To the northwest of the site is the Lakewood Municipal Center (under construction). (Please see accompanying site plan and photographs.)
The land for the Performing Arts Center (project site) is vacant, with the exception of a tiny wood shed at the center of the western boundary. There are a few isolated and scattered shrubs and small trees, with the majority of the land being fallow agricultural. The ground surface slopes slightly downward to the southeast, with a total drop in elevation of approximately four feet across the site.
6


balsom
Vicinity Map
beimar park
A
7


Site Plan
Lakewood
'tnumcipa
ifflg.le,& |

8


SOILS REPORT
Information on soil conditions has been obtained from a report done for the adjacent Lakewcod Municipal center. It is assumed, for the purposes of preliminary design, that the findings of that report apply to the project site.
The subsoils encountered consisted of a thin veneer of topsoil and 0 to 7 feet of stiff to very stiff calcareous, sandy clay overlying bedrock to the maximum depth drilled, 35 feet. Bedrock at the site consists of interbedded claystone and sandstone. Standard penetration resistance tests taken in conjunction with sampling indicate the bedrock to be generally hard to very hard. The sandstone portion of the bedrock was moderately to well cemented and fractured. The overburden sandy clays possess high plasticity. Swell-consolidation tests conducted on samples of the overburden clay indicate they possess nil to low swell potential. Swell-consolidation tests conducted on samples of bedrock indicate it possesses a nil to moderate swell potential at its natural moisture content.
The in-situ moisture contents of the bedrock were found to be high, averaging approximately 27%, 'while the corresponding dry densities were low, averaging approximately 90 pcf. To further check swell potential, three samples of the claystone bedrock were allowed to air dry fcr a period of 24 hours prior to testing to depict conditions likely to occur during construction. Test results indicate the bedrock possesses a moderate to very high swell potential when allowed to air dry prior to testing.
FOUNDATION RECOMMENDATIONS
The following are recommendations by Chen and Associates based on the
soils report for the Lakewood Municipal Center.
The foundation system should be straight-shaft piers drilled into bedrock.
The undersiab soils should be overexcavated for a depth of 3 feet and replaced with a nonexpansive, impervious fill for support of slab on grade construction.
9


SITE HISTORY
The land of Belmar Park, the Lakewood Muncipal Center and the project 3ite for the Lakewood Performing Arts Center was all once part of the grand estate of May Bonfiis Stanton, daughter of the Denver Post's founder. After her first marriage and prior to her marriage to Charles Stanton, May Bonfiis built "Belmar" in 1936, patterning it after Petite Trianon at Versailles. It was a richly detailed 15-room $100,000 "country home" nestled in 250 formally landscaped acres, complete with a 40-acre natural lake (then named Lake Bonfiis). The mansion and 10 acres of land were donated to the Catholic archdiocese upon Mrs. Stanton's death. Unable to maintain the property, the church sold it in 1970. In 1971, the fountain was moved to the Hungarian Freedom Park in Denver, and the mansion was demolished. All that now remains of that elaborate estate is the delicate gate, now situated at the heart of the Irongate Office Complex. Most of the remaining land has since been subdivided and developed, except for the portion purchased by the City of Lakewood for Belmar Park in 1973.
10



CONTEXT DESCRIPTION
Northeast
11


Villa Italia Shopping Center East
12


13


Belmar Park South
14


West
15


LAKEWOOD MUNICIPAL CENTER
Elevations courtesy of W. C. Muchow & Partners
Northeast Elevation
West Elevation
South Elevation
17


Climate Analy


CLIMATE SUMMARY
Lakewood, Colorado is located at the eastern edge of the Rocky Mountains. It enjoys the mild, sunny, semi-arid climate prevalent throughout the central Rocky Mountain Region.
Springtime in Lakewood is the rainy season, when the city receives 37% of total annual precipitation. Most of that comes as snow in the early months of spring. It is also the windiest and cloudiest period.
Summertime precipitation is approximately 32% of annual, with the vast bulk of that occurring in afternoon and evening thundershowers.
Autumn has the clearest weather, with more sunshine and only 19% of the annual precipitation.
Winters are generally mild, with brief bouts of severe storms. Precipitation frequency is greater than in autumn, with less sunshine throughout the season. Total accumulation is at a low of 11% of total annual, with higher humidity than in the other seasons.
18


LAKEWOOD CLIMATIC DATA*
TEMPERATURE
JANUARY
FEBRUARY
MARCH
APRIL
MAY
JUNE
JULY
AUGUST
SEPTEMBER
OCTOBER
NOVEMBER
DECEMBER
*Scurce: City of Economic Profile.
Maximum Average Minimum
44 30 16
46 33 19
50 37 24
61 40 34
70 57 44
80 66 52
87 73 59
86 72 57
78 63 48
67 52 37
53 39 25
46 33 19
Lakewood and Lakewood Chamber of Commerce 1981


LAKEWOOD CLIMATIC DATA*
PRECIPITATION
Total Snow No. C
JANUARY 0.61" 8.4" 6
FEBRUARY 0.67" 8.0" 6
MARCH 1.21" 12.6" 8
APRIL 1.93" 9.6" 9
MAY 2.64" 1.3" 10
JUNE 1.93" Trace 9
JULY 1.78" - 9
AUGUST 1.29" - 8
SEPTEMBER 1.13" 1.9" / O
OCTOBER 1.13" 3.0" 5
NOVEMBER 0.76" 7.6" 5
DECEMBER 0.43" 6.5" 5
Source: City of Lakewood and Lakewood Chamber of Commerce 1981 Economic Profile.
20


LAKEWOOD CLIMATIC DATA*
% HUM IDITY %
Wind Possible
Maximum Minimum Speed Sunsine
JANUARY 62 44 9.1 72
FEBRUARY 68 44 9.3 71
MARCH 70 42 10.0 70
APRIL 69 34 10.4 67
MAY 71 37 9.6 65
JUNE 73 37 9.1 71
JULY 72 36 8.5 71
AUGUST 70 35 8.2 72
SEPTEMBER 72 37 8.2 75
OCTOBER 65 36 8.2 73
NOVEMBER 70 44 8.7 65
DECEMBER 66 45 9.0 68
Source: City of Lakewood and Lakewood Chamber of Commerce 1981 Economic Profile.
21


MAHONEY METHOD GF CLIMATE ANALYSIS
Location Lakewood, Colorado
Longitude 105 W
Latitude 39 45 N
Altitude 5300 '
Air Temperature C
J F M A M J J A S 0 N D High AMT
Monthly mean max. C 4.7 r& 10 16.1 11.1 Z6.7 J06 30 254 174 H.7 1.5 30 13.1
Monthly mean min. C '&c1 *7.1. -1.4 ,U 6.7 H-l 15 1 J.5 3-1 2-7 -3.5 -7.2. 3.6 33-3
Monthly mean range 156 15" lid 15 H-4 !T.6> 15.6 16.2 16.7 16.7 155 Iff Low AMR
Relative Humidity %
Monthly mean max. (a.m. ) 6* 70 4s! 71 73 72. 73 7^ 65 lo 66
Monthly mean min. (p .m. ) +4 12- 3d 37 37 34. 35 37 56 14 45
Average 53 56 56 52_ 54 55 54 53 55 51 37 56
Humidity Group * 3 <3 <3 3 3 c3 3 3 65 J>
*Humidity Group: 1. If average RH i 3 below 30%
2. 30-50%
3. 50-70%
4. above 70%
Rain and Wind
Rainfall, inches .6,1 .*7 1.2-1 |.?3 2.41 1.53 i:16 1. '3 !J3 76 4-3 liy.51
Total
Wind, Prevailing 5 5> 3 £> 5 5 5 5 3 3 S>
Wind, Secondary 5*1 t>:rv/ w 5V 5v/ 5>/ 5*/ w W
J F M A M J J A S 0 N D
22


AMT Below 20 C
Comfort Limits Day Night
humid. Group 3 19-26 12-19
Diagnosis: C
J F M . A M J j A s 0 N D AMT
Monthly mean max eC 4-7 7.d to 16.1 1 24.7 30.4 30 25-4 ivJ II.7 1.0 13-1
£>ay Comfort: Upper zc> <24 24 24 24 24 24 24 2Ca 24 24. 24 24
Lower 11 11 n 1 n n 1-1 n n 11 11
Q Monthly mean min. C -5.1 -7.2. -4.1 U 4.7 II.1 15" 15.8 27 -j.s
Night Comfort: Upper |1 13 n II- 11 11 1 1 1 11 11
Lower \L 12 12. -12. 12. 12. 12 12. IZ. It- It |2-
Thermal Stress: Day CL C G. (2 O H H 1 O O c C
Night C C C C c. c o O G C. c c
Indicators
(H= hot; 0= comfort; O cold)
Totals
Humid: ^ 0
H2 o
H3 o
Arid: ^.1 y y y y y y y y y y y \2-
A2 0
A3 y y y y y
Applicable when: Meaning: Indicator Thermal Stres 3 Rainfall Humidity Group Monthly Mean Range
Dav Niaht
Air movement essential HI H 4
H 2,3 Less than 10
Air movement desirable H2 0 4
Rain protection H3 over 8"
Thermal Capacity A1 1,2,3, lore than 10
Outdoor sleeping A2 H 1,2
H 0 1.2 lore than 10
Protection from cold A3 C
i
23


Indicator Totals
HI H2 H3 A1 A2 A3
O o o (2. O (o
LAYOUT
0-10 1 Orientation N& S; Long Axis E & W
1142 5-12
0-4 2 Compact Courtyard Planning
SPACING
11-11 3 Onen spacing for breeze penetration
21C 4 As 3, ^ro^ection from hot and cold
0, 1 v/ 5 Compact layout
AIR MOVEMENT
3-12 | 6 Rooms single banked, Dermanent Dro-visions tor air movement
1,2 0-5
6-12 7 Double banked rooms, temporary provision for air movement
0 2-12
0,1 8 No air movement required
OPENINGS
0,1 0 9 Large openings, 40- 80%
11,1 > 0,1 10 Very small openings, 10-20%
Any other 11 Medium openings, 20-40%
WALLS
0-2 12 Light walls, short time lag
3-12 13 Heavy external & internal walls
ROOOFS
0-5 14 Light, insulated roofs
6-12 15 Heavy roofs, over 8 hour time lag
RAIN PROTECTION
~~ 3-12 rr 16 Protection from heavy rains
24


fiH£
op
JAVJU&S.V APRIL duLY OC.'fOtfSi'J
Z'-OO A 2d ' Ho 61 1 **
5:C0 A Zl* 3d 44
3:GO A ZT 44 75* 45
ll -OO A jH ^4 S5* 5*1
2J OOP 41 1 *2.
5*:oo P ^7 3d az.
11; OO ? zd 43 Z* ro
AVERAGE DAILY TEMPERATURE PROFILES
25


]>q' £>ui-ti 1^1 fe-KAfU^

/oo
*f* wati^b- huh ip iff
8I0CLIMATIC CHART Lakewood. Colorado
/ac
26


SUNCHART 4G North Latitude
27


Code Analysis


LAKEWOOD ZONING ORDINANCE
ZONE: MIXED USE (MU)
SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS: None, except as applicable to zone categories of a similar nature. Assume restrictions governing "Regional Commercial" Zone will apply. '
Setbacks: Front = 30'
Side = 5'
Rear = 5'
With Loading Dock = 63'
Height Limit: 60'
Maximum Gross Floor Area: 150,000 s.f.
Open Space Requirements: 15%
PARKING:
For Theaters: 1 Space/3 Seats (a) 1200 Seats = 400 Spaces Handicapped Spaces = 6 Spaces
NOTE: Parking for all but handicapped spaces and staff spaces will be provided for by the Lakewood Muncipal Center.
28


UNIFORM BUILDING CODE, 1979
OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATIONS
A-l Theatre.
A-3 Meeting rooms.
B-2 Classrooms, workshops, storage, offices.
REQUIRED FIRE SEPARATIONS (HOURS)
(N = no requirement for fire resistance)
A-l A-3
A-l N N
A-3 N N
B-2 3 N
PERMITTED TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION: TYPE I Fire Resistive
TYPE II Fire Resistive


BASIC ALLOWABLE FLOOR AREA (1 Story in Height)
Occupancy Tvpel-F.R. Typell-F.R.
A-l Unlimited 29,900 s.f.
A-3 Unlimited 29,900 s.f.
B-2 Unlimited 39,900 s.f.
ALLOWABLE FLOOR AREA INCREASES By Separation:
If on three sides, increase at a rate of 2|% per foot of separation exceeding 20' at narrowest point, up to 100%. If on four sides, increase at a rate of 5% per foot of separation exceeding 20' at narrowest point, up to 100%.
By Sprinklering:
TOTAL ALL one-story buildings (3) (basic allowable s.f.) two or more stories (2) (basic allowable s.f.) -OWABLE FLOOR AREA
Assume two or more stories, sprinkled, without any separation allowances.
Occupancy Type 1-F.R. Typell-F.R.
A-l Unlimited 59,800 s.f.
A-3 Unlimited 59,800 s.f.
B-2 Unlimited 78,800 s.f.
30


MAXIMUM HEIGHT OF BUILDINGS
Occupancy Type I-F.R. Type II F.R.
Maximum Height
in Stories A-l Unlimited 4
A-3 Unlimited 12
A-2 Unlimited 12
Maximum Height in Feet Any Unlimited 160
REQUIRED FIRE RATINGS BASED ON TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION (HOURS)
Type I F.R. Type II F.R.
Exterior Bearing Wails 4 4
Interior Bearing Walls 3 2
Exterior Non-Bearing Walls 4 4
Structural Frame 3 2
Partitions, Permanent *! 1
Shaft Enclosures 9 4. 2
Floors 2 2
Roofs 2 1
Exterior Doors, Windows * *
* = 3/4 hour protection, less than 20' from property line. No openings less than 5 from property line.
31


SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS FOR GROUP A OCCUPANCIES
1. When provided with fixed seating, the main floor of the assembly room may have a slope not to exceed one vertical to eight horizontal (3306c).
2. Buildings housing Group A Occupancies shall front directly upon or have access to a public street not less than 20' in width.
The access to the public street shall be a minimum 20'-wide right-of-way, unobstructed and maintained only as access to the public street.
The main entrance to the building shall be located on the public street or on the access way.
The main assembly floor of Division 1 Occupancies shall be located at or near the adjacent ground level (603).
LIVE LOADS (Table 23-A)
Uniform Concentrated Category Load Load
Assembly
Fixed seating area 50 0
Movable seating and
other areas 100 0
Stage Area 125 0
Exit Facilities 100 0
Offices 50 2,000
Classrooms 40 1,000
Storage
Light 125 0
Heavy 250 0
LOADS (Table 23-B)
Category Vertical Load Lateral Load
Stage
Gridiron, fly galleries 75 0
Loft block wells 250 250
Head block wells,
sheave beams 250 250
Ceiling Framing
Over stage 20 0
Other 10 0
32


CHAPTER 39 STAGES AND PLATFORMS
STAGE VENTILATORS (3901)
There shall be one or more ventilators constructed of metal or other non-combustible material near the center and above the highest part of any working stage raised above the stage roof and having a total ventilation area equal to at least five percent (5%) of the floor area within the stage walls.
(For equipment required, see subsections (b) to (i) of section 3901, U.B.C.)
GRIDIRONS (3902)
Gridirons, fly galleries and pinrails shall be constructed of non-combustible materials, and fire protection of steel and iron may be omitted.
ROOMS ACCESSORY TO STAGE (3903)
In building having a stage, the dressing room sections, workshops and storerooms shall be located on the stage side of the proscenium wall and shall be separated from each other and from the stage by not less than a one-hour fire-resistive occupancy separation.
PROSCENIUM WALLS (3904)
1. A stage shall be completely separated from the auditorium by a proscenium wall of not less than 2-hour non-combustible construction.
2. The proscenium wall shall extend not less than 4 feet above the roof over the auditorium.
3. Proscenium walls may have, in addition to the main proscenium opening) one opening at the orchestra pit level and not more than two openings at the stage floor level, each of which shall be not more than 25 square feet in area.
4. All openings in the proscenium wall of a stage shall be protected by a fire assembly having a 1^-hour fire-resistive rating.
5. The proscenium opening, which shall be the main opening for viewing performances, shall be provided with a self-closing fire-resistive curtain.
33


STAGE FLOORS (3905)
1. All parts of stage floors shall be of Type I construction, except the part of the stage extending back from and 6 feet beyond the full width of the proscenium opening at each side, which may be constructed of steel or heavy timbers covered with a wood floor of not less than 2-inch nominal thickness.
2. No part of the combustible construction, except the floor finish, shall be carried through the proscenium opening.
3. All parts of the stage floor shall be designed to support not less than 125 pounds per square foot.
4. Openings through stage floors shall be equipped with tight-fitting trap doers of wood of not less than 2-inch nominal thickness.
STAGE EXITS (3907)
1. At least one exit not less than 36" wide shall be provided from each side of the stage opening directly or by means of a passageway not less than 36" in width to a street or exit court.
2. An exit stair not less than 2'-6" wide shall be provided for egress from each fly gallery.
3. Each tier of dressing rooms shall be provided with at least two means of egress, each not less than 2'-6" wide.
4. The stairs required in this section need not be enclosed.
CHAPTER 33 STAIRS, EXITS
EXITS REQUIRED (3302)
1. Every story or portion thereof having an occupant load of more than 1,000 shall have not less than four exits.
2. Total width of exits in feet shall be not less than the total occupant load served, divided by 50. Such width of exits shall be divided approximately equally among the separate exits.
3. The maximum distance of travel from any point to an exterior door, horizontal exit, exit passageway or an enclosed stairway in a building not equipped with an automatic sprinkler system throughout shall not exceed 150' or 200' in a building equipped with an automatic sprinkler system throughout. These distances may be increased 100' when the last 150' is within a corridor.
34


EXIT REQUIREMENTS FOR GROUP A DIVISION I OCCUPANCIES (3315)
1. Thers shall be a main exit.
2. The main exit shall be of sufficient width to accommodate one-half of the total occupant load, but shall be not less than the total required width of all aisles, exit passageways and stairways leading thereto, and shall connect to a stairway or ramp leading to a public way.
3. Every auditorium shall be provided with exits on each side. The exits on each side of the auditorium shall be of sufficient width to accommodate 1/3 of the total occupant load served.
4. Side exits shall open directly to a public way or into an exit court, approved stairway, exterior stairway or exit passageway leading to a public way. Side exits shall be accessible from a cross aisle.
5. Every balcony having an occupant load of more than 10 shall be provided with a minimum of two exits. Balcony exits shall open directly onto an exterior stairway or into an approved stairway or ramp. Balcony exits shall be accessible from a cross aisle.
AISLES (3313)
1. Every aisle shall be not less than 3' wide if serving only one side, and not less than 3'-6" wide if serving both sides. Such minimum width shall be measured at the point farthest from an exit, cross aisle or foyer and shall be increased by li" for each 5' in length toward the exit, cross aisle or foyer.
2. With continental seating, as specified in Section 3314, side aisles shall be not less than 44" in width.
3. In areas occupied by seats, the line of travel to an exit door by an aisle shall be not more than 150'. Such travel distance may be increased to 200' if the building is provided with an automatic sprinkler system.
4. With standard seating, as specified in Section 3314, aisles shall be so located that there will be not more than six intervening seats between any seat and the nearest aisle.
5. With continental seating, as specified in Section 3314, the number of intervening seats may be increased to 29 where exit doors are provided along each side aisle of the row of seats at the rate of one pair of exit doors for each five rows of seats. Such exit doors shall provide a minimum clear width of 66".
6. Aisles shall terminate in a cross aisle, foyer or-exit.
35


7. The width of the cross aisle shall be not less than the sum of the required width of the widest aisle, plus 50% of the total required width of the remaining aisles leading thereto.
8. Aisles shall not provide a dead end greater than 20' in length.
9. The slope portion of aisles shall not exceed one footfall in 8 feet.
10. Steps shall not be used in an aisle when the change in elevation can be achieved by a conforming slope. No single step or riser shall be used in any aisle.
SEATS (3314)
1. With standard seating, the spacing of rows of seats shall provide a space of not less than 12" from the back of one seat to the front of the most forward projection of the seat immediately behind it, as measured horizontally between vertical planes.
2. With continental seating, the spacing of rows of seats shall provide a clear width, measured horizontally as follows (automatic or self-rising seats shall be measured in the seat-up position, other seats shall be measured in the seat-down position):
Number of Required
Seats/Row Clearance
18 or Less 18"
35 or Less 20"
45 or Less 21"
46 or More 22"
STAIRS (3305)
1. Minimum Width = 44"
2. Maximum Rise = 7|"; Minimum Rise = 4"
3. Minimum Run = 10"
4. Landing Depth = Stair Width
5. Maximum Distance Between Landings = 12' Vertically
36


RAMPS (3306)
1. Minimum Width = 44"
2. Maximum Slope -
For Egress Ramps = 1 Vertical : 12 Horizontal For Other Ramps = 1 Vertical : 8 Horizontal
3. Landings required at top and bottom of ramp and one intermediate landing for every 5 feet of rise.
4. Minimum Depth of Landing = 5' at top; 6' at bottom.
EXIT SIGNS (3312)
Required sign at every exit doorway and wherever necessary to clearly indicate direction of egress.
37


B.O.C.A. BASIC PLUMBING CODE, 1981
REQUIRED NUMBER OF FIXTURES
Men Women
Waterclosets (Handicapped-Accessible, One Per Sex Per Restroom) 4 4
Urinals 3 -
Lavatories (Handicapped-Accessible, One Per Sex Per Restroom) 3 3
1 Service Sink Required
2 Drinking Fountains Required
(Must Have One Per Floor)


Architectural Program


LAKEWOOD PERFORMING ARTS CENTER
ARCHITECTURAL PROGRAM
SUMMARY:
The Performing Arts Center will serve as a home for the Lakewood Players and The Adult Children's Theater. In addition, it will provide needed space for local and regional dance companies. The Jefferson Symphony is expected to perform occasionally, while retaining its home base in Golden. The theater must also be large enough to accommodate touring companies in order to provide greater revenues to offset operating costs.
FUNCTION:
1. Primary uses shall be dance, drama, musical.
2. Secondary use shall be for orchestra.
3. Stage shail be with traditional proscenium arch for greatest flexibility (preferred for musicals and dance). It will be augmented by a "flexible throat" forestage/orchestra pit which can be transformed as needed into: orchestra pit, forestage or seating area.
SPACE ALLOTMENTS
Administrative Offices (2)
Secretarial = 150 s.f.
Director's = 150 s.f................................... 300 s.f.
Meeting Rocm/Rehearsai Hall........................... 1,500 s.f.
Dance Studio............................................ 1,500 s.f.
Classrooms (2)
400 s.f. each may also
serve as conference rooms............................. 800 s.f.
Theater
Foyer................................................ 1,200 s.f.
Lobby
Checkroom 250 s.f.
Box Office Ticketbooth 100 s.f.
Office 150 s.f.
Rest Rooms 1,000 s.f.
Lounge/Gallery Space (Includes Kitchen) 10,000 s.f. . . 11,500 s.f.
Audience Area
(1,200 Seats) (8 s.f./Seat) 9,600 s.f. (800 s.f.) .
Less orchestra pit seating
40


SPACE ALLOTMENTS (Continued)
Stage
Proscenium width = AO' -Height = 20' -
Depth of stage = (.75) (40) = 30'
Width of stage = 40'........................... 1,200 s.f.
Apron.............................................. 400 s.f.
Orchestra Pit
400 s.f. below apron
800 s.f. = flexible space for
orchestra, forestage or seats ................. 1,200 s.f.
Offstage Area
70' 90' High Fly Space
Right Side = 800 s.f. (includes pinrail, etc.)
Left Side = 600 s.f.............................. 1,400 s.f.
Green Room............................................. 500 s.f.
Dressing Rooms....................................... 1,200 s.f.
Restrooms/Showers.................................... 1,000 s.f.
Light/Sound Booth ..................................... 600 s.f.
Costumes
Workshop = 400 s.f.
Storage= 300 s.f................................... 700 s.f.
Scenery and Properties
Workshop = 1,500 s.f.
Storage = 4,000 s.f.
Minimum height = 20'............................. 5,500 s.f.
Stage Entry Vestibule ................................. 100 s.f.
Receiving/Loading Dock
Approximately 15' x 20'
Minimum height = 20'
Requires 8' x 12' door................................. 300 s.f.
Mechanical................................................ 1,000 s.f.
TOTAL 40,700 s.f.
41


ACOUSTICAL ELEMENTS OF THEATER DESIGN
1. The maximum distance from the stage to the furthest row of seats should be 75'.
2. Wherever possible, seating should occupy the best acoustical environments, while non-listening functions occupy less acoustically correct areas. Therefore, place seating in the area directly in front of the speaker.
3. Gradually elevating seating provides a free flow of direct sound to each listener. Such concerns may be addressed simultaneously in the design of proper vision lines. The minimum angle of elevation is 8 degrees.
4. Avoid parallel walls to prevent "flutter echo".
5. Diverging side walls can serve to bring the audience closer together while providing appropriate reflections, provided such reflections are carefully controlled.
6. Avoid concave surfaces and plans to prevent focused reflections.
7. Remote seating usually requires reinforcement of sound.
8. In this project, exterior noise i3 not of great concern due to considerable removal from noise sources.
9. Interior noise sources include mechanical equipment, meeting rooms, classrooms, rehearsal rooms and especially, the lobby space. Buffers or sound insulation should be provided.
10. Reflected sounds with a delay of .058 seconds or more are perceived as echoes. To eliminate echoes and muddled tones, assure that the difference in distance of travel between direct and reflected sound is no more than 50'.
11. Ceiling height may range from 1/3 to 2/3 times the width of the space.
12. The ratio of length to width may reasonably range from 2:1 to 1.2:1.
13. Treatment of the rear wall is important in preventing echo, flutter and focusing effects. Some selected possible treatments include:
splaying the connection between ceiling and rear wall
using absorptive material on the rear wall
tilting the rear wall
14. If a balcony is used, the balcony recess requires shallow depth and a high opening. The depth of the recess should not exceed twice the height of the balcony recess opening.
42


FREQUENCY
Frequency, a physical property, is closely related to "pitch", a psychological phenomenon.
----fSenScKft
-,*as**Tu*----
4^=

- plicaU>
-6i,n VK3L-
R5^siri£-4 i
-^Fmi i
v/kou>4 -5op*ijiO -
f6 Queile-t.___
in Cyct*^ ...
per icjsnq 2£~ t**> 25D JCC iOOO 2000 3000
KftY*o*
Frequency ranges of several musical instruments and singing voices, shown on a frequency scale which uses the piano keyboard for comparison.
Chart showing minimum audible thresh-hold vs. frequency, and the threshold of feeling.
fwiQut^c'f Ccyc.15 ftz. sficc^o)
43


REVERBERATION TIME
Optimum reverberation time vs. frequency may be obtained using the following charts.
Optimum reverberation times at 512-cycle frequency for various types of rooms as a function of the room volume.
t51'7 = reverbera^on time for chosen room type and volume at 512 cycles.
t^ = reverberation time at given frequency
tf 15i2 (R)
l Co ioa J60 400 iiO S00 fCOO iooa 10.0 00
fgZQiifrlcsf pez sgcOKip)
Chart for computing optimum reverberation times as a function of frequency.
4


REFLECTION OF SOUND
The following figures 1-3 demonstrate the reflection of surfaces.
'?////////J////////// Figure 1
sound from different
Figure 3
Figure 1 illustrates reflection of sound from a flat plane. Figure 2 illustrates reflection from a concave spherical surface (note the focusing of sound, which is undesirable). Figure 3 illustrates the reflection from a convex spherical surface (note the more even distribution of sound).
The two sketches above illustrate how a ceiling splay may correct the reflections from a rear wail, directing the sound down to where the audience is, rather than back to the source (which would result in bothersome echoes).
45


THEATER DESIGN ELEMENTS
Proscenium Arch
The proscenium arch affords maximum confrontation of performers and audience, and it is best suited to lectures, concert singers and dramatic performances. With the audience in a more compact orientation to the stage, the performers can more readily relate their actions to the entire audience simultaneously.
The width of the opening should range from 30' to 45' for drama, musicals and small scale performances. The height of the opening should be proportionate to the width. Professional companies use scenery flats 18' high, and the permanent proscenium should be slightly higher than the scenery. A good estimation for height is 2/3 the width of the opening.
Avoid shiny or reflective surfaces.
Stage
The stage platform depth should be approximately 75% of the width of the proscenium opening. For orchestras, the recommended amount of stage area averages about 18 s.f. per player, to include instruments.
Use soft wood flooring; make sure it is level and wear resistant. Maximum deflection is 1/360 of a span.
Apron should be at least 8' wide to accommodate piano in front of curtain. It may extend out over orchestra pit.
Stage Traps
Traps have been used in about 20% of the major theater productions, and so may be an important design consideration. The minimum trap size is 4' x O'.
Hydraulic lifts may be advisable to save labor costs.
Orchestra Pit
Optimum flexibility is achieved through the use of the "flexible throat", or thrust, element. This is actually a multiple purpose zone, which when in a raised position may act as a seating area or forestage, and when in a lov/ered position may act as an orchestra pit.
Mechanical lifts compensate for high initial costs through labor savings.
46


"Flexible Threat"
Section drawings illustrate how thrust element can be interchanged with a block of front-row seating.
1. Stage element lowers and pushes back under auditorium.
2. Block of seats pushes from under stage and is raised to become first four rows of orchestra seating.
3. Remove seating block and replace with orchestra seating and podium. A
movable reflector/ab-sorber baffle can be installed behind orchestra.
47


Off-Stage Area
Green Room
Audience Area
The off-stage area, or "wings" is that area adjacent to the stage where actors, scenery and props await their entries.
The depth of the off-stage area should be the same as the acting area. Adequate space must be provided to both sides of the stage. A minimum of one-half the width of the proscenium opening must be left unobstructed to each side of the stage. The pinrail and other fixed equipment require additional space on the right side.
Off-stage space should be readily accessible to dressing rooms and also, preferably, to the rehearsal room.
Storage areas and shops should also be accessible from the offstage area.
The green room is where the stage manager assembles choruses and checks the cast. The director uses it to speak to the cast, and the cast uses it as a social gathering place. It can be used as a space for interaction between actors and audience, autograph signing and so on.
The green room should be near the stage and preferably at the same level. Necessary furnishing include: lounge furniture, full-length mirror, telephone outlet, monitor system lcud-speaker. Provisions for serving food, or accessible bending machines, are helpful.
Daylight desirable.
The configuration of the house will primarily depend on acoustics. It will also be determined by the choice of continental or standard seating arrangements. Continental seating places the majority of seats at good environmental locations while placing aisles in the poorer areas.
Balconies v/ill help reduce distance from the stage.
Sound isolation from the remainder of the facility is important.
48


Backstage Movement Backstage circulation should be as simple and direct as possible.
Minimize level changes, particularly involving actors' travel to and from the stage.
Flow Chart for Actors in Theater.
r
(Costumes)
i
(Costumes)
Solid Lines Broken Lines
Personnel
Materials


Mechanical Room
Care must be given to avoid transfer of machine vibrations into the structure of the facility. Prevent nGise transmittance via ducts or structure. Spring-mounted pads beneath equipment are recommended.
Modular units are recommended to handle varying zones at maximum efficiency. Storage
Separate storage areas should be provided for scenery, costumes and properties. Easy accessibility to loading docks and to stage is extremely important. Efficient stage operations require that scenery may be transported as a whole rather than in pieces.
Minimum height of the space is 15', although greater height is valuable. Scene storage must be able to accommodate the highest flat scenery used.
Flow Chart for Scenery.
Sequence A-B-C-D-E for touring shows; F-G-H-I-D-E for community theater.
50


Meeting Room/ Rehearsal Room
Lounqe/Gallery/
Lobby
Administrative
Offices
The same hail will double a3 meeting room due to similarities in acoustic requirements and space; and due to probable differing use patterns.
As a rehearsal hall, the room must be at least as large as the acting area of the theater, with added space for actors and a director. Ideally, the rehearsal hall would be a mini-theater, complete with platform and seating.
Such concerns, combined with acoustical needs may be meshed with meeting room needs. Again, as with the theater itself, flexibility in design is the key!
The lounge should include a kitchen facility and portable or fixed refreshment bars.
The space should be separately leasable for private functions. Maximize views; natural light is recommended.
Utilize park or outside space for intermissions.
Gallery is to be used for display by artists, theater promotional literature and educational exhibits. Security is a concern for exhibit areas.
The offices should be easily located from the main entry.
Supervision of the facility should be simplified to permit management by a minimal staff.
Natural light and street views are recommended.
51


Adjacency Matrix
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52


Vision Lines
53


Types cf Layouts
Rows These may be straight across entire theater, side banks may be canted, or entire rows may be curved. Advantages of each type are shown in Fig. 8. Min. radius for curved rows, due to seat construction, is 20 ft. Center for radii of rowa and center of screen or stage need not coincide, although this is the ideal case. When rows are curved, a sloping auditorium floor should be a compound curve or amphitheater type to prevent tilted side seats.
Aisles These may be straight or curved, parallel or radial. Aisles should run at right angles to rows to eliminate pockets.'*
Combinations of row and aisle types commonly used are shown in Fig. 8.
Continental Seating, most commonly used abroad, involves use of rows with unlimited number of seats. Local codes in this country often either prohibit its uue or impose many restrictions. However, existing oxamples have proved safe and comfortable due to increased back-to-back seat specing (up to 42 in.) which
is essential to scheme. Larger than usual side aisles or foyers and many side exits are re quired.
Coda Requirements These govern (1) maximum number of seats in a bank, (2) aisle width. (3; crossovers (not uniform). Usual requirement! are: (1) no seat mora than seven seats from ar aisle; (2) min. aisle width of 3 ft, increasing by varying factors in relation to length.of aisles (3) Requirements for crossovers, not uniformly subject to codes, vary. Consult local authorities.
IEVEL FLOOR
INCLINED FLOOR
STEPPED FLOOR
MINIMUM
Center of ' \ interest
SPACINGS FOR VARYING FLOOR
Based on stock s/]es with 5'/*'pitch Pack
Center of interest
CONDITION S
STRAIGHT ROWS
Uncomfortable for spectators at Side, unequal stress on seats and D3CKS
STRAIGHT, CANTED SIDE-BANKS
Same defects as straignt rows though to less decree. Note that rows do nor line up. Steps if required in aisles will be unsafe
TYPES OF ROWS
CURVED ROWS
Recommended for comfort, ease of vision and safety
STRAIGHT
(poorest type)
COMPOUND
COMMON THREE
-BANK LAYOUTS
see a/so Continental Seat/n?" m text
0"" ,1Row line
PLAN cT
b - i_ Point'Sbeing higher } rnana'ard c causes
.. Ip1-- chair to slooe
a INCOR SECT SECTION c
ft 1 |'a', 'b'and con same _.A1- I piane, chair level
CORRECT SECTION
Aisles cuffing diagonally across rows produce dangerouspockets and waste space
Curved or straight radial aisles reduce number and 513c ofpoctets
SIDE RAKE (Curved Pows)
DIRECTION OF AISLES
Fig. 3


AUDITORIUM DIMENSIONS
Preliminary estimates may be baaed upon the Rule of Thumb which is sufficiently accurate for rough sketches.
Tablet. For such purposes as financing, working drawings, etc., follow method outlined in Examples A, B, C and D. Variations between the two methods are to be expected.
1-row cross-over
EXAMPLE A: Given auditorium area = 37'-0" x 56-5" or 4900 + sq. ft., haw many 20 teats, 34 back-to-back?
1. Rowt: In Table I, 36 col., at 87'-0" depth, No. rows less cross-overs (I row at front,
4 at rear) ~
Rows available for seats =
2. Aisles: Table II, increase In aisle width per row =: 0.75"; 0.75 x 24
Total increase =
Min. aisle =
Mas. aisle =
3. Seating Scheme: Select tentative scheme; 2 eisles, 2 dead-end seat banks, I center bank. From typical code, dead-end rows may be 7 seats long, center rows 14
seats. In Table IV 1420" seats = 23' 7 720" seats = ll'-ll" 720" seats = 11'-11
= 29
5
24
l'-f>"
r-c"
4'-o"
From (2) above, 2 aisles
= 9'- 0"
Total width 56'- 5" Seats per row 28
4 Total No. of Seats: (Table III) j or 28 s 24 = ,
EXAMPLE B: Given capacity of 472 staff, what art auditorium dimensions?
This problem is the converse of A. EXAMPLE C: What Is radius of any row?
To radius of back of first-row seats add desired value from Table I.
EXAMPLE D: How many and what sixes of seats can be used In rows shortened by curved or radial alsles7 See Table IV.
RULE of THU,MB for SEATING AREA:
Allow 7l^ sq.ft per Seat, including Aisles and Cross-overs.
This is sufficiently accurate for preliminary planning.
Table 1 Depth Dimensions (Ft.-In.) for Various Spacings
Overall Depth for Seat Spacing (Back-to-back) of
Table II Aisle Width Increase (in inches) Per Row of Length
lows 32" 33' 34" 35" 36" 37" 38 tt 39' 40" 41" 42"
1 2-8 2-9 2-10 2-11 3-0 3- 1 3- 2 3-3 3-4 3- 5 3-6
2 5-4 5-6 5- 8 5-10 6-0 6- 2 6- 4 6-6 6-3 6-10 7-0
3 8-0 8-3 8- 6 8- 9 9-0 9* 3 9- 6 9-9 10-0 10- 3 10-6
4 10-8 11-0 11- 4 11- 3 12-0 12- 4 12- 8 13-0 13-4 13- 8 14-0
5 13-4 13-9 14- 2 14- 7 15-0 15- 5 15- 10 16-3 16-8 17- l 17-S
6 16-0 16-6 17- 0 17- 6 18-0 18- 6 19- 0 19-6 20-0 20- 6 21-0
7 18-8 19-3 19-10 20- 5 21-0 21- 7 22- 2 22-9 23-4 23-11 24-6
8 21-4 22-0 22- 8 23- 4 24-0 24- 8 25- 4 26-0 26-8 27- 4 23-0
9 24-0 24-9 25- 6 26- 3 27-0 27- 9 28- 6 29-3 30-0 30- 9 31-5
10 25-8 27-6 28- 4 29- 2 30-0 30- 10 31- 8 32-6 33-4 34- 2 35-0
11 29-4 30-3 31- 2 32- 1 33-0 33- 11 34- 10 35-9 36-8 37- 7 33-6
12 32-0 33-0 34- 0 35- 0 36-0 37- 0 38- 0 39-0 40-0 41- 0 42-0
13 34-8 35-9 36-10 37-11 39-0 40- 1 41- 2 42-3 43-4 44- 5 45-5
14 37-4 33-6 39- 8 40-10 42-0 43- 2 44- 4 45-6 46-8 47-10 49-0
15 40-0 41-3 42- 6 43- 9 45-0 46- 3 47- 6 48-9 50-0 51- 3 52-5
16 42-8 44-0 45- 4 46- 8 48-0 49- 4 50- 3 52-0 53-4 54- 8 56-0
17 45-4 46-9 48- 2 49- 7 51-0 52- 5 53- 10 55-3 56-3 58- 1 59-6
18 48-0 49-6 51- 0 52- 6 54-0 55- 6 57- 0 58-6 60-0 61- 6 63-0
19 50-8 52-3 53-10 55- 5 57-0 58- 7 50- 2 61-9 63-4 54-11 66-5
20 53-4 55-0 56- 8 58- 4 60-0 61- 8 53- 4 55-0 66-8 63- 4 70-0
21 56-0 57-9 59- 6 51- 3 63-0 64- 9 66- 6 68-3 70-0 71- 9 73-6
22 53-8 60-6 62- 4 64- 2 66-0 67- 10 69- 8 71-6 73-4 75- 2 77-0
23 61-4 63-3 65- 2 67- 1 69-0 70- 11 72- 10 74-9 7S-8 78- 7 80-6
24 64-0 66-0 68- 0 70- 0 72-0 74- 0 78- 0 78-0 80-0 82- 0 34-0
2S 66-8 68-9 70-10 72-11 75-0 77- 1 79- 2 31-3 83-4 85- 5 87-6
26 69-4 71-5 73- 8 75-10 78-0 so- 2 82- 4 84-6 36-8 38-10 91-0
27 72-0 74-3 76- 5 78- 9 31-0 83- 3 85- 6 87-9 90-0 92- 3 94-6
28 74-8 77-0 79- 4 31- 8 34-0 86- 4 38- 8 91-0 93-4 95- 8 33-0
29 77-4 79-9 82- 2 84- 7 87-0 83- 5 91- 10 94-3 96-8 99- 1 101-5
30 so-o 82-6 85- 0 87- 5 90-0 92- 6 95- 0 97-5 100-0 102- S 105-0
31 82-8 85-3 87-10 90- 5 93-0 95- 7 98- 2 1C0-9 103-4 105-11 103-6
32 85-4 88-0 90- 3 93- 4 96-0 93- 8 101- 4 104-0 106-8 109- 4 112-0
Table ill Seating Capacities, 1-32 Rows
Se.t Spicing Back-to- Bick Fire Underwriters Code: 3'-O' plus Vh perl-O' N.Y. Ci-tr Code: 3-Cf plus 1 J6,"per 3- O" No. of Rows 7 Seats 14 Seats 28 Seats No. of Rows 7 Seats 14 Seats 23 Seats
32" 0.67 0.80 1 7 14 23 17 119 238 47S
2 14 23 56 13 126 252 504
33 0.69 0.83 3 21 42 34 19 133 255 532
34 0.71 0.36 4 28 56 112 20 140 280 560
35* 0.73 0.83 5 35 70 140 21 147 2S4 588
36* 0.75 Q.sO 6 42 84 163 22 154 308 516
37* 0.77 0.93 7 49 98 196 23 151 322 644
33" 0.79 0.95 3 56 112 224 24 168 335 572
39* 0.31 0.98 9 63 125 252 25 175 350 700
40" 0.83 1.00 10 70 140 280 26 182 364 723
41* 0.S5 103 11 77 154 308 27 189 378 756
0.83 1.05 12 84 168 336 28 1% 392 784
42
13 31 182 364 29 203 406 812
Proper factor x no. of 'OWS 14 93 196 392 30 210 420 340
total increase m inches. 15 105 210 <20 31 217 434 868
AxiJ to 3-0* minimum aisle width 15 112 443 32 224 445 8S6
55


Table IV Numbers of Seais (Stock Sizes) for Any Row Length
Rowl Pt-ln. .ength In. 19" c O re 21 22 Row Length Pt.-ln. | In. 19" ft O ce 21" 22" Row Length Pt.-ln. | In. 19" 20' 21" 22" Row 4 Pt.- In. .ength In. 19" 20 21" 22*
5- 0 60 3 11- 5 137 6 1 16- 4 196 7 3 5 4 21- 3 255 8 -i-j ML
5 1 61 2 1 11- 6 138 5 2 16- 5 197 6 4 4 5 21- 4 256 7 6 11 1
5 2 62 1 2 11- 7 139 4 3 16- 6 198 5 5 3 6 21- 5 257 5 _Lj 2
5 3 63 3 11- 8 140 3 4 16- 7 199 4 s 2 7 21- 6 253 5 8 9 3
5 4 64 2 1 11- 9 141 2 5 IS- 8 200 3 7 1 8 21- 7 259 4 9 8 4
5 5 65 1 2 1 11-10 142 1 6 16-9 201 2 3 3 21- 8 260 3 M- 5
5 6 66 3 11-11 143 7 16-10 202 1 3 21- 9 261 2 MU lJ_ 6
5 7 67 2 1 12- 0 144 6 1 16-11 203 10 21-10 262 1 JL> C 2mm 7
5 8 68 1 2 12- 1 145 5 2 17- 0 204 9 1 21-11 263 L < 3
5 9 69 3 12- 2 146 4 3 17- 1 205 8 2 22- 0 264 111 rU3 9
0 7 79 4 12- 3 147 3 4 17- 2 206 7 3 22- 1 2S5 11 2 |2 10
6 8 30 3 1 12- 4 148 2 5 17- 3 207 6 4 22- 2 266 10 3 U 11
6 9 81 2 2 12- 5 149 1 S 17- 4 208 5 5 22- 3 267 9 A nr
6 0 32 1 3 12- 6 150 7 17- 5 209 4 S 22- 4 268 8 5
6 1 S3 4 12- 7 151 6 1 17- 6 210 3 7 22- 5 269 14 7 6
7 0 34 3 1 12- 8 152 5 2 17- 7 211 2 8 22- 6 270 13 1 is 7
7 1 85 2 2 12- 9 153 4 3 17- 8 212 11 1 9 22- 7 271 12 2|5 8
V / 2 86 1 3 12-10 154 3 4 17- 9 213 10 1 10 22- 8 272 H MM 9
7 3 87 4 12-11 155 3 2 5 17-10 214 9 2 9 1 22- 9 273 10 ML 10
7 4 88 3 1 l 13- 0 156 7 1 1 6 17-11 215 8 3 8 2 22-10 274 9 i|I 11
7 5 39 2 2 13- 1 157 6 2 7 13- 0 216 7 4 7 3 22-11 275 3 6 i 1 12
7 6 50 1 3 13- 2 158 5 3 18- 1 217 6 5 6 4 23- 0 27S 7 7 13
7 8 91 1 4 13- 3 159 4 4 18- 2 218 5 6 5 5 23- 1 277 6 8 L_ii_ 1
8 2 38 5 13- 4 160 3 5 18- 3 219 4 7 4 6 23- 2 278 5 9 11 2
8 3 99 4 1 13- 5 1 161 2 6 18- 4 220 3 8 3 7 23-3 1' 279 4 10 10 3
8 4 100 3 2 13- 6 162 1 7 18- 5 221 2 9 2 8 23- 4 280 3 11 3 4
8 5 101 2 3 13- 7 163 8 18- 6 222 1 10 1 9 23-5 231 2 12 M- 5
3 6 102 i 4 13- 8 164 7 1 18- 7 223 11 10 23- 6 282 1 13 7 5
8 7 103 5 13- 9 165 6 2 1 18- 3 224 10 1 23- 7 283 14 i.$_ 7
8 8 104 4 1 13-10 166 5 3 18- 9 225 9 2 23- 8 284 13 1*5 3
8 9 105 3 2 13-11 167 4 4 1 18-10 226 8 3 23- 9 2S5 12 2 j 4 9
8 10 106 2 3 14- 0 168 3 5 18-11 227 7 4 23-10 286 11 3 i 3 10
8 11 107 1 4 14- 1 169 2 6 19- 0 228 S 5 23-11 28? in 4|2 11
0 108 5 14- 2 170 1 7 I 19- l 229 5 6 24- 0 288 9 5 ii 12
0 <* 1 109 4 1 14- 3 171 8 1 19- 2 230 4 7 24- 1 289 8 6 13
9 2 110 3, 2 14- 4 172 7 1 19- 3 231 12 3 8 24- 2 290 7 7
9 3 111 2 3 14- 5 173 6 2 19- 4 232 11 112 9 24- 3 291 S 3
9 4 112 1 4 14- 6 174 3 5 3 19- 5 233 10 2 11 10 24- 4 292 5 3
9 5 113 5 14- 7 175 8 1 4 4 ! 19- 6 234 9 3 11 24- 5 293 4 10
9 9 117 s | 14- 8 175 7 2 3 5 19- 7 235 8 4 10 1 24- 6 294 3 11
9 .0 113 5 1 14- 9 177 6 3 2 6 19- 8 236 7 5 9 2 24- 7 295 2 12
9 11 119 4 2 14-10 -178 5 4 1 7 19- 9 237 6 6 3 3 24- 8 296 1 13
10 0 120 3 3 14-11 179 4 5 8 19-10 238 5 7 7 4 24- 9 237 14
10 1 121 2 4 IS- 0 180 3 6 19-11 239 4 8 5 5 24-10 298 13 1
10 2 122 1 5 15- 1 181 2 7 20- 0 240 3 9 6 24-11 299 12 2
10 3 123 8 15- 2 182 1 8 20- 1 241 2 10 4 7 25- 0 300 11 3
10 4 124 5 1 15- 3 183 9 20- 2 242 1 11 3 8 25- 1 301 10 4
10 5 125 4 2 15- 4 184 8 1 20-3 243 12 2 9 25- 2 302 9 5
10 6 126 3 3 15- 5 185 7 2 20- 4 244 11 ill 10 25- 3 303 3 6
-10 7 127 2 4 15- 6 186 6 3 20- 5 245 10 2 11 25- 4 304 7 7
1 8 128 1 5 15- 7 187 5 4 20- 6 246 Q 3 25- 5 305 6 l
1 9 129 6 15- 8 133 4 5 20- 7 247 s 4 25- 6 3C6 5 9
10 120 5 1 1 15- 9 189 3 6 20- 8 248 7 5 25- 7 307 4 10
I 11 131 4 2 15-10 190 2 7 20- 9 249 6 6 25- 3 308 3 11
1 0 132 3 3 j 15-11 191 1 8 20-10 250 13 5 7 25- 9 309 2 12
1 1 133 2 4 18- 0 192 9 20-11 251 12 114 8 25-10 310 1 13
1 2 134 1 5 16- 1 193 10 a 1 21- 0 252 1| 2l3 9 25-11 311 14
1 3 135 8 15- 2 194 9 1 2 2 21- 1 253 10 3 12 10 1
1 4 136 7 IS- 3 195 3 2 s 3 21- 2 254 9 jlLl 11 e i
£nd Allowances: Normal 3* allowance to accommodate 2 end standards per row it included above. Por balconies with steps in aisles allow 2" additional.
Seat Sizes: Common sizes shown. Seats are also available 13" 23" Choice of Seats: Note that for longer rows two choices of seat sizes are available. Example: Row length !4#- 9" ; six 19" saats end three 20" may be used; or, two 2i and six 22 Dotted lines separate choices. Dimensions not fitted by stock sizes are omitted.
56


Budget


PRELIMINARY BUDGET ESTIMATE (1982 Dollars)
Item Moderate Cost High Cost
1. Unit Building Cost $62/s.f. $80/s.f.
2. Building Cost $2,542,000 $3,280,000
3. Fixed Equipment (.25) (Line 2) 635,500 320;000
4. Site Development (.05) (Line 2) 127,100 164 000
5. Movable Equipment (.08) (Line 2) 203,400 262,400
6. Professional Fees (.08) (Line 2 + 3 + 4) 264,400 341,100
7. Contingencies ( 05) (Line 2 + 3+4) 165,200 213,200
8. Administrative Costs (.01) (Line 2+3+4) 33,000 42,600
Total Costs $3,970,600 $5,123,300
11% Financing 436,800 563,600
TOTAL BUDGET $4,407,400 $5,686,900
Moderate High
57


Appendix


BIBLIOGRAPHY
Beranek, Leo L. Music, Acoustics & Architecture,
John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York and London, 1962.
Chen & Associates, Inc. "Soil and Foundation Investigation for Proposed Municipal Center", March 1980.
City of Lakewood and Lakewood Chamber of Commerce. "Lakewood: Gateway to the Rockies (an economic profile)", 1981.
Cole, Edward C. and Meyer, Harold Burris. Theaters and Auditoriums, Reinhold Publishing Co., New York, 1964.
"Concept Lakewood: a development plan and planning process",
March 1975.
DeChiara, Joseph and Callender, John. Time-Saver Standards for Building Types, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1980.
"Doing Less and Achieving More: Four modest and flexible designs for
the performing arts", Architectural Record, November 1969.
Elder, Eldon. Will it Make a Theater, Drama Book Specialists,
New York, 1979.
Gray, Charles L. Music Buildings, Rooms, and Ecuioment, Music Educators National Conference, Washington, 1966.
Izenour, George C. Theater Design, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1977.
Johnson, Russeil. "Orchestra Pits", Theater Design and Technology.
Fall, 1979.
Key and Company. "Belmar Park Development", Landscape Plans,
February 1982.
Kirkegaard, Lawrence. "Acoustical Design for Performing Arts Spaces", Theater Design and Technology, Fall 1979.
Knudsen, Vern O. and Harris, Cyril M. Acoustical Designing in Architecture, Acoustical Society of America, 1978.
Mielziner, Jo. The Shapes of Our Theaters, Clarkson N. Potter, Inc.,
New York, 1970.
Roberts, Howard C., "Acoustiks", Denver, 1982.
Stewart, Michael H., ed. American Architecture for the Arts,
Handel & Sons Publishing, Dallas, 1978,
Tidworth, Simon. Theatres, An Architectural and Cultural History,
Praeger Publishing, New York and London, 1973.
58


Bibliography (Continued)
"A Triumph of Theatre", Architectural Journal, August 18, 1982.
U.S. Department of Commerce, N.O.A.A., Local Climate Summaries, Asheville, N.C.
W. C. Muchow and Partners, "Lakewood Municipal Center", architectural Plans, 1982.
59


INTERVIEWS
Anderson, Howard President, Adult Children's Theater
Gray, Gary Attorney for Charles E. Stanton
McDonnell, Gary R. Director, Parks and Recreation, City of Lakewood
Merrill, Cindi Assistant City Administrator, City of Lakewood
Pyle, Ernie Project Architect, Arvada Center for the Performing Arts, Seracuse Lawler Partners.
Schilling, Dave Project Architect, Lakewood Municipal Center W. C. Muchow and Partners.
Surelock, Royce President, Lakewood Historical Society
Tangedahl, Steve President, Lakewood Players.
60




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