A day care center for Celestial Seasonings Inc.

Material Information

A day care center for Celestial Seasonings Inc.
Carlson, Martha S
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
87 leaves, [6] leaves of plates : illustrations, forms, maps, plans ; 29 cm


Subjects / Keywords:
Employer-supported day care -- Colorado -- Boulder ( lcsh )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )


Includes bibliographical references (leaves 85-87).
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Martha S. Carlson.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
09660410 ( OCLC )
LD1190.A72 1983 .C398 ( lcc )

Full Text
environmental design AURARIA LIBRARY



Gary Crowell, Professor Univerity of Colorado/Denver
Bob Klutznik, Director Boulder Day Nursery 1518 Spruce Street Boulder, Colorado 80302
Ron Rinker, Principal
Barker, Rinker, Seacat & Partners Architects 1770 Blake Street Denver, Colorado 80202
Doug Sault, Associate Everett, Zeigel, Tumpes, Hand Architects .1215 Spruce Street Boulder, Colorado 80302
Linda Watson, Manager of Administrative Services Celestial Seasonings Herb Tea, Inc.
1780 55th Street Boulder, Colorado 80301

All poems in this book are by Robert Louis Stevenson from

INTRODUCTION.......................................................... 1
PATTERNS, ACTIVITIES, AND NEEDS ...................................... 2
The Organization of a Children's Center........................ 2
Young Children in Groups....................................... 4
A Multi-Realm Environment for Child and Adult .... 5
A Transition Place for Parent and Child........................ 7
Visitors, Administration, Staff................................ 8
Entry and Exit From the Group Play Environment .... 9
The Group Play Environment.................................... 10
Places to Pause for Awhile.................................... 14
Presentation and Storage of Play Materials.................... 15
A Child's Personal Possessions................................ 17
Children's Toilet Area........................................ 18
Children's Sinks ............................................. 19
Water Play ................................................... 21
Construction Activities....................................... 22
Clay, Paint, Graphics, and Collage............................ 24
Props for Dramatic Play..................................... 26
Sand, Soil Plus Water......................................... 28
Reading, Listening, Manipulative and Sensorial Materials.......................................... 30
Music, Singing, Dancing....................................... 31
Plants and Animals.......................................... 32
Naps.......................................................... 33

Contents (Continued)
The Sick Child........................................ 35
Staff Lounge/Parents Lounge.......................... 36
Observing the Children's Activities................... 38
The Outdoor Play Yard................................. 40
SUMMARY OF SPACE ALLOCATION ................................ 44
THE SITE................................................. 45-54
Background............................................ 45
Existing Conditions................................... 50
CLIMATE..................................................... 55
ZONING ..................................................... 56
BUILDING CODE SURVEY....................................... 59
MINIMUM RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR CHILD CARE CENTERS................................. 61-76
CLIMATE APPENDIX......................................... 77-84
REFERENCES............................................... 85-87
THE DESIGN ............................................. i-viii

How do you like to go up in a swing, Up in the air so blue?
Oh, I do think itthe pleasantest thing Ever a child can do!
Up in the air and over the wall,
Till I can see so wide,
Rivers and trees and cattle and all Over the countryside -
Till I look down on the garden green, Down on the roof so brown -
Up in the air I go flying again,
Up in the air and down!

Children are a treasure, a delight and a part of our investment in life. They deserve the best we have to offer.
The children of the 1980's and 199Q's will be exposed to a world changing at an as yet unexperienced rate. It is critical for them to receive a nurturing, secure environment, quality education and recreation, and the commitment of an entire community to their potential development and growth. (Barndollar, 1981.)
Celestial Seasonings, Inc. is one such community committed to respond to the changing needs of today's society. Recognition of the changes in family structures, work patterns and roles, financial limitations, and psychological and spiritual needs of both children and parents has directed the company toward the establishment of a child day care center for its employees. The following program and design were compiled and created in an effort to fulfill such needs.
To create a place and an occasion for growth: a space free for spontaneity, play and delight; and an environment in which to learn, question, and discover these are my goals.

I have a little shadow that goes in and out with me,
And what can be the use of him is more than I can see.
He is very, very like me from the heels up to the head;
And I see him jump before me, when I jump into my bed.
The funniest thing about him is the way he likes to grow -Not at all like proper children, which is always very slow;
For he sometimes shoots up taller like an india-rubber ball,
And he sometimes gets so little that there's none of him at all.
He hasn't got a notion of how children ought to play,
And can only make a fool of me in every sort of way.
He stays so close beside me, he's a coward you can see;
I'd think shame to stick to nursie as that shadow sticks to me!
One morning, very early, before the sun was up,
I rose and found the shining dew on every buttercup;
But my lazy little shadow, like an arrant sleepy-head,
Had stayed at home behind me and wa3 fast asleep in bed.

Due to my lack of knowledge of early childhood education in general, and specifically, the environmental needs for early education, I turned to research done by others. 3y far, the most complete effort has been by Fred Linn Osmon, as compiled in his book Patterns for Designing Children's Centers (1972). The following is a very condensed synopsis of Osmon's book, personally interpreted; hence, none of the ideas are my own. Direct quotations from his book are noted by page numbers.
The provision of child care services for working parents and intellectually stimulating young children are the primary motives for establishing day care centers. The two need not be exclusive of one another; child care and education should be complementary and can provide significant learning experiences.
There are two main approaches to early childhood education:
. The traditional nursery school can best be described as child centered and permissive. The teacher provides the necessary structure through an intuitive grasp of each childs stage of development.
. The other approach is one of structured programing, usually based on a specific educational theory. The program is a sequenced presentation of teacher-planned activities. For example, a program based on Piaget's theories with the primary goals of cognitive and language development.
As to the structure of specific daily programs, there are generally three different approaches.
1) free choice a program emphasizing cognitive, social and emotional development which allows free choice of materials and activities. The structure is derived from the materials and teacher contact with each child.
2) slow pace a program similar to the free choice triad, but with a greater emphasis on cognitive development. The daily routine is centered around teacher planned activities which includes "free play".

3) highly structured this program approach is centered on cognitive or symbol development through highly structured activities. The motivation for this type of program is the preparation of the child for elementary school curriculum.
"A long-range study by Weikart (1970 A) compared the three program approaches listed above and produced an unpredicted result. All of the programs did very well in stimulating the cognitive growth of the children. The general conclusion was that the teacher's involvement with developing the curriculum is critical and "that children profit intellectually from any curriculum that is based on a wide range of experiences", (p. 23). This leaves the choice of the program open to the director and her staff, and in fact, it may encourage a wider variety of programs." (p.15).
For the Celestial Seasonings Day Care Center, the assumption will be made that the highly structured daily program is not a preferred option. The free choice and slow pace programs are very similar. Hence, the environmental approaches and design criteria for either program could accommodate the other program with only slight adjustments. The considerations below are primarily geared to spaces for programs of free choice or slow paced daily activities.

Children, you are very little,
And your bones are very brittle;
If you would grow great and stately, You must try to walk sedately.
You must still be bright and quiet, And content with simple diet;
And remain, through all bewild'ring, Innocent and honest children.
Happy hearts and happy faces, Happy play in grassy places -That was how, in ancient ages, Children grew to kings and sages.
But the unkind and the unruly,
And the sort who eat unduly,
They must never hope for glory -Theirs is quite a different story!
Cruel children, crying babies,
All grew up as geese and gabies, Hated, as their age increases,
By their nephews and their nieces.

The grouping of children into play groups is determined by the program approach and by the number of children to be supervised by each teacher. In the unstructured situation, play groups are formed to give a child a "mother-substitute" to whom the child can turn. A typical ratio is one teacher for eight to ten children.
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Play groups can be composed of children of similar ages or can be a family group of varying ages.
The design should include suggestions of security in the space (other than the teacher), plus an extension of space to encourage exploration and wider group participation.
For example, though children need some separation from older, more aggressive and physically larger children, exposure to the older children provides stimuli and allows for growth in confidence and may establish a sense of friendship. Isolation of ages may create unnecessary false barriers.

A program which encourages independent activity and free choice for the children will require an environment where the child and adult have equal but overlapping design considerations.
The Child
The habit of adults serving children, an act of servility and potentially suffocating spontaneous activity, should be negated by the design.
The physical environment should be facilitating, not frustrating allowing the child to independently take care of personal needs and embark on play activities fosters a sense of adequacy.
Design Keys -
Dimensions clothes, lockers, drinking fountains, furniture, windows, sinks, toilets, mirrors, tables, storage units and clocks should be convenient for children's use.
Level of Manual Dexterity and Muscle Strength implies that chairs are easily moved, doorknobs turned, etc.
Giving the child independence through a functional world at his/her level, but adaptation is important, too hence, an overlap into the teacher's realm.
Safety within the environment is the key for freeing parents from anxiety in giving children independence and freedom within the environment.
Design Keys -
Recognize the child's lack of motor coordination, slow reaction time, lack of experience and judgment. Examples: shatterproof glass, rounded corners on furniture, shockproof electrical outlets, slip-proof rugs and floors, controlled hot water temperature.
i he Adult
. A convenient working environment for teachers allows for more time to be spent with the children and eliminates frustrations (which arise from physical arrangements and which could be passed on to the children).

. Nursery school work is physically demanding because of the amount of bending involved when adults work in an environment adapted for young children.
Design Keys -
Provide two different levels of equipment (if budget allows). Examples: sinks, storage units, windows, doorknobs, etc.
Overlapping of Child and Adult Realms
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Supervision to make the child's realm more safe or to provide guidance to chidlren's activities. All activities have the potential for educational content, hence profitting from teacher supervision and guidance.
. The teacher's ability to see all activities as inconspicuously as possible to encourage the child-centered flavor of the center.
. Minimum amount of adult presence may produce less aggressive behavior in children at play.
Design Keys -
Consideration of height of play areas to reduce the size dominance of the adult, or to restrict adult entry (low ceiling), yet maintain visual contact or having teachers placed at the periphery (minor axis) of play areas (major axis).

Entry/Exit Experience
Initial introduction: for the first-time visit, the child is quite apprehensive, not sure what the place is and reluctant to leave parent.


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Design Keys -
Provide space which allows time to look over the center before entry. The physical environment should communicate to child and parent that the place is special and a good place to be (delightful' transitions, views of outdoor play yard). Also, the reduction of blind corners and doors is reassuring to the child.
The Acclimated Child
For the child who is familiar with the center, the entry transition should allow the parents the choice of taking the child to the play group area or dropping the child off at a special perimeter point. (Daily parent-teacher confrontations are usually not necessary or desired by either party.)
Design Keys -
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Available parking spaces at perimeter dropoff area which allow view of child's entry into facility.
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Meetings with parents, visiters and staff should be located in a quiet office area designed for both individuals and small groups.
The office reception area should be large enough to accommodate visiting consultants (psychologists, social workers, medical advisors).
The entry to the office area may be combined with the main entry into the center (the same one the children use), but in any case, should clearly identify the location of the reception/office.
Design Keys -
The entry solution should direct the users to their specific destinations: children to play group area, visitors to office/reception area. The actual office area must accommodate and have the flexibility to accommodate both individuals and small groups.

The entry area where child meets teacher and playmates in the morning, and where parent and child meet in the afternoon, is significant, especially for parent and child as defining a separation point.
The entry area needs to allow for space (or seating) for parent-teacher conversations.
Children may not have finished an activity when parents arrive to pick them up, necessitating a waiting area for parents.
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The group play environment is the child's "home" space, plus any indoor extension of that space, and is the area in which the child spends the major part of the day.
The design of the play area should support the program goals for the center.
Free flow: the child chooses an activity and is free to change the activity as often as desired, creating an environment of choice.
The environment should be scaled to the child's height and abilities.
Meandering paths allow time to look over potential choices, the bypass route allows quick movement across room without disrupting activity areas.
Assistance, supervision and educational guidance needs to be provided by the teacher for the children who are moving freely within the group play environment.
Visual access to all activity areas is important for the adult supervisors.

Design Keys -
The geometry of the play area should allow visual access to the total area.
Multi-Use Space
. Space flexibility is the key to accommodating many different activities on a daily, weekly or monthly basis.
. Open areas allow for a maximum number of different activities to occur simultaneously.
Design Keys -
Open floor areas, clustered utilities peripheral to the play area, movable furniture.
Internal Functional Integrity
. Children working in an activity area will tend to expand into adjacent areas, which may produce conflicts with other children.
. Enclosure and a sense of place are important elements in the environment for activities which are relatively passive and quiet a place where children can be unhampered, even though other activities occur adjacent to the area.
. Noise level control and acoustic privacy arise out of two conflicting tendencies: teachers want
children to express themselves freely, yet noise can be fatiguing and disruptive to other children and the teachers. The high output of energy of each child is expressed both through noise and movement, to which the environment should respond.
Design Keys -
Activity areas should be clearly delineated with the necessary amount of space for each activity. Carpeting and other sound control devices should be introduced into the play area environment to keep noise at an acceptable level.

The group play area should allow for change and manipulation, yet with enough structure so that the children can "know" their spaces.
Activity centers can be defined as children or teacher "claim" areas by use or the placement of materials.
Floor designs (carpeting) and movable partitions or storage units can reduce noise and also create a sense of place.
Multi-purpose furniture can create special places.
Square Footage in Group Play Environments
. Various educators suggest around fifty square feet per child. However, if the sleeping area is separate, add from six to thirty square feet per child or sixty square feet for total activity area per child.
Large Group Space
. A large area is needed for group activities, such as dancing, gymnastics, movies, story-telling, plays and perhaps napping.

This indoor space should not be a substitute for an outdoor gathering area.
This group space should allow for easy access from activity areas.
Design Keys -
The multi-purpose area can be achieved by overlapping the circulation space with the activity areas (with movable dividers, furniture and storage units).
Cluster activity areas around a shared open space.
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A separate multi-purpose room ^ ZAP 3

Children need time and special places of retreat a pause from the constant activity of youth. Walking with a favorite animal, aimlessly stirring water or patting sand, thumb-sucking or crawling into an enclosed space are all "pause" activities.
Small enclosed spaces: a common tendency during play is to crawl into an enclosed space, not for physical isolation but for a sense of privacy. This activity does not necessarily occur alone, hence some spaces should accommodate up to four children.
In-between places: the environment should provide opportunities for the children to "linger" and gather, spaces with some definition but with visual contact outside the space. Building elements which form transitions, such as windows, doorways, steps, columns, corners and trees are areas which are in-between places to pause.
Places to watch from: children learn through watching others, and during their "pause" times, they may be gaining new insights through the actions of other children. Areas which overlook -7> activities, allow peripheral views and varying de-
grees of social interchange (between those playing and those watching) should be part of the environment.
Places of interest: children are attracted to elements within the environment which have a quality of delight and constant change. Teachers can create these places of interest by placing objects such as mirrors, shells, shiny rocks or fish tanks in activity areas. Architects should establish these "events" in the building fabric, for example, by responding to climate skylights which allow views outside of clouds, sky and rain; designing gutters which celebrate the rain run-off by creating arcs or large pools.

A program which stresses the child's choice of activity should have materials at the correct height for viewing and reaching and should be displayed to encourage use.
Convenience of materials: to be accessible, storage shelving should be of the following dimensions:
Age Shelf Height
2- 3 Yrs. 2' 11"
3- 4 Yrs. 3' 1"
4- 5 Yrs. 3' 3"
(A program of mixed age groups should use an in-between height of 3', 0" for shelving and a height of 22" for stand-up work surfaces.)
Presentation of materials: items should be displayed so they may be clearly distinguished from adjacent items. To encourage use, work spaces could be adjacent to specific items; however, this work space should not block access to the storage units.
Design 'Keys -
Combination of portable storage units and work tops.
Open bins to store similar items.
Hinged movable storage units which can become closed storage when not in use.

Semi-portable storage devices which can be arranged with a minimum of effort.
Closed storage: Some storage should be closed storage to limit the amount of materials made available to the children, and for seasonal, duplicate and dangerous items. Closed storage can be in cabinets starting at 4'-6" (average child "stretching" reach is 4'-0" at five years) in locked cabinets cr in walk-in storage rooms, with knobs at teacher height (4'-0").
Outdoor storage: The play yard will need an area to store and protect play equipment, such as trikes, balls, sand-box toys, etc., which should be convenient to the area of use.

These nuts, that I keep in the back of the nest Where all my lead soldiers are lying at rest,
Were gathered in autumn by nursie and me In a wood with a well by the side of the sea.
This whistle we made (and how clearly it sounds!) By the side of a field at the end of the grounds.
Of a branch of a plane, with a knife of my own,
It was nursie who made it, and nursie alone!
The stone, with the white and the yellow and grey, We discovered I cannot tell how far away;
And I carried it back although weary and cold,
For though father denies it, I'm sure it is gold.
But of all my treasures the last is the king,
For there's very few children possess such a thing; And that is a chisel, both handle and blade,
Which a man who was really a carpenter made.

Children need a place to store their outer clothing which they wear to and from school and a special place for their personal possessions.
U?^fiiX\ove> of Garment Storage
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The garment storage area should be placed near the entry to minimize the amount of dirt and water tracked into the main areas of the center. This storage area should be located off the entry, not in it.
The garment storage area should also be accessible to the outdoor play yard.
The garment storage area should be in view of the teachers in the group play area, so they can provide assistance if necessary. (This does not imply visual access from all parts of the group play area.)
Garment storage containers should provide for the storage of coats (hooks), a shelf (hats, mittens) and an area for boots and galoshes.
Locker design should respond to the needs of ventilation and the potential for mud and water accumulation.
. Seating should be provided in the coat area to assist the child in putting on boots.
Personal Possessions
The sense of personal property is important to all children, hence tote trays, shoe boxes or other personalized containers should be available for each child.

Often, children suffer from home training in their struggle to achieve continence. Therefore, the first objective is to make toileting a pleasure, not a misery. To do this, the toilet area should be an accessible, friendly social area where no scoldings are heard and an air of enjoyment and duty exist, (p. 57).

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cAv lAr The toilet area should be accessible from all play areas in the center.
Several dispersed toilet areas may better accommodate the children's needs, allowing toileting to not be a group oriented activity.
At least one toilet area should be accessible from the outdoor play yard, so that indoor activities are not disrupted and to provide the necessary convenience for the children.
Self-sufficiency in toileting is encouraged, but teacher supervision is necessary to provide assistance if the child needs it. Also, supervision is required to curb the natural but undesirable play which occurs in the toilet area.
Most educators and psychologists suggest that toilet fixtures be geared toward the convenience of the child hence smaller scale and that toilets should not be separated according to sexes to encourage a healthy attitude toward sexual development.
Individual separations between water closets should be designed to allow room for teacher assistance and visual supervision.
Urinals are recommended by some teachers to keep toilet seat3 dry and floors free of urine.
The recommended number of water closets is one fixture per ten children, and for urinals 4'-0" of trough for each group of thirty children.
Design Keys -
Scale of toilet fixtures should be geared toward the child. Convenience and accessibility from all play areas should be considered. The reduction of "coldness" can be achieved by the introduction of sunlight, views, ledges for plants, bright colors and warm materials. Also, placement of toilet paper, towels and mirrors should be at the child's height.

Children's hand washing occurs after toileting, before and after eating and in conjunction with play activities. Various play activities have need for a special sink: painting, clay and water play, etc. Also, sometimes child washing is necessary due to a bowel relapse, excessive dirt or mud from outdoor play or for after a fall or accident before medication is applied.
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Hand washing facilities should be located convenient to the toilet area, but not in the toilet area to reduce the association of hand washing with toileting.
Individual or group sinks can be used. Individual sinks reduce the amount of "playing around" and give definitive places to wash. Group sinks save space and minimize the amount of splashed water.
The recommended sink rim height for children two to five years is 19". Temperature should be controlled to prevent scalding; a mixing valve within the teacher's realm can accommodate this requirement, with or without thermostatic control.
The recommended number of children per sink station (13 lineal inches) is one fixture for every eight children.
Special purpose sinks serving play activities are usually in the "wet" area. These sinks should be deep and wide enough to allow use by several children and should have adjacent work space which drains into the sink.
Child washing sinks, sometimes custom designed, should accommodate the needs of the teacher to avoid awkward and breakbreaking efforts.

Drinking fountains should be available both inside and outside and at a height of 24" (floor to water source).

Water play has many values and can be used for many purposes in early childhood education. The development of sensation and the feeling it offers is a more varied experience and keener pleasure than any other material except fingerpaints; to intellectual development, it contributes flexibility and opportunities for experimentation and exploration. It stimulates the inhibited child and soothes the explosive, (p. 63). However, water play can cause many problems, and hence restrictions placed on it by the teacher. The environment for water play should help to alleviate the number of restrictions and provide protection from the water play area to the other activity areas.
The water play area should be out of the main traffic flow and have some sense of enclosure.
A permanent water table (extra deep, multi-purpose sink) or portable water tubs can be used in the water play area. The recommended height for these fixtures or tubs is about 22" for three to five year olds. (This placement at standing height will help reduce the amount of water splashed onto clothing; waterproof smocks will also help.)
The floor area around the water tubs should be slip-proof, with a central drain.
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Outdoor water play areas should be similar in design to indoor areas, but can allow for more exuberant play. Spray and wading pools, stream manipulation (dams, waterfalls, bridging, floats) are all possibilities.


What are you able to build with your blocks? Castles and palaces, temples and docks.
Rain may keep raining, and other go roam,
But I can be happy and building at home.
Let the sofa be mountains, the carpet be sea, There I'll establish a city for me:
A kirk and a mill and a palace beside,
And a harbour as well where my vessels may ride.
Great i3 the palace with pillar and wall,
A sort of a tower on the top of it all,
And steps coming down in an orderly way To where my toy vessels lie safe in the bay.
This one is sailing and that one is moored:
Hark to the song of the sailors on board!
And see, on the steps of my palace, the kings Coming and going with presents and things!
Now I have done with it, down let it go!
All in a moment the town is laid low.
Block upon block lying scattered and free,
What is there left of my town by the sea?
Yet as I saw it, I see it again,
The kirk and the palace, the ships and the men, And as long as I live and where'er I may be,
I'll always remember my town by the sea.

When children play with blocks, it is as if the whole world were beckoning them to "come and conquer". Usually, they respond to this invitation by trying themselves out in slightly risky, but essentially safe situations thus, intuitively following the accepted maxims for acquiring confidence, (p. 66).
Standard building blocks are the most common construction materials used in children's centers, but other materials such as building systems (loops, tinker toys, konnecto blocks, etc.) and "selected junk" (springs, dowels, boxes, pulleys, nuts to bolts) are becoming more widely used.
Through the manipulation of blocks, children learn the processes involved in construction, the loss of product with destruction, and control of environment (especially with large scale construction materials). Some children may use the construction activity as a retreat away from people, whereas others will use the same activity for group play; for example, using the product as props for drama play or as an enclosure, asserting the solidarity of the small group.
. Construction activities can tend to be loud and expansive.
. Groups of various sizes often use the construction materials simultaneously. Care should be taken that each group has enough area.
. Storage of construction materials should be convenient to the construction area.
Design Keys -
The working surfaces (floor, tables, pits) should reduce noise, be firm enough to provide a stable building surface and soft enough not to damage the materials (tower destructions). A firm carpeting may be the most suitable material. Raised platforms or sunken pits provide definitive work areas.

A large open area can be divided by storage bins into smaller areas to accommodate different group sizes. Space sizes can change according to children's desires.
The construction area can be separate according to the materials used: an alcove for small blocks, unit system, etc., at a sit-down work surface and a larger open space for bigger, or two-handed blocks.
A "throwing corner" can be added for children who feel compelled to use blocks explosively, the surface of which should be a dense pile carpet, foam or a soft fiberboard.

The use of clay, painting, graphics and collage by the child serves both a cognitive-aesthetic function and as an emotional release, (p. 69).
. The art area should have both individual and group work areas, since there are times a child will want to work alone and times a child will want to work parallel with another child or as part of a group.
. Individual work areas are important for the aggressive and exploratory moods of a child. During these times, the child may be more vigorous and messy which is especially normal when approaching new materials. When a child is in this mood, he will tend to paint the easel frame, the table, the wall or himself. (P. 69). (Smock3 or aprons are a necessity!)
. The art area will be a wet, messy area. Wall surfaces should be chosen to minimize harm from water, clay, paint, paste, etc. The floor should be surfaced with a resilient material.
. Aside from working space and surfaces, the art area should accommodate the needs of storage, preparation of materials, clean-up (ideally, a separate sink), drying areas and display surfaces.
. The scale of work surfaces should be geared to the child: stand-up work surfaces should be 22" high from the floor; sit-down/stand-up tables 17" off the floor for 2-3^-year-olds or 19^" off the floor for 3^-5-year-olds.
Design Keys -
Provision for group and individual work areas.

Easels can be wall-mounted, stackable and free-standing, or convertible (similar to a drafting table).
Indoor or outdoor wall expanses can be used as drawing surfaces for chalk (blackboard), crayons and paint (paper attached) or as "felt boards".
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Drying lines or racks for paintings and shelving for clay objects are necessary.
Display of finished work is an important part of the creative process; the walls of the group play environment should be covered with tackable surfaces and geared to the eye level of the children not higher than A'-O" for 3-5-year-olds.

"Dramatic play is a natural activity of children that is especially prevalent during the preschool years (Millar, 1968, p. 55). It is generally agreed that this activity, which includes both symbolic activity with concrete objects (make-believe play) and imitative play, is an importnat instrument of growth for the child. It serves his psychological growth by allowing him to act out and assimilate important emotional events; it serves his social growth by offering an intimate and personal means of communication; and it serves intellectual growth by providing a means of organizing impressions at a time when the manipulation of abstract symbols is developing." (p. 72).
Typically, dramatic play at the pre-school level has been encouraged by props which suggest certain themes: dolls, kitchen set-ups, dress-up clothes, etc. These themes have not kept pace with the changes in society; there is a need for a widening of opportunities and experiences for children to discover through dramatic play: the different roles of blue collar and white collar jobs, an easing of male/female stereotypes, differences between social and ethnic levels, etc.
To encourage an open-ended arena for dramatic play, a wide variety of "props" should be provided which the children can use as the suggested reality of the objects or symbolically without regard to the objects' functional qualities.
A wide variety of "props" should be provided.
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The prop storage area should be open and close to an area suitable for dramatic play (circulation paths, group play space, large boxes, etc.)

"play bays" could provide a semi-permanent area for dramatic play.

Sand play and soil digging are activities enjoyed by children and are ranked high on their activity preference lists. However, coupled with this popularity are agression and quarreling, due primarily to the overlapping of work areas.
Dry sand is good for sitting, pouring, filling, etc., but not good for making pies, castles, and shapes; therefore, a water source should be available to allow for the full range of sand/soil play.
Design Keys -
The sand/soil play area should be arranged to minimize conflicts by providing sufficient work space. The play area should have a convenient source of water.
. Stand up or sit down sand tables reduce the amount of sand area needed and minimize child clean-up.

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Flat working surfaces help define areas and provide space for tools, water cans, piling, etc.
Outdoor sand/soil areas should receive benefits from the sun of purifying and drying, but should be partially shaded for very hot days.
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The sand/soil area should have a bounding element around it to keep out unwanted traffic, protect the area from water drainage, and to keep the sand within the desired area.
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The sand/soil area could be designed to fit the natural terrain of the site.

Day care centers which have free choice or slow pace programs need speciai quiet areas for teaching language (reading, listening), mathematics and problem solving. The areas range from small in size for individual work, larger for teacher-child work, and larger yet for group sessions. Materials for these activities should be accessible to the children.
A quiet corner with tables provides small work areas.
A rug, soft chairs, a window seat and alcoves can provide quiet work areas.
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Different levels can create special quiet areas.
Bay3 can provide separation for reading or listening-work booths (provide electrical outlets).

Activities which center around music are an integral part of most child care centers, with variations ranging from quiet listening to group marching.
. Quiet listening allows a child to take a break and helps develop music appreciation. (Earphones or headsets can minimize disruption.)
. Spontaneous dancing allows release of excessive energy (joy or aggression) and can occur during free play or as a group activity. Open floor area shouid be adjacent to the music source (piano, stereo, instrument playing).
. Music can quiet children before their naps or stimulate them after nap time, hence the music source should be convenient to the nap area.
Design Keys -
Provide sufficient space for dancing and marching close to music source. Storage of instruments and equipment should be accessible to the children.

The interaction of plants and animals with children allows children to gain knowledge, understanding arid appreciation of living things. Plants and animals need gentle care and freedom to grow without excessive disturbance; children need space to observe, plant, feed and play with the plants and animals.

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A viewing area should be provided for caged pets which minimizes poking to stimulate the animal into view.
Larger animals in indoor cages should allow for a play area for the animal after being removed from the cage (protecting and confining the animal).
Plants in plant trays need a working/viewing surface.
Plants should be close to a sun source with an adjustable filter to provide the proper amount of sunlight.

From breakfast on through all the day At home among my friends I stay,
But every night I go abroad Afar into the land of Nod.
All by myself I have to go,
With none to tell me what to do -
All alone besides the streams
And up the mountain-sides of dreams.
The strangest things are there for me, Both things to eat and things to see, And many frightening sights abroad Till morning in the land of Nod.
Try as I like to find the way,
I never can get back by day,
Nor can remember plain and clear The curious music that I hear.

Children's abundant energy and vigorous activity call's for regular periods of rest, if not actual sleep. Few children, after becoming accustomed to the center, do not go to sleep during the rest periods. Differences in ages, activity levels and the type of program of the center will determine the number and type of rest periods. Children who arrive early may need a morning nap; however rest periods during which the children listen to music or reading may suffice. Afternoon naps (1-2 hours) or rest periods are generally part of most pre-3chool programs.
A special napping area can provide ideal resting conditions, can allow the group play areas to be cleaned and reprogrammed, and provide for variations in individual sleeping habits.
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Special room separation can define the sleeping area.
If beds are provided, circulation space around each bed is important.

. Cots or beds placed in an open space (with or without screens) requires 30-40 sq. ft. per child.
Another possibility is to provide a separate small sleeping room which accommodates only a portion of the children at one time. This smaller room may save space and equipment, allow for individual nap schedules and can be used as a group reading area or "getaway" space at other times.
The group play area can easily accommodate the napping and resting needs of the children through the use of stackable costs or mats and movable furniture. Care should be taken to insure that lighting and sun control devices are included in the design to provide an atmosphere conducive for rest.
. Storage space for cots and mats should be convenient to the napping area and allow for easy movement of cots in and out.
Some European centers provide an outdoor napping area which is sheltered from excessive sun and wind; however this solution does not eliminate the need for an indoor sleeping area.

When I was sick and lay a-bed,
I had two pillows at my head,
And all my toys beside me lay To keep me happy all the day.
And sometimes for an hour or so I watched my leaden soldiers go,
With different uniforms and drills, Among the bed-clothes, through the hills
And sometimes sent my ships in fleets All up and down among the sheets;
Or brought my trees and houses out,
And planted cities all about.
I was the giant great and still That sits upon the pillow-hill,
And sees before him, dale and plain,
The pleasant land of counterpane.

A separate space is needed for the child who becomes ill during the day in an effort to protect the other children and to provide some means of comfort for the sick child.
The problems of the sick child and working parents is a dilemma for child care centers: should the center maintain a "sick-bay" for mildly ill children, should parents be expected to leave work to care for the child, and will the child be left home along or with a brother or sister? The services the children's center offers will determine the approach to these questions. At minimum, the center would hold the child in an "isolation room" until a parent arrives; and at best the center would keep all but the critically ill children in a bedroom-like setting with appropriate medical care. Another alternative is a community "homemaker" service which would provide care for the child at the child's home.
The program which temporarily keeps the child should have a special rest area where the child is detained but not specifically isolated.

The teacher3 need a place of relaxation and privacy away from the children. The staff lounge functions as such a place, for retreat, smoking, eating, chatting and perhaps napping.
. The staff lounge should be far enough away from the group play areas to achieve a sense of "away-ness" but close enough to make it accessible for a short break.
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The adult w.c. should be near the staff lounge but not accessible through it (privacy for both lounge and toilet), rather off the general circulation path.
The staff lounge should provide space for personal belongings.
Parents need a space where they can informally gather for discussions and activities together and with the trained staff.
The parents' lounge should be open

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The parents' lounge could be a separate space or combined with the entry, the office area, or the teachers' lounge.
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The infant center will need a special space to accommodate nursing mothers.

Parents, students and visitors interested in child behavior, teachers and the children themselves comprise four general groups of observers at the children's center. Each group has various reasons for observation: parents, to observe their own and other children for self-guidance and awareness of the child's activities; students and visitors, to gain a greater understanding of child behavior; teachers, to facilitate training and to improve their methods; and children, to learn about themselves as learners and about each other.
"Every center has the potential need for parent, teacher, and child observation, while only a few experimental programs and university children's centers will have a need for student and visitor observation. But in either case, functional and ethical questions arise as to the degree of separation that should be placed between the observer and the child. The ethical question (if it can be called that) must be answered by the staff before the following physical criteria can be considered.1' (p. 94).
The general Western belief in an individual's privacy is the basis for the case against "unobserved observation". The case for an invasion of privacy is based on the need for scientific and psychological detachment and observation; this should not be seen as a negative aspect, as in spying, but for positive educational scientific controls. The invisibility of the observers serves to make the observations more purposeful and serious. Both parents and children can be made aware of the observation room, minimizing the implications of "spying" from the room.
The following solutions reflect different approaches to child observation.
. No special provision for observation: observers are welcomed in the midst of the children standing in the entry way, in an adjacent room, or on the edge of the play area.

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A special observation area unobserved from the group play space. Thi3 separate observation area can be obtained by several layers of screen or through the use of one-way glass. Auditory pick-up may be desired, and if research is a part of the observation space furniture for note taking should be provided. The observation area should be entered from a major circulation path, so as not to disrupt the children, and should have visual control by the staff to keep out unauthorized people, to allow instructions to be given to the viewers, etc.).
An observation area observed from the group play space. With this solution, the observers and the children can be aware of each other but separates them in two areas through "space" or vertical height.
Observation through closed circuit television or video-tape playback. The use of videos and movies allows children and teachers to view themselves in retrospect and can show parents the activities of their child at the center. It is also useful for parents who cannot visit the center during the day but can come for evening meetings. The use of these technological devices does not eliminate the charge of "spying", which may be unacceptable to some people.

"With a few exceptions, outdoor play is accepted universally as a desirable part of a children's center program. It serves the children by giving them access to fresh air and sunshine, by giving them a chance to let off steam or reduce excitement, as a means of exercising large muscles and by its potential for nature study." (p. 99).
Four different types of play or activities occur in the play yard: passive and active play, social play, and nature exploration. Passive play is generally a large scale extension of indoor activities: construction, sand play, gardening, etc. Active play involves a greater degree of movement and noise (large muscle activity). Social play occurs throughout the play yard but may be concentrated in "gathering spots". Nature play can occur in specially landscaped areas of the yard or completely outside the yard.
Square footage recommendations for outdoor play space vary from 100 to 300 square feet per child; 150 square feet is the average.
The amount of outdoor space available determines the relationship between individual play groups and outdoor play areas.
A large single indoor play group area with a small sized outdoor yard necessitating small groups alternating in the U3e of the play yard.
Separate indoor play groups share a common outdoor play yard.
each play group may have a separate play yard.
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Separate indoor play areas share a single outdoor play area by staggering schedules.
. A shared active play area and individual passive areas serving single play groups.
Action Outdoor Play Area
"The action area of the play yard should provide the children with opportunities to exercise their large muscles in the following motor activities: running, throwing, jumping, climbing, pedalling, pushing and pulling, lifting and punching, supporting own weight, kicking, creeping and crawling, rhythmic exercises, somersaulting, rolling and tumbling and balancing. Besides this variety of motor activity, the action area should provide for different levels of skill development in each motor movement."
(p. 101).
Design Keys -
The active play area activities should allow the child to choose the desired level of challenge, and a progression of those challenges. To further body coordination, a sequential flow of activities with contrasting types of muscle activity is desired.
Play nodes, or physical elements which the child interacts with, can serve as organizing elements for the play area.
Platforms with a variety of "ways up" can form one node serving different development levels.
Swings create spatial variety and are a delightful rhythmic device.

Movable motor equipment (balls, hoops, trikes, etc.) can supplement the fixed equipment and provide for particular skill development.
Walls can be designed as climbing fixtures and jumping platforms.
Clustering piay nodes, with the required safety factors, can suggest different paths of activities and provide a sequential flow.
By-pass routes, tangential to play nodes, should be provided.
Open play areas allow for more exuberant play, but should not be overwhelmingly large. This area may be flat, inclined or rolling terrain.
The action play area should be designed so that one teacher can supervise activities from a central point.

Passive Outdoor Play Area
Sand and water play, digging, construction, gardening and animal play are ideally pursued outdoors, though they may occur inside. Art and some cognitive activities are typically done indoors but may be moved outdoors in good weather where larger scale projects (murals, sculptures, work with tools) can be encouraged.
. These passive outdoor activities require some sort of spatial separation from the action area of the yard. The separation between the action and passive areas of the yard is primarily directed toward limiting fast movement between the two, which disrupts the children involved in passive, more creative activities.
The passive area should create a sense of enclosure and provide some shelter from the elements: wind, sun, rain.
The sense of enclosure can be created by a low wall, a raised garden area, shrubbery, or a wading pool.

Smooth it glides upon its travel, Here a wimple, there a gleam -O the clean gravel!
O the smooth stream!
Sailing blossoms, silver fishes, Paven pools as clear as air -How a child wishes To live down there!
We can see our coloured faces Floating on the shaken pool Down in cool places,
Dim and very cool;
Till a wind or water wrinkle, Dipping marten, plumping trout, Spreads in a twinkle And blots all out.
See the rings pursue each other; All below grows black as night, Just as if mother Had blown out the light!
Patience, children, just a minute -See the spreading circles die; The stream and all in it Will clear by-and-by.

Space Square Feet
. Transition Space/Lobby 200
. Office/Reception/Lounges Director Receptionist Conference Teacher/Staff Lounge Parent Lounge 675
HOME ROOM AREAS 6 (a) 500 sq. ft. Lockers Nap Area Special areas are incorporated within the home room spaces or multi-purpose space to include the following activities: music, art, reading, wet room, loud toys, puzzles/games, and construction activities. 3,000
INFANT/TODDLER AREA Crib Room Play Space 1,000
ADULT W.C. 120
OUTDOOR PLAY AREA Infant/Toddlers -Min. 400 sq. ft.; Preschool 75 sq. ft. /Child 5,000

Children: 80 Total
The Day Care Center needs to accommodate 60 children from the ages of 3 to 6 years old. (Code requires 30-50 square feet per child.)
A special area for infant/toddlers needs a maximum capacity for 20 children, 6 weeks to 2 years old. (Code requires 50 square feet per child.)
Teachers: 10 (Minimum)
A minimum of 6 teachers are required for the older children. (Student staff ratio 1:10.)
A minimum of 4 teachers are required for the infant/toddlers. (Student staff ratio 1:5.)
Director: 1
Receptionist/Secretary: 2 Cook: 2 Custodian: 1 Playground Director: 1 Nurse: 1
Volunteers/Interns: Flexible

Down by a shining water well I found a very little dell,
No higher than my head.
The heather and the gorse about In summer bloom were coming out, Some yellow and some red.
I called the little pool a sea;
The little hills were big to me;
For I am very small.
I made a boat, I made a town,
I searched the caverns up and down, And named them one and all.
And all about was mine, I said,
The little sparrows overhead,
The little minnows too.
This was the world and I wa3 king; For me the bees came by to sing, For me the swallows flew.
I played there were no deeper seas, Nor any wider plains than these,
Nor other kings than me.
At last I heard my mother call Out from the house at evenfail,
To call me home to tea.
And I must rise and leave my dell, And leave my dimpled water well, And leave my heather blooms. Alas! and as my home I neared,
How every big my nurse appeared. How great and cool the rooms!

Site Location
The new home for Celestial Seasonings will be a 51.1 acre site in the Gunbarrel area of Boulder County, Colorado. This property is bounded by Colorado 119 (Diagonal Highway), the proposed extension of Spine Road, Juhl Subdivision, and a 40 acre tract of presently vacant land.
Fee title to the property is held by Estseigle Company. Celestial Seasonings, Inc. holds a valid option to purchase the land from the Estseigle Company.
With this new site, Celestial Seasonings will be able to consolidate their operations which are now housed in five separate structures. This plan will provide the necessary space for additional expansion, and a high quality work environment for the employees. It also is responsive to the existing conditions and could offer a number of prestigious business/light industrial sites should Celestial Seasonings choose to sell excess acreage.
Uses by Right
The property is presently zoned as an Economic Development District. The uses by right under this designation are: scientific research laboratories, planned industrial parks, regional office buildings and recreational projects.
The applicant has recently applied for, and received approval of a change in the Boulder Valley Comprehensive Plan designation from 2B to 2A. Approval for this change was granted by the City of Boulder Planning Board at a public hearing on June 17, 1982 for the Annual Update to the Boulder Valley Comprehensive Plan.
Celestial Seasonings and the present owner of the property are applying for annexation to the City of Boulder. It is felt that such an action would be mutually beneficial to the City of Boulder and Celestial Seasonings. The City would keep a desirable light industry within its boundaries, and Celestial Seasonings could maintain its long standing, close relationship with the City of Boulder and its environment.
All the necessary forms, fees and documentation for annexation are included as a part of this submittal.

The proposed plan for Celestial Seasonings' new
facility attempts to achieve the following objectives:
1. To arrive at a plan that will provide a Boulder based setting for Celestial Seasonings, allow for expansion, provide a high level of amenities for the employees, project a positive public image, and maintain the integrity of the site and surrounding area.
2. To reduce impact to the surrounding properties.
3. To offer Celestial Seasonings maximum flexibility in development of the total property, including the ability to sell excess land.
4. To provide day care for children of the employees of the company.
5. To establish a mechanism for gradual development of the site that provides an assurable level of quality to the City of Boulder while retaining maximum flexibility for the occupant(s) of the site.
6. To provide a landscape plan that will blend the existing rural, native character with the more formalized treatment that is compatible with such a project.
7. To provide adequate off street parking.
8. To comply with the objectives of the Boulder Valley Comprehensive Plan.

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The site is rural in character and is presently used for grazing pasture. The terrain is virtually flat (1-3%) with a consistent slope across the entire site. It is traversed by a number of shallow irrigation channels. Surface drainage occurs generally in a northeasterly direction.
Due to the flat character of the site, there are no noteworthy landmarks or views within the site boundary. There are, however, significant off-site vistas of the Flatirons and the Front Range to the west and northwest.
The site is almost entirely covered with native grasses, with no significant vegetation, except along the property line. The southern property line has a number of cottonwood trees (some of which are quite large), with an occasional hackberry interspersed. There are also a few significant cottonwoods at the northern most corner of the property. In addition to the large trees, there are a number of shrubs typical of the area along the southern and western boundaries.
There are no natural ponds or streams on the property, and the 3ite is outside the limits of the Standard Project Flood and Intermediate Regional Flood as determined by the Corps, of Engineers.
Test borings have been conducted by Charles C. Bowman 4 Associates during the early part of May. A total of six holes were drilled, and ground water was found at a depth of 17 feet at its highest point and 26 feet at its lowest, with an average depth of about 22 feet. These readings, due to the short duration of the test, should not be assumed to be accurate. However, if they prove to be typical, the site should not be affected by high ground water problems.
At present, surface drainage is generally to the northeast, but it is altered at points by the existing irrigation channels.

The soils on the property fall almost entirely in the Nunn Clay loam series NuA (0-1%) and NuB (1-3%). The Nunn Clay Loam series is generally a deep well drained soil with a 10" layer of grayish brown clay and a 20" layer of brown and pale brown clay. These soils typically have a slow and moderately slow permeability rate.
The only other soil type on the site is a small area of Longmont Clay LoB (0-3%). The soils in the Longmont series are typically deep, poorly drained, salty land alkaline in nature. A calcareous, light brownish gray and light olive brown clay about 21" thick forms the first layer. The underlying material is calcareous light olive-brown and pale olive-gray layer to a depth of 60" or more. Longmont soils typically have slow permeability. (U.S. Soil Conservation Service for Boulder County).
Ground Water; Is generally at a depth of 22', but due to the short duration of the test, cannot be assumed to be accurate.
Soil Conditions: A 2-3 foot layer of moderately expansive soils was found just below the topsoil, followed by a 7-12 foot layer of low to moderately expansive soils, with the remaining 14-19 feet consisting of a sand and gravel stratum down to bedrock.
Geology: No geologic constraints to development were found.
Surrounding Land Use
Colorado State Highway 119 (Diagonal Highway) and the Colorado and Southern Railroad form a natural edge along the northwest side of the site. Along the north half of the eastern boundary is the Longbow Office Park, with the two closest occupants being Valleylab and Leanin' Tree Publishing Company. On the south half of the east boundary is Habitat, a high density residential community, with the "Powderhorn" portion of the development immediately adjacent. To the southeast is The Willows, a single family residential development. Adjoining the property on the south is a 40 acre tract which is at this time vacant. Also along the south property line is Juhl Subdivision, a single family rural residential development with lots from 3/4 acre to 1 acre in size.

Site Access
Primary automobile access to the site from the surrounding region is via Colorado State Highway 119 to 63rd Street, then to Gunbarrel Avenue. Spine Road, though at this time only partially completed, is scheduled to go along the eastern edge of the property north to 63rd Street and South to Jay Road. To date, Spine Road has been completed from 63rd Street through the Gunbarrel West Office Park up to the boundary of Longbow Office Park. It starts up again at the intersection of Gunbarrel Avenue and continues adjacent to Habitat, to the Willows property line where it once again ends. The portion from Habitat to Jay Road has not yet been constructed. The section of Spine Road that adjoins Habitat is at this time only a half road, and will have to be brought up to full width.
The distribution of costs for the completion of Spine Road has not yet been decided. It is expected that this issue will be resolved in a later stage of the planning process.
Public Transportation to the site is provided by RTD. At present, bus service is provided by local route 205, but only on 63rd Street. This route also services Lookout Road, Heaterwood and downtown Boulder. Although there are no plans to service Spine Road at tni3 time, it is conceivable that the service to the area will expand as growth continues.
In addition to standard bus service, there is a Para-Transit route that travels from Habitat to Niwot and then to Longmont during business hours.
Service lines for all utilities are already in place, adjacent to the site or a short distance away as indicated on the existing conditions map.
Sewer and water will be provided by the Boulder Valley Water and Sanitation District either through a contractual agreement or by petitioning to have the site included in the district, as the property presently i3 outside the Districts boundary. The exact plan mechanism for sewer and water service will be resolved later in the planning process. It is likely that sometime this year the District will be dissolved and will become a part of the City of Boulder service area. At such time, the property will be served by the City of Boulder. It should be noted that there are no physical constraints with water or sewer service to the site.

Gas and electric will be provided by the Public Service Company of Colorado.
Telephone service will be provided by Mountain
Municipal Services
Police and fire protection will be provided by the City of Boulder upon annexation.
Fire protection will be provided by Boulder Station No. 6, which is at the intersection of 63rd Street and Spine Road. The business lots are all well within the required six minute response time, while the residential lots are 4.5 minutes travel time from the station.
Existing recreation facilities for public use within the area are limited. However, due to a comprehensive amenity package that Celestial Seasonings is planning, the lack of recreation facilities in the area should not be a factor.
Community Facilities
The project site is located in close proximity to shopping facilities and personal services at Lookout Road in the Gunbarrel community business area. Major shopping and services are available in nearby Boulder.

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We built a ship upon the stairs All made of the back-bedroom chairs, And filled it full of sofa pillows To go a-sailing on the billows.
We took a saw and several nails,
And water in the nursery pails;
And Tom said, "Let us also take An apple and a slice of cake;" -Which was enough for Tom and me To go a-sailing on, till tea.
We sailed along for days and days And had the very best of plays;
But Tom fell out and hurt his knee,
So there was no one left but me.

Boulder, Colorado is located at the mouth of Boulder Canyon in the eastern foothills of the Rocky Mountains. The climate is mild, sunny and semi-arid; extremely cold or hot weather is usually of short duration.
The temperature ranges from lows of 15F. in January to highs of 37F. in Jul'£. The yearly normal maximums and minimums are 64F. and 36 F. respectively.
Thirty-seven percent of the annual total precipitation occurs in spring as snow during the early colder months of the season. Local afternoon and evening thunderstorms account for the summer precipitation (32 percent of annual total). Fall and winter, combined, total 31 percent of the annual precipitation which is primarily snow occurring in late fall.
Relative Humidity;
Since Boulder is not located near a major moisture source, the relative humidity is low.
Winter temperatures are frequently moderated by warm downslope winds from the west; the Chinooks which result from the westerly air flows often raise the temperatures above normal for the cold season in a very short period of time. Spring is the windiest season. Boulder is subject to strong "catabic" winds from the canyon with gusts of 60-70 mph. There is a basic diurnal swing of downslope westerly wind at night (8m/sec.) and a weak easterly flow (5m/sec.) during the day. Superimposed on this are storm and upslope conditions.
Solar Radiation;
The abundance of solar radiation makes it a strong design element. It is an asset during the cold months, November through March, and a liability only during the hot summer months (July, August).
The solar orientation of the site and the strong gusting winds are the prominent climatic factors which should influence the building design.

WHEN I am grown to man's estate I shall be very proud and great, And tell the other girls and boys Not to meddle with my toys.

Annexation and Initial Zoning
Celestial Seasonings is applying for annexation of the proposed site to the City of Boulder.
As the entire property cannot meet the requirement for having 1/6 of the boundary contiguous to the existing city limits, a two phase annexation must occur. The first phase will take in the north half of the site and will contain 23.19 acres. The second phase covers the remainder of the property and will be annexing 27.93 acres of the site.
The initial zoning for the site is for ID and ER-E designations. The 31.38 acres of the site that will be occupied by Celestial Seasonings is to be included in the ID zoning, as would the two clocks (15.7 acres) designated as future lots. The proposed zoning is in compliance with the Performance designation for the property in the Boulder Valley Comprehensive Plan.
The three residential units make up the remainder of the site. An ER-E zoning classification is requested here due to the lot sizes and density. This zoning request is compatible with neighboring land uses; it is consistent with the overall intent of the Comprehensive Plan, does not introduce a new category of land use to the area, and therefore only requires a minor change in the Comprehensive Plan.
Special Review
As a benefit for their employees, Celestial Seasonings has proposed a day care center for those workers with small children. In the proposed plan, the day care is located on one of the residential lets in the ER-E zoning. Day care in this zoning class requires a special review. Consequently, as a part of this application, a request for special review is being made.
It is anticipated that there will be twenty to thirty children utilizing the day care center. The day care center will serve two age groups: 1) infants and toddlers, and 2) children 2-1/2 to 5 years old. With these two age groups, 75 square feet of outdoor play space per child is required. Assuming thirty children enrolled in the day care center, a total of 2,250 square feet of indoor space will be needed or an area about 48' x 48'. The lot proposed for the day care center is about .55 acres, or 23,958 square feet. Since the area needed for outdoor play space amounts to less than ten percent of the site, the site should be more than adequate for the proposed use.

As the users of the day care center will be primarily Celestial Seasonings employees, there will be little or no increase in traffic to Pioneer Drive. It i3 much more convenient to park in the Celestial Seasonings lot and walk through the Herb Garden to the day care center than to use Pioneer Drive and then drive back around to park in Celestial Seasonings' lot.
Although the day care center is more than three hundred feet from Celestial Seasonings' parking lot, the applicant feels that, since there are no streets to cross, this would be an acceptable distance. The need for a day care center far outstrips the inconvenience caused by longer than usual walking distance. Because of the availability of the parking, no off-street parking at the day care center site, other than that which normally accompanies a single family lot, will be necessary.
Adequate screening, fencing and landscaping separations will be provided as a part of the site plan. The structure necessary will be similar in size and character to other single family homes in the area. No adverse impacts due to any environmental factor are anticipated, and no obtrusive signage or lighting will be necessary.


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When children are playing alone on the green,
In comes the playmate that never was seen.
When children are happy and lonely and good,
The Friend of the Children comes out of the wood.
Nobody heard him and nobody saw,
Hi3 is a picture you never could draw,
But he's sure to be present, abroad or at home,
When children are happy and playing alone.
He lies in the laurels, he runs on the grass,
He sings when you tinkle the musical glass;
Whene'er you are happy and cannot tell why,
The Friend of the Children is sure to be by!
He loves to be little, he hates to be big,
'Tis he that inhabits the caves that you dig;
'Tis he when you play with your soldiers of tin That sides with the Frenchmen and never can win.
Tis he, when at night you go off to your bed,
Bids you go to your sleep and not trouble your head; For wherever they're lying, in cupboard or shelf,
'Tis he will take care of your playthings himself!

Building Classification: Group E-3
Description: Any building used for day care purposes for more than six children.
Fire Resistance of Exterior Walls:
2 hours less than 5 ft.,
1 hour less than 10 ft.
Openings in Exterior Walls:
not permitted less than 5 ft. protected less than 10 ft.
Building area and height allowable and fire resistive requirements to be determined upon selection of building type according to UBC and local city and county codes.
UBC Section 802 c) Special Provisions: Occupancies used for day care purposes shall not be located above the first story.
Exit Reguirements:
Occupants Exists Required 90 2 (max.)
Exit Width 44 (min.)
Length of Corridor
to Exit 90' 110 (wo/sprinkler) (w/sprinkier)
Live Load Allowable (psf)
Code Proposed
Instructional Areas 40 50
Administrative Areas 50 50
Areas 125 125
Plumbing Reguirements
wc lav V
Adults 3 2 1
Children 5 5
(Min. 1 lav, 1 wc/15 children)

Fire Safety Equipment
Fire alarms shall be provided for all Group E Occupancies with an occupant load of more than fifty persons. In every Group E Occupancy provided with an automatic sprinkler or detection system, the operation of such system shall automatically activate the school fire alarm system, which shall include an alarm mounted on the exterior of the building.

The world is so full of a number of things, I'm sure we should all be as happy as kings.

Colorado Department of Social Services Staff Manual Volume VII Social Services
A-7416.1: Formal Program
The center shall carry out a planned, written program suitable to the needs of the children. This program shall be available for evaluation when requested by the State Department.
1. The program shall include outdoor play each day except when the severity of weather makes it a health hazard or when there is an individual reason for a child to remain indoors.
3. School age children shall have specifically planned activities and shall, with parents' permission, participate in supervised visits and recreational activities in the community.
A-7416.2: Program Equipment and Materials
1. Equipment, materials, and furnishings shall be provided for both indoor and outdoor play that is sufficiently varied and adequate to meet the developmental needs of the children and the number attending.
2. Equipment, materials and furnishings shall be of sturdy, safe, construction, easy to clean, and free of hazards which might be dangerous to the life or health of children. It shall be free of sharp points or corners, splinters, protruding nails, loose rusty parts or paint which contains lead or other poisonous materials.
3. Durable furniture such as tables and chairs shall be child-sized or appropriately adapted for children's use.
4. Sufficient space accessible to children shall be provided for each child to hang his own clothes and to keep other personal items.

5. Play materials shall be stored on low, open shelves, readily accessible to children and shall be arranged in an orderly manner so that children may select, remove and replace the play materials either independently or with minimum assistance.
6. All play equipment shall be constructed with a safety factor of five. Safety Factor of five is the ratio of the ultimate (breaking) strength of the equipment to the actual working stress or to the maximum permissible safe load when in use.
7. Adequate storage space shall be provided for indoor and outdoor equipment and supplies. Space for reserve supplies shall be in addition to the designated space allotment for children's play activities.
8. Each center shall have enough play materials and equipment so that at any one time, each child for which the center is licensed can be individually involved. Separate play rooms or separate interest centers shall be provided for each category of equipment required for the program. Material and equipment shall be representative of each category listed below.
a. Art Supplies: Paints (tempera, poster, finger), easel, crayons, blunt scissors, paste, clay, and collage materials.
b. Blocks and Accessories: Large and small blocks, boats, cars, planes, trains, figures of people and animals of various sizes.
c. Books and Posters: Picture and storybooks, flannel boards.
d. Dramatic Play Area: Beds, dolls, telephones, toy stove, sink, refrigerator,
cabinets, table, chairs, dishes, pots, pans, ironing board, iron, cleaning equipment
(broom) dress-up clothes (both men's and women's), large mirror placed at child's level, puppets and materials for costumes.
e. Large Muscle Equipment: Boxes, boards, saw horses, barrels, climbers, ladders, workbench, sand, water, wheel toys, swings, slides, balls.
f. Manipulative Toys: Pegs, beads, lotto,
puzzles, pounding boards, small building sets.

g. Musical Equipment: Piano, records and record player, drums, cymbals, bells, rhythm sticks.
h. Science Materials: Aquarium with fish,
nonpoisonous seeds and flower pots, growing plants, gardening tools, dry batteries, magnets, compass, thermometer, rope and pulleys, magnifying glass.
A-7417.1: Building Site
1. Centers shall not be located in a private residence unless that portion of the residence to which children have access is used exclusively for the children during the hours the center is in operation, or is separate from the living quarters of the family.
2. No other business enterprises shall be held in the same area as the child care center during the hours of child care operation.
A-7417.2: Building Plans and Construction
1. Each licensed child care center shall meet the requirements of the Child Health Department of its local unit; the local fire department or the Colorado Division of Labor, Safety Section; and shall be inspected annually for compliance with current sanitation and Life Safety Code Regulations. All health and life safety hazards shall be corrected within the time specified by the appropriate department.
2. Licensed child care centers shall comply with applicable state and local building code regulations.
3. Prior to construction, architectural plans for new buildings, or for extensive remodeling of existing building, shall be submitted for review and approval by the State Health Department or its local unit, the local fire department or the Colorado Division of Labor, Safety Section; and the local building department. Plans shall be reviewed and approved by the State Department of Social Services as to appropriateness, general adequacy and suitability for the child care functions.

4. All floors shall have a smooth tight washable surface and shall not be splintered, sagged, warped or cracked. Floors shall be free of openings, drafts and dampness. Carpets and draperies or shades shall be of fire resistant materials. -
5. Walls shall be constructed of smooth, cleanable material and be in sound condition, free from holes.
A-7417.3: Heat, Light, Ventilation
1. All heating unit3, gas or electric, shall be installed and maintained with safety devices to prevent fire, explosions, and other hazards. No open-flame gas or oil stoves, open fireplaces, hot plates or unvented heaters shall be used for heating purposes. All heating elements, including hot water pipes, shall be insulated or installed in such a way that children cannot come in contact with them.
2. Heating facilities shall be capable of maintaining a draft-free temperature of 72 degrees F. at floor level in occupied rooms.
3. Each room of occupancy shall be well-lighted and adequately ventilated by exterior windows or by an approved air conditioning system. If windov/s are used for ventilation, the total window area in each occupied area shall be equivalent to at least 10% of the floor area. One-half of the required window area shall be openable and all exterior openings shall be screened, where necessary for insect exclusion, with screening Gf not less than 16 mesh per square inch. If a mechanical ventilation system is provided, it shall meet requirements of the local building codes and fire regulations, and shall be kept continuously in operation during periods of occupant use.
4. Electrical wiring systems in all building shall conform to the requirements of the State Electrical Board. Electrical applicances shall be examined frequently for worn or otherwise defective wiring; in rooms used by children, electrical outlets shall have protective covers.
5. Corridors, hall3, stairs, and porches shall be adequately lighted. Permanently installed battery powered lights shall be provided in locations readily accessible to staff in the event of electric power failure.

A-7417.4: Plumbing and Toilet Facilities
1. Toilet Facilities
a. The water supply, sewage disposal systems, toilet and lavatory facilities shall meet requirements of the Health Department authorities.
b. Toilet rooms shall be constructed of easily cleanable nonabsorbent materials. Floors shall have an impermeable nonskid surface. Walls shall have a finished surface extending to a height of four (4) feet in toilet rooms. All surfaces shall be easily cleanable and maintained in good repair.
c. Toilet facilities available for the staff and other adults shall be in separate compartments or separated by partition from facilities furnished for children, except in centers licensed for thirty (30) children or less, and in centers with programs of four hours or less. Toilet rooms for children shall be located in rooms separate from rooms used for other purposes and shall be located on the same floor as inside play area. A minimum of one (1) lavatory and one (1) flush toilet shall be provided for each fifteen (15) children. In new facilities, opening after the promulgation of these regulations, or in facilities installing new equipment, toilets with open-front seats shall be used.
2. Drinking Fountain
a. If drinking fountains are provided, they shall be approved jet angle type with adequate water pressure at all times.
b. If drinking fountains are not available, individual single service cups shall be provided in a sanitary dispenser, and used only once.
A-7417.5; Laundry Facilities
1. If laundry facilities are included, they shall be
installed and used in such a manner as to safeguard
the health of children.

Laundry fixtures shall be located in an area separate from food preparation area and toilet rooms.
3. Laundry trays or slop sinks shall be available and located conveniently for purposes of cleanliness and sanitation.
A-7417.6; Kitchen and Food Preparation Center
1. Food preparation shall be carried on in a kitchen with proper equipment and clean-up facilities appropriate to the size of the child care center.
3. Where food is prepared on the premises, in centers licensed for thirteen (13) or more children, there shall be adequate-sized equipment, sufficient tabletop space, a mechanical dishwasher, or an adequate system for washing dishes, which is approved by the Health Department.
4. Adequate space for receiving, storage, and refrigeration of food, shall be provided. Storage space shall be clean, well-ventilated, and containers of food shall be covered and stored above the floor on shelves or other clean surfaces.
5. Provision shall be made for daily disposal of garbage and other refuse. If a food waste grinder is in use, it shall be installed in compliance with applicable Health Department regulations.
6. Separate storage of poisonous and toxic materials from food shall be provided. Such materials shall be labeled and used only in ways that will neither contaminate food nor be hazardous to employees.
7. Kitchen ventilation by means of an exhause fan and range hood may be necessary in operations that produce conditions of steam and grease.
8. Hand-washing and toilet facilities for use of kitchen staff shall be provided and shall be readily accessible.
10. When single service utensils are used, they shall be stored and handled in a sanitary manner and shall be discarded after a single use.

Children under the age of two years shall be excluded from the kitchen. Under any circumstances where children age two and over prepare food in the center, their activity shall be limited to use of equipment and appliances that do not present a safety hazard. There shail be at least one adult in the kitchen or food preparation area at all times to supervise children.
A-74JL7.7: Office Facilities
1. Office space separated from areas used by children, other than for isolation purposes, shall be provided for staff use in interviewing, conferences, and other accommodations as needed for administrative duties and responsibilities.
2. There shall be provision for maintenance and safe storage for records of children and staff, and business records of the facility.
A-7417.8: Isolation Area
An isolation area 3hall be provided for the temporary care of children who become ill. If the area is not a separate room, it shall be separated from space used by other children by a partition, screen or other suitable means. It shall be in close proximity to toilet and lavatory facilities, and where health and sanitation measures can be carried out without interruption of activities of other children and staff.
A-7417.9: Sleeping Area and Equipment
1. A firm and sanitary cot with a clean washable cot cover shall be provided for each preschool child remaining the center over four (4) hours. Each child shall have a clean, washable blanket or other suitable covering for his use while sleeping or resting. Cots shall be thoroughly cleaned and covers washed before assignment to another child.
2. In multiple use facilities where bedding is used by children other than children attending the day care center, it shall be the responsibility of the center staff to thoroughly clean all equipment before use by day care center children.
3. If cots are not used, a two-inch pad with a clean washable pad cover and a clean washable blanket or other suitable covering shall be provided. The pad may be placed directly on clean floors where the floor level temperature shall be at least 68 to 72 degrees.

4. Cots or pads shall be spaced at least two (2) feet apart on all sides.
5. Adjustable shades or curtains shall be provided to promote an atmosphere conducive to sleep at nap time.
6. When the room provided for rest is used for other program activities, the cots or pads shall be properly stored in an area which is not included in the required square footage assigned for play space.
A-7418; SPACE AND SAFETY REQUIREMENTS A-7418.1: Space Requirements
1. Indoor Area Requirements
a. Open indoor play space of thirty (30) square feet of floor space per child, including space for readily movable furniture and equipment. Indoor space shall be exclusive of kitchen, toilet rooms, isolation area, office, staff rooms, hallways and stairways, closets, lockers, laundry, furnace rooms, and space occupied by permanent built-in cabinets and storage shelves.
b. Child care centers in operation prior to January 1, 1966, and which continue operation under the same governing body, shall provide open indoor play space of twenty-five (25) square feet of floor space per child, including space with readily movable furniture and equipment, and with the exclusions the same as noted in Item la above.
c. No child of less than third grade school level shall be cared for in areas above or below the floor of egress. (See Special Requirements for Infant and Toddler Care; A-7424.2, A-7431.2.)
d. Egress from each room shall be directly available without passage through another room to the exterior of the building or to a common hallway leading to the exterior.
e. Each center shall have at least two approved, alternate, remotely located means of egress from each floor of the building or to a common hallway leading to the exterior.

f. All stairways, interior and exterior, which are used by children shall be provided with hand-rails within reach of the children.
2. Outdoor Area Requirements
a. The center shall provide an outdoor play area which is adjacent to or safely accessible to the indoor facilities. When the area is not adjacent, staff members shall accompany children to and from the play area.
b. The outdoor play area shall provide a minimum of 75 square feet of space per child for a group of children using the total play area at any one time. In no center shall the total play area be less than 75 square feet per child for at least one-third of the licensed capacity of the center or a minimum of 1500 square feet, whichever is greater.
c. The play area shall be fenced or have natural barriers such as hedges or stationary walls to restrict children from unsafe areas.
d. The play area shall be designed so that all parts 3re visible and easily supervised.
e. Ground areas shall be well-drained and free from depressions in which water may stand. The playground area shall have at least two different types of surfaces.
A-7413.3: Safety Requirements
2. Fire Safety
a. Every building or structure, new or old, shall be provided with exits sufficient to permit the prompt escape of occupants in case of fire or other emergency. Additional safeguards shall be provided for life safety in case any single safeguard is ineffective due to some human or mechanical failure.
b. Every building or structure shall be so constructed, arranged, equipped, maintained and operated as to avoid undue danger to the lives and safety of its occupants from fire, smoke, fumes, or resulting panic during the period of time reasonably necessary for escape from the building or structure in case of fire or other emergency.

c. In every building or structure, exits shall be so arranged and maintained as to provide free and unobstructed egress from all parts of the building or structure at all times when it is occupied. No lock or fastening to prevent free escape from the inside of any building shall be installed. Only panic hardware or single action hardware shall be permitted on a door or on a pair of doors. All door hardware shall be within the reach of children.
d. Every exit shall be clearly visible or the route to reach it shall be conspicuously indicated in such a manner that every occupant of every building or structure who is physically and mentally capable will readily know the direction of escape from any point. Each path of escape shall be so arranged or marked that the way to a place of safety outside is unmistakable.
e. In every building or structure, adequate and reliable illumination shall be provided for all exit facilities.
f. In every building or structure, an automatic or approved manually operated fire alarm system shall be provided to warn occupants of the existence of fire so that they may escape, or to facilitate the orderly conduct of fire exit drills.
g. Compliance with this rule shall not be construed as eliminating or reducing the necessity for other provisions for safety of persons using a structure under normal occupancy conditions, nor shall any provision of this rule be construed as requiring or permitting any condition that may be hazardous under normal occupancy conditions.
h. The local fire department or the Colorado Division of Labor shall determine the adequacy of exits and other measures for life safety in accordance with the requirements of the Uniform Building Code and the National Fire Protection Codes. In cases of practical difficulty or unnecessary hardship, the local fire department or the Colorado Division of Labor may grant exceptions from

the Uniform Building Codes or the National Fire Protection Codes, but only when it is clearly evident that reasonable safety is thereby secured.
All centers wishing to provide care for children between the ages of six weeks and eighteen months shall meet requirements in the preceding A-7410 through A-7419. The following special rules and regulations shall substitute for corresponding regulations in A-7410 through A-7419.
A-7424.1: Building Site
1. Nurseries shall not be located in a private family residence unless that portion of the residence to which infants have access is used exclusively for the care of infants during the hours the nursery is in operation or is separate from the living quarters of the family.
2. The Infant Nursery shall be located on grade level only.
3. If the Infant Nursery is included in the same building as a facility caring for children of other ages, such Infant Nursery shall be completely separated in different rooms.
4. The required minimum temperature shall be 72 degrees at the floor level. Infants shall be protected from direct light and draft.
5. Pet3 in an Infant Nursery shall not be permitted. (See regulation regarding pets in centers other than Infant Nursery, A-7416.2.)
A-7424.2: Space Requirements
1. The minimum indoor space per infant shall be fifty (50) square feet, available for 3leep and play. This space shall be exclusive of kitchen, toilet rooms, isolation area, office, staff rooms, hallways and stairways, closets, lockers, laundry, furnace rooms, and space occupied by permanent-built-in-cabinets and storage shelves.
2. If a separate sleep room is provided, there shall be a minimum of thirty (30) square feet per child.

3. If a combination sleep-playroom is used, adequate screening by a portable divider shall be used so that infants requiring sleep or rest shall have sleep area separate from the area used for play.
4. Each sleep or rest area, whether separate or combined with play area, shall be limited to not more than ten (10) infant cribs with a space of not less than two (2) feet separating each crib.
3. The outdoor activity area shall be a minimum of 400 square feet and shall be fenced and free of hazards which are dangerous to the health and life of infants. It shall be free from unprotected wells, pools, cesspools, debris and flammable material. No wading or swimming pools shall be permitted. The outdoor area shall be designed so that all parts are always visible to and easily supervised by staff. Adequate protection against insects shall be provided. Provision shall be made for both sunny and shady areas. The outdoor area shall not be used for any other group of children while being used for infants.
A-7424.3: Required Equipment
1. Equipment, materials and furnishings of the center shall be of sturdy, safe construction, easy to clean, and free from hazards which might be dangerous to the life or health of the children, whether for indoor or outdoor use; they shall be kept clean and in good condition, free of sharp points or corners, splinters protruding nail3, loose rusty parts, or paint which contains lead or other poisonous materials.
2. An adequate number of feeding tables equipped with a harness or high chairs with a broad base and a harness for securing the child, shall be provided.
3. The Infant Nursery shall provide playpens, jump chairs and adult rocking chairs. The playpens shall be portable.
4. Individual cribs shall be provided. Each crib, 2\ x 4 feet or 3 x 5 feet, shall be of safe construction and shall have a firm comfortable mattress with plastic sheeting or other type of waterproof material. Bed linen shall be kept in a sanitary condition at all times.
5. Adequate convenient storage of clean diapers, clothing, and other items shall be provided for each infant.

6. A flush toilet or flush sink shall be provided for rinsing soiled diapers. After rinsing, soiled diapers shall be placed in covered containers and removed daily for washing.
7. Handwashing facilities for adults shall be conveniently located in, or adjoining areas used by infants, and attendants' hands shall be washed after caring for each infant.
8. Some play equipment from the following list shall be provided: Cradle gyms, mobiles, rubber washable toys, rattles, blocks, balls and a phonograph and radio.
All centers wishing to provide care for children between the ages of twelve months and walking independently, and thirty-six months shall meet requirements in the preceding A-7410 through A-7419. The following special rules and regulations shall substitute for corresponding regulations in A-7410 through A-7419.
A-7429.2: Program
1. The toddler nursery shall carry out a planned, written program suitable to the needs of the children. This program shall be available for evaluation when requested by the State Department.
2. Each child shall have individual personal contact and attention from an adult, such as being held, rocked, taken on walks inside and outside the center, talked to and sung to.
3. There should be no routine attempt to toilet train toddlers under the age 18 months.
4. Each child shall be allowed to form and observe his own pattern of sleep and waking periods. Special provision shall be made so that children still requiring a morning naptime shall have a separate area for their nap apart from space used for play.
5. No harsh punishment nor any humiliating or frightening method of discipline shall be used with a toddler. Punishment shall not be associated with food, rest, or toileting.

A-7430.1: Equipment, Materials, and Furnishings
1. Equipment, materials, and furnishings shall be provided for both indoor and outdoor play that are sufficiently varied and adequate to meet the developmental needs of the children and the number attending, and appropriate to their ages, size and activities. If swings are used, they shall have seats made of a flexible material and shall be separated from the play areas used by the other toddlers.
A-7430.2: Toddler Play Equipment
1. Each nursery shall have some play materials from each of the following categories:
a. Books; including some cloth books.
b. Balls; rubber or soft plastic of medium size.
c. Manipulative toys; color cones, large poppit beads, large beads to string, three and four-piece wooden inlay puzzles, mobiles, and cradle gyms.
d. Blocks and accessories; lightweight blocks, assortment of small rubber wheel toys, figures of animals and people.
e. Washable, soft toys and washable stuffed animals and dolls without pin eyes.
f. Large muscle equipment; refiriished packing boxes, sturdy planks to walk on, rocking boat, jump chairs with safety features, polyethylene dish pans for water play.
g. Push toys, pull toys.
h. Musical instruments, piano, record player, drum.
i. Playpens which are portable, have a washable mat.
A-7430.3: Safety
1. Equipment, materials, and furnishings of the center shall be of sturdy, safe construction, easy to clean, and free from hazards which might be dangerous to the life or health of the children; whether for

indoor or outdoor use, they shall be kept clean and in good safe condition, free of sharp points or corners, splinters, protruding nails, loose, rusty parts, or paint which contains lead or other poisonous materials. Toys made of brittle, easily breakable plastic shall not be permitted.
A-7431.1: Building Site
1. Toddler nurseries shall not be located in a private family residence unless that portion of the residence to which children have access is used exclusively for the children during the hours the nursery is in operation or is separate from the living quarters of the family. If possible, a separate building shall be acquired to house the nursery.
2. The Toddler Nursery shall be located on grade level only.
3. If the Toddler Nursery is combined with a Large Day Care Center, or an Infant Nursery, toddler facilities both indoor and outdoor shall be separate from facilities for other age groups. If the facility wishes to provide opportunities for a toddler to have occasional contact with siblings, plans shall be approved by the State Department Licensing Representative.
4. The required minimum temperature shall be 72 degrees at floor level.
A-7431.2; Space Requirements
1. In a room used for both sleep and play, portable screen shall be available to separate sleeping children from children who are awake. This room shall provide a minimum of 45 square feet per child.
2. If the sleep room is separate from the playroom, there shall be 30 square feet per child in each room.
3. In any area which is large enough to accommodate more than ten children, each group of ten toddlers shall be separated by portable screens.

4. If the age range of the toddler group is limited to two-year olds and the area is large enough to accommodate more than fourteen (14) such children, each group of fourteen (14) two year olds shall be separated by portable screens.
5. The indoor space shall be exclusive of kitchen, toilet rooms, isolation areas, office, staff rooms, hallways, and stairways, closets, lockers, laundry, furnace rooms, and space occupied by permanent-built-in cabinets and storage shelves.
6. The outdoor fenced play area shall provide a minimum of 75 square feet of space per child for a group of children using the total play area at any one time.
A-7431.3; Sleep Equipment Facilities
1. A crib or sleeping cot shall be provided for each child and there shall be minimum space of two feet between each crib or cot. No child under the age of two years shall use a cot for sleeping without written permission of parents or guardian. Aisles between cots or cribs shall be kept free of all obstruction while cribs are occupied.
2. Individual cribs shall not be less than 2^' x 4' and shall be of safe construction. Each crib shall be fitted with a firm, comfortable mattress and heavy plastic sheeting or other type of waterproof material. Sleeping cots shall be of firm construction.
3. A washable covering shall be provided for each child's crib or cot, to be used only by him. Each child shall have a washable blanket or other suitable covering for use while sleeping or resting. Linens shall be kept clean. Cribs and cots shall always be washed before assignment to another child.
4. When cots are not used, a two-inch pad with a clean washable pad cover and a clean washable blanket or other suitable covering shall be provided. The pad may be placed directly on clean floors.

All the names I know from nurse: Gardener's garters, Shepherd's purse, Bachelor's buttons, Lady's smock,
And the Lady Hollyhock.
Fairy places, fairy things,
Fairy woods where the wild bee wings, Tiny trees for tiny dames These must all be fairy names!
Tiny woods below whose boughs Shady fairies weave a house;
Tiny tree-tops, rose or thyme,
Where the braver fairies climb!
Fair are grown-up people's trees,
But the fairest woods are these; Where, if I were not so tall,
I should live for good and all.

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