Citation
Union Station transit center & multi-use complex

Material Information

Title:
Union Station transit center & multi-use complex
Creator:
Garcia, Enrique
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
approximately 88 leaves : illustrations, maps, plans ; 28 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Railroad stations -- Colorado -- Denver ( lcsh )
Local transit stations -- Colorado -- Denver ( lcsh )
Local transit stations ( fast )
Railroad stations ( fast )
Colorado -- Denver ( fast )
Genre:
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for a Master's degree in Architecture in Urban Design, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
Enrique Garcia.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
08674318 ( OCLC )
ocm08674318
Classification:
LD1190.A73 1982 .G37 ( lcc )

Full Text
GARCIA
ENVIRONMENTAL design AURARIA LIBRARY
UNION STATION
TRANSIT CENTER & MULTI-USE COMPLEX
ENRIQUE GARCIA _
University of Colorado f;p thesis project
1190
A73
1982 1
G37


UNION STATION
TRANSIT CENTER & MULTI-USE COMPLEX
ENRIQUE GARCIA
University of Colorado thesis project


' ; Z<*' . '
INDEX
INTRODUCTION
URBAN CONTEXT
The Central Business District Transit
The Mall Transit capacity CBD Master Plan
Parking&Employment Future Demand The Mall Pedestrian movement Street capacity light Rail Downtown
The Central Valley Description
SITE
History
Environmental Conditions
Flood plain
Employment
Circulation
Parking
Climatological data Photo Index
PROGRAM
Description
DESIGN CONCEPT
Description
Diagrams
\


INTRODUCTION
This thesis program involves the design of a multi-modal transit center and multi-use project at the site of the present Union Station in Lower Downtown Denver.
Union Station,once the hub of transportation i*n the Denver Metropolitan area,is now vastly under-use resource, only several Rio Grande and Amtrack passenger trains use the facilities during the week.
With minimum disruption of existing transit patterns in the Downtown and Metropolitan areas, Union Station can once again become the center of transportation in Metro Denver. In addition to the existing inter-state rail system ( Rio Grande and Amtrak),this new center can become the terminal point for t$e proposed Metropolitan Light Rail System. Also proposed is the relocation of the pre sent inter-state bus center (Geyhound/Trailways) to the new project (freeing the valuable land at the present location for a new development).
The logic of centralizing the transportation system involves not only efficiency of the entire transportation functions,but also simplifying the system for the user.this is especifically true in a city the size of Denver,where attempting to understand a complicated system discourages many potential mass transit users.
In addition to the transit Center on this 18.5 acre site, will be a high-density multi-use complex incorporating retail,office,housing,hotel,restaurants,theatres,exposition areas,etc.
The Multi-Use complex will serve as a transition between Downtown,the transit center,and the proposed Burlington Northen project, currently proposed.As such,the primary retail space will relate to the Union Station Transit Center and lower downtown, while the housing/office portion will relate more to the adjacent Central Valley project.
(The "Central Valley", a.k.a. "Burlington Northern Project" involves 360 acres adjacent to the site with high density residential and industrial development as well as a 140-acre park connecting to the Platte River Greenway).


The new multi-use complex, thus, will have access to these new projects as well as the Platte River Recreation Area.
Finally, the thesis project involves street improvements on 17th Street between Market and Wynkoop. These pedestrian and transit improvements will form the "missing link" unifying the Union Station Transit Center ..and the Market-Street Transfer Facility, thus creating a com£l^teTY_J^_^£j-^ ftnd centralized transportation center.
My personal intent in doing this thesis project is an opportunity to incorporate a unified transportation system into the existing fabric of the city. The urban design potential here is exciting not only in terms of incorporating the transit system into the desigrj, but also in terms of the integration of old and new structures in this historic area. I am also interested in re-establishing an identity for the city which the station once created. By incorporating retail and other functions into this complex, the area can become a unique, dynamic, 24-hour environment. This high level of activity is also important from a security standpoint. For instance, there is some concern that the Market Street Transfer Facility might become deserted, isolated and thus dangerous in the evening hours.
High activity tends to decrease crime problems.
Thus, in terms of "project concepts," the most significant is the incorporation of retail and other uses into the transit center. The new life created at Union Station Should further encourage renovation of the lower downtown area. Also, by providing a focal node of activity at one end of downtownf Tt will provide more unity between lower downtown and the rest of downtown.
Other project concepts include:
- Create a transition between old and new; preserving the old structures and facades of buildings where possible.
-Separate pedestrian and automotive uses.
-Improve landscaping to provide a pleasant pedestrian environment.
-New buildings should emphasize, not detract from Union Station as a landmark.


-Encourage a dynamic urban environment by integrating rather than separating various urban functions such a housing, hotel, retail, and transportation.
- Union Station Transit and Multi-Use Center should be a public/private joint co-operative investment.
The proposed "Central Valley" Project will change the nature of this area into a high growth area. The center of the metropolitan transportation system is a logical choice to locate such a high-density multi-use complex.




i..
Urban
5
Context
Union Station and Lower Downtown form a part of the Downtown district, and their problems and constraints are share.
Some of the problems are: Circulation (pedestrian-automobile ). transit and parking space.Therefore.because transportation is the principal issue of my project ,and the role that Union Station form in the transportation system in the Metropolitan Area;It is important to know how the different Districts support each other to relieve problems, and the influences that the new developments around Downtown have on it.
To understand the importance on having an Intermodal transit Center and the anex services (multi-use complex) thfct the project will contain,I would like to describe the miin areas and their necessities or influences,before I describe the Site and the characteristics of the project.
:


I
CENTER BUSINESS DISTRICT
ANALYSIS OF FUTURE CBD TRANSIT REQUIREMENTS
W**' 11
During the next four years the number of people working In downtown Denver on an average day is expected to increase by at least 44,000, while" current construction plans call for the net addition of only 3,500 spaces to the CBD parking supply. Based on past experience, the new parking should acconmodate about 12,000 CBD workers per day.
By 1985 transit will be called upon to serve the remaining 32,000 new employees plus the approximately 23,000 CBD workers ((28% of all CBD work trips) now riding buses to and from work. These '"figures imply a total work trip transit volume of 110,000 per day to and from the CBD. According to recent estimates by the Denver Regional Council of Governments, the demand for transit service to downtown Denver will continue to grow through the year 2000, when over 90,000 CBD workers are predicted to be using transit daily.
The estimate of 1985 CBD employment and parking was developed by the Denver Planning Office based on buildings now under construction and those for which specific plans have been announced. In this respect it is a conservative estimate, as additional construction plans are I likely to be announced between now and 1985. The estimate of 1985 transit demand is also felt to be conservative since 1t is based entirely on the availability of parking and assumes no shift to transit due to increasing fuel and parking costs.
The preceding estimates indicate a need for substantial growth in 'transit capacity in both the short and long term the projected 1402ftgrowthin CBD transit work patronage between now and 1985 is double the growth experienced from 1970 to date. The Mall project, by removing express and regional buses from the CBD streets, will accommodate a significant increase in total peak period CBD transit capacity if the sharp peaking in demand currently present in the CBD can be substantially reduced. However, based on a 1985 estimate of the number of work trips made during the peak period, over 18,000 peak period work trips would remain unserved without some further capacity increase.
Assuming expansion of the present bus system serving downtown with standard transit coaches, at least 360 new peak period bus trips would be required to serve the forecast growth in work trips. This increase is more than double the present volume of peak period express buses and would require the replacement of buses removed from California and Welton Streets by the Mall project, plus the establishment of two additional major bus streets downtown. Adding 360 buses to the downtown street network would considerably worsen congestion on an already heavily loaded street system and would result in high transit operating costs due to delay to buses.
I


i
Trip Data
Peak Hour Outbound Cordon Crossings (Veh./Hr.)
Dally Work Daily Transit Total Dally Trips i- Work Trips Transit Trips
19.4001 105.2001 o 26;,0001 42,000l
19,8006 162,6005 46.0006 92.0006
> g 20,000* i.. 250,6005 l 110.0008 197.60011 ? j
20.0009 292,000K 10 182,000 u 286,00010
Economic Data
Year
Retail
Floorspace Sales Parking
Mil. Sq. Ft-($ Million) Employment Spaces
1970
23.7
1
17b
61,000
1
28,600
1
1980
34.0'
222
94,000'
37,400'
1985
45.0
3 '
270
145,000'
42,900'
2000
N.A.
N.A.
169,000'
N.A.


CENTER BUSINESS DISTRICT
IMPACT OF THE MALL PROJECT ON CBD TRANSIT CAPACITY
Rapid growth of the Denver region during the next five years will continue to strain the capacity of an RTD bus system already experiencing difficulty in serving peak period travel demand. The focus of development in the region is the Denver Dentral Business District (CBD), where by 1985, at least 51,000 new employees are expected to be working. Due to constrained parking supplies and street capacity, the majority of these workers are expected to use transit to .travel to and from their jobs, resulting in 64,000 new transit work trips to and from the CBD daily.
Today, nearly 92,000 daily transit trips are made into and out of downtown Denver. Of the 45,000 outbound trips, 20,000 or 44 percent are made between 4:00 and 6:00 p.m., requiring approximately 620 bus trips. Traffic congestion and the heavy flow of busses lead to significant delays for both local and express busses on downtown streets. Examination of local bus operations on 15th and 17th Streets indicates that the bus lanes on these streets are operating at near their practical capacities, as is California Street which carries 109 buses during the peak afternoon hour. Without major capacity increases, the CBD tran-ist system will not be able to handle the new ridership expected during the next five years.
The Mall project, by removing express and regional buses from the CBD street network, will effectively address much of today's bus delay problem and will provide for marginal growth in transit usage to and from the CBD. The Mall and its related terminals will allow the current express and regional bus


system to operate more efficiently, but they cannot fully -accomodate the tremendous growth in CBD transit travel forecast for the next five years.
Mall Project Background
In 1977, RTD funded urban design and traffic engineering studies for a transitway mall project. On the basis of these studies,
RTD applied for capital grants from the Urban Mass Transportation Administration (UMTA) for the Mall project in February,
1978. The first capital grant was awarded to RTD in June, 1978.
The Mall was conceived as both a transportation and urban design project, intended to improve transit operations in the Denver CBD and help to achieve the goal of high density development of the downtown area by increasing its attractiveness as a major commercial and retail center. The project will provide a high capacity, reliable downtown transit circulation and distribution system and a pleasant, attractive pedestrian environment on 16th Street.
The Mall system will increase the productivity and capacity of the existing express and regional buses by eliminating the downtown collection/distribution portion of their trips. This is accomplished by intercepting express buses at transfer facilities at either end of the Mall and using specially designed shuttle vehicles to distribute passengers from the terminals to their destination along the Mall.
The shuttle vehicles must provide high capacity, reliable service to achieve the project's transportation objectives, yet must not unduely detract from the pedestrian environment of the Mall itself. A number of alternative vehicles were evaluated for the Mall Shuttle service, with a 40 foot low floor bus finally being selected. Each bus will be capable of carrying 70 passengers and will be equipped with three wide doors to accomodate rapid loading and unloading.
The planned traffic signal progression on the Mall will allow a transitway vehicle to leave each of the terminals every 70 seconds during peak periods. The 70 passenger capacity of the vehicle provides that passengers may be served at the rate of 3600 per hour at each terminal. This is, in effect, the limiting factor for the capacity of the Mall system.


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FUTURE TRANSIT SYSTEM


Capacity of the Mall System
The effective capacity of each of the terminals will be somewhat higher than that for the transitway vehicle because some passengers will be able to walk to their destinations directly from the terminals. Based on their location relative to employment downtown, the percentage of passengers walking from each terminal is fore cast to bet
Civic Center 31%
Market Street 18%
Given thesewalk percentages, the effective capacity of the Market Street terminal will be 4390 passengers per hour while Civic Center will handle 5217 passengers per hour, resulting in a total peak passenger handling rate of 9607 per hour for the Mall system.
Because travel demand is not uniform during the peak period or peak hour. The Mall will not actually handle 9600 passengers per hour during its operation. At present, the peak 15 minute flow of passengers is 1.3 times that during the entire peak hour and the peak hour rate is 1.68. Although this is a substantial improvement relative to today's system, it does not begin to address the increase in transit demand associated with the expected growth in downtown employment.


TRANSIT TRANSFER POINTS
FUTURE TRANSIT TRANSFER POINT
INTERNAL TRANSIT AND PEDESTRIAN SHUTTLE SERVICE
MAJOR TRAFFIC ARTERIALS
-----SERVING PERIPHERAL
PARKING FACILITIES
J TRANSIT ACCESS ^ TO TRANSFER POINTS
C B D Transit/Traffic




Additional Transit Capacity Requirement
Based on employment and parking supply forecasts, at least
32,000 new daily transit riders are expected by 1985. Should non-work trip transit demand increase as well, the transit growth rate will be even higher. About 23,000 CBD workers currently use transit daily, accounting for half of the total CBD transit volume. Just under 68% of all transit work trips are currently made during the afternoon peak period. Although, with growth, we can expect some flattening of the peak period itself, it is unlikely that the overall proportion of work trips made during the peak period will change significantly.
Based on the assumption that the proportion of work trips made during the peak period does not change, by 1985 we can expect 21,760 new outbound transit trips to be made from the CBD during the peak period. The most optimistic growth scenario for the Mall indicated that the existing express and regional bus system could handle 3800 more passengers than in 1980. This would leave just under 18,000 peak period trips unserved without some other capacity increase.
Assuming that additional buses could handle this new demand with average loads similar to those on today's peak hour express buses, 360 new peak period bus trips would have to be made from the CBD each afternoon, or more than double the current express and regional bus volume downtown. This volume of buses would require replacing the buses on California and Welton Street removed by the Mall project, plus establishing an additional pair of transit streets perhaps on Glenarm and Stout Streets. Adding 360 buses to the downtown street network would sinsiderable worsen congestion on an already heavily loaded system and would result in high transit operating costs due to delays to buses.


USEABLE
VEHICLE SEATS FLOOR AREA (Square Feet] STANDEES* TOTAL PASSENGERS
NORMAL CRUSH NORMAL CRUSH
BUSES AM General Transit (Model 600) 47 67.1 27 45 74 92
GM New-Look (Model 4900) 45 72.7 29 48 74 93
GM Suburban (Similar to MCI) (Model 900) 49 53.4 21 35 70 84
MAN Articulated 61 111.8 45 74 106 135
LIGHT RAIL VEHICLES SIG 80 310.0 124 206 204 286
BREDA 84 237.5 95 158 179 242
SIEMENS DUWAG 76 210.0 84 140 160 216
BOMBARDIER 73 267.5 107 178 180 251
* For rounding purposes fractions of standees above 0.70% were counted as one additional; below 0.70% the previous whole number was used.
TRANSIT VEHICLE CAPACITY


USEABLE
VEHICLE SEATS FLOOR AREA (Square Feet] STANDEES* TOTAL PASSENGERS
NORMAL CRUSH NORMAL CRUSH
BUSES AM General Transit (Model 600) 47 67.1 27 45 74 92
GM New-Look (Model 4900) 45 72.7 29 48 74 93
GM Suburban (Similar to MCI) (Model 900) 49 53.4 21 35 70 84
MAN Articulated 61 111.8 45 74 106 135
LIGHT RAIL VEHICLES SIG 80 310.0 124 206 204 286
BREDA 84 237.5 95 158 179 242
SIEMENS DUWAG 76 210.0 84 140 160 216
BOMBARDIER 73 267.5 107 178 180 251
* For rounding purposes fractions of standees above 0.70% were counted as one additional; below 0.70% the previous whole number was used.
TRANSIT VEHICLE CAPACITY


CBD M ,ster Plan
16th. street mall
existing parking lots
astrian link to mall
minibus
automobile access routes
parking ring
intercept parking structures
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16th. street mall short term parking
supplemental parking
auto-service circulation route
visual significance
automobile access routes
parking ring
intercept parking structures


Growth in CBD Transit Demand vs. Availability of Parking
The following analysis is based on a report (Mar. 19,1981) by Bill Byrne, RTD planner:
The method for extrapolating demand is checked for validity based on 1970 employment, parking and transit data and preliminary figures for 1980. Although complete 1980 CBD transit ridership data is not yet available for a thorough check of the technique, based on available information it appears that transit work trip demand will increase by between 100 and 140 percent between now and 1985.
Future transit demand is estimated by comparing the projected growth in employment for the period 1980 to 1987 with the number of workers that could be accommodated in the new parking spaces scheduled to be added in the CBD over the same period (assuming all spaces are used by workers ). In this respect, the analysis is probably overestimating the ability of new parking to accommodate downtown workers since some parking will undoubtedly be reserved for short term parkers conducting business or shopping downtown. Balancing the tendency to underestimate transit demand inherent in the above assumption are the assumptions that occupancy in fringe area parking lots does not increase auto occupancy does not change, and the use of vanpools does not increase significantly. Also, the effect of the imminent opening of several housing developments in and around the CBD has not been considered in this preliminary analysis. Although these various factors will have some impact on the number of potential CBD transit patrons, the growth forecast for the next five years is so large that their net effect is probably lost in the "noise" of the estimate. Note that the estimate is entirely supply based and assumes no change in the propensity to use transit due to rising fuel and parking costs.
To illustrate and test the forecast method, 1980 transit work trips were estimated based on employment and parking changes since 1970. In 1970, the following conditions prevailed in the CBD.
Employment
Estimate Employees at work on average day: Parking Spaces : Maximum Accumulation of Vehicles Parked by CBD Employees :
60,900
(1970)
52,641
28.629
23,000 (5900in fringe)


Ratio of Employees at Work to Maximum
Vehicle accumulation: 2.289
Transit Work Trips: 13,000/day
' f
By 1980, the following conditions existed :
i r
Employment: 94,000
Estimated Employees at work:81,250
Parking Spaces: 37,370
Mr. Byrne assumes the same ratio of employees at work to maximun vehicle accumulation applies to 1980 as 1970,the 8,741 additional parking spaces( if all are used by workers) would accomodate:
(1980) 8,741 x.95 x 2.289 = 19007 Employees at work
( The .95 accounts for an assumed 95% occupancy rate)
Over the past 10 years, the number of employees at work on a given day has risen by 28,600. With 19,000 accomodate by increaded parking, 96000 additional workers have needed to find alternative travel modes to the CBD. If we assume that all the workers have chosen transit,we should see a current CBD transit trip volume of 22,600/day.
Express and regional daily ridership to the CBD currently averages 9800 per day. We can assume that a total df 36,500 local bus trips are made from the CBD daily,with 12,400 occurring in the peak period.
Looking to 1985, a tremendous growth in CBD employment will occur,with many new major office buildings to come on line before 1985.According with the Denver Planing Office, the following conditions will exist in 1985 given buildings under construction or commited (There is a poten-clal for even more growth):'
Employment: 145,000
Employees at work: 125,350
parking Spaces: 42,920


Parking spaces will have increased by 5550, accomodating 12,070 new employees at work at 95^6 occupancy. The number of employees,will have grown by 44,080, leaving approxi- mately 32,000 new employees without parking.
Some of those workers may occupy new housing within walking distance of their places of work.and some may bicycle to work (Northeast of Downtown. North capital Mill and the Silver Triangle).but the mayoritv will want to turn to transit for their trip to and from downtown.Given the the current work trip volume of 22,000-23000 per day,the
32,000 additional CBD workers who must find an alternative to the automobile represent* a potencial transit patronage increase of nSfcrly 140 percent in 5 years. The growth in CBD work patronage since 1970 amounts to about 70 percent half of what we may expected by 1985.
Several things are likely to happen to allow workers to get their downtown jobs. First, as parking space get scarce,the parking bissiness will become extremely lucrative, perhaps encouraging the development of additional parking facilities beyond thode currently planned. The degree to which this"solution" can be effective will be limited by the capacity of downtown streets to carry additional traffic.


MIU
iENERAL LAND USE PATTERN

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LEGEND
I Target Areas for detailed planning and subsequent action.
Downtown Area -early action phase designation for Section 220 mortgage insurance


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Distribution of Firms
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Types of Downtown Employers Ranked by Number of Employees
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PEDESTRIAN MOVEMENT
THE MALL



Pedestrian
area
The Mall is a transit project of the Regional Transportation District (RTD) It is a mile-long transit/pedestrian thoroughfare in Downtown Denver, the hub of the RTD*s six-couny area.
The Mall is a unique and innovative solution to an increasingly common problem in urban areas. As central cities are revitalized or developed into high-density commercial and residential districts, the problems associated with this growth transportation,congestion, pollution also develop more acutely.
The Mall on 16th Street has been designed to help alleviate these problems in Denver's Central Business District and to improve service in the six counties.
The Mall has six elements. The first is a tree-lined pedestrian area along the 13-block length of 16th Street between Market and Broadway. A free shuttle vehicle fleet, the only vehicles allowed to travel on 16th, is the Mall's second element.
In addition, two transfer facilities at opposite ends of the Mall will intercept express and regional buses.
The passengers from these buses can then board the free shuttles for stops along 16th.


The single large element of the Mall project (The New York firm of I.M Pei and partners is the architect and designer of the mall) in terms of size and cost is the 13 block transit/pedestrian mall on 16th Street. It is a tree-lined,granite paved with SpeciaU-ighting,benches telephones and planters.
Two transfer facilities serve as transition points between the mall's shuttle vehicle system and RTD's express and regional buses as they enter and exit the Central Business District.They will anchor each end of the raili-long Mall.
The Civic Center Tranfer Facility will be located on the block bordered by Lincon,Broadway,Coifax and 16th. The North West Tranfer Facility' wlllbe located in lower Downtown, on site bordered by 16th,17th, Market and Blake.
From these two points,bus passengers may board the Mall's free shuttle vehicles which will take them to their destination Along 16th,stopping at each block along the mile -long transitway.
Pedestrians may also board the free shuttle vehicles on 16th for travel along The Mall or to the transfer facilities.
The Northwest facility (Lower downtown)feature shuttle vehicles entering at the ground level to serve the passengers. Bus entering the facility will move below-grade to load and unload passengers at the 10 berths currently "r planned. Stairways,escalators and elevators will be installed so passengers may move more easily between the two levels. An especially design element in this proposed area is a ground-level park above the bus transfer area. The3 park will be atractivelly landscaped and extend from 16th to 17th streets.
The Northwest terminal design incorporates urban design and bus operation concepts which enhance the transfer facility both as a people-place and a transit center for the Mall.
Shuttle vehicles from The Mall and express and regional buses will enter the Civic Center facility to load or unload passengers. Space for eight bus bays included in the proposed design,with possible expansion to 11 berths in the future.
The Lincon level of this transfer- facility will be a pedestrian plaza opening onto the office complex adjacent to the terminal.Tlje Civis Center design also incorporates parking (200-300) garage below the 26-story office complex.


r) MAJOR DOWNTOWN ----- FUNCTIONAL AREAS
llll INTENSIVE PEDESTRIAN SYSTEM WITHIN FUNCTIONAL AREAS
PEDESTRIAN LINKAGES BETWEEN MAJOR FUNCTIONAL AREAS
SECONDARY PEDESTRIAN LINKAGES BETWEEN ACTIVITY CENTERS
PEDESTRIAN GATEWAYS TO ADJACENT NEIGHBORHOODS
Market St Terminal
The Northwest Transfer Facility features a ground-level park above the bus transfer area.


INTERCITY BUS INDUSTRY IN THE UNITED STATES
Including Operations of Class I, II and III Carriers Reporting to the Interstate Commerce Commission and Intrastate Carriers
1970 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978* 1979' 1980
Number of operating companies 1,000 1,000 1,000 950 950 1,000 1,050 1,100 1,150 1,330
Number of buses 22,000 21,400 20,800 21,000 20,500 20,100 20,100 20,200 20,500 21,900
Miles of highway served 267,000 270,000 270,000 271,000 274,000 276,000 277,000 279,000 280,000 280.000
Number of employees3 49,500 49,100 48,400 49,400 46,700 46,000 44,000 43,700 45,000 49,600
Total bus-miles (millions) 1,209 1,182 1,178 1,195 1,126 1,118 1,102 1,081 1,132 1,182
Revenue passengers (millions) 401 393 381 386 351 340 332 338 360 373
Revenue passenger-miles (millions) 25,300 25,600 26,400 27.700 25,400 25,100 25,700 25,400 27,200 27.700
Operating revenues, all services
($-millions) 901.4 974.4 1,022.7 1,151.9 1,171.6 1,231.9 1,303.1 1,388.4 1,627.0 1,946.5
Operating expenses ($-millioni) Net operating revenue, before 812.2 882.1 937.9 1,070.0 1,103.2 1,179.9 1,247.6 1,334.2 1,539.1 1,813.0
income taxes ($-mlllions) 89.2 92.3 84.8 81.9 68.4 52.0 55.5 54.2 87.9 133.5
Operating ratio* Taxes assignable to operations 90.1 90.5 91.7 92.9 94.2 95.8 95.7 96.1 94.6 93.1
($-millions)4 76.7 84.1 89 £ 94.8 96.5 100.6 100.6 102.0 101.2 1124
1 Includes duplication between carriers
* Operating companies only
3 Operating expenses divided by operating revenues
4 Excludes income taxes
* Preliminary; figures revised but still preliminary
Source; Compiled by ABA from Interstate Commerce Commission data (including published materials and reports filed by individual carriers), supplemented by estimates to cover unavailable segments and by the Motor Carrier Survey in the 1963 Transportation Census.
BUS PASSENGER TRAFFIC AND VEHICLE-MILES
Class I Carriers
(All figures in millions)
1960 REVENUE PASSENGER-MILES TRAVELED IN REGULAR-ROUTE 1965 1970 1972 1974
INTERCITY SERVICE PASSENGERS CARRIED 13,116 15,749 14,173 13,576 14,667
Total number 267 219 174 164 168.7
Regular-route intercity service 167 166 134 127 126.3
Local and suburban service 83 29 21 16 17.0
Charter and special service 17 24 19 21 25.4
VEHICLE-MILES OPERATED
Total 843.2 946.7 870.9 845.8 885.6
Regular-route intercity service 728.9 818.6 742.2 706.7 725.1
Local and suburban service 45.9 23.9 16.9 15.2 16.7
Charter and special service 66.4 103.1 110.8 123.2 141.2
Nonpassenger service 2.0 1.1 1.0 0.7 2.6
1975 1976 1976(A) 1977 19783 1979* I960
13,240 12,560 11,990 12,560 11,908 12,650 13 050
152.2 145.9 127.7 125.1 124.6 132.6 1340
117.6 112.1 101.7 98.9 97.0 1028 1050
13.7 13.5 12.7 11.8 8.5 8.7 9
20.9 20.3 13.3 14.4 19.1 21.1 20 3
848.9 838.0 774.6 766.2 739.1 764.2 77*0
689.0 672.4 635.4 629.6 604.9 626 2 650 0
13.0 11.9 10.8 10.6 6 JB 66 6,5
144.9 151.7 128.3 125.9 127.4 131 4 1715
2.0 2.0 0.1 0.1 0 0 01
f-
* Representing only carriers classified as Class I under test affective January 1, 1077; figuree from ABA tabulations
* Preliminary; figures revised but still preliminary



CBD 1980 and 1985 Cordon Level of Service
The attached tables show 1980 and 1985 Cordon Station capacities, volumes (1985 = 1.3 X 1980) and intersection levels of service.
As you can see, in the afternoon the West, South, East and N.B. Broadway portions of the cordon line will become highly congested by 1985 if all new CBO travelers use automobiles. The average LOS for all the cordon intersections evaluated is now B for both A.M. and P.M. peak hours. In 1985, the average will fall to D with many intersections operating at or over capacity in the afternoon. I think we have a compelling argument to support our "gut fool" that the auto literally can not handle the upcoming CBD
f
growth
A.M.
1980 and 1985 (No Transit Growth) Conditions
APPROACH 1980 19851
INTERSECTION APPROACH CAPACITY VOLUME V/C LOS VOLUME V/C LOS
16th/Wazee SEB 16 1750 1200 .68 B 1560 .89 D
15th/BT Lawrence/Speer NEB Lawrence 3260 1655 .51 A 2152 .66 B
SEB Speer 3070 1760 .57 A 2288 .75 C
Colfax/Kalamath NB Kalamath 1965 940 ': .48 " A 1222 .62 B
t EB Colfax 2165 1320 .62 B 1716 .79 C
Colfax/Speer NWB Speer 2715 " ' 2095" .77 C" 2723 1.0 E-F
Colfax/Cherokee NB Cherokee 1320 445 .34 A 9752 .74 C
Lincoln/Colfax WB Colfax 1425 645 .45 A 839 ^ - .59 A
' NB Lincoln 2530 ..... 2640 Ml,, 2640 2 1.04 F
Broadway/18th Ave. WB 18th 2545 1625 .64 B 25082 .99 E
Broadway/Cal./20th St. SWB California 600 365 .61 B 475 .79 C
NWB 20th 1910 945 .49 A 1229 .64 B
Broadway/Champa SB Broadway 1345 905 .67 B 1177 .88 D
SWB Champa 1390 595 .43 A 774 . 56 A
NET 29180 17975 .61 B 23390 .80 C-D
V/C IT
1 30% Higher Than 1980 LOS A 0.0 - 0.6
2 N.B. Lincoln Growth Distributed LOS B 0.61- .70
Between Cherokee and 18th Avenue. LOS C .71- .80
LOS D .81- .90
LOS E .91- 1.0
LOS F
1.1 +


1
1980 and 1985 (No Transit Growth) Conditions
INTERSECTION APPROACH APPROACH CAPACITY 1980 VOLUME V/C LOS 19851 VOLUME V/C LOS
16th/Wazee NWB 16th 910 535 .59 A 696 .76 C
15th/Blake NWB 15th 1170 995 .85 D 1294 1.11 F
. SWB Blake 1450 890 .61 B 1157 .80 C-D
Larimer/Speer SWB Larimer 2625 1610 .61 B 2093 .80 C-D
NWB Speer 3290 2630 .80 C-D 3419 : 1.04 F
Colfax/Kalamath WB Colfax 2170 1540 ' .71 C 2002 > .92 E
WB Colfax-SB Kal 570 550 .96 * E 715 1.25 - F
SB Kalamath 1845 1015 .55 A 1320 .72 C
Speer/Cal if./Colfax SWB California 1245 815 .66 B 1060 .85 D
SEB Speer 2275 1960 .86 D 2548 1.12 F
Colfax/14th. St. SEB 14th St. 1395 1010 .73 C 1313 .94 E
Broadway/Colfax SB Broadway 2510 2020 .80 C-D 2626 1.05 F
EB Colfax 1355 510 .38 A 663 .49 A
Broadway/17th/Court NEB Court 1325 515 .39 A 670 .51 A
SEB 17th 1775 1295 - .73 C 1684. .95 E
Broadway/19th SEB 19 th 1380 1045 .76 C 1358 .98 E
Broadway/Welton NEB Wei ton 1905 585 '' .311 A 760 .40 ' A
Broadway/Stout NB Broadway 1430 700 .49 A 910 .64 B
NEB Stout 1380 865 .63 B 1125 .81 D
NET 32005 21085 .65 B 27411 .86 D
1 30% Increase Over 1980


LIGHT
RAIL
PRIMARY TRANSIT CORRIDORS


LIGHT
RAIL DOWNTOWN
Analysis of the average riding times through downtown (to 14th Avenue) for the Light Rail alignments under consideration in the CBD indicates that the popular belief that parallel-mall alignments (particularly 17th Street) are superior in terms of passenger level of service and rider-ship potential may be misplaced. Due to the length of the parallel-mall alignments, their average ride times are up to 2 minutes and 50 seconds longer than for cross-mall alignments. Depending on the relative "dis-benefit" assigned to walk vs. ride times, this extra ride time could more than outweigh the approximately 1 minute walk time advantage held by 17th Street over the cross-mall alternatives.
Table 1 shows a ranking of the CBD alignments by average ride time. Average ride time for each alternative was calculated by determining the proportion of 1985 CBD employees closest to each stop on the alignment, and multiplying that proportion by the travel time from the stop to the end of the line. A 25 mph cruise speed was assumed in all calculations .
, 1 Q
Every cross-mall alternative is shown to be superior to the parallel-mall alternatives. Currigan Hall, with the fewest stations and shortest route out of downtown, has by far the lowest ride time but its long aver age walk distance more than outweighs this advantage.
Table 2 shows a ranking of the CBD alignment alternatives based on their net transportation level-of-service. Walk time is considered to be twice as onerous as ride time in this ranking scheme.
As shown in the table, with this valuation of walk time, Welton and California are both superior to 17th Street from an overall level of service standpoint. If a 17th alignment were to be built in a subway, it is likely that cruise speeds would be higher than the 25 mph assumed in this analysis; nor would this alignment be subject to traffic signal delay as is the case with the cross-mall alternatives. Therefore, a 17th Street subway would most likely have a higher level-of-service than any surface al ternative. 'However-, the advantage of a surface Wei ton or California alignment over a surface 17th alignment should transfer, directly to cross-mall subway alignments as well. Thus is appears that the option offering the highest overall level-of-service would be a Welton or California Street subway. It is my recollection that, in the past, it has been stated that if we must go to the subway option, it should be 17th. since that would afford the best service for the investment. ' ...........


Table 2
lr
I
. Ranking of CBD Light Rail Alignments By "Net Level of Service"*
1. A1 ignment Wei ton Street Walk Time (Mi n) 5.33 Ride Time (Min) 3.63 .Total Time (Miri) 8.96 ; Net Level-of-Service (Min) 14.29
2. ... California Street 5.48 3.50 8.98 14.46
3. 17th Street 4.39 6.00 10.39 14.78
4. Glenarm Street 5.64 3.73 9.37 15.01
5. Stout Street 5.78 3.50 9.28 15.06
6. Champa Street 6.30 3.52 9.82 16.12
7. 14th Street 6.55 4.24 10.79 17.34
8. 18th Street 5.87 6.21 12.08 17.95
9. 19th Street 7.28 6.37 13.65 20.93
10. Larimer Street 10.19 3.94 14.13 24.32
11. Currigan Hall 14.06 1.50 15.56 29.62
12. Union Station 17.01 3.62 20.63 37.64
Walk Time Is Weighted Twice As Heavily As Ride Time


Table 2
Ranking of CBD Light Rail Alignments By "Net Level of Service"*
A1 ignment Walk Time Ride Time Total Time Net Level-of-Service
(Mi n) (Min) (Min) , (Min)
1. Wei ton Street 5.33 3.63 8.96 14.29
2. California Street 5.48 3.50 8.98 14.46
3. 17th Street 4.39 6.00 10.39 14.78
4. Glenarm Street 5.64 3.73 9.37 15.01
5. Stout Street 5.78 3.50 9.28 15.06
6.- Champa Street 6.30 3.52 9.82 16.12
7. 14th Street 6.55 4.24 10.79 17.34
8. 18th Street 5.87 6.21 12.08 17.95
9. 19th Street 7.28 6.37 13.65 20.93
10. Larimer Street 10.19 3.94 14.13 24.32
11. Currigan Hall 14.06 1.50 15.56 29.62
12. Union Station 17.01 3.62 20.63 37.64
Walk Twice Time Is Weighted As Heavily As
Ride Time


CENTRAL VALLEY
The potential exists for creating a strong and mutually reinforcing relationship between new development in the Central Platte Valley, the developing Auraria Higher Education Center, and all facilities in Downtown Denver.
The Central Valley area should accomodate a mix of land use including residential, support retailing, industrial park development,commercial office space, and public open space near Cherry Creek and the Platte River. Major commercial development of a density that would compete with Downtown should not take place in the Central Valley. Significant and continuous areas of open space adjacent to the Platte River and to Cherry Creek should be designed for easy access to the public and should connect with the developing system of trails, bike paths, and parks along these waterways within the city.
Nww development in the Central Valley would have the advantages of close proximity to Downtown and to the Auraria Higher Education Center and a central location in the metropolitan area accessible by all travel modes. These factors, with the added advantage of new design and land planning techniques, can provider 1. redevelopment of large portions of the banks along the P,atte River and Cherry Creek; 2. additional attractive in-town employment and residential opportunities needed by the city; and 3. added focus and strength to the Central Area add to Downtown.
CENTRAL PLATTE VALLEY COMPREHENSIVE PLAN ACREAGE BY TYPE OF USE
Type of Use _________________________Proposed Plan______
Private Development
Residential 160
Commercial 40
Industrial 160_________
Subtotal private 366
Public Development Educational Center/Park Sub-total public
TOTAL
140
14TT
500


APPENDIX 3
PROPOSED
COMPREHENSIVE PLAN AMENDMENT
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Colfax
DATE : Jan. 11, 1977
2000
DRAWN BY

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APPROVAL OATE
SEC. TO THE PLANNING BOARO
| Bayor
j PUBLISHED
Medium Density Residential
High Density Residential Very High Density Residential
CBD Core CBD Frame
Services
Public & Quasi Public
General Commercial Intensive Commercial
General Industrial Heavy Industrial
Park & Recreation Existing Freeway Arterial Street Collector Street
Amended
Area


SiTE
The Site (Union Station,the building and tracks) belongs in history,architectural character,type of activities, zoning,tophography,climate,circulations,etc,to Lower Downtown, the hidtory of the building,its past changes on shape style for several reasons,all of these events form part of the history of Lower Downtown .
History
The lower Downtown area was include in the original denver city charter and was the city's major commercial area for many years due to its proximity to the river and later the rail service which was so vital to the city's economic health.
Denver expanded very rapidly during the late 1800's and, as a result, the economic center of the city began to move away from Lower Downtown were those most dependent on the railroad,such as food processing, manufacturing and warehousing. The advent of the automobile and subsequent decline of rail transportation of both goods and people further erode the economic vitality of Lower Downtown.


Three event in recent years,however, have served to focus renewed imterest in the potential of Lower Downtown (and now the Union station,Central valley areas).
The first was the growing awareness of the architectural history,emphasized on by the development of Larimer Square.
The second event which was affected the future use of Lower Downtown is the creation of the Denver Renewal Autority( DURA) and their undertaking of the Skyline Urban Renewal Project. This new construction has, in turn,brought thousands of Downtown employees into close proximity to Lower Downtown and has create a market fot the shops and rental space available in the area, the destruction of many historically and architecturally valuable, though deteriorated, buildings in the Skyline area also helped to crystallised interest in preserving and rehabilitating the remaining structures in the Lower Downtown.
Finally,in response to the newly demostrated potential of the area,and the interest in pteservation and adapti ve reuse.
ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
The future of Lower Downtown and the site itself will be largely shaped by what is happening in the areas inmedia tely adjacent to it. The area is virtually surrounded by other areas which are in transition.
To the Southwest, across Cherry Creek, is the Auraria Campus.' This project is radically changing the physical appearance of the area to the west as well as its social and economic characteristics.
Cherry creek itself is another factor to be considered in the future planning for Lower Downtown. Despite its proximity to Cherry Creek, Lower Downtown has been isolated from it by the high flood walls which line the channel and by the existing street pattern. Recent and contemplated improvements within the channel promise to transform it into a recreational amenity which will favorably affect the Lower Downtown.
*
To the northwest are the rail yards. In 1975, the Burlington Northern Railroad proposed redevelopment of this area into into a "new-town-in-town" to include residential, commercial, and industrial functions.




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There are no strong influences on the northeast edge to be considered. Only Market and Blake Streets extend beyong 20th Street, and land uses along these streets are mostly industrial in nature. No change in this area is contemplated at this time.
The 16th Street pedestrial/ transit mall affects Lower Downtown. Development potential near the ends of the mall will be enhanced, directly affecting the Skyline area and thereby indirectly influencing development in Lower Downtown.
More directly, changes to the downtown circulation pattern will affect movement to and through Lower Downtown.
RTD is also working on the development of express bus transfer points at eiter end (southeast and northwest) of the proposed mall. Express routas into downtown will terminate at these points and passengers will transfer to local buses, the Free Ride,. or 16th Street Mall circulator to reach their downtown destinations. Development potential aroung these transfer points will be directly affected and bus access and egress from the staging area will certainly affect surrounding areas. ' /
The repair, improvement, or replacement of existing viaducts will affect circulation to and through the area. Additionally, contemplated construction of a west-bound Colfax viaduct would affect existing traffic volumes on Lawrence and Larimer Streets and might reduce the scope of proposed Market-Blake arterial improvements.
FLOOD PLAIN
The Flood Hazard Area Delineation for Cherry Creek, published by the Urban Drainage and Floor ControlDistrict indicates thht no part of the Union Station project site is in the 100 year flood plain.
Current plans for improvements to the Cherry Creek channel ffora Cherry Creek dam to the confluence would eliminate all .flooding in the Lower Downtown as a result of a 100 year flood.


4
FLOOD PLAIN

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AREA OF SHALLOW FLOODING lOOyr FLOOD (NOT IN lOOyr FLOOD PLAN)
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Urban storm drainage and flood control measurements must be evaluated from the standpoint of the--site itself as well as from the effect of flooding of the two major streams. In this instance,consideration must be given to disposition of the initial and major rainfall which occurs on^the area itself and run off as storm'sewer outfall and major drainage imterior provisions which are needed to protect the proposed development .


Land Use
The generalized land use map below attempts to show the emerging land use pattern of the area, but it must be kept in mind that there are many exceptions to the patterns shown and that changes are occurring rapidly as the Lower Downtown adapts to new economic situations.
GENERALIZED LAND USE
In general, most recent renovations and adaptations of older structures to commercial and office uses have occu= rred in the southern quarter of the area. The stock of suitable buildings is greater there and- the proximity to Larimer Square provides a retail market and reduces the area's separation from the rest of downtown.
Some stablishments have been able to use the larger buildings along Wynkoop and Wazee to good advantage by conbi-ning their showrooms,sales,and warehousing in one centr&l localization,close to Downtown and served by the existing rail spurs from the Union Pacific yards.
The long-established warehousing and manefacturing activities which remain are also generally located along the existing railroad apurs on the northwest and northeast edges even though many now seem to rely more heavily on truck service than train.


The north east portion of the area,aside from some ware-house/retail uses discussed above,is characterized by smaller structures housing industrial services such as sheet metal,plumbing,printing,auto repair,and industrial equipment shops,
There is a little residential use in the Lower Downtown one recent project contains housing at Blake St. Bath and raquet club at 18Th and blake st. Consisting of ten condominium residences above commercial space,with swim ming pool and tennis courts facing the alley. Most of the housinf in Lower Downtown,however,is confined to the re sidential hotels which are intermittently occupied by the skid row subculture.
EMPLOYMENT


EMPLOYMENT
Future keves of employment will depend on completion of of the skyline project and the rate at which redevelopment is accomplished in the area. It is clear,however,that as commercial and office uses move into the many under utilized and vacant structures,total employement will increase rapidly. For example, Market center,which will ultimately contains 175,000 square feet of rental office space,could directly bring as many as 800 jobs into The area. The ripple effect of this new activity will estiraulate additional supporting facilities and employement.
TRAFFIC VOLUME
000 1976 AV£. DAILY TRAFFIC
11
CIRCULATION
The streefsystem, as it now exist in Lower downtown, crea tes .problems;. Both internal circulations and external access are made complex and difficult by the convination of one-way streets and two-way,made necessary by the barriers formed by the central valley,cherry creek, the viaducts on 15th,16th,and 20th,and the physical barriers of Cherry Creek and the central valley rail yards.
The one-way street system in Downtown Denver begins to


break down at the edges where it must adapt to the two way streets which lead away from downtown. One of the most difficult areas where the transition occurs is in Lower Downtown where the situation is further complicates by the barriers of Cherry Creek and the railyards,and the problems of providing acces to the two-way viaducts at 15th,16th,and 20th streets.
PARKING
Lower Downtown is already impacted by many srface parking lots.As the area Improves.new businesses will require additional space,particularly short-term space.to provide convenient customer parking. It is important.however.that the need for additional parking lot not be allowed to further fragment the appearance of the area by demolition o f sound structures which are capable of rehabilitation Skyline Urban Renewal Project will provide convenient long-term parking within walkin distance .
Short- term parking,however, could become a problem which will require sensitive and creative solutions if the character of the area is to be maintained and enhanced.
TRANSIT
the Downtown free ride should be extended to support the new commercial uses and to help reduce the potential i demand for new parking lots.
Lower Downtown will continue to have express bus traffic and the lower downtown community should work very closely with RTD toinsure that sites an express bus routes are selected to minimize the negative impacts on the area.
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STREET CLASSIFICATION
* COLLECTOR > ARTERIAL
TRAFFIC FLOW
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CLIMATOLOGICAL
DATA
SOLAR
Following are the azimuths and altitudes of the sun at 40 north latitude:
Winter (Dec 22)
7:30 AM 8:00 AM 10:00 AM Noon 2:00 PM 4:00 PM 4:30 PM
Fall-Spring (Sept.2 3-Mar
6:00 AM 8:00 AM 10:00 am
Noon 2:00 PM 4:00 PM 6:00 PM
Summer (June 22)
4:30 AM 8:00 AM 10:00 AM Noon 1:00 PM 4:00 PM 7:30 PM
Azimuth Altitude
121-0' 0-0*
127-0' 5-30 *
150-30' 20-30'
180-0' 26-301
209-30' 20-30*
233-0' 5-30*
2 39-0' 0-0*
21)
90-0' o o >i o
11030 22-30*
138-0 41-30'
180-0 50-0'
222-0* 41-30*
249-30* 22-20'
270-0' 0-0*
59-0* o o o
89-0* 37-30*
114-0' 60-0'
180-0* 7 3-30'
222-0* 60-0 *
271_0' 37-30
301-0' 0-0*
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Hours of sunshine
The sun is unobscured by cloud cover 70% of the time it is above the horizon.
Clear and Cloudy Days
Nearly 249 days are clear or only partly cloudy and only 116 are wholly overcast.
Solar Heat
When the sun is highest, horizontal surface will accumulate about 2,690 Btu's/day or about 350 Btu's/hr. for sun hours. In December, the same surface would get about 850 Btu's/day or about 180 Btu's in the highest hour.
East facing wall receives about 75% of heat received by horizontal surface/day in winter and 50% to 60% as much in summer.
South facing wall receives 200% as much heat as horizontal surfact in December and January, 150% as much as November and February, and about the same as March, September and October.


PROGRAM


Considering the unique character of Lower Downtown and recognizing the negative impact that a High-Rise,High density solution can give to the area; my personal inclination and proposal for the new development is a Mid-Rise Mid-density.
It is a solution that response to the local adjacent economic market and#can be an acceptable solution for the developers considering the posibility of transfering the rights for development to another project,or selling those rights to another developer.
the bus -terminal will provide a mix-investment with public and private interest,as well as the light rail terminal (Subway solution).
A Mid-Rise solution will not overload the existing network and will take a full advantage of the existing transportation system.
The High-Rise High- Density solution seems to be the most appropiate for the developers and will give a strong support to the commercial activities itself, but will give at the same time a negative impact to the unique character of Lower Downtown already disturbed by the new projects and the enormous potencial for several new ones within the area.
The following program is based in the posibility of a P.U.D. in order to reduce the parking ratio due to the available transportation system and the peatonal access for potential shoppers.


UNION STATION TRNSIT CENTER & MULTI-USE COMPLEX
PROGRAM
(Areas approx. )
RETAIL 150.000
TRANSPORTATION 150.000
OFFICE
HOUSING
HOTEL
PARKING
700.000
150.000
166.000 630.500
Sq Ft.
*" (Include Bus circulation)
II II
mi ii (170 units)
" " (250 rooms and conference rooms)
" " (2000 parking spaces)
TOTAL 1.946.500 Sq Ft.-
PARKING REQUIREMENTS (P.U.D. Ratios)
RETAIL 300
1/500 sqft
TRANSPORTATION 200
OFFICE 1.050
1.5/1000 sq ft
*
HOUSING 237
1.39/Dw
PUBLIC 300
Long term
TOTAL 2.150 Spaces


COMPLETED
Block No. Name Developer
26-A Prudential Plaza Prudential Insurance Company of America and Del E. Webb Corporation
1 5-B Skyline Park Apts. Urban Housing Associates, Ltd., Denver
12-L Okner's Firestone Store Sam Okner
12-0 United Distributing United Distributing Company
14-K M. L. Foss M. L. Foss Company
18-F Park Central Central Bank Building Corporation; Rio Grand Industries, Inc Leavell Enterprises, Inc.
13-0 Sakura Square Tri-State Buddhist Church Apartments, Inc.
2.12- E Sunset Park Volunteers of America
12-0 Tramway Cable Building Tramway Cable Building Venture
18 16,17 Skyline Park Phase I Phases II and III DURA DURA
15-J Fire Station City and County of Denver
12-P Financial Center 0. Wesley Box
29-T Denver Bus Center Four States Realty (Continental Trailways and Grey hound Bus Lines)
7-M Dravo Plaza Central Development Group
27-G Denver Service Center Mountain Bell
22,23 c 32,33 Denver Center for the Performing Arts City and County of Denver
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rER URBAN RENEWAL AUTHORITY SKYLINE PROJECT SUkNARY OF DEVELOPMENTS
July, 1981 Type Net Floor Area Resid. Hotel (Thousands of Sq. Ft.) No. of No. of Office Coram/Ret Other Units Rooms Development Cost
Office and retail 500.0 100.0 } 23,000,000
144 units of moderate and low-rent housing (FHA 236) 144 2,000,000
Commercial auto/tire .4 6.0 75,000
Office, commercial 1.0 2.0 50,000
Office, light manufacturing, warehouse 5.0 25.0 250,000
Bank, office and restaurant 532.0 28.0 23,000,000
Japanese cultural-retail center, 204 apartment units (FHA 236), remodeled Temple 35.0 204 4,000,000
Center for single, low/moder-ate income elderly; 242 housing units (FHA 236); Downtown Medical Center 40.0 242 4.900.000 1.500.000
Remodeling of restaurant, offices 19.0 19.0 600,000
Public park 40.0 610,000
Public park 80.0 1,060.000
Fire station 7.7 -- 400,000
Rehabilitation for condo-miniirr offices 31.0 750,000
Bus terminal, restaurant, parking 150.0 7,000,000
Office and retail 100.6 20.0 12,000.000
Offices Metro Denver Service Center 746.0 37.000,000
Symphony hall, theaters, retail, galleria, off-street 50.0 ( 4,400 seats) 40,420,000
Open
2/72
10/71
1971
1971
1971
2/73
5/73
5/73
1931
5/73
10/73
11/76
3/74
10/74
4/76
4/77
12/76
78-80


Block No. Office Conm/Ret Other Units Rooms Cost Opened
15-R Transareerica Title Miller/Davis Office 75.0 $ 1,000.000 1980
16-Y Denver National Bank Plaza Energy Plaza Associates (Fulen-wider/Petry/l.C.F. Associates) Office tower, restaurant, bank 490.0 5.6 38,000,000 1980
5-1 -Larimer Place Larimer Place Associates CFulen-wider/N.G. Petry Const. Co./ Larimer Place Associates) 168/-unit condominiua residence ~ 168 * 24.700.000 1981
17-05 D&F Tower _ David A. French Condominiim offices, restaurant 14.0 4.0 1.2 3,400,000 1981
31 H One Denver Place Stellar Enterprises, Ltd. Office tower, retail space 675.0 65.0 79,000,000 1931
1-U Sunset Towers Volunteers of America (VOA) 100 units elderly housing, plus nutritional center 100 4,000,000 1981
9-N Writer Square Writer Square, Inc. 42-unit condominium residence, office buildjmg, retail space 82.0 70.0 42 16,300,000 1981
UNDER CONSTRUCTION SUB TOTAL 3311.0 579.6- 128.9 900 0 S325,015,000
3-X The Windsor Governor's Group, Inc. 164-unit condominium residence 164 22,000,000 1982
4-V Barclay Towers Villacentres Properties, Ltd./ American Invsco Investors 224-unit condominitia residence, office and retail space 87.0 11.0 224 25,000,000 1982
14A-aa Halcyon House Halcyon House Company 197-unit residence for the physically handicapped 1.7 197 6,700,000 1982
U-Z Seventeenth Street Plaza Realty Investment Group/ LaSalle Partners Office tower 654.4 -- 72,000,000 1982
28-U Stellar Plaza Stellar Enterprises, Ltd. 200-unit rental residence, office, retail space and hotel 500.0 200 300 105,000,000 1983
20-bb Lawrence Street Center Lawrence Street Venturers 41-unit condominiun residence, office space and sculpture garden 190.0 41 25,000,000 1982
UNDER CONTRACT SUB TOTAL 1431.4 12.7 0 826 300 $255,700,000
10.17- C Tabor Center The Tabor Group 450-room convention hotel; 227.000 sq. ft. retail; 1.030.000 sq. ft. office 1030.0 227.0 4 50 165.000.000 1984
SUB TOTAL 1030.0 227.0 0 0 450 $165,000,000
" GRAND TOTAL
5772.4 819.3 128.9 1726 750 $745,715,000


DESIGN
CONCEPT


(
Planning for Lower Downtown must recognize the relate land use development of the adjacent areas.Lower Downtown and the adjacent neighborhoods should be mutually supportive of each other. Denver central area has the advantage of having substantial residential areas close to downtown.
Many adjacent areas have the potential for additional housing development,with realted commercial activity,as does downtown itself.
Lower Downtown plaining and development should assist recent trends toward the preservation of the neighborhoods and its historic value,the reuse of structures for residential development,and the increasing for living in and near lower downtown.
Denver and Downtown should retain and encourage the enrichment provide by the lower downtown area.The district has gtowing marketability by having unique elements which are becoming more scarce.
Lower downtown should be held intact as it becomes bordered by new contructions, to retain its distintiveness and attraction to investors and bussinesses.
Dart bus service should be extended to serve the district and additional surface parking lots should be discourage. The edge between the Central Platte River and the Lower Downtown should be designed as a transition area to encourage pedestrian movement between the two districts.
Particular attention should be given to the Union Station as a future focus for the district,and as a focal point for parking facilities,Transportation,commercial activi%ies and housing.The design of its side walks,lighting,and street furniture should be complementariy to the character and scale of the Lower Downtown district.
Union station has the potential for developing into a l unique district,providing architectural contrast to the large old structures in the adjacent Lower Downtown,and to the new development in the Central 'Valley.


h(
Cl\ !^U H ,
Determining "DESIGN CRITERIA" for the Union Station Transit and Multi-Use Project is a complex problem. Solutions begin with simple schematic diagrams, however. In this case, relationships between pedestrians, buses and trains, as well as other activities like office, hotel, housing, retail, and transit terminal interact in various ways. These relationships are based on the site, exterior influences, circulation, visual characteristics, etc.
We should begin with an understanding of the site and the external influences.
The site location and its constraints and opportunities to improve the urban surroundings form a concrete set of conditions for the character and design of the site. In one hand, lower downtown is the last part of the downtown area that retains a unique identity in architecture while being an attractive area for cultural, business, and shopping activities. On the other hand, the "Central Valley" project and the Platte River Greenway Project will contain very high density residential and commercial activities.
Union Station can form an important role in preserving the historical values and improving the activities that are more appropiate for the area.It will give the area a center for activity as well as improving the role of Union Station as a landmark and increasing the tourist potential of lower downtown. While creating an environment for 24 hour activities, the site will also become a transition point between downtown and the Central Valley Project and will unify the city fabric itself.
Transportation is my principal point of interest, although many other aspects of the project are also important such as the creation of a mixed use complex. The mass transit activities of the center should encourage and stimulate other activities within the complex. It will complement, not detract from these activities.
Union Station will provide a comprehensive transportation system for the entire metro area by centralizing the service. Furthermore, by centralizing regional, inter-city and local services in one place, it will provide maximum efficiency for the system and easier access and information to the user.


The concept of combining a transit center with a multi-use complex is unique. Rather than creating a huge space which is vacant between rush hours, integration of retail areas creates a dynamic environment between rush hours. This increases efficiency and maximizes utilization of the site.
In addition, by integrating retail areas with transit functions the waiting' area will be more pleasant, such as at airports. Time spent waiting for transit can now involve shopping, eating, reading, people-watching, window shopping, etc. Because of the proximity to transit information (arrivals, departures, delays), there is less worry about missing a train or bus.
By combining retail and transit functions, it will change the traditional concept of both. But we cannot forget that those areas include several other external activities. Among these are the pedestrian circulation between Central Valley and the CBD Across this "filter", .that will be the building itself. The transit center should not be a barrier between downtown, various parts of the multi-use project,and the Central Valley Project.
Many buildings in lower downtown are being renovated creating a new demand for parking facilities. Therefore a percentage of the new parking in this facility should meet these needs.
The Union Station Multi-Modal Transit Facility is a project of significant transportation, architectural, and urban design impact in the central business district of Denver. The facilities of this project will provide the interface between three transportation systems*- rail, (interstate and urban service), bus and light rail. As such, the service will provide a better entrance point for substantial numbers of commuter and visitors to the core of the Denver Metropolitan Area.
The site selected for the multi-modal transit facility is located in the heart of the lower downtown area bounded by 15th and 16th Street viaducts, Wynkoop Street and the tracks of Union Station. includes the entire area of
18.5 acres, shown on map ( 5 blocks).
The project will create a new life for Union Station that


should further encourage renovation of the lower downtown area and provide a focal node of activity at the end of the central downtown district to unify lower downtown with the rest of downtown.
The terminal will form a single system of transportation and become a significant additon to the Denver urban experience. The response in terms of urban issues is critical to the success of the entire system.
The functions below grade of Wynkoop Street makes possible the development of a city park extending to all corners of the block (Union Station) and providing a significant point to the lower downtown. A park/plaza development of this size will facilitate open space for a dynamic urban space in this area of lower downtown. The park will provide an element of stability in a district now undergoing a period of transition.. It's presence will encourage
further development of uses in the neighborhood oriented to a variety of human activities. It will connect two urban spaces by a pedestrian-landscape link between the Union Station Multi-Modal Transit Facility/Plaza and the Market Street Transfer Facility/Flaza. This forms two parallel complementary urban spaces and will develop the concept of a "hinge block" offering a connecting link down 17th Street to Union Station which many / hope once agan develop into a focal point of the city.
Uy the development of this link, it will become a terminus for the mall and a gateway to the multi-modal transfer facility and the project will contribute to making the Denver transportation experience an exciting one.
In addition the new project will:
-create a new life for Union Station that should further encourage renovation of the lower downtown area
-provide a focal node of activity at the end of the central downtown district
-better unify activities in lower downtown with the rest of downtown
-the efficiency of the terminal operations will be enhanced by a system of information collection and display controlled


by a small communications center
-The specifications of design criteria should accomplish ;ost of the recommendations of transit facilities (design criteria published by RTD).
-Functions below grade will facilitate an urban space with landscaping as a focal point of urban activities in lower downtown.




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APPENDIX


THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIORS STANDARDS FOR REHABILITATION
AND
Guidelines for Rehabilitating Historic Buildings
The following "Standards for Rehabilitation shall be used by the Secretary of the Interior when determining if a rehabilitation project qualifies as "certified rehabilitation pursuant to the Tax Reform Act of 1976. These standards appear in Section 36 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 67.
1. Every reasonable effort shall be made to provide a compatible use for
a property which requires minimal alteration of the building, structure, or site and its environment, or to use a property for its originally intended purpose.
2. The distinguishing original qualities or character of a building, structure, or site and its environment shall not be destroyed. The removal or alteration of any historic material or distinctive architectural features should be avoided when possible.
3. All buildings, structures, and sites shall be recognized as products of their own time. Alterations that have no historical basis and which seek to create an earlier appearance shall be discouraged.
4. Changes which may have taken place in the course of time are evidence of the history and development of a building, structure, or site and its environ-sient. These changes may have acquired significance in their own right, and this significance shall be recognized and respected.
5. Distinctive stylistic features or examples of skilled craftsmanship which characterize a building, structure, or site shall be treated with sensitivity.
6. Deteriorated architectural features shall be repaired rather than replaced, wherever possible. In the event replacement is necessary, the new material should match the material being replaced in composition, design, color, texture, and ocher visual qualities. Repair or replacement of missing architectural features should be based on accurate duplications of features, substantiated
by historic, physical, or pictorial evidence rather than on conjectural designs or the availability of different architectural elements from other buildings or structures.
7. The surface cleaning of structures shall be undertaken with the gentlest means possible. Sandblasting and other cleaning methods that will damage the historic building materials shall not be undertaken.
8. Every reasonable effort shall be made to protect and preserve archeological resources affected by, or adjacent to any project.
9. Contemporary design for alterations and additions to existing properties shall not be discouraged when such alterations and additions do not destroy sifnificant historical, architectural or cultural material, and such design is compatible with the size, scale, color, material, and character of the property, neighborhood or environment.
10. Wherever possible, new additions or alterations to structures shall be done in such a manner that if such additions or alterations were to be removed in the future, the essential form and integrity of the structure would be unimpaired.
GUIDELINES FOR APPLYING THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIORS STANDARDS FOR REHABILITATION
The following guidelines are designed to help individual property owners formulate plans for the rehabilitation, preservation, and continued use of old buildings consistent with the intent of the Secretary of the Interior's "Standards for Rehabilitation. The guidelines pertain to buildings of all occupancy and construction types, sizes, and materials. They apply to permanent and temporary construction on the exterior and interior of historic buildings as well as new attached or adjacent construction, although not all work implied in the Standards and guidelines is required for each rehabilitation project.
Techniques, treatments, and methods consistent with the Secretarys "Standards for Rehabilitation are listed in the "recommended" column on the left. These techniques, treatments, and methods which may adversely affect a buildings architectural and historic qualitites are listed in the "not recommended" column on the right. Every effort will be made to update and expand the guidelines as additional techniques and treatments become known.
Specific information on rehabilitation and preservation technology may be obtained bv writing to the Technical Preservacion Services Division, National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, D.C. 20240, or the appropriate State Historic Preservation Officer. Advice should also be sought from qualified professionals, including architects, architectural historians, and archeologists, skilled in the preservation, restoration, and rehabilitation of old buildings.
THE ENVIRONMENT
S,~
Retaining distinctive features such as the size, scale, mass, color, and materials of buildings, including roofs, porches, and stairways that give a neighborhood its distinguishing character .
.7c: F.ecornendcd
Introducting new construction into neighborhoods which is incompatible with the character of the district because of size, scale, color, and materials.


Adding new height to the building which changes the scale and character of the building. Addi tions in height should not be visible when viewing the principal facades. Adding new floors or removing existing floors which destroy important architectural details, features and spaces of the build ing.
Protecting architectural details and features contributing to the character of the building.
Placing television antennae and mechanical equipment, such as air conditioners, in an inconspicuous location. Placing television antennae and mechanical equipment, such as air conditioners, where they can be seen from the street.
MECHANICAL SERVICES: KEATING, AIR CONDITIONING, ELECTRICAL, PLUMBING,
FIRE PROTECTION
Fecormended Net Fecormended
Installing necessary mechanical services in areas and spaces that will require the least possible alteration to the structural integrity and physical appearance of the building. Causing unnecessary damage to the plan, materials, and appearance of the building when installing mechanical services.
Utilizing early mechanical systems, including plumbing and early lighting fixtures, where possible. Having exterior electrical and telephone cables attached to the principal elevations of the build ing.
Installing the vertical runs of ducts, pipes, and cables in closets, service rooms, and wall cavities. Installing the vertical runs of ducts, pipes, and cables in places where they will be a visual Intrusion. Concealing or "making invisible" mechanical equipment in historic walls or ceilings. Frequently this concealment requires the removal of historic fabric.

Installing "dropped acoustical ceilings to hide mechanical systems- This destroys the proportions and character of the rooms
Insuring adequate ventilation of attics, crawlspaces, and cellars to prevent moisture problems.
Installing thermal insulation in attics and in unheated cellars and crawlspaces to conserve energy.
Installing foam, glass fiber, or cellulose insulation into va1I cavities of either wooden or masonry construction. This has been found to cause moisture problems when there is no adequate moisture barrier.
SAFETY AND CODE REQUIREMENTS
Pecorrncnded
Net tiecc^r.erSed
Complying with code requirements in such a manner that the essential character of a building is preserved intact.
Working with local code officials to investigate alternative life safety measures which preserve the architectural integrity of the building.
Investigating variances for historic properties afforded under some local codes.
Installing adequate fire prevention equipment in a manner which does minimal damage to the appearance or fabric of a property.
Adding new stairways and elevators which do not alter existing facilities or other important architectural features and spaces of the building.
Adding new stairways and elevators which alter existing exit facilities or important architectural features and spaces of the building.
U.S. Department of the Interior National Park Service
Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation Washington, D.C. 20240 September 15, 1977


Retaining landscape features such as parks, gardens, street lights, signs, benches, walkways, streets, alleys and building setbacks which have traditionally linked buildings to their environment .
Using new plant materials, fencing, walkways, street lights, signs, and benches which are compatible with the character of the neighborhood in size, scale, material and color.
Destroying the relationship of buildings and their environment by widening existing streets, changing paving material, or by introducing inappropriately located new streets and parking lots incompatible with the character of the neighborhood.
Introducing signs, street lighting, benches, new plant materials, fencing, walkways, and paving materials which are out of scale or inappropriate to the neighborhood.
BUILDING SITE
Identifying plants, trees, fencing, walkways, outbuildings, and other elements which might be an important part of the property's history and development.
Retaining plants, trees, fencing, walkways, street lights, signs, and benches which reflect the property's history and development.
Basing decisions for new site work on actual knowledge of the past appearance of the property found in photographs, drawings, newspapers, and tax records. If changes are made they should be carefully evaluated in light of the past appearance of the site.
Providing proper site and roof drainage to assure that water does not splash against building or foundation walls, nor drain toward the building.
% t Pec rmerded
Making changes to the appearance of the site by removing old plants, trees, fencing, walkways, outbuildings, and other elements before evaluating their importance in the property's history and development .
Leaving plant materials and trees in close proximity to the building that may be causing deterioration of the historic fabric.
Archeological features
Recormended
Not Reconrvended
Leaving known archeological resources intact.
Minimizing disturbance of terrain around the structure, thus reducing the possibility of destroying unknown archeological resources.
Arranging for archeological survey by a professional archeologist of all terrain that must be disturbed during the rehabilitation program.
Installing underground utilities, pavements, and other modern features that disturb archeological resources.
Introducing heavy machinery or equipment into areas where their presence may disturb archeological resources.
BUILDING: STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS
FcCO'r^r.CKded
Not Re c-yr ended
Recognizing the special problems inherent in the structural systems of historic buildings, especially where there are visible signs of cracking, deflection, or failure.
Undertaking stabilization and repair of weakened structural members and systems.
Replacing historically important structural members only when necessary. Supplementing existing structural systems when damaged or inadequate.
Disturbing existing foundations with new excavations that undermine the structural stability of the building.
Leaving known structural problems untreated which will cause continuing deterioration and will shorten the life of the structure.


Retaining landscape features such as parks, gardens, street lights, signs, benches, walkways, streets, alleys and building setbacks which have traditionally linked buildings to their environment .
Using new plant materials, fencing, walkways, street lights, signs, and benches which are compatible with the character of the neighborhood in size, scale, material and color.
Destroying the relationship of buildings and their environment by widening existing streets, changing paving material, or by introducing inappropriately located new streets and parking lots incompatible with the character of the neighborhood.
Introducing signs, street lighting, benches, new pJant materials, fencing, walkways, and paving materials which are out of scale or inappropriate to the neighborhood.
BUILDING SITE
r.-corm ended
Identifying plants, trees, fencing, walkways, outbuildings, and other elements which might be an important part cf the property's history and development.
Retaining plants, trees, fencing, walkways, street lights, signs, and benches which reflect the property's history and development.
Basing decisions for new site work on actual knowledge of the past appearance of the property found in photographs, drawings, newspapers, and tax records. If changes are made they should be carefully evaluated in light of the past appearance of the site.
Providing proper site and roof drainage to assure that water does not splash against building or foundation walls, nor drain toward the building.
tic t Recommended
Making changes to the appearance of the site by removing old plants, trees, fencing, walkways, outbuildings, and other elements before evaluating their importance in the property's history and development .
Leaving plant materials and trees in close proximity to the building that may be causing deterioration of the historic fabric.
Archeological features
Recommended Not Recommended
Leaving known archeological resources intact. Installing underground utilities, pavements, and other modern features that disturb archeological resources.
Minimizing disturbance of terrain around the structure, thus reducing the possibility of destroying unknown archeological resources. Arranging for archeological survey by a professional archeologist of all terrain that must be disturbed during the rehabilitation program. Introducing heavy machinery or equipment into areas where their presence may disturb archeological resources.
BUILDING: STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS
Recommended Not Recommended
Recognizing the special problems inherent in the structural systems of historic buildings, especially where there are visible signs of cracking, deflection, or failure. Disturbing existing foundations with new excavations that undermine the structural stability of the building.
Undertaking stabilization and repair of weakened structural members and systems. Replacing historically important structural members only when necessary. Supplementing existing structural systems when damaged or inadequate. Leaving known structural problems untreated which will cause continuing deterioration and will shorten the life of the structure.


r 7*
BUILDING: EXTERIOR FEATURES
Masonry: Adobe, brick, stone, terra cotta, concrete, stucco and mortar
Recommended*
Retaining original masonry and mortar, whenever possible, without the application of any surface treatment.
Repointing only those mortar joints where there is evidence of moisture problems or when ufficient mortar is missing to allow water < r.ia:J in the mortar joint.
Duplicating old mortar in composition, color and texture.
Duplicating old mortar in joint size, method of application, and joint profile.
Repairing stucco with a stucco mixture duplicating the original as closely as possible in appearance and texture.
Cleaning masonry only when necessary to halt deterioration or to remove graffiti and stains and always with the gentlest method possible, such as low pressure water and soft natural bristle brushes.
Not Recommended
Applying waterproof or water repellant coatings or surface consolidation treatments unless required to solve a specific technical problem that has been studied and identified. Coatings are frequently unnecessary, expensive, anc can accelerate deterioration of the masonry.
Repointing mortar joints that do not need repointing. Using electric saws and hammers to remove mortar can seriously damage the adjacent brick.
Repointing with mortar of high Portland cement content can create a bond that is often stronger than the building material. This can cause deterioration as a result of the differing coefficient of expansion and the differing porosity of the material and the mortar.
Repointing with mortar joints of a differing size or joint profile, texture or color.
Sandblasting, including dry and wet grit and other abrasives, brick or stone surfaces; this method of cleaning erodes the surface of the material and accelerates deterioration.
Using chemical cleaning products
*For more information consult Preservation Briefs: 1: "The Cleaning and Waterproof Coating of Masonry Buildings" and Preservation Briefs: 2: "Repointing Mortar Joints in Historic Brick Buildings." Both are available from Technical Preservation Services Division, National Park Service, Washington, D.C. 20240.
Repairing or replacing, where necessary, deteriorated material with new material that duplicates the old as closely as possible- which would have an adverse chemical reaction with the masonry materials, i.e., acid on limestone or marble. Applying new material which is inappropriate or was unavailable when the building was constructed, such as artificial brick siding, artificial cast stone or brick veneer.
Replacing missing significant architectural features, such as cornices, brackets, railings, and shutters. Removing architectural features such as cornices, brackets, railings, shutters, window architraves, and doorway pediments.
Retaining the original or early color and texture of masonry surfaces, including early signage wherever possible. Brick or stone surfaces may have been painted or whitewashed for practical and aesthetic reasons. Indiscriminate removal of paint from masonry surfaces. This may subject the building to harmful damage and may give it an appearance it never had.
Wood: Clapboard, weatherboard, shingles and other wooden siding
Recc^mended Not Feocmerded
Retaining and preserving significant architectural features, whenever possible. Removing architectural features such as siding, cornices, brackets, window architraves, and doorway pediments. These are, in most cases, an essential part of a building's character and appearance, illustrating the continuity of growth and change.
Repairing or replacing, where necessary, deteriorated material that duplicates in size, shape and texture the old as closely as possible. Resurfacing frame buildings with new material which is inappropriate or was unavailable when the building was constructed such as artificial stone, brick veneer, asbestos or asphalt shingles, plastic or aluminum siding. Such material also can contribute to the deterioration of the structure from moisture and insect attack.


Architectural Metals: Cast iron, steel, pressed tin, aluminum, zinc
Recormended Not Recormended
Retaining original material, whenever possible. Removing architectural features that are an essential part of a building's character and appearance, illustrating the continuity of growth and change.
Cleaning when necessary with the appropriate method. Metals should be cleaned by methods that do not abrade the surface. Roofs and Roofing Exposing metals which were intended to be protected from the environment. Do not use cleaning methods which alter the color, texture, and tone of the metal.
Recormended Not Recormended
Preserving the original roof shape. Changing the essential character of the roof by adding inappropriate features such as dormer windows, vents, or skylights .
Retaining the original roofing material, whenever possible. Providing adequate roof drainage and insuring that the roofing materials are providing a weathertight covering for the structure. Applying new roofing material that is inappropriate to the style and period of the building anc neighborhood.
Replacing deteriorated roof coverings with new material that matches the old in composition, size, shape, color, and texture. Replacing deteriorated roof coverings with new materials which differ to such an extent from the old in composition, size, shape, color, and texture that the appearance of the building Is altered.
Preserving or replacing, where necessary, all architectural features which give the roof its essential character, such as dormer windows, cupolas, cornices, brackets, chimneys, cresting, and weather vanes. Stripping the roof of architectural features important to its character.
Windows and Doors
Recormended
Not Reccrr.e^ded
Retaining and repairing existing window and door openings including window sash, glass, lintels, sills, architraves, shutters, steps, and all hardware.
Duplicating the material, design, and the hardware of the older window sash and doors if new sash and doors are used.
Using original doors and door hardware when they can be repaired and reused in place.
Entrances, porches, and steps
Reccrrr.eruded
Retaining porches and steps which are appropriate to the building and its development. Porches or additions reflecting later architectural styles are often important to the building's historical integrity and, wherever possible, should be retained.
Repairing or replacing, where necessary, deteriorated architectural features of wood, iron, cast iron, terra cotta, tile and brick.
Introducing new window and door openings into the principal elevations, or enlarging or reducing window or door openings to fit new stock window sash or new stock door sizes.
Altering the size of window panes or sash. Such changes destroy the scale and proportion of the building.
Installing inappropriate new window or door features such as aluminum storm and screen window insulating glass combinations that require the removal of original windows and doors or the installation of plastic, canvas, cr metal strip awnings or fa'r.e shutters that detract from the character and appearance of the building.
Discarding original doors and door hardware when they can be repaired and reused in place.
i\C t .Te?.' syIc-I
Removing or altering porches and steps which are appropriate to the building and its development and the style it represents
Stripping porches and steps of original material and architectural features, such as hand rails, balusters, columns, brackets, and roof decoration


of wood, iron, cast iron, terra cotta, tile, and brick.
Enclosing porches and steps in a manner that destroys their intended appearance.
Exterior Finishes
Becorve^jded
Discovering the historic paint colors and finishes of the structure and repainting with those colors to illustrate the distinctive character of the property.
Not Recommended
Removing paint and finishes down to the bare surface; strong paint strippers whether chemical or mechanical can permanently damage the surface. Also, stripping obliterates evidence of the historical paint finishes.
Repainting with colors that cannot be documented through research and investigation to be appropriate to the building and neighborhood.
BUILDING: INTERIOR FEATURES
reccrr.e*\OLec
Not Reccnr.ended
Retaining original material, architectural features, and hardware, whenever possible, such as: stairs, elevators, hand rails, balusters, ornamental columns, cornices, baseboards, doors, doorways, windows, mantle pieces, paneling, lighting fixtures, parquet or mosaic flooring.
Repairing or replacing, where necessary, deteriorated material with new material that duplicates the old as closely as possible.
Removing original material, architectural features, and hardware, except where essential for safety or efficiency.
Replacing interior doors and transoms without investigating alternative fire protection measures or possible code variances .
Installing new decorative material and panelling which destroys significant architectural features or was unavailable when the building was constructed, such as vinyl plastic or imitation wood wall and floor coverings, except in utility areas such as bathrooms and kitchens.
Retaining original plaster, whenever possible. Removing plaster to expose brick to give the wall an appearance it never had.
Discovering and retaining original paint colors, wallpapers and other decorative motifs or, where necessary, Removing paint from wooden architectural features by sandblasting and other abrasive techniques.
replacing them with colors, wallpapers or decorative motifs based on the original. Removing paint from wooden architectural features that were never intended to be exposed.
Where required by code, enclosing an important interior stairway in such a way as to retain its character. In many cases glazed fire rated walls may be used. Enclosing important stairways with ordinary fire rated construction which destroys the architectural character of the stair and the space.
Retaining the basic plan of a building, the relationship and size of rooms, corridors, and other spaces. Altering the basic plan of a building by demolishing principal walls, partitions, and stairways.
HEW CONSTRUCTION
frec&merided Keeping new additions and adjacent new construction to a minimum, making them compatible in scale, building materials, and texture. Not Recormended
Designing new work to be compatible in materials, size, scale, color, and texture with the earlier building and the neighborhood. Designing new work which is incompatible with the earlier building and the neighborhood in materials, size, scale, and texture.
Using contemporary designs compatible with the character and mood of the building or the neighborhood. Imitating an earlier style or period of architecture in new additions, except in rare cases where a contemporary design would detract from the architectural unity of an ensemble or group. Especially avoid imitating an earlier style of architecture in new additions that have completely contemporary function such as a drive-in bank or garage.