The University of Denver Lowell Thomas Law Center

Material Information

The University of Denver Lowell Thomas Law Center
Butler, Roderick Anthony
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
104 unnumbered leaves : facsimiles, maps, plans ; 28 cm


Subjects / Keywords:
Law schools -- Colorado -- Denver ( lcsh )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )


Includes bibliographical references (leaf 104).
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Roderick Anthony Butler.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
09766818 ( OCLC )
LD1190.A72 1983 .B8682 ( lcc )

Full Text

Roderick Anthony Butler
A project presented to the faculty of the College of Design and Planning, University of Colorado/Denver in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree Master of Architecture.

I wish to express my gratitude to the faculty of the College of Design and Planning for their guidance and assistance.
To Christopher Nims for helping me establish a total design strategy and for keeping me on the right track.
A special thank you goes to my parents and family for always being there when I needed you.
I especially wish to thank Kimberle Jackson for the support, love and patience you gave.

INTRODUCTION The Project Design Issues Summary of Major Spaces Required Personal Goals and Objective Advisory Board
HISTORY History of the University of Denver History of the College of Law History of Colorado Women's College and the Merger
THE SITE Physical Description Topography Soil Evaluation Utility Servicing Pedestrian and Bicycle Access Automobile Access Public Transportation Access Climatological Data Federal Aviation Administration Restrictions
Table of Contents

ZONING and CODES City and County of Denver Zoning Code City and County of Denver Building Code
THE PROGRAM Law Library Large Teaching Spaces General Design Requirements Exact Space Requirements Space Definitions Special Requirements
CONCEPTS Problem Statement Facility Parameter Objectives Functional Relationship Diagrams Room Function Diagrams
Technical Data Bi bl11graphy


With the recent acquisition of Colorado Women's College by the University of Denver an oportunity to develop a Law Center for the College of Law has arisen. Present plans call for moving the Law School from its current location at West 14th Avenue and Bannock Street to the CWC campus in the Park Hill area of Denver. The unique aspect of this project is that it calls for an architectural solution that is the "state-of-the-art in design with the physical capability of incorporating new communications, media, word-processing and related technologies as they are available."
New construction calls for the following facilities:
A) Law Library
B) Teaching Spaces
C) Faculty Offices
With respect to the size of this project, my thesis will address the design of the Law Library and Teaching Spaces while recommending to move the faculty offices to an existing building on campus. It would be economically feasible to convert Porter Hall to house the Faculty Offices.

The design issues to be addressed are:
Campus Identity Generate a form that will merge with the existing campus forms while creating an identifiable presence.
Functionali ty Generate a form that will satisfy the functional requirements while creating pleasant spaces for users.
Response to Energy In total design, one which takes advantage of passive solar applications as natural daylighting.
Response to Climate A design that responds to climatic factors, both interior and exterior spaces
Access Generate a form that responds to the users access of different functions within.
Noi se Generate a design and apply current technologies to respond to aircraft noise.

Law Library
Book Stacks 32,960 net square feet
Public Services 6,290 net square feet
Reading Areas 11 ,150 net square feet
Technical Services 1 ,830 net square feet
Faculty Library 1 ,100 net square feet
Library Staff 2,770 net square feet
Net Total Area 56,100 square feet
Large Teaching Spaces
Net Total Area 24,200 square feet
Project Assignable Net Total Area 80,300 square feet
Circulation (20% gross) 16,060 square feet
Mechanical (5% gross) 4,015 square feet
Design Gross Floor Area 100,375 square feet
(net total area for faculty offices to be housed in Porter Hall 14,156 square feet.)

To express a culmination of my design skills, philosophy, and methodology. Through this objective I will attain a level of design development to include some detail design that will help define the solution.
The final product will be an architectural design solution for the University of Denver Law Center that will satisfy the special problems and requirements of the program.

Bob Kindig
Gary Long Bob Davis Davis Holder Chris Nims
Professor, Professor, Professor, Professor, Professor,
College of College of College of College of College of
Design and Planning Design and Planning Design and Planning Design and Planning Design and Planning
Design Design, HVAC Design Structural Design


The University of Denver is the largest private, independent university between Chicago and the West Coast. Its 116 year history began in late 1862 when John Evans, the Governor of the Territory of Colorado who 11 years earlier helped found Northwestern University, announced plans to establish a Seminary of Denver.
On March 5, 1864, the Territorial Council and the House of Represenatives granted a charter to the Colorado Seminary. Governor Evans and 27 other men began developing "a school of high grade, an ornament to our City, and a fitting monument to her liberality." The Seminary opened its doors in the fall of 1864 in a single building at the corner of 14th and Arapahoe Streets. Its first president, the Rev. G.S. Phillips a Methodist minister, served only six weeks before retiring because of health reasons. He was followed by several other ministers who worked at trying to make the Seminary succeed; but because public interest and support were inadequate the Seminary closed in 1867.
In 1874 Governor Evans suggested the school be reopened as the Union Evangelical Seminary under the combined sponsorship of the Methodist, Presbyterian, Episcopal, and Baptist churches; but this idea was not carried out. In 1879 Governor Evans appealed to the Colorado Conference of Methodist Church for re-establishing his Seminary. Through this effort enough interest and support developed and the school reopened as a privately supported coeducational institution with degree granting powers.
The University of Denver established in 1880 evolved directly from this Seminary. Ten years later, the school moved from downtown Denver to its present location in Southwest Denver, near East Evans Avenue and South University Boulevard. Once known as "Tramway Tech" because so many students came from Denver and either rode or worked on the streetcars; today DU has become a major educational institution in this region.
David Hastings Moor was DU's first Chancellor. He and the faculty taught 150 students who registered for the 1880-1881 school term. Today the University of Denver has a student body of more than 8,000 who represent all 50 states, U.S. territories and about 60 foreign countries. The fulltime faculty totals 463, with 84% holding a Doctorial or Terminal Degrees in their area. Dr. Ross Pritchard is the University's 14th Chancellor.

In early 1892, a group of interested persons approached Chancellor William F. McDowel to propose the establishment of a Law School within the University of Denver. Upon approval of the curriculm by the trustees, the school, located at 14th and Arapahoe Streets, was opened that fall. Justice Albert Eugene Patterson of the Colorado Supreme Court was its first Dean.
The Law School organized day and evening divisions in 1894, and in 1898 the course work was lengthened from 2 to 3 years and to 4 years in the evening division.
Between 1911 and 1941 the Law School was moved numerous times in and around downtown Denver. During World War II the school was located in the Mary Reed Library on the University Park Campus. The war took a heavy toll on the student body count, with enrollment shrinking to 49 in 1941, then to 21 in 1942-43 and finally to 8 the following year. After the war the student count rose back up to 400.
In 1957, Dean Gordon Johnston announced the merger of the University of Denver, College of Law and the Westminister Law School into a fully accredited Law School with both day and evening divisions. Shortly after the merger was announced, the University revealed plans for construction of a new Law Center which would, "embrace a whole new concept of legal education, one which combined the basic, theoretical legal studies with actual contacts with practicing attorneysi"' With $1.5 million raised for construction, ground was broked in 1959 and in March 1961 the Center was ready for use.
The College of Law is located in Denver's Civic Center within easy walking distance of the State Capital. Accross the street is the City and County Building, which houses every other level of state and county courts. The Judical Center, located near the Capital, is the location of the State Supreme Court. The offices of the Denver and Colorado Bar Associations are located at the College of Law.
On June 1, 1978 Daniel S. Hoffman assumed the Deanship of the College of Law. From an early student body count of 11, the College has grown to over 1000 students.

Established in 1888 Colorado Women's College for much of its history was considered by many to be a "glossed-over finishing school for proper young ladies." Located in the Park Hill area of Denver, the College upheld this image until the 60's. During those years the school enjoyed a very successful existence. The student body rose to more than 1,000 and academic programs were strong. Distinguished professors took up residence and millions of dollars were committed for the construction of new dormitories, classrooms and a Fine Arts Center.
CWC's decline can be attributed to poor management and "ill-fated decisions." The worse of these bad decisions was made in 1967, at the height of the College's success. Denver developer Temple Buell offered to put his $25 million in an educational "trust" to be given to CWC on his death. In exchange, Buell asked that the school be renamed after him, and that he and his wife be buried in the center of the campus quad upon their death.
Now believing that CWC was financially independent other donors stopped contributing. To further escalate the problem, without the word "Colorado" in the school's name prospective students would think there was a religious affilation with the school.
By the time CWC Board backed out of Buell's arrangement in 1973 the school was in deep trouble. A merger was set up by President Dumont Kenney with DU during 1974 and 1975, but that too fell through. Two female presidents hired since then have also failed in reviving CWC back to its 1 960's status.
In early October 1981 CWC again asked the University of Denver to consider taking over operations. CWC wanted DU to study and report upon those conditions under which the University would assume responsibilities for operating a fully functioning Women's College as part of the University of Denver."
DU consider 1 akeover of W£
r It : Z'
ThM^iversity of Denver will issue a report by Nov. 1 on the feasibility W taking over operation of financially distressed Colorado Women's College. \ '
The CWC Board of Trustees has asked DU and three other organizations to study and report on the conditions under which they might approve affiliation with CWC.
The colleges president, Sherry Manning, said Thursday the ; trustees already have formal offers from a national development j organization and a non-profit national education organization. She j said a third report should come next week from d regional development organization. She declined to identify any of the (
" v 1 DU Chancellor Ross Pritchard said DU's study, to be com- plcted In time for the CWC trustees early November board : moiling, would address financial, instructional and enrollment" issues/^'-'-; * -.
. fWe'rit talking about CWC becoming a fully integrated com-- ponent, a women's college within the University of Denver, he said.,b&*: . " ..... ;.
Pfitchard, DUs chancellor since 1978, is familiar with prob-lcmdf&clng troubled womens colleges.

!'I feel fairly comfortable in looking at something like this, because my first college presidency was of Hood College, in Frederick, Md, It was in serious decline when I went, and it is doing significantly better now. A lot of what I see at CWC touches recall buttons of past experience," he said.
("I do know," Pritchard said, "that DU has a great variety of
resources, educational and student resources, that could be easily plugged into a situation like CWC's. That gives us advantages CWC cannot call upon at this time."
Manning said that in January her school invited DU to make an offer to buy the small colleges Houston Fine Arts Center. That offer was declined, although one of DUs pressing needs is for a performing arts center. - :
"We would also consider selling any number of configurations of our property we feel would not be detrimental to our mission, Manning said. v. :r,'V
V. "With enrollment at the east Denver college now at 305, down from a high of more than 1,000 in the early 1970s, only one of (he school's six dormitories is used as a residence hail. Another houses administrative offices and four are revenue-producing-"units.---------------:/ - '
Wed like to sell part of that property and get out of debt," Manning said.'.*rf
CWCs mortgage debt is about $6.7 million, Manning said. -/ "During the golden era of higher education, the late 1960s > and early 1970s, we misread the boom and overbuilt our facilities. Part of our reorganization is the recognition that our critical mass is a student body of 400 to 700. We need to get on now with i the business of educating women, she said.
"Our board is really encouraging organizations which can help us enhance our mission. Im looking forward to the DU study, Manning said. She added that CWC trustee Walter Koeibel is the colleges liaison to the DU researchers.
.' £* v?:5.-rV
By November 1981 DU trustees rejected the offer made in October from the CWC trustees, which would have required DU to maintain a fully-operating women's college. A new revised proposal was made that had no such requirement. Finally the CWC Board saw no hope for the preservation of a distinct women's college, and agreed to disolve itself and let DU take over.

The proposal, if approved by the DU board of trustees, would mean the 93-year-old college for women would cease to be a separate institution. But its programs and its 50-acre campus at Montview Boulevard and Quebec Street would survive intact.
We would have preferred to find an alternative that would have allowed us to keep our independence, Robert Colwell, chairman of CWCs board of trustees, said Sunday. But its better than closing down entirely.
The proposed agreement calls for DU to assimilate CWCs programs in the form of a concentration of studies for women. It would be centered on the main DU campus at 2199 S. University Blvd.
DU then would use the old CWC campus for other pursuits, such as self-contained graduate programs now pressed for space at the main campus, said DU Chancellor Ross Pritchard.
. In addition, the proposed merger would allow CWCs 308 students to finish the current school year unaffected. Assimilation would begin with the fall 1982 semester, according to officials for both schools.
CWCs programs should be integrated fully into DU by 1983, said Pritchard. The DU board is expected to meet on the proposed merger within 10 days.
The agreement authorizes DU to assume the charter, functions, assets and liabilities of the smaller school.
The merger would mean DU would inherit $6.7 million in debts run up by CWC. The debts stem from the colleges expansion in the late 1960s and early 1970s.
A steady enrollment decline since then from 1,100 to the current 308 has brought financial instability to the institution. Only one of six dormitories now is being used as a resi-. dence hall. In January, Mountain Bell cut off most of the colleges phone service for a day because a bill had not been paid.
In August, CWC defaulted on a $3 million debt whose due date had already been extended a year by three Denver lending institutions.
There also is $3.7 million-owed on dormitory bonds and other debts. ;
Pritchard said it isn't clear how CWC's debts would be handled if the merger comes about, but he added that DU wouldnt have expressed interest in a merger if it werent financially feasible.
"Well just have to sit down and look at our available resources, he said, and decide what were going to do with that.
He expressed hope that CWCs creditors would wait a little longer to be paid. My feeling is they are more interested in being repaid than they are in foreclosing, said Pritchard.
£bout three weeks ago, DU officials decided after a study that it wasnt feasible to merge with CWC. But Pritchard said that study had been based on the assumption DU simply would take over the operation of CWCs programs and campus.
After DU made that announcement, Pritchard said, CWC officials approached the university and asked under what terms a merger could be made. Thats when DU administrators hit upon the assimilation and integration ideas embodied in the proposal announced Sunday.
What were trying to do is in some way respond to the difficulties of CWC, and still carry forth the traditions of CWC, said Pritchard. He said DUs concentration in womens studies would create "an environment in which women can flourish.
Pritchard said no decisions have been made on what would become of CWCs faculty and staff. In a controversial move last Christmas, CWC President Sherry Manning announced a reorganization that cut the full-time faculty from 25 to 10.
Our intent and philosophy is to make this as comfortable and as professional a transition as is possible under the circumstances, said Pritchard.
The closing of CWC is a hard pill for Colwell to swallow. His grandfather. David Pulliam, was one of the colleges founders. "Im sad that were no longer an independent institution, he said Sunday. "A lot of folks have put a lot into making this a great institution.
CWC was formed in 1888. Since then, more than 6,900 women have received degrees at the college.

university U
TELEPHONE 303/753-2143
The University of Denver has obtained a $10 million loan from the First Interstate Bank of Denver which it will use to pay off the debt assumed in acquiring Colorado Women's College. According to Chancellor Ross Pritchard, a commitment of an additional $10 million has been received from a consortium of Denver banks comprised of Central Bank of Denver, Colorado National Bank, Denver National Bank and University National Bank. The $20 million of financing was negotiated under terms of new legislation permitting private Colorado institutions to make use of the states right to issue tax-free bonds and notes.
The First Interstate loan-TjtLLL be. used to pay off creditors who hold approximately $6.3 million in debts against CWC which DU assumed along with the 33-acre campus and facilities of the financially troubled 93-year-old school. The balance of that loan, after debt service charges, will go toward campus improvements and deferred maintenance. It is secured by University property, bonds and cash-equivalent collateral.
The consortium commitment will be used toward construction of a Lowell Thomas Law Center on the CWC campus, centerpiece of a three-building complex to embody a new concept in legal education, research and practice, the Chancellor said. The loan will be secured by the present DU law property at West 14th Ave. and Bannock St., which is slated to be offered for sale early next year.

University of Denver CWC Add 1
The new Lowell Thomas Center, on which work is slated to begin this August and which is scheduled for occupancy in January, 1984, is named for the famed broadcaster, alumnus and DU benefactor.. Two existing facilities will be utilized as the other components of the law center.
A unified, high-technology concept figures importantly in program plans for the CWC campus, according to Dr. Pritchard, starting first with the law school.
"We will place on line a fully computerized system of instruction and legal research by which we expect to design and implement an interactive relationship with the law profession in Denver, Colorado and the West,"
Dr. Pritchard declared.

The Site

The campus of Colorado Women's College is located in the Park Hill area of Denver. It is bounded by Mountview Boulevard to the North, 17th Avenue to the South, Quebec Street to the East, and Oneida Street to the West.
The site available for the Law Center on campus is land directly North and adjacent to the existing Porter Library facility. This parcel of land is bounded by existing structures to the North, West and South; to the East the campus quad area is predominate.


Porter Library
Pullman Hall

The main portion of the site starts approximately 50 feet North of Porter Library and slopes down approximately 4 feet from the South to the North and approximately 1 foot from the East to the West. The portion of land directly North and adjacent to Porter Library and extending approximately 50 feet is on an elevation 5 feet higher than the rest of the site.
The landscape form of the campus consist of a formal quad type setting.
The proposed building area is open lawn. Plant material on and around the site consist of Pfitzer, Sugar Maple, Pine trees and various types of shrubs. The area is irrigated by an above grade sprinkling system.

The subsurface soil conditions at the site consist of a layer of silty to sandy clay 4 to 12.5 feet thick overlying clean to clayey sands.
Subsurface water is not present.
From the soils engineer 3 alternatives for the building foundation system are feasible. The proposed structure may be founded on:
A) Belled or straight-shaft piers bearing on the sands near elevation 25.
B) Footings placed on compacted nonexpansive structural fill. This would require removal of the existing silty to sandy clays.
C) Steel pipe piles using 12-inch diameter closed end pipe pile 40 feet long, placed in groups of 3.
Moderate to heavily loaded ground floor slabs should be placed on at least 3 feet of compacted nonexpansive fill.

All necessary services such as gas, water, electrical power, telephone, sanitary and storm sewers are available. These services are underground and adjacent to the site.
Since utility mains run North/South under Pontiac and Olive Streets and East/West under 19th Avenue. The City of Denver has set up an ordiance to protect utility right of way.
"The vacation of Pontiac Street, 19th Avenue, and Olive Street by the City and County of Denver has reserved to itself for all times by ordiance, the right to construct, maintain, and remove sewers, water pipes and appurtenances, and to authorize the construction maintence and removal of the same...."
This vacation ordinance is 60 feet wide to the North, East and West of the site.

Pedestrian and bicycle access to the site is unlimited from any direction via existing walks and paths through campus.
Direct public vehicular access to the site is possible to the periphery of the campus only. The three routes to give the shortest walking distance from automobile to the proposed building are:
A) From 18th Avenue access is possible from the middle of the block behind Porter Library and to the West of this building.
B) From 19th Avenue access is possible from the intersection with Olive Street.
C) From Oneida Street access is possible from Whatley Chapel West of the site.
Public transportation access is possible through a major bus route on Quebec Street.

Annual Mean Temperature 50.2 Degrees Fahrenheit
Annual Maximum Temperature 63.4 Degrees Fahrenheit
Annual Minimum Temperature 37.0 Degrees Fahrenheit
Record Highest Temperature 104.0 Degrees Fahrenheit July 1939
Record Lowest Temperature -30.0 Degrees Fahrenheit February 1936
Mean Daily Max. Temperature 64.0 Degrees Fahrenheit
Mean Daily Min. Temperature 36.2 Degrees Fahrenheit
Annual Mean Heating Degrees Days 6016
Annual Mean Cooling Degree Days 625
Annual Mean Precipitation 14.5 inches
Record Max. Monthly Precipitation 7.31 inches May 1957
Record Min. Monthly Precipitation Trace September 1944
Record Max. Precipitation in 24 hrs. 3.55 inches May 1873
Annual Mean Snowfall 59.0 inches
Record Max. Monthly Snowfall 39.1 inches November 1946
Record Max. Snowfall in 24 hrs. 19.4 inches September 1936
Mean Wind Speed 9.0 mph from the South
Record Wind Speed 56 mph from the Southwest in July 1965
Mean Annual Percent of Possible Sunshine 70%
Mean Annual Clear Days 116
Mean Annual Partly Cloudy Days 131
Mean Annual Cloudy Days 118

Solar Path for Denver
v/n. 4. i
sO> m .oo>

Federal Aviation Administration height restrictions are in effect because of the proximity of the site to Stapleton Airport. The height restriction in this area is elevation 5483. The U.S.G.S. survey for the campus has an elevation of approximately 5350. This will allow a new building to be constructed to a height of up to 153 feet.

Zoning and Codes

Si te Zoned R-3
Front Setback All structures shall be set in a distance of not less than 10 feet from each front line of the Zone Lot.
Rear Setbacks Structures shall be set in a distance of not less than 20 feet from each rear line of the Zone Lot.
Side Setback Structures shall be set in a distance of not less than 7 feet 6 inches from each side line of the Zone Lot.
Permi tted Encroachments on Setback Space Belt courses, sills, lintels, pilasters, cornices, eves, gutters, outside stairways, unwalled porches, terraces and balconies.
Fences, Wails and Retaining Walls Fences, walls and retaining walls not exceeding 48 inches in height may be erected on any part of the Zone Lot.
Maximum Gross Floor Area in Structures The sum total of gross floor area of all structures shall not be greater than 3 times the area of the Zone Lot.
Special Zone Lot Plan for Planned Building Groups The provisions of Article 616. Special Zone Lot Plan for Planned Building Groups shall be in effect.
Off-Street Parking Requi rements The provisions of Article 614. Off-Street Parking Requirements shall be in effect.
Off-Street Loading Requi rements The provisions of Article 615. Off-Street Loading Requirements shall be in effect.

- occupancy classification Group B, Division 2
- construction type Type II
- exterior wall fire resistance 2 hours
- opening in exterior walls not less than 5 feet
- occupancy separation not restrictions
Construction, Height, Allowable Floor Area
- maximum height, 75 ft. and/or 4 stories
- floor area for building 1 story in height equals 22,500 sq. ft. floor area may be increased by 1/3 because in fire zone 3
- the floor area of all floors of buildings over one story in height shall not exceed 200% of area permitted for one story buildings
- occupancies shall be of at least 1 hour fire resistive construction throughout
Light, Ventilation, Toilet Room Facilities
- all enclosed spaces used by people provided with exterior glazed openings, 1/10 of floor area min.
- natural daylighting with openable windows 1/20 of floor area min.
- mechanical ventilation system with 5 cu. ft./min. of outside air
- total air circulation 15 cu. ft./min./ occupant under continuous operation when occupied.
- toilet facilities shall be located convenient to occupied areas being served and in no case more than 200 feet on the same level or more than one floor removed from occupied area
- minimum fixtures water closets, male 1 per 100 female 1 per 75, male urinals 1 per 100, lavatories 1 per 200
floors smooth, hard, non-absorbent surface
- water closets- in stalls, min. 30" in width

24" min. in front of fixtures
- mirror within 40" of floor
- one towel dispenser and disposal within 40" of floor
- provide at least one water closet and one lavatory for handicapped persons
- handicapped fixture doorway clearance 30" width
- 60" diameter circle in toilet room
- doors may encrouch only 12" into circle
- handicapped toilet to have 42" x 48" space in front of water closet
- grab bars required 32-34" from floor, 1%-1% diameter
- 26" width x 27" height x 12" depth under at least one lavatory Water Fountains
- 1 drinking fountain per floor
- within 33" of floor with spout up front, hand operated controls
- when in alcove 32" width min.
Exit Requirements, Stairs
- 2 exits required min.
floors above first story with occupancy of more than 10 needs 2 exi ts
- mezzanines, or more than 2,000 sq. ft. or more than 60' in any direction need 2 stairways to adjacent floor
- stories with occupant loads of 501-1000, 3 exits min.
- stories with occupant loads of more than 1000, 4 exits min.
- the total width of exits in feet shall be at least the total occupant load served divided by 50
- when more than 1 exit is required from a portion of a building or

story, at least 2 of the exits shall be remote from each other
- max. travel distance to exit or exit passageway without sprinklers 150', with sprinklers 200'
Exit Doors
- doors swing in direction of exit travel
- operable from interior without keys
- panic hardware required from 30" to 44" from floor
- 3' x 6'8" min. size
- self-closing non-combustible or solid core wood 1 3/4" min. thickness
- 90 opening of doors required
- 32" clear width of exitway when door opened revolving doors not a required exit
Corridors & Exit Balconies
- exit corridors must be continuous to exit no obstructions or intervening spaces except foyers, lobbies or reception areas
- 44" min. width
- 7" clear height
- no projections or obstructions into the space
- 20' from any exit max. distance when in a dead end corridor
- when corridors accessible to elevators, no stairs, just ramps requi red
- 1 hour fire resistant construction walls, ceilings, floors
fire doors with fire/draft assembly required in corridors with 20 minute fire protection rating
- doors to be automatic self-closing

- 44" min. width
- handrails 3% projection max.
- risers between 4" and 7V
- run 10" min.
- winding, circular, spiral stairs see sect. 3305
- 12' max. distance vertically between landings
- stairs greater than 88" width must have intermediate handrail
- stairs to have handrails on each side
- if 4 or more stories must have stairway to roof
- headroom for stairs 6'6" min.
- width 44"
- slope -1:12 max. slope
- landings top and bottom 1' intermediate for each 5' verticall
- 5' length of landings min. at top 6' at bottom
- doors not to reduce landing less than 42"
- handrails required as in stairs no intermediate rails required
- surface of non-slip material Smoke-Proof Stairway Enclosure
- see sect. 3309 Exit Lighting Requirements
- at every required exit
- wherever needed to indicate direction of egress

- illuminated not less than 1 f. c. at floor level Skylights
- 4" curb required when angled less than 45
- 25" between supports in wired glass skylight
- 5' between supports corrugated wired glass
- wired or tempered glass 7/32" min. thickness Penthouses & Roof Structures
- must be less than 28' tall when enclosing tanks of elevators
- be less than or equal to 12' in all other cases
- 33 1/3% or supporting roof max.
- 1 hour fire resistant construction
Boiler & Furnace Room
- 2 means of egress when it is 500 sq. ft. or more and/or boiler furnace exceeds 400,000 BTU/hour input
one egress may be a fixed ladder
Requirements Based on Construction Types
- usable spaces under floors must be enclosed with 1 hour constructi
- class C roof coverings required see sect. 1704 Fire Resistant Requirements
- exterior bearing walls 4 hour
- interior bearing walls 2 hour
- exterior non-bearing walls 4 hour
structural frame 2 hour

- permnanent partitions 1 hour
- shaft enclosures 2 hour floors 1 hour
- roofs 1 hour Exceptions
- fixed partitions can be constructed of: non-combustible materials, fire-retardant treated wood, 1 hour fire resistant construction, wood panels up to 3/4 room height, plastic partitions, see sect. 521
- movable partitions does not need fire resistant ratings if: they do not block exits or establish an exit corridor, they are located by permanent tracks, materials have flame spread classification
as in Table 42B
Shaft Enclosures
- openings vertically through floors enclosed with fire resistant construction
- not required to close if opening only 2 floors
- elevator shafts through 2 or more stories must vent to outside 3 sq. ft./elevator
Fire Extinguishing Systems
provide sprinklers when floors greater than 1,500 sq. ft.
- at tops of chutes of any kind
- in combustible areas
- in occupancy over 12,000 sq. ft. used for exhibition or display
- if more than 100 sprinklers must have alarms
- standpipes at every floor level landing of required stairway and at each side of wall adjacent to exit opening

The Program

The Law Library represents the core of Judicial education and research. It will house approximately 270,000 volumes of hard copy law research materials. Along with book stacks the library will also house reading spaces, a Faculty Library, Public and Staff support spaces.
With the nature of Judicial studies in its current practice, this facility will become more than just a building containing research material. For the students it will become a second home. A law student can expect to spend a vast majority of their study time in this building. Owing to this fact the Library will have to accomodate a high occupancy rate 24 hrs. a day.

The teaching spaces are to provide mixed sizes and densities of classrooms for faculty and students. The large classrooms are to provide flexible space for Moot Court, lectures, meetings, and presentations. The other classrooms are to provide space for smaller lectures, meetings, discussions and presentations.

General design requirements set forth by the University of Denver are as follows
Wi ndows Double pane glazing for energy conservation operable in certain spaces.
Doors Interior doors will be solid core wood, 3'x 7' with metal frames. Vision panels desirable in the classrooms and seminars.
Floor Finishes Floor finish will be either carpet, vinyl asbestos tile, or sealed concrete. Toilet Rooms will be ceramic tile. Recessed entry mats at entrance ways are not desirable.
Wall Finishes Main circulation corridors will be either concrete block or double layer of 5/8" Gypsum. Toilet Rooms shall be concrete or concrete block with ceramic tile wainscot or full height.
Ceiling Finishes Gypsum board or suspended acoustic tile. Exposed structure may be used with approval.
Mechanical/Utility Systems Systems should stress energy conservation and efficiency of operation. The building will eventually be placed on a Honeywell 1000 computer system for monitoring and controling energy use. The building will not be connected to the campus central steam system because the system is at capacity. A new gas line will be extended to the site.
Lighti ng Natural and artificial lighting should be available in most spaces. Local switching control is preferred to minimize wasted energy.
Electrical Power Secondary voltage distribution with the building will be 120 VAC.
Communication The building must have the capability of incorporating new communications, media, and word processing technologies as they are available. Conduit will be provided for voice and date communication.

Name Assignable Space (net sq. ft.) Design Occupant Load
Book Stacks 31 ,760 Reader spaces will b interspeersed within the area. Net sq. f counted separately.
Hughes Room and Rare Books Room 2 § 600 25 stations
Lobby 400 Vari es
Reference Office 450 3
Associate Law Librarian Office/Head, Public Services 180 1
Reference/Information Desk Station 90 1-2
Document Librarian Station 120 1 station
Closed Reserve/ Circulation 1000 (800 closed reserve, 200 circ. desk) 9
Open Reserve 1050 30 stations
Duplication/Photocopy Rooms 2 0 550 4-5
Card Catalog/Index Tables 410 29 stations
Audio-Visual Room 1000 10
Computer Room 800 8
Duplication Stations 4 @ 240 Varies
Reading Areas 11 ,150 330 stations
Head, Technical Services 150 1 station
Technical Services Area 1680 14 work stations, 4 visitors

Name Assignable Space (net sq. ft.) Design Occupant Load
Faculty Library 1100 8 stations
Librarian's Office 200 4-6
Secretarial/ Reception Area 240 2 stations
Conference Room 400 15 stations
Classroom 750 30 stations
Library Staff Room 300 12 stations
M.L.L. Office 300 5
Work Room/Storage 180 Varies
Alumni Rooms 2 0 400 8 stations
Multi Purpose Classroom/ Moot Court 7,800 600
Classroom 2,400 150
Classrooms 3 @ 6000 375
Classrooms 4 0 5,040 280
Classrooms 2 @ 1,800 100
Media Control Room 350 1-15
Servicing/Storage 180 1-2
Storage/Moot Court 120 None

Book Stacks
Hughes Room and Rare Books Rooms
Reference Office
Associate Law Librarian Office/Head, Public Services
Purpose: To house approximately 270,000 volumes of Hard Copy Law Research Materials.
Equipment: Approximately 45,000 linear feet of adjustable book shelves.
Purpose: To house existing Hughes collection and rare law books.
Furnishings: Upholstered furniture, Display shelves.
Purpose: Entrance to Library, space for exhibit cabinets and art work.
Equipment: Exhibit cases and Tattle Tape Security System.
Purpose: Office to house the professional reference staff and computer research person.
Furnishings: Standard office furniture and storage equipment.
Purpose: Administrative as well as Head of Public Services Office, oversees day-to-day operation of the library.
Furnishings: Standard office furniture and storage equipment.
Reference/Information Desk Station
Document Librarian Station
Closed Reserve/Circulation
Purpose: To help students with research problems, to locate professional Ref. Libr.
Furnishings: Standard office furniture and storage equipment.
Purpose: To service government documents collection.
Furnishings: Standard office furniture.
Purpose: Reserve- to house faculty reserve materials, faculty A-V tapes, current periodicals and other high risk materials.

Open Reserve
Duplication/Photocopy Room
Card Catalog/Index Tables
Audio-Visual Room
Computer Room
Duplication Stations
Reading Areas
Circulation-check books in-outjinformation and collect fees.
Furnishings: Standard office furniture and storage equipment, lockers and carrels.
Purpose: To provide space for user access to high risk materials.
Furnishings: Carrels, tables with chairs, shelves, and copier.
Purpose: To make photocopies of library materials upon request.
Equipment: Copiers, work surface and shelves.
Purpose: Space for Card Catalog and Index Tables.
Furnishings: Card Catalog and tables.
Purpose: To collect and service non-book research materials and to provide for their use.
Furnishings: Carrels, work tables and cabinets.
Purpose: To house and secure computerized research.
Furnishings: Work stations, moveable dividers.
Purpose: To provide space for photo copiers. Furnishings: None
Purpose: To provide a variety of Reading/ Research areas.
Furnishings: Carrels.
Purpose: To provide space for work related to the administration of Tech. Services.
Head, Technical Services

Technical Service Area
Faculty Library
Librarian's Office
Secretarial/Reception Area
Conference Room
Library Staff Room
M.L.L. Office
Furnishings: Standard office furniture and storage equipment.
Purpose: To provide space for acquisitions, cataloging, serials, binding, mending, filing and mail sorting.
Furnishings: Standard office furniture, storage equipment and work tables.
Purpose: To provide space within main Library in which faculty can do research.
Furnishings: Carrels, swivel chairs, lounge chair and antique reading tables.
Purpose: Head Librarian's Office, professor and administrator of the Library and Director of the MLL program.
Furnishings: Standard office furniture and storage equipment.
Purpose: Receive the public, secretary to Librarian and Associate Librarian.
Furnishings: Standard office furniture and storage equipment.
Purpose: Staff meetings.
Furnishings: Conference table and chairs.
Purpose: Lectures and computer instruction space.
Furnishings: Tables and chairs.
Purpose: Eating, kitchenette, meeting area and storage space.
Furnishings: Sofa, lounge chairs,dinette sets, kitchen equipment.
Purpose: Work/study area for MLL candi dates.
Furnishings: Carrels, lounge furniture.

Work Room/Storage
Alumni Room
Multi Purpose Classroom/ Moot Court
Media Control Room
Servi ng/Storage
Storage/Moot Court
Purpose: Storage area
Furnishings: Shelves, work tables.
Purpose: To provide an area for visiting alumni working at the library; "an office away from the office."
Furnishings: Lavishly furnished with antique pieces.
Purpose: To provide space for Moot Court and lectures.
Furnishings: Fixed and moveable court room furniture, A-V equipment.
Purpose: To provide space for lectures, meetings and presentations.
Furnishings: Fixed continous counter/ tables; fixed pivot or cantilever seats.
Purpose: To provide space to monitor and control A-V equipment.
Furnishings: Work tables, A-V consoles.
Purpose: A multi purpose space for serving refreshments.
Furnishings: Serving counter and storage cabinets.
Purpose: Storage area for Multi Purpose Classroom equipment.

Book Stacks Heating: 70 degrees plus/minus 5 degrees, Humidity 45-55%, cooling 75 degrees.
Hughes Room and Rare Books Room The Hughes Room should be designed to match the existing room; Cardox Halon 1301 fire suppression system.
Lobby Separation of entrance space from exit space to provide security (Tattle Tape).
Reference Office None
Associate Law Librarian Office/Head, Public Services None
Reference/Information Desk Station None
Document Librarian Station None
Closed Reserve/Circulation None
Open Reserve None
Dupl ication/Photocopy Room None
Card Catalog/Index Tables None
Audio-Visual Room None
Computer Room Security of the area.
Duplication Stations None
Reading Areas None
Head, Technical Services None
Technical Services Area None
Faculty Library Separate entrance from main Law Library entrance.
Librarian's Office None
Secretarial/Reception Area None
Conference Room None

Library Staff Room M.L.L. Office Work Room/Storage Alumni Rooms
Multi Purpose Classroom/ Moot Court; 150 and 125 Station Classrooms
Other Classrooms Media Control Room Servici ng/Storage Storage/Moot Court
Flexible interior arrangements; room configuration should approach a square rather than a rectangle.


Design a structure to house a Law Center facility for the University of Denver, College of Law, to be located on the campus of Colorado Womens College in Denver.
This facility is to function as a on line computerized state-of-the-art system for legal research and education.
The Law Center should be capable of operating as two units while being interelated for user access. These units are a Law Library plus support spaces and a variety of Teaching facilities.
1) Provide spaces for traditional law education (hard copy materials) and spaces for high technologies research (Westlaw, Lexis, SIRS computer systems).
2) Provide spaces for law instruction and Moot Court and related activiti
3) Provide spaces to accomodate support functions that relate to law instruction and research.

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Space scaled to approximate net space requirements.
Space should be contiguous.
Direct physical connection required.
Point of control and/or monitoring.
Access into and/or out of a component.
Major circulation connection.
Outdoor space.
Two way visual access required.
One way visual access required.
Space should be separated.

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TABLE 15 Suggested Stack-Aisle Widths and Stack-Range Lengths
Aisle Range
width, in.f lengths*
Typical use of stack Min. Max. Min. Max.
Closed-access storage stack 24 30 30 60
Limited-access, little-used stack for over 1,000,000 volumes 26 31 30 42
Heavily used open-access stack for over 1,000,000 volumes 31 36 24 36
Very heavily used open-access stack with less than 1,000,000 volumes 33 40 15 30
Newspaper stack with 18 in. deep shelves 36 45 15 30
Reference and current-periodical room stacks . 36 60 12 21
Current-periodical display stacks 42 60 12 21
* These are suggestions only and not to be considered definite recommendations. Circumstances alter cases.
t Stack-aisle widths of 24 in. should be considered an absolute minimum and are rarely justifiable. Anything under 26 in. is difficult with a book truck, even when the use is light. The minimum range lengths suggested.
* Stack-range lengths are often determined by available space, rather than by their suitability. The maximum lengths shown in the table should generally be used only with the maximum aisle widths suggested. *
TABLE 16 Suggested Cross-Aisle Widths***
Main aisle Subsidiary cross aisled
Typical use of stack Min. Max. Min. Max.
Closed-access storage . 3 ft 4 ft 6 in. 2 ft 6 in. 3 ft 6 in.
Limited-access stack .... 3 ft 4 ft 6 in. 3 ft 3 ft 6 in.
Heavily used open-access stack 4 ft 5 ft 3 ft 4 ft
Heavily used open-access stack for large collection and ranges 30 ft or more long 4 ft 6 in. 6 ft 3 ft 3 in. 4 ft 6 in.
These are suggestions only and not to be considered definite recommendations. Circumstances alter cases, tin determining minimum or maximum widths, keep in mind the length and width of the book trucks used, as well as the amount of use. Minimum width stack aisles should not be accompanied by minimum cross aisles. From the widths shown in the table, up to 4 in. may have to be subtracted to provide for adjacent stack uprights and irregularities in column sizes.
*lf open carrels adjoin a subsidiary aisle, they will make it seem wider, but traffic will tend to be disturbing to the carrel occupants.
If closed carrels open from a subsidiary aisle, they will make it seem narrower.

Fig. 14 Carrels at right angles to a wall, (a) Suggests sizes and spacing and shows elevations, (b) Carrel in place of last stack section next to a wall. The working surface of the carrel should be in line with the stack range instead of the aisle in order to make it easier to get into the chair.
Fig. 15 Carrels with shelves, (a) Shelf in front of reader. The table should be 5 in. deeper than one without a shelf, and adequate spacing between carrels may be difficult to arrange, (b) Shelf at one side instead of in front. (It can be at either side.) This requires more width but less depth. (c) Shelf at one side facing the aisle. This can provide more shelf capacity and greater privacy; it also demands greater total width.

Fig. 16 Reading-room table with dividing partitions. Not very satisfactory if table seats more than four and reader is hemmed in on both sides. If he leans back, he is too close to his neighbor. If light is hung from the partition, it tends to cause an unpleasant glare. If partitions between readers sitting side by side are extended on both sides to provide more privacy, they become too confining.
TABLE 11 Approximate Square-footage Requirements for Different Types of Seating Accommodationsa
Requirements, sq ft
Type of accommodations Minimum Adequate Generous
Small lounge chair6 20 25 30
Large lounge chair6 25 30 35
Individual table ^ 25 30 35
Tables for four6 22% 25 27%
Tables for more than four ^ 20 22% 25
Individual carrels* 20 22% 25
Double carrelsh CM CM 25 27%
Doubled-staggered carrels' 22% 25 27%
Triple-staggered carrels' CM CM 25 27%
Double row of carrels with partitions between, placed in a reading room or in place of two stack ranges k 22% 25 27%
a The figures used here include: (11 area of working surface if any; (2) area occupied by chair; (3) area used for direct access to the accommodations; and (4) reasonable share of all the assignable space used for main aisles in the room under consideration.
b These chairs if in pairs should be separated by a small table to prevent congestion and to hold books not in use.
Large lounge chairs are expensive, space-consuming, and an aid to slumber. Rarely recommended.
^Individual tables are space-consuming, are generally disorderly in appearance because they are easily moved, and result in a restless atmosphere from traffic on all sides. Not recommended except along a wall or screen.
^Tables for four are the largest ones recommended, unless pressure for additional capacity is great.
'Tables for more than four are space savers, but few readers like to sit with someone on each side. They will avoid using them as far as possible.
^Individual carrels are economical in use of space if placed at right angles to a wall, adjacent to an aisle that must be provided under any circumstances. They reduce visual distraction if partitions 52 in. or more in height are provided on at least two of the four sides. See Figs. 18a and d.
h Double carrels are useful, but the staggered ones described below are preferred.
> Double-staggered carrels are as economical of space as tables for four and reduce visual distractions. See Fig. 20a.
Triple-staggered carrels are as economical of space as tables for six or more and reduce visual distraction.
* Double rows of carrels are economical in space use and reduce visual distraction. See Fig. 19.
Fig. 15 (corn.) Carrels with shelves.

Fig. 17 Other types of single carrels, (a) Partly open typing carrel in place of last stack section with acoustically protected walls and ceiling aided by adjacent books. Absence of other seating close at hand makes doors unnecessary, (b) Closed carrel with door and shelf. If there is no window, wider spacing is desirable to prevent claustrophobia. Ventilation and lighting will present problems, (c) A dog-leg carrel is a compromise for one facing a wall, which is disliked by many, if partitions are extended enough to provide seclusion. The carrel is open on one side.

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Fig. 18 Open cartels along a wall or a partition at least 52 in. high, (a) Carrels along a wall all facing the same way. (Recommended.) lb) Carrels along a wall in pairs. (Possible, but they back up to each other unpleasantly.) (c) Carrels facing a wall. (Not recommended if there are side partitions, reader has "blinders." If he leans back, his neighbor is close at hand.) (d) Carrel elevation to show desirable height of partitions to prevent visual distraction. The left-hand carrel shows a rounded type of construction and the right-hand one a square type.

TABLE 12 Book Heights*
8 in. or less..................................... 25%
9 in. or less.................................. 54
10 in. or less................................ 79
11 in. or less................................ 90
12 in. or less................................ 94
13 in. or less................................ 97
Over 13 in......................................... 3
Adapted from Rider's Compact Storage, p. 45, which was based to a considerable extent on research done by Van Hoesen and Kilpatrick on the height of books In academic libraries.
6-0* MIN. 6-0" 41N.
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Fig. 20 Double-staggered carrels, (a) Double-staggered carrel adiacent to a wall. The cartel by the wall will be helped by a window. Partitions should be 52 in. high or higher. Recommended. |b| Oouble-staggered carrels on each side of a screen or partition. A space saver, but recommended only when necessary to provide required seating capacity. The backs of the inside carrels should be no more than 40 in. high.

U 1 15-0" ,. 3-0" 15-0"

5-0* SPACING 33' i 5' - 16 5 SO. FT. FOR 2,500 VOLS * 15.1 + VOLS. PER SQ. FT
4-6 33' 4 T = 1 4 8 T 2,500 = 16.8 + MM ..
4-3 33' . 4 4* * 1 40 J 2,5 00 " * 17.8 + "
4'-0 33 i 4 ' - 1 3 2 2,500 = 19.0 _ II II M
Fig. 23 Stack capacity with different range spacing and minimum cross aisle. Cross aisle = area.
Fig. 24 Stack combined with stack alcoves. Nonstandard bay sizes can sometimes be used to advantage without seriously affecting capacity per sguare foot.