One Wright Center

Material Information

One Wright Center a commercial and residential development
Fort, Tony
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
iv, 82, [12] leaves : illustrations (some color), charts (1 color), maps (some color), color photographs, plans (some color) ; 28 cm


Subjects / Keywords:
Real estate development -- Florida -- Stuart ( lcsh )
Real estate development ( fast )
Florida -- Stuart ( fast )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )


Includes bibliographical references (leaf 83).
General Note:
Cover title.
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
Tony Fort.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
11307133 ( OCLC )
LD1190.A72 1983 .F675 ( lcc )

Full Text


This Thesis is dedicated to my wife, Molly, without whose love and support the work would not have been possible.
Special thanks to John Fort, for his time and encouragement, to Bill Mathers, for his time and information, and to Carole Scribner, for her dedication to professionalism in typing this document.


INTRODUCTION PROGRAM PURPOSE............................. 1
PROJECT PURPOSE............................................ 3
Statement............................................ 3
Site Description General........................... 3
OWNERS OF THE SITE THE CLIENTS........................... 4
History of Present Ownership......................... 4
Clients Present Intentions........................... 5
GOALS AND OBJECTIVES....................................... 7
Client Goals......................................... 7
Requirements.................................... 7
Desires......................................... 7
Restraints...................................... 8
Architectural Goals................................. 10
Requirements.................................. 1 0
Desires........................................ 11
Restraints..................................... 12
CLIMATE................................................... 14
SITE ANALYSIS............................................. 23
Location............................................ 23
Regional Environment................................ 29
Utilities........................................... 33
Physical Characteristics............................ 35
Soils............................................... 28

Zoning............................................... 39
Development Regulations.............................. 42
Building Code........................................ 47
Energy Code.......................................... 57
Handicap Standards................................... 59
MARKET ANALYSIS........................................... 51
Demographics......................................... 51
Proximity Considerations............................. 53
Recommendations...................................... 55
SCOPE OF THE PROGRAM...................................... 58
PROGRAM PROJECTIONS....................................... 71
Commercial Developments.............................. 71
Functions User Needs......................... 71
Forms Building Structures.................... 73
Circulation and Open Space..................... 75
Residential Development.............................. 78
Living Units................................... 78
Clubhouse Facility............................. 78
Separate Functional Facilities................. 79
Circulation and Open Space..................... 80
Relationships.................................. 81
Appendix A Climatological Data
Appendix B Illustrated Handicap Requirements
Appendix C Design Drawings

Area Locater Map South Florida........................ 2
Composite Climatic Chart.................................. 16
West Palm Beach, Florida Climatic Tables.............. 17
Site Locater Map Stuart Area............................ 24
Color Aerial Stuart Area................................ 25
Color Aerial Site Vicinity.............................. 26
B & W Aerial Site Vicinity.............................. 27
Zoning.................................................... 28
Site Plan................................................. 34
Proposed Development Plan................................. 70


The information provided herein is intended to serve as a set of guidelines for a proposed development in Stuart,
Florida. The overall objective of this program is to define the requirements, desires and constraints which are integral to the proposed development; moreover, the purpose of this program, is to collect and organize information which defines all the important elements that need to be considered in the proposed development. Upon completion, this program will serve as the basis for design.

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The development proposed herein is intended to provide residential and commercial building improvements for the owners of a parcel of land hereafter referred to as "the site". This residential development will take the form of multi-family dwelling units, or condominiums, which, upon their completion, are to be sold to owner-occupants. The commercial development will occur in the form of retail and professional service space which, upon its completion, will be leased to merchants and businessmen.
Site Description General
The site is located within the city limits of Stuart, Florida. Stuart is a comparatively small but growing community located up the eastern coast of Florida approximately 30 miles north of West Palm Beach. The total gross area of the site is approximately 51.5 acres. The topography of the site is virtually flat, and at present there are no paved roads or building improvements upon the site. The shape of the site is roughly rectangular, with its major axis running east-west. It is bordered on its western side by a major regional arterial, U.S. Highway No. 1. For a detailed description of the site's location and physical characteristics the reader is referred to the program section entitled "Site Analysis."


jiistpxy- .of. Present Ownership
The site is presently owned by a group of private investors whose interests are represented in the persons of John Fort and Ransom Tilton, both of whom are real estate brokers and residents of the Stuart area. Both Mr. Fort and Mr. Tilton are equity partners in the ownership of the site, i,e., they themselves are investors and owners as well as representatives of the owners.
The property was purchased some seven years ago, with the original intention being either, to hold for resale or joint venture a development at some future date. The original mortgage which helped to finance the purchase of the site has now been paid in full. The site is now owned free and clear of all leins and financial encumbrances.
When the site was purchased, the purchase itself was largely motivated by existing zoning of the site. (For a detailed examination of existing zoning, uses allowed by zoning and possible zoning changes, see section entitled "Code Analysis-Zoning"). Since the date of purchase, the zoning of the site has nominally remained the same. The uses allowed within such zoning however have changed. These changes have occurred to the dismay and consternation of the owners of the site.
The owners have also been informed by state regulatory agencies that approximately 21 of the site's 51 acres cannot be developed for any purpose be that purpose building improvements, open space site amenities or improved pasture. (For a detailed

explanation of this occurrence see section entitled "Site Analysis Physical Characteristics"). The owners of the site have thus experienced (1) a drastic reduction in the potential use of their property and (2) a quantum expansion in the per acre cost of their useable investment.
.Clients'- Present. Intentions
The owners of the site are now seriously considering three alternative courses of action. The first two alternatives are either 1) joint venturing a development or 2) developing the property themselves. If either of these alternatives is pursued, the development will take the form of that which is stated previously in the "Statement of Project Purpose," i.e., residential in combination with commercial development. Moreover, either alternative would necessitate the employment of an architect.
The third alternative would be simply to subdivide the site's useable acreage into small commercial and light industrial lots and sell them off piecemeal. This alternative would require only the services of a civil engineer. Existing zoning favors this alternative.
At present the client is undecided about which alternative offers the greatest promise. The third alternative had not even been considered until this program brought to light recent changes in the existing zoning regulations. Other regulations have forced the client into a posture of having to maximize the potential value of every square foot of useable acreage. The issue is no longer which alternative appears most appropriate or

lucrative. The central issue for the investor-owners has become how to salvage as much of their initial raw land investment as possible.
At present the client is looking for direction in the choice of an alternative. One of the primary purposes of this program and its resultant design solution is to give such direction.


Client Goals
1. Requirements
The clients have stipulated one all encompassing requirement of any proposed development of their site. Simply stated, their requirement is that the development must be financially profitable to the developer. It is a foregone conclusion, from the clients' point of view, that the financial risks and expenditure of effort required to develop their property will be great. For either the clients or any joint venture partners to expose themselves to such risk and mount such an effort, an attractive margin of profit must be anticipated.
Another requirement of any proposed development of this site is that the proposal itself make the property more saleable. It must be remembered that the clients acquired the site via their role as investors. To a considerable extent, financing of a development would occur through a new mortgage of the real property. The clients perceive that the development proposal will influence the posture of the lender.
2-i-Pe sices
As stated earlier, the clients are looking for direction in the development potential by their site. The clients are not a group whose purpose is solely the development of a specific facility with a specific function; moreover, there is no discern-able likelihood that the site can be sold, in the foreseeable

future, to such an individual or group. Presently the site produces no income for its owners and remains, economically speaking, a tax liability until some form of income can be demonstrated .
The clients further desire that, to whatever extent possible, the proposed development employ uses permitted within existing zoning (See "Code Analysis Zoning"). The clients recognize that some rezoning may be necessary to acommodate the "highest and best use" of their site. To the extent which rezoning is necessary, the clients desire to accommodate and accomplish such rezoning through the use of development phasing.
Phasing of the proposed development should incorporate the concept of marketability as well as that of partial rezoning.
The clients' desires in relationship to development phasing as as follows:
1) Initial development phase should be permitted by existing zoning.
2) Initial development phase should be in the form of readily marketable or leasable space.
3) Initial development phase should promote marketability of later phasing.
4) Later development phases should be compatible, in terms of overall site planning, with forms, functions and relationships established by initial development phase.
5) Development cost escalation through rezoning efforts should be confined to later stages of phasing.
3. Restraints
The clients perceive that the restraints of their site's potential development exist primarily in the following forms:

1) Sociopolitical Restraints- These include zoning and restrictions of useable site acreage.
2) Financial Restraints- Since any proposed development must be financed by some lending institution, to a large extent the clients must pursue only that development proposal which they believe has the best chance of being sponsored by such financing.
3) Market Restraints- The clients must endeavor to understand and meet real market demands for the development they propose to supply.
A reitteration, in capsure form, of the considerations
contained in CLIENT GOALS of the proposed development is as
1) Requirements
* Profitability
* Marketability
2) Desires
* Direction
* Uses permitted by existing zoning
* Development Phasing
3) Restraints
* Sociopolitical
* Financial
* Market

Architectural Goals 1. Requirements
The first requirement of this architectural program and its ensuing design is constant awareness of the clients goals. All decisions and recommendations will be examined in light of the clients' goals, and ideas will be tested for furthering progress towards those goals.
The second requirement is to gain real insight into the development potential afforded by the site. Since the clients have laid down only broad and very general facility requirements, this program's analysis of regional characteristics, of climate, of the site itself, and of applicable codes and regulations must attempt to define what specific requirements are most appropriate. The key word here is "appropriate." In what sense are the proposed commercial and residential facilities rquired to be appropriate? The facilities should be held accountable for fulfillment of the following requirements.
1) User needs should be met or exceeded by the types and quality of space provided.
2) Building forms and materials should grow out of considerations of climate (see 'Climate, User Needs -Recommendations Based on Climate").
3) Proposed development should respond strongly and
positively to market demands. Fulfillment of this requirement will go a long way toward fulfillment of the clients' requirement of profitability and marketability.

2. Desires
The foremost desire of this program's architectural goals is to integrate a consideration of the development's users into all formative stages of the design process. In the program section titled "Market Analysis Demographics," an effort is made to determine who such users may be. Interviews with the clients and personal visits to the Stuart area have also assisted in generating an understanding of the future users of the proposed development. In the "Site Analysis Regional Environment" section of the program, transporation patterns are analyzed. Uses of the surrounding land, present and proposed, uses of streets, highways and drawbridges are analyzed to see what these uses may portend for the site's development. The types of commercial facilities proposed, the projected needs of retail lessors, based upon the projected needs of their clientele, should grow out of this analysis.
Whereas the clients' desires for direction, use, and phasing of the development are largely quantitative in nature, the architectural desires are primarily qualitative. Architectural emphasis of quantity is more the province of "Requirements" and "Restraints" than that of "Desires." Quality of space will be analyzed architecturally in light of the following considerations :

* Defensible space
* Transitional relationships
* Relationship to human scale
Convenience (Palmer, 1981, p. 19)
Priorities assigned to these considerations will vary according to the residential or commercial nature of the proposed development. The consideration of productivity and efficiency, for example, will obviously be more applicable to commercial facilities.
A final desire of the architecture generated within this project is that is character be "regional", as opposed to "international," in nature. For the most part, the inhabitants of the Stuart area are not attracted to it by a particular industry or even a combination of industries. The primary industry is tourism, and many of Stuart's inhabitants are retired persons. People are attracted to the area and remain there because of regional characteristics climate, physical and sociological characteristics which are peculiar to this region of the United States. The architecture of this project will attempt to respond to these regional characeristics, to become ameliorated by them, rather than to disregard or neutralize them.
3. Restraints
The most determinant restraints of the architectural goals of this project are a product of the following two factors:
(1) Physical features of the site.
(2) State environmental regulations concerning these physical features.

An in depth analysis of the details of these factors is contained in the section titled "Site Analysis Physical Features." In general terms, site restraints with regard to drainage lowland areas of potential flood hazard must be considered. More important, the State of Florida's Department of Environmental Regulation, in conjunction with the Army Corps of Engineers, have designated large portions of the site as areas where development permits will probably not be forthcoming. Respect for the boundaries of these areas imposes restraints upon the proposed development which are formidable.
Restraints imposed by zoning regulations, development regulations and building codes are dealt with in the "Code Analysis" section of this program.
Time and budget restraints cannot be adequately defined at the present time. The clients have no schedule which must be maintained, and the temporal restraints of this project will exist mainly in the form of phasing suggested by schematic design. Likewise, the clients have not specified a budget for the proposed development. As implied earlier, budget considerations will be determined by the margin of profit anticipated by the site's developers. Identification and fulfillment of market demand will dictate budget restraints.
Reservation of one to two acres of land for construction of a sewage treatment facility (see "Site Analysis Utilities") is another restraint which must be considered.


Availability of Local Climatological Data
At present there are no weather reporting stations in the city of Stuart. The closest weather reporting stations with extensive records are located in Vero Beach, approximately 30 miles north of Stuart, and in West Palm Beach, approximately 30 miles south of Stuart. One of the clients, who is a resident of Stuart and who, as a pilot, has done extensive flying in the area for the past ten years, recommended the use of data from West Palm Beach.
Like the city of Stuart, West Palm is located directly upon the coast; furthermore, Stuart is closer to the same distance from the Gulf Stream, about 2 miles at Palm Beach, than is Vero Beach. According to the client, some of the weather systems from the northwest have a tendency to slide off the North just before reaching the Stuart and Palm Beach area. For these reasons, data from West Palm, rather than from Vero Beach, was chosen for this analyis. This data was obtained from the National Climatic Center, Asheville, N.C. A reprint of such data as was available can be found in Appendix A.
Explanation of Charts. Graphs
The first chart in this section is titled "Composite Climatic Chart," and is modeled after Koenigsberger's "Climate Graph" in the referenced volume. This chart has been designed

and tailored specifically to accommodate available data. The chart has also been color coded to permit easy referencing.
Several tables are also included in this section. The information contained in these tables has been extracted directly from the data in Appendix A. This information is specifically tailored to anticipate climatic impact upon the needs of future users of the proposed development.
The purpose of all charts and tables contained here is to assist in anticipating user needs; moreover, the graphic information wil serve as a base for design decisions. A narrative climatological summary follows the graphic portion of this section. Recommendations for the proposed development are then

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Narrative Climatological Summary
As evidenced by the preceding charts and graphs, this part of Florida has a notably equable climate. The climate of the fall, winter and spring months is particularly equable, with temperatures mainly in the sixties and seventies, and the majori ty of the days either partly cloudy or clear. During the winter months, cold continental air must either travel over water or flow down the Florida Peninsula to reach the area, and in either case its cold is appreciably modified.
Summer months, here considered to be June through September are characterized by higher temperatures, mostly in the eighties accompanied by an appreciably high relative humidity. Summer temperatures are tempered however, by easterly breezes from the Gulf Stream. The occurrence of extremely high temperatureover 100F. is restricted by the frequent formation of cumulus clouds, which shade the land somewhat without completely obscuring the sky.
Thunderstorms are frequent during the summer, occurring on an average of every other day. Tropical disturbances are common occurrences from June through October. The disturbances sometimes develop into full hurricanes, with wind velocities exceeding 90 mph.
As hurricanes are comparatively rare, the most consistent problem posed to human comfort by this area's climate is the problem of high humidity during the summer. The next section

deals with this problem and attempts to provide direction while incorporating the opportunities offered by the climate during fall, winter and spring.
User needs; RecommendationsBased on Climate
It is, in fact, to the climate that the inhabitants of the Stuart area owe their prosperity more than to any other single factor. Among other things, the climate of south Florida is a resource. It is the climate which draws the tourists to Florida's beaches, and it is the climate which has drawn retired persons by the thousands from the North. Retirees have flocked to the Stuart area in such numbers that the town has long been dubbed "a retirement community" (see section titled "Marketing -Demographics"). Other places have industry, culture or natural wonders which attract visitors and new residents. South Florida has its climate.
As stated previously, one of the goals of this development proposal is to incorporate climatic consideration into its design. These considerations fall into two broad categories:
1. Exploitation of opportunities offered by eight months, October through May, of extremely equable climate.
2. Reduction of user discomfort due to high temperature and high relative humidity during the summer. The objective here, through building and site design, is to reduce the dependence on mechanical air conditioning as much as possible. The desired effect is shown in the following diagram.


The extensive periods of mild and tractable weather argue convincingly for generous portions of usable exterior space.
This fact should influence site design in both commercial and residential portions of the development. For summer months, the two basic requirements of user comfort will be shading and unobstucted passage for air movement. To whatever extent possible, easterly summer breezes should be allowed to flow through the site. Trees and planting can be relied on for shading, as plants in this climate carry full foliage all year round. (Koenigsberger, 1974, p.216). Care should be taken in the selection of trees, as plant cover tends to restrict the movement of air near the ground. The greater the free trunk height (no limbs at the base), the better. Palm trees embody an ideal form.

Transitional spaces, such as verandahs and open air galleries, are well suited to both of the primary objectives iterated above. During the summer, such spaces afford shade to both useable exterior space and to vertical wall surfaces. Doors and windows opening onto such spaces allow ventilation by cooler air. During milder seasons, these spaces offer ideal opportunities for enjoying the balmy climate. Both the commercial and the residential portions of the devlopement can be well served by these spaces. Within the residential development, deck spaces and unshaded balconies are not recommended.
To the extent that it is feasible, buildings should be oriented to catch easterly summer breezes. Ideally, rooms within the proposed living units will allow cross ventilation. During the summer months, air movement will be the only available relief from climatic stress. If air is prohibited from naturally entering buildings, indoor conditions may be expected to become warmer and more oppressive than a shaded external space which is open to air movement. Climatic stress may thus be increased by the building envelope, thereby reversing the effect shown in the above diagram. Without cross ventilation, air conditioning demands will be constant and excessive.
Shading of all vertical surfaces, of both openings and solid walls, will be beneficial. This task will be made easier by limiting the height of buildings. Broad overhanging eves can provide necessary shading. Turning back to the Composite Climatic Chart, we see that greatest cloud cover occurs during the summer months. Although this cover affords protection from

direct solar radiation, the clouds also act to diffuse the radiation; thus, shading devices should provide greater coverage, obstructing as much of the sky hemisphere as possible, and not just the location of the sun. Openings in fully shaded walls should be large and fully operable. (Koenigsberger, 1974,
p.218) .
The principle of thermal storage cannot be relied upon in this climate. Buildings of low thermal capacity, built of lightweight construction and receiving reflective surface treatment, are advisable. Raised building forms, even if only in the form of exterior porches, will allow more rapid cooling of the forms during summer evenings.
Finally, the high annual precipitation level argues well for pitched roofs. Within the residential development the use of such roofs would suggest an attic space. An attic in this climate could be valuable in several ways. First, an attic offers virtually unlimited insulation possibilities. Second, the installation of an attic fan would be a great benefit in combatting the high humidity problem in the summer.


The general location of the site can best be visualized by turning to the maps and aerials on the following pages. It should be noted that the site's northernmost boundary lies upon the city limits of Stuart. Also noteworthy is the site's positioning upon U.S. Highway No. 1. As is made apparent by the "Site Locator Map" and the reproduction of the photo titled "Color Aerial Stuart Area", U.S. 1 is the main North-South arterial in the Stuart area. The following sections examine the site's regional environment in detail, in both physical and sociological terms, and attempt to draw conclusions from the analysis. These conclusions, in turn, have and will continue to influence the character of the site's proposed development.

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Regional Environment
As mentioned earlier, tourism and a steady influx of retired persons have done much to determine the character of Stuart in the last ten years, both the City of Stuart, and Martin County have more than doubled in population (see "Market Analysis -Demographics"). In terms of recreational appeal, the Stuart area has much to recommend it. First, this area is situated at the confluence and mouth of two rivers, the St. Lucie and the Indian river. The St. Lucie inlet allows access to the Atlantic Ocean, and the Intracoastal Waterway allows travel by boat in all but the severest weather conditions. The St. Lucie Canal connects the area with Lake Okeechobee. The Site Locator Map shows that the opportunities in this area for every type of boating activity, from fishing to windsurfing, from daysailing to yachting, are vitually limitless. Beaches along the Hutchinson Island are also an important area amenity. Again, the area's mild and balmy climate cannot be overemphasized. Golf, tennis, beachcombing, fishing and all watersports are practicable twelve months a year.
Some three miles west of Stuart is the Sunshine State Parkway. This is the state's major North-South highway. It carries tourists and winter residents to and from all parts of Florida. Within the Stuart area, U.S. 1 is the main North-South arterial. This highway is the main connector between Vero Beach, Fort Pierce, Stuart and West Palm Beach.

Four important factors concerning the site's position upon U.S. 1 need to be considered:
1. The site's proximity to the U.S. 1 bridge which crosses the St. Lucie river and connects the site to the City of Stuart. This bridge is a drawbridge, and during periods of heavy traffic can be an obstacle to be avoided.
2. The site's connection, via U.S. 1 with all residential development existent or planned north of the site.
3. The site's connection, via U.S. 1, with a major regional shopping center slated to be built on the east side of U.S. 1 at the intersection of U.S. 1 and West Jensen Rd.
4. The median curb cut which exists in U.S. 1 directly across the northbound lane from the northern one-half of the site. (see Site Plan).
The first three considerations are best dealt with in the marketing part of this program. Suffice it to say here that the decision to explore commercial in combination with residential development is founded, to a considerable extent, on these considerations .
According to the clients' civil engineer, Mr. Bill Mathers, the likelihood of the Florida Department of Highways allowing another median curb cut is extremely remote. In order to allow southbound traffic access to the site, without necessitating a turn onto Wright Blvd., vehicular penetration of the site's western edge should be planned directly opposite the existing median curb cut (see Site Plan). Such penetration would leave approximately 820 ft. of road frontage south of its centerline and approximately 600 ft. of road frontage north if its center-line.

The eastern portion of the site contains 740 ft. of road frontage on State Road 707. The Site Locator Map clearly shows the site's key position between U.S. 1 and St. Rd. 707. All southbound traffic whose destination is the City of Stuart must pass one of the site's perimeters. The town of Jensen Beach is considerably larger than the map indicates. Considerable development, both residential and commercial, has taken place in and around Jensen Beach, as well as along Savanna Rd., since this map was published. Unfortunately for the site's owners, there is little hope of over utilizing much of the site's road frontage along St. Rd. 707. This fact is explained in detail within the next section.
Along its southern perimeter, the site contains 656 ft. of road frontage on Wright Blvd. This road is used mainly by traffic on St. Rd. 707 to gain access to the northbound lane of U.S. 1, or vice versa.
Directly across U.S. 1 from the site is North River Shores, a medium and upper income residential development of considerable magnitude. The site's northern edge is bounded for the most part by unimproved acreage. The termination of a small strip of single family housing abuts a 400 ft. section of the site's northern edge. Visual access to the entire northern perimeter will be virtually nonexistent. As can be seen from the Site Plan, undevelopable property traverses the entire northern boundary of the site excepting a small piece in the extreme northeastern corner. It is assumed here some of the land north of the

site will remain undeveloped by virture of the same regulations which affect the site. It was the opinion of Mr. Mathers that, to the extent which the state will allow it, a mobile home park is planned upon this property.
The site plan titled "Zoning", in the preceding section, shows all zoning in the immediate vicinity of the site. The property directly across St. Rd. 707 from the site, about four acres in size, is also owned by the clients. They have no plans for it at this time. Though it is zoned B2, little can be planned until some determination of the property's development potential has been made by the Florida Department of Environmental Regulation.
Other features in the immediate vicinity of the site worth noting are as follows:
1) The termination of Alice Avenue into St. Rd. 707 occurs just north of Wright Blvd. Alice Avenue is a connector street for middle income housing which is a part of the community of Rio. Traffic from this area wishing to go north on U.S. 1 should funnel into Wright Blvd., passing along the southern edge of the site.
2) A marina and a small office park are situated just across St. Rd. 707 from the site's southern extremities. The area surrounded by the site on two sides, and by St. Rd. 707 and Wright Blvd. on its other two sides, contains development as prescribed by B2 zoning. One establishment here is an automobile repair shop.
The other is a Southern Bell facilitity. At present, these are the only two commercial establishments which are physically contiguous to the site.

First and foremost, it must be emphasized again that City of Stuart sanitary sewer lines do not extend to the site. Sewer lines may or may not be extended to the site prior to its development. On the clients' behalf, Mr. Mathers has recommended reserving approximately one and a half acres of land for construction of a sewage treatment facility. He further recommended that buildings within the proposed development be held back 100 ft. from the vicinity of this facility. Recommendations for the location of this facility are made in the next section.
An existing 12 inch water main on the north side of Wright Blvd. will service the site's water requirements. Telephone and electrical power lines are carried by utility poles at the site's perimeter along U.S 1. No natural gas lines service the site.

Physical Characteristics
The Site Plan contained on the preceding page shows five different classifications of land area within the site:
(1) Undevelopable
(2) Designated for Restoration
(3) Permits Required for Development (Improbable)
(4) Permits Required for Development (Probable)
(5) Developable without D.E.R. or Corps Permits
All five of these area classifications are based on regulations interpreted and enforced by the Florida Department of Environmental Regulation (DER) and by the Army Corps of Engineers. The position of the lines separating the different area classifications was established by on-site inspection undertaken by these regulatory authorities. The regulations which affect these classifications are ecological in nature, and pertain to low lying areas propesity for maintaining "ecological balance." In general terms, lowland areas of established mangrove habitat have less chance of securing development permits than higher ground.
The area classified as "Designated for Restoration" is, practically speaking, undevelopable. Upon acquisition of the site, the clients undertook improvement efforts to allow human occupation of low lying areas in the northern half of the site. The DER has since mandated that some of these areas must be "restored" to their original condition.
Extensive interviews with the clients and Bill Mathers have confirmed that development should only be planned in those areas

not requiring DER or Corps permits and those where permits are "Probable." Approximately 30 of the site's 51 acres can be considered for development with this stipulation.
In those areas where the likelihood of obtaining development permits is considered "Probable," Mr. Mathers recommends disturbing the existing grade as little as possible. Retaining walls around building and parking improvements in these areas would therefore be preferale to exansive, area-encompassing slopes.
The Site Plan shows two small areas where development may occur along St. Rd. 707. These areas are cut off from the rest of the site's developable area by a creek. The creek is bordered on both sides by land which is designated as "Undevelopable."
This program and its ensuring design will not propose any development along St. Rd. 707. It is recommended that, to the extent which development is allowed, the areas along St. Rd. 707 should accommodate commercial development independent of circulation planned for the rest of the site.
The topographic survey, not included in this document, shows that, in general, the site's higher ground is located in its southerly half. The aerial photographs shows that the "creek" passes beneath U.S. 1 and meanders in an easterly direction into the site's man made "lake." Interviews with the clients have confirmed this to be the case.
It is recommended that the proposed residential development occupy the northeastern portions of the site. (See the Proposed

Development Plan in "Scope of the program" section.) The commercial development should occupy the western and southern portions of the site which front U.S. 1 and Wright Blvd. respectively. Vehicular access to the site's inner confines of residential development should proceed directly from the median curb cut at U.S. 1 and N.W. River Shore St. Vehicular access from Wright Blvd. should also be considered. Every effort should be made to utilize the existing "lake" and "pond" as site amenities. The area around the "pond" appears to have potential as a transitional zone from residential to commercial development. The mosquito problem generated by the mangrove habitat should not be ignored. Exterior spaces which front this area should be private and screened. Open public and semi-private exterior spaces should be positioned away from the mangrove habitat, using the buildings as a buffer to mosquito infestation.
These recommendations are intentionally general in nature (see section titled "Scope of The Program"). The recommendations are made in light of regional and market analysis, in conjunction with consideration of the site's physical nature. Client goals have been considered also. Specific relationships of improvements within the site will be defined in schematic design.

As yet the clients have not procured a soils analysis of their site. It is hoped that such an analysis will be undertaken during the schematic design phase of this project. Interviews with Bill Mathers, who has been involved with the development of several properties in the site's vicinity, have revealed the following:
1. Because of the site's proximity to the St. Lucie River, the possibility exists that a "Muck Seam" underlies some portion of the site. If such is the case, pilings or caissons will be necessary to support foundational systems.
2. Bearing capacities of existing soils are not known.
Mr. Mathers suggests that spread footing foundations be planned with use of the footings as grade beams. If necessary, the grade beam can be constructed to serve as a piling cap. If pilings prove to be necessary, the form of the "grade beam" will remain more or less constant; its function, however, will become that of a piling cap.


The zoning analysis conducted here utilizes a reprint of "Chapter 18, Zoning, of the Code of Ordinances of the City of Stuart, Florida". The reprint of this chapter is dated 1982 by the Municipal Code Corporation, and, as of the writing of this program, had been updated through all available supplements published prior to July, 1983. The last supplement is entitled "Supplement No. 6", and is dated May, 1983
Present Zoning of Site: B2, Business District
Permitted Uses in B2 Business District;
All non-residential uses permitted in a B1 business
district. These include:
(a) Any retail or retail service establishment
(b) Business and professional offices
Note: For a detailed list of business uses permitted in
B2 business district, the inquirer is referred to Sec. 18-68, pp. 1401-1402 of Chapter 18, Zoning.
Of paramount importance to the proposed development is that present zoning does not permit any residential development. As alluded to earlier, residential use was permitted prior to April, 1982, and is furthermore still permitted in Bl and B3 zoning, the only other "business district" zoning designations in the City of Stuart.
In order to proceed with the proposed development, the client will have to apply for a zoning change. (Interviews with the client and with the clients' civil engineer have indicated that application for a zoning variance is not a viable solution

at this time.) Residential development upon the site would require either (1) a downzoning to B1 (Sec. 18-67) or (2) a rezoning to PUD (Sec. 18-115). As the area of the site exceeds 50 acres, the specific rezoning designation necessary would be PUD-50 (Sec. 18-117), were the client to apply for a rezoning of the entire site.
Interviews with the client have indicated that the zoning change most likely to meet with approval from the city would be a rezoning to PUD. The client hs emphasized however, that a rezoning of the entire site is unnecessary. Only that portion of the site which would be used for residential development would required PUD zoning. Thus, the specific rezoning designation necessary would be RPUD.
The relevant portions of the RPUD and PUD sections of zoning ordinances are paraphrased below:
Sec 18-115 (B)
Residential PUD of less than 50 acres will be designated RPUD and will be by definition predominantly for residential purposes. Professional rental (F3) and light business (Bl) may be included in such category (RPUD), if they can be shown to be an integral part of the project and can be shown to be compatible with surrounding zoning and land usage.
Sec 18-119
The area and open space limitations shall apply to planned unit developments as follows:
(A) The maximum density per gross residential acreage of the PUD less commercial and employment base land area shall not exceed 15 dwelling units.
(B) Planned unit developments shall contain open space equal to at least 30% of the gross acreage of the PUD.

Sec. 18 12 Q
(B) Uses permitted in RPUD District
1) Any and all residential uses permitted in present zoning classifications R-l, R-2 and R-3.
2) A combination of uses permitted in the present zoning classifications R-l, R-2 and R-3.
3) Residential uses not specifically set forth in any of the standard zoning categories but which are compatible and of like nature and quality to those residential uses allowed in zoning classifications R-l, R-2 and R-3.
4) The maximum area of buildings or structures per gross area of the RPUD shall not exceed 30% of the gross area of the PUD.
5) See Sec. 18-119 (B) above
6) Commercial uses within the discretion of the city commission.

Development Regulations
The analysis conducted here utilizes a reprint of "Chapter 6, Building and Construction Regulations of the Code of Ordinances of the City of Stuart, Florida". The reprint of this chapter is dated 1982, and, as of the writing of this program, had been updated through all available supplements published prior to July, 1983. The last supplement is titled "Supplement No. 6", and is dated May, 1983.
This analysis further utilizes "Chapter 18, Zoning" where necessary. All references to "Sec. 6" and "Sec. 18" refer to the corresponding number of the chapter where such sections are included.
1. Area, Yard & Height Requirements. (Sec. 18-74)
The only such requirements applicable to the proposed development would apply to the multi-family residential development. As noted above, such development would necessitate rezoning, probably to RPUD. It is assumed here that requirements for RPUD districts would be the same as those for R-3, Multi-Family (this is the only residential zoning district which permits multi-family).
* Minimum Living Area
* Minimum Lot Size
* Maximum Bldg. Area
* Minimum Lot Width
* Minimum Front Yard
* Minimum Side Yard Minimum Rear Yard
* Maximum Height
600 sq. ft. 10,000 sq. ft.*
100 ft.
25 ft.
15 ft.**
20 ft.**
45 ft.***
For six residential units. Eight hundred sq. ft. additional lot size for each unit over six.

** For one story structures. For structures exceeding one story in height, 10 ft. shall be added to side yard requirements and 5 ft. shall be added to rear yard requirements for each additional story that is to be constructed.
*** There is a height limitation of 45 ft. with a maximum of 4 stories in all districts except Hospital (H) district. Measurements shall be from the average grade at the base of the bldg, to the roof line. Exceptions may be made for parapet walls not exceeding 21 in., and for stairway and elevator bulkheads not exceeding 10 ft.
2. Building Setbacks. (Sec. 18-64)
* A setback line exists along U.S. Highway No. 1 (see Site Analysis) 20 ft. from the right of way ine (Sec. 18-87)
* A setback line exists 5 ft. from the property line of all land located within B-2 zoned districts. Such setback restrictions apply to the street side or sides of property and not from the side or back lines. (Sec. 18-88)
* A minimum setback line exists 5 ft. from a street or alley of every corner lot. (Sec. 18-90)
3. Code Amendments. (Sec. 6-2)
In the following portion of this program, "Building Code Analysis," the analysis should cross reference Sec. 6-2 for amendments and modifications to the Standard Building Code.
4. Fire District. (Sec. 6-3)
All land within B-2 zoned districts is included in "the fire district" (see "Code Analysis Building Code").
5. Electrical Standards. (Sec. 6-155)
The National Electric code, 1978 Edition, has been adopted by the City of Stuart.
6. Plumbing Code. (Sec. 6-178)
The Standard Plumbing Code, 1982 Edition, has been adopted by the City of Stuart.
7. Mechanical Code. (Sec. 6-228)
The Standard Mechanical Code, 1982 Edition, has been adopted by the City of Stuart.

8. Swimming Pools. (Sec. 6-308 & Sec. 6-478)
* The 1979 Edition of the Standard Swimming Pool Code has been adopted by the City of Stuart.
* All new swimming pools must have a fence at least 5 ft high or be otherwise completely enclosed. (SEc. 6-478).
* All swimming pools and their enclosures shall conform to the setback requirements required by the site's zoning classification. (Sec. 6-309).
9. Earth Berms. (Sec. 6-385)
Land fill must have a maximum slope of one foot in 2 feet or
must be supported by reinforced masonry retaining walls.
(No railroad ties).
10. Parking Requirements. (Sec. 18-40)
* Multi-family residences Two spaces per family unit.
* Restaurants One space for each 2 seats, including lounge areas, plus one space for each employee based on maximum employment.
* Retail Sales Stores One space for each 100 sq. ft. of retail floor space.
* Shopping Centers of at least 5 acres of land or 50,000 sq. ft. of floor space Five and one half parking spaces for each 1000 sq. ft. gross floor space in the shopping center.
* Office and Professional Bldgs. One space for each 200 sq. ft. of office space.
11. Parking Stall and Aisle Dimensions. (Sec. 6-398)
All parking spaces must be a minimum of 10 ft. by 20
The minimum width in feet of stalls and aisles is as
follows: Parallel 30 45 60 90
One-way traffic, stalls one side 20 30 32 38 46
One-way traffic, stalls both sides 32 44 50 56 64
Two-way traffic, stalls one side 28 40 42 44 48
Two-way traffic, stalls both sides 38 54 60 62 66

The minimum curb length for stalls is as follows:
irallel - No. of cars X 23 ' + 0 ' = Curb length
30 -No. of cars X 20 ' + 2 ' _ n n
45 - No. of cars X 14 ' + 8' n ii
60 -No. of cars X 12' + 7 ' = n n
90 - No. of cars X 10 ' + 0 ' _ n n
Paving width may be reduced by 2 ft. per side when cars will overhang landscaped areas or sidewalks located on the property.
12. Off-Street Loading & Unloading. (Sec. 18-42)
Retail business must have one paved space of 300 sq. ft. for each 3000 sq. ft. of floor area.
13. Landscaping. (Sec. 6-438 to Sec. 6-443)
* A 5 ft. strip of landscaped land is required between off street parking and public rights-of-way. Strip must contain one tree every 50 ft. or fraction thereof. A 2 ft. high hedge or other "durable landscape barrier" must be placed along the perimeter of the strip. If barrier is of non living material, one shrub or vine must be placed along the barrier every 10 ft.
* Land other than strip between vehicular use area and right-of-way must be landscaped with "at least grass or other ground cover"
"Wall or hedge or other durable landscape barrier" with a minimum height of 3h ft. and maximum height of 8 ft. is required between vehicular use area and abutting property (if visual screening is not accomplished by buildings). If barrier is to be plant material, it must occupy a planting strip at least 2h ft. wide. Landscape barrier must accommodate one tree very 75 ft, or fraction thereof. These provisions are not applicable in the following situations:
a) Where the property line abuts an alley, or to those portions of the property line that are opposite a building or structure on the abutting property.
b) Where such a barrier already exists on the abutting property.

c) Where the abutting property is zoned or used for non residential purposes, only the tree provision with its planting area as prescribed above is required. In such cases the number of trees may be reduced to one tree every 125 ft. or fraction thereof.
Off-street parking areas must have at least 10 sq. ft. of interior landscaping for every parking space excluding those abutting a perimeter as described above, and excluding those which are directly served by an aisle which abuts such a perimeter.
Other vehicular use areas must have at least one sq. ft. of landscaping for each 100 sq. ft. of paved area for the first 50,000 sq. ft. of paved area excluding the first 5000 sq. ft. of paved area. There must be one sq. ft. of landscaping for every 200 sq. ft. of paved area over 50,000 sq. ft.
Each separate landscaped area must contain at least 50 sq. ft. and have a minimum dimension of 5 ft. Each such area must contain one tree.
The total number of trees shall not be less than one for every 100 sq. ft. of required interior landscaped area.

Building Code
Building Code adopted by the City of Stuart, Fla.:
Standard Building Code 1982 Edition
Scope and Purpose:
The code analysis undertaken here is intended to initiate the project at the Schematic Design phase and help carry it into the Design Development phase. It is not intended to cover all details necessary for a complete set of Construction Documents and Specifications. Obviously, many variables necessary for code compliance of Construction Documents and Specifications are either unknown or indeterminate at this time. With that in mind, the procedure followed in this analysis will follow the general guidelines listed below.
1. Determine Occupancy Classification of the strucure.
(a) Select the occupancy classification which most accurately fits the use of the building. (Chapter IV).
2. Review the Fire District provisions, if any. (Chapter III).
3. Determine minimum Type of Construction necessary to accommodate proposed structure. (Chapter VI).
(a) Determine maximum allowable heights and floor areas for Types of Construction and Occupancy classification. (Table 400 Chapter IV).
(b) Check allowable area increases permitted. (Chapter IV) .
4. Check detailed Occupancy requirements. (Note that each code section dealing with Occupancy Classification Chapter IV -provides a complete checklist that may be utilized for the particular occupancy.)
5. Check applicable and determinate Construction requirements, (a) Fire Protection of Structural Members (Chapter VI and
Table 600).

(b) Fire Protection Requirements (Chapter VII and Table 700) .
(c) Means of Egress Requirements (Chapter XI).
6. Check other requirements as necessary
(a) Elevators Chapter XXIV
(b) Sprinklers and standpipes Chapter IX
(c) use of Combustible Materials Interior 704
(d) Roof Coverings 301, 706
(e) Light, ventilation and sanitation 2001, 2002
(f) Other
It should be noted that part of the purpose of this code analysis is to determine, to some extent, what types of construction will be most appropriate for the proposed development. Therefore, the process of code analysis should be viewed as a dynamic process capable of determining, as well as being determined by, the proposed design.
The project will include both commercial and multi-family residential development. It is anticipated at this time that there will be a physical separation between commercial and residential developments. Presently there is the possibility of including some office space in the commercial development, however that is not seen as a strong probability at this time. The commercial development will be in the form of retail and professional service space. Further assumptions are specified immediately following the Occupancy Classification of the particular structures in question.

Occupancy Classification Chapter IV
1. Multi-family residential development will include the following classifications:
* Residential Occupancy R (Sec. 411)
* Assembly Occupancy A (Sec. 404)
This will include the common clubhouse facility planned within the residential development.
* Storage Occupancy S (Sec. 412)
This will include automobile parking
2. Commercial development may include the following classifications:
* Business Occupancy - B (Sec. 405)
* Mercantile Occupancy - M (Sec. 410)
* Storage Occupancy - S (Sec. 412)
3. Both types of development may include Mixed Occupancy.
Section 403, "Mixed Occupancy Separation Requirements," should be consulted for answers to questions concerning mixed use.
Fire District Provisions Chapter III
All land within B-2 zoned districts is included in the Fire District (see "Development Regulations," Item No. 4). From the previous analysis of "Client Goals" and "Zoning", we deduce that all commercial development will take place within existing zoning, i.e., B-2, and will therefore be located within the Fire District. Residential development will require rezoning to RPUD (see "Code Analysis Zoning"), and it is the opinion of Mr. Mathers that this portion of the site will fall outside of the Fire District.
The most important restrictions of buildings within the Fire District which are relevant to proposed development are as follows:

1. Type VI construction is not permitted within the Fire District. (Sec. 301.2).
2. Roof covering shall be Type A or B as set forth in Sec.
706 (Sec. 301.3, d).
3. In buildings 2 stories or more in height (unless Type III construction; sprinklered throughout; Automobile Parking Structure; or surrounded on all sides by a permanently open space of not less than 30 ft.) all walls, floors, roofs and their supporting structural members shall provide not less than one hour fire resistance (SEc. 301.3, c). (Temporary partitions are set forth in Table 700).
4. Exterior Walls of Type IV buildings shall provide two hour fire resistance (Sec. 301.3, f).
Exceptions to these provisions, such as temporary buildings, fences, etc., are set forth in Secton 304.
Types of Construction Chapter VI Assumptions
1. Multi family residential development
Residential Occupancy R: Bldgs will be 2 and 3 story structures with a floor area of 4000 to 6000 sq. ft.
Assembly Occupancy A: Clubhouse facility will be single story with a floor area of approximately 2500 sq. ft.
Storage Occupancy S: Automobile parking will be exterior, upon existing grade where possible. "Carport" type shelters will be provided. Storage lockers for living units will be provided in unattached outbuildings .

2. Commercial development
Business Occupancy B: Office space may occupy second and third levels of retail establishment. In addition, office space may be provided in 1 to 3 story separate structures. Bank, if provided, will be 1 or 2 story structure. Restaurant space, if provided, will accommodate less than 100 people and be 1 story areas. Floor plate areas of any proposed Business Occupancy development will not exceed 20,000 sq. ft.
* Mercantile Occupancy M: Retail space may occupy first and second levels of 1 and 2 story structures. Floor plate areas of individual buildings proposed for Mercantile Occupancy will not exceed 13,500 sq. ft.
* Storage Occupancy S: Approximately 20% of floor areas in commercially developed space will be assumed to be for storage. This assumption is made primarily to lower parking requirements (see 'Code Analysis -Development Regulations," item #10). Parking will be exerior, upon existing grade where possible.
3. Mixed Occupancy Sec. 403: Business and Mercantile Occupancy must be separated by 1 hr. construction. Storage Occupancy must be separated by 4 hr. construction.
Occupany Construct. Ht. and Stories Area Allowed
Allowed (Sq. Ft.)
Residential VI, 1 hr. Unspr. 50 ; 3 10 ,500
Assembly VI, Unprot., Unspr. 40 ; 1 5 ,500
Business V , 1 hr., Unspr. 65 ; 5 21 ,000
Mercantile V , 1 hr., Unspr. 65 ; 5 13 ,500
(Note: This information was extracted from Table 400. Foot-
notes should be referenced for height and area modifications) .
Type V and Type VI Construction are defined in Sec. 606 and Sec. 607 respectively. The table on the following page identifies the fire protective requirements for structural elements within these construction types.

Required Fire Resistance-in-Hours
Type V Type VI
Structural Element 1 Hr. Prot. 1 Hr. Prot.
Type VI UnpiQ.t,
Party & Fire Walls 4
Interior Bearing Walls 1
Interior Non-Bearing
Partitions see Sec. 403, 701 & 702
Columns 1 1 0
Beams, Girders, Trusses & Arches 1 1 0
Floor Construction 1 1 0
Roof Construction 1 1 0
Exterior Bearing Walls Horizontal separation (distance from property line or assumed property line)
(% indicates percent of protected and unproted wall openings permitted.
See Sec. 703.1 for protection requirements)
0 ft . to 3 ft. 3 / 0% 1 / 0% 1 t 0%
over 3 ft. to 10 ft. 2 / 10% 1 / 20% 0 t 20%
over 10 ft. to 20 ft. 2 / 20% 1 / 40% 0 / 40%
over 20 ft. to 30 ft. 1 / 40% 1 / 60% 0 / 60%
over 30 f t. 1 / N.L. 1 / N.L. 0 1 N.L
Exterior Non-Bearing Walls
same as above
This information was extracted from Table 600. Footnotes should be referenced for qualifications and contingencies).

Detailed Occupancy Requirements Residential Occupany R
* All dwelling units or apartments within Multiple Dwellings shall be separated by one hour fire resistive construction (See Sec. 403.2).
* See Sec. 403.3 for separation required between townhouses.
Assembly Occupancy A
* All buildings of Group A Assembly occupancy shall front directly upon at least one public street or public place not less than 30 ft. wide, in which front shall be located a main entrance and exit of such building (Sec. 404.1, c).
Business Occupany B
* Partitions along exit access shall be of one hour fire resistive construction (SEc. 702.3).
* When enclosed spaces are provided for separate tenants, such spaces shall be separated by not less than one hour fire resistance; except that in Group B buildings, non-fire rated partitions may separate tenants occupying less than 3000 sq. ft. of floor space.
Mercantile Occupany M
Same considerations as for Group B buildings.
Table 700 sets forth fire resistive ratings required of vertical shafts and opening protectives. It is applicable to all occupancies.

Keans, of Egress-Requirgments Chapter. XI
1. Maximum distance to travel to an exit, in feet, for an unsprinklered building (Table 1103): All applicable occupancies 150.
2. Minimum number of exits (Sec. 1103.2)
(a) Three shall be not less than 2 approved, independent exits accessible to each tenent area, serving every story except as modified in Section 1103.2(b).
Minimum No. of Exits Occupancy Load per Story
2 1-500
3 501-100
3. Dead end pockets and hallways may not exceed 20 ft. in depth (Sec. 1104.2)
4. Section 1105 specifies the area (sq. ft.) per occupant based on occupancy.
5. The width of means of egress shall be measured in units of 22 inches. Section 1105.4 (a) forth the number of persons per unit (22 inches) of width required through means of egress. It should further be noted that:
* The minimum width of any means of egress shall be 36 inches (Sec. 1105.4, c)
The minimum width of exitway access corridors shall be 44 inches (Sec. 1105.4, g)
6. In all buildings three stories or less in height, all required exit stairs shall be enclosed in one hour fire resistive construction. (Sec. 1106, b)
7. A flight of stairs shall not have a vertical rise of more than 12 feet between floor or landings. The width of the stairs shall be not less than the width of the stairs they service. Doors opening onto a landing shall not reduce the landing to less than one-half the required width. (Sec. 1113.4)
8. The minimm width of any stair serving as a means of egress shall be not less than 44 inches, except that stairs serving an occupant load of less than 50 people may be 36 inches in width. (Sec. 1113.6)
9. Exit doors shall be swinging side hinge type doors.
They shall have a minimum height of 6 ft. and 8 inches and a minimum width of 32 inches. They shall swing in the direction of exit travel. (Sec. 1115.1)

Not more than 50 percent of the required stairways shall discharge through the same passageway. (Sec. 1126 .3)
11. Unenclosed exterior stairways are an acceptable means of egress in buildings less than 6 stories in height. (Sec. 1127.1)

MinimuiiL-Pesign.-Loads_-_Chapter. XII
1. Dead Loads may be computed by using weights in Appendix A.
2. Uniformly Distributed Live Loads depend on occupancy or use and are specified in the table contained in Sec. 1203. Table 1203.7 specifies minimum roof live load based on roof slope.
3. Table 1205.1 lists wind loads based on "height above ground" and "100 yr. recurrence of fastest mile of wind." At a height of 31 to 50 ft., with a 120 mph. wind as fastest recurring wind, wind loading pressure of 40 lbs. per sq. ft. is given.
Fire Resistance Ratings for Materials of Construction -Appendix _JB
Tables 1 through 7 list resistance ratings for various building structural elements. These tables should be cross referenced against Table 600 (see above) to determine adequacy of building materials for Type V. 1 hr. construction.

The State of Florida has created an adopted the "Model Energy Efficiency Code for Building Construction, September, 1982". This Code is accompanied by two manuals, the "Residential Instruction Manual" and the "Non-Residential Instruction Manual". All materials can be purchased from the Department of Community Affairs in Tallahassee, Florida. The Code and manuals were ordered three weeks prior to the preparation of this document, but to date they have not been received.
Telephone interviews with Bill Mathers have revealed the following information:
The Code sets forth requirements that all new construction meet certain minimum energy efficiency standards. Standards are based on the BTU consumption per square foot on an annual basis. Means of heating, ventilation and air conditioning are considered, with "points" awarded for the use of solar, natural gas and even oil. Building envelopes are also considered, with energy transmission values likewise converted to "point" system of evaluation. "Point" values for each building are totalled and divided by the square footage area of the building. If resultant point values are too high, insulation must be added or some measure taken to increase efficiency of energy consumption.
Mr. Mathers says that the difficulty of meeting Code requirements based on building use is slight. The Code is specifically designed to allow conventional methods of construction.

Only a radical departure from conventional levels of energy consumption would be in danger of violating the Code. The real difficulty in complying with Code regulations seems to be the time it takes to implement Code formulas. Once calculations have been made however, there is normally a generous margin of leeway between Code compliance and conventional proposed construction.

Handicap Standards
The analysis conducted here utilizes the February, 1983 edition of "Accessibility Codes and Standards; An Illustrated Handbook on Accessibility Requirements for Physically Handicapped Persons in the State of Florida". Photocopies of handicap requirements in illustrated form are contained in Appendix B.
These illustrations, together with accompaning narration cover provisions for the handicapped in the following areas:
1. Site Development
* Pathways to Buildings
* Ramps
* Ramps at Sidewalks
* Parking
2. Building Planning and Layout Provisions
* Entrance, Doors and Doorways
* Corridors, Halls and Other Passageways
* Finishes
* Minimum Size of a Restroom
* Restroom Layouts
* Minimum Size of a Shower
* Mounting Heights of Bathroom Fixtures and Utility
3. Wheelchair Dimensions
Portions of these provisions which should prove particulrly relevant ot the proposed development are as follows:
1. Pathways to Buildings Must exist devoid of curb, stair or other obstacles.
2. Ramps Must have a minimum width of 44 inches and a maximum slope of 1 in 12; cannot exceed 30 ft. in length without an intermediate platform. Level platform must connect ramp to buildings and have minimum width of 5 ft.

3. Parking Recommended reserved parking for handicapped:
* 1 out of total parking 0 to 20
* 2 out of total parking 21 to 100
* 2% of total parking over 100
Handicapped parking place should have minimum width of 12 ft.
4. Entrances and Doorways At least one primary entrance to each building shall be for handicapped persons; swing door at each such entrance must be 32 in. minimum; provide one leaf door for single effort operation.
5. Passageways Must have minimum width of 36 in. without openings along sides or with 33 in. openings on sidewalls.
6. Restrooms All required restrooms shall be accessible and each restroom shall be provided with at least one accessible toilet stall.
The handbook referenced herein also contains 17 pages of non-illustrated accessibility requirements. Particularly relevant portions of this information is paraphrased below:
1. The first floor or ground level of all business establishments must have at least one primary entrance accessible to the handicapped. (See "Pathways to Buildings" and "Entrances" for particulars).
2. Corridors, when required as a means of egress, shall be a minimum of 44 in. in width. This includes sidewalks to and from buildings.
3. Restrooms made available to the handicapped shall provide an unobstructed passage 33 in. wide for wheelchairs to approach accessible toilet facilities and a space not less than 5 ft, in diameter for 180 degree turns.
4. Restrooms shall have at least one toilet stall that is 3 feet wide; is at least 4 ft. 8 in. preferably 5 ft. deep; has a door (where doors are used) that is 32 in. wide and swings out.
5. Buildings having accessibility to habitable grade levels, where no elevator is provided, are not required to comply with handicap requirements above such levels.
6. Buildings of residential occupancy which are less than four stories and contain 1 to 48 units per building are only required to meet handicap requirements at habitable grade levels.


The Information Services of the U.S. Census Bureau has
furnished the following demographic statistics for the City of Stuart and Martin County:
Item City of Stuart Martin County U.S.
Population 9,467 64,014 N. A.
(as of 1980 Census)
Black 16% 7.4% N. A.
Hispanic Origin 1.8% 3.3% N. A.
Population Change 96.4%- 128.3% N. A.
(1970 to 1980) Growth Growth
Median Age 48.5 yrs. 42.8 yrs. 30.0 yrs
Under 18 yrs. 18.0% 20.6% N. A.
18 to 64 yrs. 51.7% 54.9% N. A.
65 and Older 30.3% 24.5% 11.3%
No. of Households 4193 25,863 N. A.
Persons per H.H. 2.22 2.40 N. A.
Per Capita Annual
Income* $ 7,809 $ 8,149 $ 7,313
Median Income per H.H. $14,586 $15,766 $16,830
Family Median Income $17,685 $18,332 $19,908
* All income statistics are based on income accrued in 1979;
hence, all dollar values should be viewed as 1979 dollar

The demographic statistics confirm that Stuart is indeed largely a retirement community. The median age of Stuart's population is more than half again that of the U.S. Between two and three times as many people 65 years of age and older live in Stuart as live in the average U.S. community.
Income levels are slightly lower in the Stuart area than in the U.S. at large. This is not surprising considering (1) the fact that so many people in this area are no longer working, and (2) the area's location in the Deep South, which has generally lower income levels than the national average.

Pxpximity. .Considerations
Much of the information which serves as a base for the Market Analysis is contained in the previous section titled "Site Analysis Regional Environment". Specifically, items 1, 2, and 3 concerning the site's position upon U.S. Highway No. 1 should be reviewed. The Site Locater Map, together with the aerial photos found in the "Site Analysis" section, should also be consulted.
Proposed commercial development upon the site should draw clientele from a variety of sources. The shaded area titled "Port St. Lucie Golf-Country Club", shown on the site Locater Map north of "The Site" on U.S. 1, is part of a colossal singlefamily housing development created by General Development Corporation (GDC). This development is 55,000 acreas in size, most of the homes being provided on one-quarter to one-half acre lots. Paved roads and utilities have already been constructed on approximately 45,000 acres, and approximately 40,000 acres have already been sold to prospective homeowners. Many homes have already been built, many more are presently in the planning or construction stage. Most homeowners are and will continue to be middle and upper middle income. When traveling to and from Stuart, all of the occupants of this development will have to pass directly in front of the site.
The major regional shopping mall, mentioned previously, will draw from as far north as Vero Beach from as far south as

Jupiter, and from agricultural areas as far west as Indiantown (see Area Locater Map). All traffic traveling to the mall from the South will pass the site. It should be noted that this shopping mall will be an indoor facility. Its anchor stores will be major retail outlets.
On a much smaller scale, but with regular frequency, the site's commercial development may be expected to draw clientele from North River Shores, from Rio, and from Jensen Beach. The "Color Aerial Stuart Area" photo gives a fair indication of the population densities of these areas (consult Site Locater Map for locations).

It is unfortunate that a market feasibility study, or at least some of the variables defined by such a study, could not have accompanied this report. Certain key considerations, particularly with respect to proposed development of office space, cannot be adequately addressed with information which is available at this time. Requests have been made, but as yet remain unsatisfied, of the clients to supply at least the following information:
1) Vacancy rate of existing office space in the Stuart area.
2) Approximate total of square footage of existing office space in the Stuart area.
3) What office space is currently renting for, per square foot, in the Stuart area.
If any of the above information is forthcoming it shall be included in a final portion of "Market Analysis" under the heading of "Addendum".
It is known that office space north of the St. Lucie river is virtually nonexistent. The only known office space, outside of the town of Jensen Beach, exists in a small office park just southeast of the site.
That commercial retail space can be developed profitably upon the site is clear. Currently, prime retail space can be expected to rent for $12 to $15 per sq. ft. per year. That office space in close proximity or even adjacent to such space

should be highly marketable is also clear. What is not clear is what percentage of the commercially developed portions of the site should be retail space and what percentage should be office space. It is recommended here that approximately 70% of the site's commercially developed area be devoted to retail establishments and 30% to office space (see "Proposed Development Plan," next section). Based on all previous analysis, the retail possibilities of the commercial development simply look too promising to risk a larger share of office space. Also, it should be noted that access from U.S. 1 to the residential development will divide the site's road frontage area. The smaller portion to the North of this division is ideally located and sized for a small office park.
The site's position between the City of Stuart and the major regional mall which is planned to the North makes it an ideal candidate for becoming a commercial "link" between these two areas. It is recommended that commercial development of the site not attempt to compete directly with the mall to the North; rather, retail spaces within the site should offer an attractive alternative. Whereas shopping to the North and South will occur in controlled environments, shopping within the site should occur in a more natural environment. Many of the areas inhabitants, and most of the area's tourists, are present within the Stuart area only during the months of October through May. Locals refer to this time frame as "the season." Climatic analysis has shown why this is so. Extensive use of outdoor pedestrian space,

conducive to "window shopping" and "browsing", will help to provide a more natural environment (more specific recommendations for these types of provisions are contained in the section titled "Program Projections"). This type of environment will appeal directly to that which has motivated people to visit and inhabit the Stuart area in general. During those summer months when the natural environment is less pleasant, there will be considerably fewer potential customers in the area.
It is recommended that the initial phase of the residential development should include the clubhouse facility (see "Program Projections Residential Development"). This structure will make an ideal marketing facility for the residential units.
Interviews with the clients and Bill Mathers have indicated that marketing of the residential development's initial buildout should be limited to 30 living units. The density should be approximately 10 units per acre of net residential space. The market for proposed living units should be presumed as a medium income market, able to pay $65 to $85 per square foot for housing.


Like the design process which it is intended to serve, the process of "programming" is one of evaluation and reevaluation.
It is not a linear process, but rather one which reexamines and alters any initial premise which appears to conflict with information generated by analysis. Prior to efforts undertaken in preparation of this document, the clients had a general idea of the type of development which they desired. Initially the clients had been thinking in terms of commercial and residential development, with the primary emphasis being upon the residential portion. Residential density was considered to be a key issue, since environmental regulations had preempted the development potential of large portions of the site. Commercial development was to take the form of narrow strip centers with frontage along Wright Blvd. and U.S. 1.
Analyses of climate, the site's regional environment, zoning, and the site's marketability have altered preconceptions about the proposed development considerably. It is recommended here that the primary emphasis of the proposed development, both in terms of area demands and dollar expenditure for improvements, be upon the commercial portion of the development. Areas designated fo residential development should be determined, and reduced if necessary, according to the needs of commercially developed areas. Furthermore, commercial appeal of retail establishments should be created through development which is environmental in nature and which utilizes the area's agreeable

climate. These recommendations have been generated from analysis contained in the preceding sections. The section titled "Client Goals" helped to initiate the direction of these recommendations. Of primary importance was the clients' desire to propose development allowed by existing zoning. Perhaps equally important, the problem of density is circumvented by emphasizing the commercial portion of the development. By its very nature, commercial development demands a higher density of building improvements, and thus helps to maximize the value of the site's useable acreage.
The following programming sections attempt to project the requirements of developments which will occur on the site. Area requirements and building heights are intentionally stated in general terms. The specific number of "required" square feet of retail and office space is not known at this time; nor can the specific number of residential living units be determined, as the exact acreage of residential development will be determined by the area requirements of the commercial development. Percentages of land use for different types of development are addressed in general terms. (See "Proposed Development Plan", on next page). Likewise, percentages of building areas for different types of occupancies are addressed in general terms. Area requirement and spacial functions within the residential development are addressed in more specific terms. Where flexibility within the schematic design process is demanded, it is allows; where analysis has shown that design should be more rigidly controlled by programming, flexibility diminishes.


Commercial Developments functions User Needs
The Proposed Development Plan on the preceding page shows approximately half of the site's usable acreage devoted to commercial development. As stated previously, retail space and required parking will account for roughly 70% of area demand, and office space will make up the remaining 30%. The users of the proposed development fall into four broad categories:
1) Restaurant staff and customers
2) Purveyors of merchandise and service
3) Shoppers and customers
4) Office workers
The proposed development must meet the needs of all four categories. These needs are addressed below. (Note: parking and restroom requirements are listed in "Code Analysis" section).
1. Restaurant Unique in that spacial needs are specific and narrowly defined. The first items below primarily address the needs of management; those which follow concentrate on customer needs.
* Approximately 15 sq. ft. per person necessary in dining areas.
* Approximately 20 sq. ft. per meal served necessary in kitchen area for food prep., cleanup and storage. This includes employee dining.
* Bar or lounge area should be provided. Should function as waiting area (close to entrance) for customers.
* Restaurant owners prefer ony one main customer entrance.
* Service entrance or access necessary.

Ease of access via pickup and dropoff area at entrance very desirable.
Daylighting of interior dining space very desirable. Where possible views of interesting activity space should be afforded to customers.
Exterior eating space very desirable.
2. Store Owners
* Minimum depth of retail facility, including storage, should be 30 ft.
Minimum area of individual retail establishments should be 500 sq. ft.
* Areas upon building exterior surfaces should be planned and designated for signage. The signage will occur; whether it becomes an integral portion of the development or it occurs haphazardly is up to the designer.
' Storefront windows should address any and all areas of customer traffic not just parking.
Structural columns within retail space should be kept to a minimum. They can destroy the ambiance created by merchandise display. If possible, tenant separation should coincide with structural vertical support.
Daylighting should be maximized; utilize indirect daylighting.
* Level changes should be minimized within retail space. High ceilings are desirable in that they permit store owners to design level changes which conform to individual merchandise types.
3. Shoppers and Customers
Transition from parking to storefronts must be carefully designed. Route of travel should be direct and simple, to avoid confusion; however, transition from large horizontal parking areas to vertical building elements should be softened by landscaping, earth berms, and graphic display.

* Customers should be able to find their way around the development easily. Dead end corridors should be avoided.
* Seating should be provided both exterior and sheltered.
* Customer needs are addressed in a more complete fashion within the section titled "Circulation and Open Space".
4. Office Workers
* Indirect daylighting should be maximized.
* Where office space occurs as the second level of retail, stairs should be recessed from primary corridors of shopper circulation.
' Close proximity of office space to commercial space designated for restaurants is desirable.
* Operable windows should be provided. This implies increasing the number of mechanical zones, but reduction of cooling loads should soon recapture the initial extra investment in thermostatic controls.
Forms Building Structures
Buildings whose main purpose is to accommodate retail facilities will be one and two story structures. The use of a second story will be specifically employed to add interest to building forms. Long rows of buildings which are all one story or all two story will be avoided. The use of a second story will be generated in two ways:
1) Certain retail facilities, specifically banks, restaurants, clothing stores and bookstores, will be well served by the employment of a second story. In all such instances, the entrance ot the facility will occur at grade level; access to the second level will be confined to the interior of the facility. This will eliminate the need for elevators (see "Handicap Standards," Statute 553.48 (b), p.15) and eliminate the need of public circulation space at the second level.

2) Office space will be provided at the second level of certain buildings within the retail development.
Building forms will be staggered and varied to produce interest in their facades. Long, uninterrupted massing will be avoided.
Pitched roofs will be employed to whatever extent is economically feasible. All recommendations concering form set forth in climatic analysis will be heeded to whatever extent possible. Generous use of eves and shaded arcades will be employed.
Construction will not employ load bearing walls. Steel pipe columns and open web steel bar joists are anticipated. Structure will be planned upon either a 4 or 5 ft. grid. Pitched roof forms will be trussed or employ rafters, depending on need. If economics permit, covering of pitched roofs will be fired clay tile; if not, asphalt shingles will be employed. Exterior wall surfaces will be stucco.
It is still not known whether market demands will permit proposal of an office building per se. The Proposed Development Plan calls for the creation of a small office park within the site's northwest corner. Such a facility would be 2 or 3 stories in height. The floor plate areas would depend on market demand but would not exceed 20,000 sq. ft. It is anticipated that such a facility would contain an exterior space at its core. This would allow cross ventialtion of office space as well as provide a valuable site amenity for the lessors.
An office building employing a large, roughly square floor plan will call for the use of a flat roof. Bill Mathers has

suggested a foam roof as an excellent alternative to "Trocal" or EPDM type membranes. He cites costs and excessive summer heat gains as the reasons for his recommendation. Structure of such a building would also be planned on a 4 or 5 ft. grid. Poured in place concrete would be employed for columns, two way slab floor structure, and for covering of corrugated steel roof decking. Exterior wall surfaces would be stucco.
A smaller, more linear floor plan would permit the use of pitched roofs. Structure could be wood frame with load bearing walls. The advantage of this buiding type is that, aesthetically, it would be more sympathetic to the rest of the site's development. The disadvantage is that the floor plan does not afford the flexibility normally called for in speculation office buildings.
Circulation and Open Space
The pedestrian circulation and exterior open spaces provided within the commercial development will determine the success or failure of the development's design. If successful, the development will offer a poignantly attractive alternative to shopping in the vicinity of the site; owners of specialty shops and small retailers of quality merhcandise will recognize the commercial appeal of spaces provided, tourists and area residents will be drawn to the quality of space and merchandise available upon the site. Furthermore, a successful commercial development will enhance the value of condominiums phased in at a later date.

The site's circulation problems will begin and end with the automobile. Ease of ingress and egress to and from the site is paramount. Adequate parking must be readily apparent to traffic on U.S. 1, hence no attempt will be made to locate parking to the rear of retail establishments. The mass of parking must be broken by landscaping and attractive signage.
Once out of the automobile, the site's visitor should be drawn into an appealing environment through an attractive series of entrances. The visitor should not merely be pulled along a parking lot edge by the contents of storefront windows.
Entrances to window-shopping areas should be exterior but partially sheltered. Building improvements should surround and define attractive exterior spaces. These spaces will be made more attractive by the shade which the building forms vertical partitions and roof overhangs provide. Spacial amenities in the form of landscaping, outdoor seating and fountains should be abundant. Alternative pools of light and shadow should draw the visitor through exterior spaces. At the edge of these exterior spaces will be the store owners' display windows. Circulation should therefore be accommodated at this edge, but it should also traverse and meander within the exterior spaces themselves. As many of the site's users and visitors wil be elderly, ramps are preferable to steps for accommodating level changes.
Breaks within the building forms should allow direct and obvious means of egress from the shopping core. Again, display windows should border these paths of departure.

Vehicular service access should not be visible from the
shopping core. Required service circulation and firelanes should be physically and visually separated by building forms from the primary corridors of pedestrian circulation.

Residential Development Living Units
Density 10 units per acre of net residential development .
Bldg. Type 2 to 3 story structures, containing a maximum of 12 units per bldg. Where 3 story structures are used, the entrance to all living units will occur at the first or second level. For construction economy, the clients have requested that no more than 2 bldg, types be designed.
Construction Type Wood frame with poured in place foundation and slab on grade; walls will be load bearing.
* Unit Area Approximately 1100 sq. ft. of interior space per unit. Private exterior space will be provided with each unit.
* Mechanical Needs As natural gas is not available upon the site, all heating, air conditioning and cooking needs will be supplied electrically. Each living unit will be metered separately, and it is anticipated that each unit will contain its own central air conditioner and hot water heater.
* Unit Type All living units will be 2 bedroom, 2 bathroom units. Standard spaces for kitchen, storage, living and dining will be provided.
Clubhouse Facility
* Bldg. Function The clubhouse facility should serve as a meeting and recreational space for the inhabitants of the residential development. It should be useable for evening and daytime activities, and it should attempt to commingle indoor and outdoor recreational activities. The clubhouse will not function as a common dining facility.
* Required Adjacencies Adjacent parking with an area for pickup and dropoff is required. A swimming pool and 2 tennis courts should accompany the clubhouse.

Spaces Required -
Game Room Billiards, ping-pong
Meeting Room Card tables, T.V. and lounge area
(Note both of these rooms should be useable as a "party area" at night)
Kitchen or kitchenette
Office for complex manager (used initially for sales)
Small locker rooms with shower and toilet facilities
Exercise Room
Bldg. Area Approximately 2500 sq. ft.
Bldg. Form Single story structure with pitched roof. Construction Type Wood frame with slab on grade.
Separate Functional Facilities
The following unattached structures will be provided for the needs of development's inhabitants:
* Laundries 2 washers and 2 dryers will be provided for each "cluster" of residential housing. A minimum ratio of 1 washer and dryer per every 10 living units should exist. Counter space and adequate circulation space must also be provided.
* Mailrooms May be adjacent to laundry facilities.
Must be easily accessible to auto and pedestrian circulation.
* Trash Removal Facilities Should be enclosed due to the nature of the climate. Trash compactors and lidded receptacles should be employed.
* Common Storage Lockers Should contain 1 storage locker per dwelling unit. Each locker should contain 20 sq. ft. of storage space.

Circulation and Open Space
Because of density requirements, there will be a commingling of auto and pedestrian circulation space. Because of the age of many of the development's inhabitants, every effort should be made to clearly delineate pedestrian corridors.
Parking should be positioned close to the living units but should be buffered by common open space and landscaping. Landscaping should be used extensively around buildings, circulation corridors, and outdoor activity spaces. The previous section titled "User Needs: Recommendations Based on Climate" explains the reasons why landscaping is so desirable and provides guidelines for what types of vegetation is most desirable.
Parking should be covered because of the nature of the area's climate. Whatever the means of shelter, dictated by economic restraints, any shelter is considerably preferable to none at all.
As recommended earlier, communally used open space should not front directly on protected mangrove habitat (see "Site Plan"). It should take advantage of existing site amenities and, through landscaping, create new amenities. The clients have begun exploring the possiblity of building a pedestrian walkway around the lake on the side as an additional amenity. As yet the D.E.R. has not passed judgement on the feasibility of this idea. The development's design will attempt to incorporate such a walkway into its overall scheme, with the idea that, if the walkway is rejected, the other proposed circulation will be affected only slightly.

Matrixes and bubble diagrams are not provided in this section. Though such illustrations would be useful, many of the important relationship variables will depend on the size and the extent of the residential development. The "Proposed Development Plan" shows a general concept for overall site development. If the area requirements of the commercial development expand or contract, the spacial relationships within the residential development could change radically. General assumptions concerning these relationships are set forth in narrative form.
It is assumed that clusters of building units will be too widely distributed to allow all units to have a strong relationship to the clubhouse facility. Marketing analysis has shown that the clubhouse should be built in the development's initial phase. Economic considerations further dictate that intitial expenditures for road improvements be minimized (see "Client Goals"). All these factors point toward locating the clubhouse facility near the primary entrance of the residential development. Such a location offers one more advantage: the clubhouse may be utilized to serve as a transitional space from the public spaces of retail development to the semi-private spaces of the residential development.
The relationship implied by the term "clusters of building units" is that living units wil be grouped to allow close proximity to communal facilities. In terms of area, the largest of

these facilities will be parking. Efficient use of paved surfaces, i.e., double loaded aisles serving parking, will be utilized. Large expanses of paved surfaces will be avoided. Clustering of living units will also diminish the scale of necessary functional facilities laundries, mailrooms, trash removal and storage locker facilities. The buildings which enclose these spaces should not reach a size which is incompatible with the development's residential scale. Mailrooms should specifically be positioned along major pedestrian corridors between living units and parking.
For obvious reasons, the first thirty units of the initial development phase will be built in close proximity to the clubhouse. The gradual nature of transition from public to private space will be emphasized. Transition should begin at the entrance to the development or at the shopping area which borders the residential development. The transition should continue, as gradually as possible, into the foyer of the living units themselves.


Green, I., Fedewa, B.E., Johnston, C.A., Jackson, W.M.,
Deardorff, H.L. (1975) Housing For The Elderly, The Development and Design Process, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, N.Y.
Koenigsberger, O.H., Ingersoll, T.A., Mayhew, A., Szokolay, S.V. (1974); Manual of Tropical Housing and Building, Part Qnej Climatic Design, Longman; London.
Olgyay, v. (1963), Design With Climate. Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J.
Palmer, m.a. (1981); The.Architects'..Guide-to-Facility
Programming. A.I.A.; Washington D.C.; McGraw Hill, New York, N.Y.
Untermann, R., Small, R. (1977), Site Planning for Cluster Housing, Van Hostrand Reinhold, New York, N.Y.
Chapter 18, "Zoning", of the Code of Ordinances of the City of Stuart, Fla.; Municipal Code Corportion, Tallahassee, Fla., 1982.
Chapter 6, "Building and Construction Regulations," of the Code of Ordinances of the City of Stuart, Fla.; Municipal Code Corporation, Tallahassee, Fla.; 1982.
"Standard Building Code 1982 Edition," Southern Building Code Congress International, Birmingham, Alabama.
"Accessibility Codes and Standards, February, 1983," Department of Veteran and Community Affairs, Tallahassee, Fla.

APPENDIX A Climatological Data

Local Climatological Data
Annual Summary With Comparative Data
Narrative Climatological Summary
West Palm Beach and Palm Beach, both located on the coastal sand ridge of southeastern Florida, are separated by Lake Worth, a portion of the inland Waterway.
The entire coastal ridge is only about 5 miles wide and in early times the Everglades reached to its western edge. Now most of the swampland has been drained and is devoted to agriculture, the peat-like "muck" soil being very fertile when fortified with certain lacking minerals. The Atlantic Ocean forms the eastern edge of Palm Beach, and the Gulf Stream flows northward about 2 miles offshore, this being its nearest approach to the Florida coast.
Because of its southerly location and marine influences, the Palm Beach area has a notably equable climate. Cold continental air must either travel over water or flow down the Florida Peninsula to reach the area, and in either case its cold is appreciably modified. Actually the coldest weather, with infrequent frosts, is experienced the second or third night after the arrival of the cold air, with the loss of heat through radiation. The frequency of temperatures as low as the freezing mark is about one per three years at the National Weather Service Office, but in the farmlands farther from the coast the frequency of light freezes is considerably higher.
Summer temperatures are tempered by the ocean breeze, and by the frequent formation of cumulus clouds, which shade the land somewhat without completely obscuring the sun. Temperatures of 89 F or higher have occurred in all months of the year, but the 100 mark has been reached only once. August is the warmest month and has an average maximum temperature of about 91. The occurrence of 90 temperatures in August is so common that such can be expected on more than two-thirds of the days; however, temperatures as high as 96 are so rare that occurrences average less than two days per August.
The moist, unstable air in this area results in frequent showers, usually of short duration. Thunderstorms are frequent during the summer, occurring on an average of every other day. Rainfall is heaviest during the summer and fall, the fall rainfall average being "loaded" with occasional heavy rains accompanying the passage of tropical disturbances. These disturbances sometimes pass as full hurricanes, accompanied by high winds. The most severe one to pass through West Palm Beach in recent years occurred on August 26, 1949. The anemometer blew down when the wind velocity reached 120 m.p.h., so that the highest velocity is not known. It is estimated to have reached 140 m.p.h. in the northern part of the City.
Flying weather is usually very good in this area, with "instrument" weather occurring only rarely. Heavy fog occurs on an average of only one morning a month in the winter and spring, and almost never in the summer and fall.

Meteorological Data For The Current Year
Station wEST PiLM etCH, FLORID* PAL" BEACH INTERNATIONAL AP Standard time used CASTCN Latitude 26* 91 s Longitude 80 07
~ 1 Month ' Temperature F Degree day* Be* 65 *F Precipitation n inches Relative humidity, pet Mind test mile o * a 1 it i
Avrign Entremes Mater equivalent Snow, Ice pellets 1 01 1 I 07 Local 1 13 time * 19 Resultant I !e Fei i* 2 u Sunr ae to cental 1
E >1 if i 1 2 i i 1 j 5 ? 1 ? 1 I - A 5 t 1 c oX s Q s o H c 5 t J£ t a 5 i A !! 1! ; [ i i *- o 1 | u if i £ 1 o
J A N 70.9 ... 58.7 78 ?e 32 1 3 19 J 1 0.93 0.39 29-29 1 0.0 0.0 76 77 99 69 9.9 9.2 22 08' 11 9 J 1 3 u 7
rip 77.2 $7.9 67.6 85 ii 38 9 6 1 1 18 9.22 2.33 18-19 0.0 0.0 79 77 59 67 07 9.9 12.0 25 09 1 6 5 * 9 9 10
NAB 77.a 57.9 67.9 89 10 92 *1 21 129 ?.*9 1.31 1 3 o.o 0.0 72 77 50 59 22 1.3 11 .* 90 2v 21 5.6 10 1 1 10
APB 82.7 68.6 75. 7 90 29 58 3 0 325 0.9 3 0.36 Ife 0.0 0.0 72 75 59 65 10 8 3 12.1 29 0 8 1 16 S.! s 19 6
H4 V 8 7 .a 69. S 78.5 93 29 57 5 0 925 5.12 2.92 27 0.0 0.0 79 77 53 65 12 5.1 10.6 26 16 20 5.0 7 1* 6
JUN 90.7 76.0 a i.N 99 8 70 8 0 557 9.58 1.95 8-9 0.0 0.0 80 82 62 70 11 5.9 > "| 6.2 9
JUl .i.i 7 9.9 89.1 99 16 70 1 0 5V9 3.72 1.98 23-29 0.0 0.0 8? 85 68 1 3 1.2 8.2 23 251 5*7 7 1 7
A uG 90.8 79.8 82.8 99 29 70 22 0 558 10.33 3.73 18 0.0 0.0 89 86 6 7 78 1 3 5.3 9.0 25 1. 7.8 l 12 1 8
SEP 89.0 ii. i 81.1 93 b 69 2 * 0 987 9 30 9.16 20-21 0.0 0.0 89 89 69 79 07 5 3 8.8 29 jsj 9 7.0 2 19 19
OCT 8 S 6 7Q.b 78.1 93 9 61 16 0 9 19 2.10 1.1* 13-19 0.0 0.0 5 §8 62 79 07 6.5 10.7 35 08 31 5.5 9 19
NOV 77.8 57.9 67.9 89 5 99 19 33 127 9.52 3.99 9-5 0.0 0.0 86 88 73 05 ) 8 10.5 32 08 2 9.0 15 9 6
OEC 79.9 55.9 65.2 86 26 35 12 1 16 129 2.50 1.80 29-30 0.0 0.0 1 85 55 72 33 1.0 9.5 25 sol 15 9.5 10 16 *|
Yt AB 83.2 65.1 T,.l 99 16 3? 1 3 610 3869 99.79 9.16 20-21 0.0 0.0 79 82 56 70 09 3.3 10.1 90 23 5.5 92 166 107; i
Elevation (ground'
; s
Nuinter ol deyi
M lt|
U \ ib.
Temper ati,rr E ManiTHini Minimum

s i 1
bi ti .t
1019.6 1015.9 1016.3
1016.3 1018.0
Means, And Extremes
1 2 Temperatures *F Normal Degree days Base 65 F Precipitation in inches Relative humidity pet. Mind ! 1 i l s i. i & if ii Mean numtier ot days F " Average station pressure mb
Normal Extremes Maser equivalent Snow, Ice pellets i z 01 <1 1 07 oca i 1 3 tiny i 19 ) 1 I! fi it Fastest mile Sunn aa to sunset ii If Ii j! 1: f t e I l £ 1 U S 6 if Temperatures Ms* 1 M
E >! At E >1 ll 1 II r I! 2 r I r J I 1 > £ t i i i ft If i > 1? | ll 11 4 > u 1 s k > I! i i Q | ' l r H O i.P ? sl fe* n hi E lev f,1 LJ"---
(A) 95 93 3 93 36 36 17 17 1 7 17 39 19 32 32 33 36 3b 36 5. 5. 17 1* 17
J 75.C 55.9 65.5 89 1992 27 1977 8 3 98 2.60 8 30 1979 0.22 I960 6. 36 1 957 T 1977 T 1977 60 62 58 72 9.9 Ny 98 29 1955 5.8 8 11 1? 7 1 2 0 3 1.19.0
f 76.0 56.2 66.1 90 1999 32 1978 91 122 2.60 6 .68 1 966 0.29 1 998 9.70 19 6 6 0.0 0.0 79 8? 56 69 10.9 SF 96 29 1956 5.7 8 10 10 0 1 1 0 1 p 1J18 7
N 79.3 60.2 69.8 99 1977 30 1980 25 179 3.5? 11.95 1 9 7 C 0.33 1956 9.83 1970 0.0 0.0 77 C 59 67 10.8 sc 51 ? 7 1957 5.6 8 1 3 ir 7 ? n * 1017.9
A 82 9 69. V 7 3.9 99 1971 95 1971 0 270 3.51 18.26 199? O.09 1967 i s.2r 1992 0.0 0.0 75 77 53 65 10.9 c 55 32 1958 5.9 8 19 * 6 5 1 2
r 96 1 68.9 77.5 96 1971 53 1990 0 388 5.1 7 15.2? 1976 0.39 196* 7.09 1956 o.c 0.0 79 78 59 70 9.7 cst 95 27 1959 5.9 7 11 11 r A 9 0 n 1019.9
J 88.3 72.7 80.5 98 I960 62 1 965 0 965 8.19 17.91 1966 1.07 195? 9 ? 1 1995 0.0 0.0 83 82 65 75 8.2 CSC 71 09 1957 6.7 9 13 1 3 1 9 p 1 3 9 0 0 1116.2
A 90.2 79.9 82.3 98 1963 65 1957 0 536 6.9 1 13.5? 1980 2.16 1 955 5.49 1999 0.0 0.0 63 69 69 75 7.6 CSC 86 1 3 1969 6.6 3 16 1? ,, 16 r 16 16 18 r n
s 88.3 79. 1 81.5 97 1937 66 19 38 0 995 9.85 29.86 l 9 6 r 2.73 1939 8.71 I960 0.0 0.0 89 8b 66 78 8.6 CSC 58 3b 19 79 7.n 2 19 19 1 * c > 9 o c 1 C 1 9.7
c 9.3 70.1 *7.2 95 1959 96 1968 0 378 8.75 18.79 1965 1.20 197? 9.58 1965 0.0 0.0 60 6 3 62 79 10.1 CNt 79 16 1 9 (> 9 6.2 *> 1* 1 1 1 3 p 7 G 0 r 1 115.2
1, 79.5 62.5 71.0 91 1991 36 1950 22 202 2.98 10.98 1978 0.25 1970 5.5? 1972 0.0 0.0 80 8 3 60 7 3 10.1 E NE 35 39 19 59 5.7 7 1 3 ir 9 n 1 1 n 1017.9
c 76.1 57.9 66.8 90 1991 30 1962 78 1 39 2.2 1 8.73 1999 0.06 1968 5 ? 6 19*5 0.0 0.0 79 8 1 5 72 9.9 NNy 36 C 7 1958 5.6 9 1? ip 8 c 1 1 0 p p 1018.6
v R J.O 61.0 79.5 101 1992 27 1977 299 3 766 62.0 * 29.6b I960 0.09 1967 15.23 1992 T 1977 T 197 7 80 6? 60 7? 9.5 E5E 86 1 3 1969 6.1 73 157 1 35 1 31 n 78 6 61 1 1016.9
(a; Lenqth of record, year*, through the current year unless otherwise noted, Dased on January data.
(b) 70 and above at Alaskan station*.
* Less than one half.
T Trace.
NORMAL', Based on record for Athe 1041 -1970 period.
DATE Of Ah EXTREME lhe most'recent 'n cases of Multiple occurrence.
WIND DIRECTION Numerals Ind'cate tens of deqrees clockwise from true north. 00 indicates calm.
FASTEST MILE WIND Speed is fastest observed '-minute value when tne direction 1s In tens of degrees