The Gratia Building

Material Information

The Gratia Building
Gracey, Susan
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
79, [10] leaves : illustrations (some color), charts, maps, plans ; 28 cm


Subjects / Keywords:
Real estate development -- Florida -- Delray Beach ( lcsh )
Building sites -- Florida -- Delray Beach ( lcsh )
Joint occupancy of buildings -- Florida -- Delray Beach ( lcsh )
Building sites ( fast )
Joint occupancy of buildings ( fast )
Real estate development ( fast )
Florida -- Delray Beach ( fast )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )


Includes bibliographical references (leaves 88-89).
General Note:
On cover: A mixed use complex, the Gratia Building, Delray Beach, Florida.
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
Susan Gracey.

Record Information

Source Institution:
Auraria Library
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
10419984 ( OCLC )
LD1190.A72 1983 .G72 ( lcc )

Full Text
6 RtocEi

An Architectural Thesis Presented to
The College of Design and Planning, University of Colorado at Denver In Partial Fulfillment of The Requirements For The Degree of Master of Architecture
Susan Gracey
Fall Semester, 1983

1 Page
Project Purpose and Introduction................................1
Surrounding Buildings ........................................ 18
Climatic Effects on the Building Design ...................... 28
Building Codes.................................................53
Spatial Relationships ........................................ 71
Time Schedule..................................................77
Design Drawings .............................................. 79


Settlement in Delray Beach (Palm Beach County, Florida) began in the late 19th century as Miami, 50 miles to the south was emerging as a major southern metropolis and by 1920, the proliferation of Delray Beach was approximately 1,000 persons, settling primarily along the sea, the western land reserved for agriculture (pineapple, sugarcane). As the country was recovering from the Depression, Patton Bright, a land developer from Augusta, Georgia, moved to Delray Beach to speculate in the real estate business* urging his brother to do the same and open a partnership. Shortly thereafter, this became one of the earliest Delray Beach businesses and the second real estate firm in town. Two sons joined the firm after World War II, one specializing in real estate, one in insurance. Remaining strictly a family business, early in the 1980's, a daughter and son to Bright (grandchildren of the original partner) returned to Delray Eeach and joined a partnership with their father, again one specializing in real estate, one in insurance.
Presently the office is located in a small building which has been leased for the past thirty years and present growth potential and aspirations exceed the physical limitations of the building they currently occupy. In anticipation of this, several years ago Bright purchased a piece of property with the intention of moving the firm to larger and more economical facilities when the demands required. With the stability of the future of the firm secured, the Brights feel time has come to move into their own building when the present lease expires (1985).
The Bright family is one of the pioneer families in the area and has maintained a strong affinity for Delray Beach through several generations. Therefore, the image

the building presents to the city is very important as a symbol. Unfortunately, the three partners are in disagreement about their design preferences; one prefers a low, French-type style, one an Addison Mizner-influenced Spanish design (of which the other partner is not at all fond of) and the third feels addressment to current energy conservation issues important while incorporating historic Florida architectural elements. These differences dissolve into a common desire to give back to the city a symbol of the family commitment over the past thirty years to the improvement of the community in which they have been continually influential in the shaping of betterment of human interactions. Images of honor, respectability, permanency, strength, and quiet elegance are important statements to be made by this building.

The site is presently in a fringe area of the central business district of Delray Beach which is scheduled to go through rejuvenation phasing within the next five to seven years. The surrounding structures are of an inconsequential nature with the exception of several historic Florida-style residences and a newly constructed office building several blocks to the north. Otherwise the existing buildings will be removed as the business core expands.
Therefore, instead of relating to the existing context, The Gratia Building will provide an opportunity to stage and anchor future development in the area by stabilizing real estate values and providing a major focal and reference point. These features also reinforce the client's desire to represent the family's role in community development.
The clients also feel strongly that the design of the complex should lend itself to the expression of a self-contained, introverted site plan which, wile not being unfriendly to the public, will focus on the interior of the site benefitting those utilizing the complex. The green-space can address this by physical and visual linkage among the various functions on the site. Water elements introduced into this space can serve as accoustical buffers, reinforcing the concept of a sculptured environment responding to the needs of those coming to the site for business purposes and those working within the building. This space can serve to isolate the complex from the noise of the passing automobiles, reduce solar heat gain on the southern and western exposures, provide an identity for the complex and aid in security by visual contact between the

daytime uses (business) and the nighttime uses (residential).
Another major design priority is to address a scheme which will minimize heat gain and retention in order to reduce the cost of cooling. The client is presently located in an office with direct southern exposure and single pane glass across 90% of the southern facade. Over the past twelve months, even during the coolest days of December and January, it was essential to supply artificial cooling to maintain a reasonable working environment in the office. The nature of the business requires a high degree of public visibility for public awareness and advertising purposes, therefore solar films or physical barriers were unacceptable. Although the client wishes to have an energy efficient building, traditional methods and materials for accomplishing this will not prove to be successful.
Material selection is determined on the basis of those which will not retain heat. The daily temperature fluxuations are too small to create a heat sink, and heat gains remain stored in the building mass. Design and construction solutions which facilitate ventilation and natural convective cycles to pull this heat out of the building are much more desirable. Opposite from traditional passive design standards, the building should open to the north and east; the daylighting benefits derived from northern exposure will greatly reduce internal heat gains from artificial lighting, and prevailing sea breezes from the easterly direction will aid in natural cooling.
Although the building will address passive energy solutions, the design determinants will be unique to a hot, humid climate.


The building site is a sandy, flat, rectangular property, measuring 183' 6" x 125' (elongated along the N-S axis), totaling 27,772 h square feet. It is bordered on the north by a two-lane, 25 m.p.h. public road, the west by a one-way three-lane state highway, 45 m.p.h. (south-bound), the south by a one-level, single family residence, and the west by a sixteen (16) foot public alley. A five-foot public concrete sidewalk and a single parking lane buffers the site from the highway on the west.
Utility connections are made from the alley on the east; water is a 4" line, connecting anywhere, sewer is a 8" line connecting into the site at 1/3 points, every 61'.
An electric pole is located on the south-east corner of the site providing three-phase electricity (120, 240 120-208) to a building. Overhead hook-up is provided by the Public Service Company, the property-owner (client) is financially responsible for underground lines.
Vehicular access to the site is essentially restricted to the north and west site boundaries by the existing traffic patterns, a major arterial road on the west, a secondary road on the north. Trash collection and deliveries will be made from the public alley on the east.
Design priorities for a site as this are important implications as to the degree of public-privateness awareness one would feel in areas sharing the variety of commodities a mixed-use complex offers. The staggered useage patterns dictated by the various functional aspects

of the site development provide overlapping requirements for successful interactions between users.
Several considerations given for the site development are:
minimal vehicular patterns
shaded open spaces accessible to the public privacy for residents
transition of public/private spatial arrangements
landscape screens to serve as visual and acco-ustical buffers
minimal noise transmission from highway visual exposure of business areas to public minimize heat gains/maximize natural cooling visual screening of automobiles

Four (4) inch cast iron water line located in the public alley (east boundry of site) approximately sixteen (16) feet east of the property line running north and south. May be tapped at any location.
Eight (8) inch sewer line parallel to the water line described above. Taps between lots 1, 2 and between lots 3, 4. Taps set to "Y" into the site.
An existing electric pole is on the south east corner of the site. Three-phase electric service is available (120, 240, 120-208). Overhead connections are available free of charge. The owner pays for underground service.
Criteria for Parking Lots and Vehicular Use Areas
Parking lots and other vehicular use areas are to be designed as an aesthetic asset to the neighborhood and to the building it serves. A parking lot is to be considered an outside space, a transitional space which is located between the access and the building they serve.

Parking lots, vehicular use areas, and parked vehicles are to be effectively screened from the public view and the adjacent property, and in a manner that is attractive and compatible with safety, the neighborhood, and the facilities served.
The atmosphere within the parking lot is to be park-like rather than the harsh hardstand of paving. Trees are of primary importance in the landscape. They are not to be minimized in either height or quantity. Signs designating entrances, exits and regulations are to be of a tasteful design and subject to review by the Board. The pavement is to be more than wall to wall asphalt.
It is recommended that the pavement be varied in texture or color designating lanes for automobile traffic, pedestrian walks and parking spaces. In order to create a pleasant atmosphere, it is recommended that consideration be given to sculpture, fountains, gardens, pools and benches. Design emphasis is to be given to entrances and exits to the lot. Trash, refuse, and unaesthetic storage and mechanical equipment should be screened from the parking lot.
Lighting is to be designed for safety, resistance to vandalism and visual effect. It should avoid annoyance to neighbors from brightness and glare. It should not impart a prison-like atmosphere. Fixtures should be considered furniture of the parking lot vis-
ible both day and night.

SCALE : 1"l 400'

SITE PLAN scale: 1 =50









The climatic data indicates a need to reverse traditional passive solar design guidelines and to provide a majority of glazing area on the north and northeast, buffer heat gains to the south and west, and incorporate daylighting design components to reduce internal heat gains from artificial illumination.
Building materials should be choosen to aesthetically reflect as much heat as possible from the building; day and night temperature fluctuations are small, trapping heat inside the building shell serves to counteract the effect of artificial cooling. Ground cover should also be selected to minimize the reflection of heat into the internal spaces.
Delray Beach, Florida, is a coastal town, therefore lateral forces produced by hurricane winds will be a major consideration of the structural design.


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monthly maximums WINDS DIRECTION & VELOCITY (mph)
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F SE 6 8
M S 53
A N 70
M S W 48
J N E 48
J S E 53
A S W 62
S E 132
0 S 122
N S E 94
D S 52
J N W 10
F S E 10
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90 *
90* E 45 0 S 45
90 W


Lot Dimensions and Site Area: No requirements Building Setbacks .(Minimum.). Front 10 ft.
Side (Interior) 0 ft.
Side (Street) 10 ft.
Rear 10 ft.
Ground Flo.or .Building Area
No requirements Total Floor Area
No requirements
Four (4) floors or forty-five (45) feet

Parking and Loading Regulations
Five (5) parking spaces per one thousand (1/000) square feet of total floor area for commercial uses. For office use, this may be reduced by twenty per cent (20%). Two (2) loading areas required for 20,000 to 100,000 gross square feet of floor area. For mixed uses in one building where each individual use is below minimum, off-street loading may be granted after Board review. When the entrance or exit of a building is designated for loading, one loading space must be provided. As of October, 1983, the Delray Beach Zoning Board is reviewing parking requirements for a reduction in the number of required spaces. A final decision by the Board is not expected until the spring of 1984.
Walls, .and. Fences
Shall not obstruct visibility on public right-of-ways or hinder proper vehicular flow or interfere with the providing of public services. Walls and fences may not contain broken glass, nails, or spikes. Two (2) feet of barbwire may be placed atop any six-foot or higher fence. No electrically charged fences may be erected. Storage areas shall be enclosed by a wall or fence at least six (6) feet in height.

Exceptions to Height Limitations
Height restrictions do not apply to antennas, belfries, bins, chimneys, conveyors, cooling towers, cupolas, flag poles, mechanical equipment enclosures, ventilators, or other structures usually required to be placed above roof level and not intended for human occupancy.
g-t.mgimies to.Have Access
All structures shall be placed on the site to provide convenient fire protection.
Double Frontage Lots
The required frontage setbacks shall be provided on each street.
Structures Allowed in Setbacks
Barbecue pits not to exceed 6 ft. x 6 ft.
Fences not to exceed six (6) feet in height.
Fish or lilly ponds not to exceed eighteen (18) inches in depth.
House eaves not to exceed three (3) foot overhang.

Lot line walls not to exceed three (3) feet in height.
Rock gardens
Steps or platforms for the principle building not to exceed three (3) feet in height.
Trellises not to exceed five (5) feet from the side of the principal building, or extend more than ten (10) feet from the front or rear of the principal building.

General Restrictions
There shall be no encroachment of a vehicle into a landscaped area. Car stops shall be placed at least two (2) feet from the edge of such landscaped areas. A protective curbing is required to prevent encroachment and maintain an orderly appearance of the landscaped areas.
The maximum width of an accessway through the perimeter landscaped strip to an off-street parking area shall be twenty-four (24) feet for two-way vehicular movement and twelve (12) feet for one-way movement. No more than one two-way accessway shall be permitted for any street frontage up to one hundred (100) lineal feet and no more than two (2) one-way accessways shall be permitted for any street frontage up to one hundred (100) lineal feet. The balance of each street frontage not involved with accessways shall be landscaped.
All landscaping shall be maintained to present a healthy, neat, orderly appearance, free from refuse and debris. All landscaped areas shall be provided with a sprinkler system to adequately cover all plants and grasses maintained.

Trees shall be species having an average mature spread of crown greater than twenty (20) feet and having trunks which can be maintained in a clean condition over six (6) feet of clear mature wood. Trees having an average mature crown of less than twenty (20) feet may be grouped to achieve the same effect. Palms shall be considered trees. Trees susceptible to lethal yellowing may not be used. Trees shall be a minimum of eight (8) feet overall height immediately after planting. Tree species whose roots are known to cause damage to roadways shall not be planted closer than twelve (12) feet to such roadways unless the root system is completely contained within a barrier for which the minimum interior containing dimensions shall be five (5) feet square and five (5) feet deep for which the construction requirements shall be four (4) inch thick concrete reinforced with #6 rod mesh (6x6 x 6) . and-flaAgas
Shrubs and hedges shall be a minimum of two (2) feet in height immediately after planting. Hedges shall be maintained to form a continuous solid visual screen within a maximum of one year after the time of planting.

Vines shall be a minimum of thirty (30) inches in height immediately after planting and may be used in conjunction with fences, screens, and walls to meet physical barrier requirements.
Ground Cover
Ground covers used in lieu of grass must have reasonably complete coverage within three (3) months after planting.
Required Landscaping Adjacent to Public Right-of-ways
A strip of grass at least five (5) feet in depth located between the abutting right-of-way and the off-street parking area shall be landscaped with at least one tree for each forty (40) lineal feet or fraction thereof. Such trees shall be located between the abutting right-of-way and off-street parking and shall be planted in an area of at least twenty-five (25) square feet with a dimension of at last five (5) feet. In addition, a hedge, wall, or other durable landscape barrier of at least two (2) feet in height shall be placed along only the interior perimeter of such landscaped strip. If such a barrier is of nonliving material, for each ten (10) feet, one shrub or vine shall be planted abutting such barrier. Such shrubs or vines shall be planted along the street side and of sufficient height at the time of planting to be readily visible at the time of planting.

All property other than the required landscaped strip lying between the right-of-way and off-street parking area shall be landscaped.
Accessv/ays through such landscaping to serve parking areas may be subtracted from the lineal dimension used to determine the number of trees required.
Perimeter Landscaping Relating to Abutting. Properties
All off-street parking areas shall be provided with a landscaped barrier, preferably a hedge. The barrier shall not be less than three and one-half (3^) nor greater than six (6) feet in height to form a continuous screen. Such barriers shall be located between the common lot line and parking area in a strip not less than two and one-half (2h) feet in width. One tree shall be provided for each sixty (60) lineal feet of landscaped barrier. Each such planted area shall be covered with a ground cover excluding pavement. This is not applicable in the following situations:
a) when the property line abuts a dedicated alley; and
b) when the parking area abuts an existing hedge which meets the above requirements.
Earkins Arsa...l;ite.Eior Lands.q3p.ir_g
The amount of interior landscaping of off-street parking areas shall be at least seven per cent (7%) of the total area of parking and accessways.

These landscaped areas shall be at least fifty (50) square feet and placed at maximum intervals of twelve (12) parking spaces.
There shall be a palm or canopy tree for each one hundred (100) square feet of required interior landscaping. No more than twenty-five per cent (25%) of these may be palms. These trees shall have a minimum height of twelve (12) feet and a crown spread of six (6) feet with at least six (6) feet of clear wood at the time of planting. Trees of smaller size may be grouped, and each group considered one tree.
Interior parking landscaping shall be used whenever possible to delineate major traffic patterns. A portion of the landscaping for interior parking spaces may not exceed fifty per cent (50%) of the total requirement, may be located so as to emphasize entrance corridors.

The Delray Beach Sign Ordinance:
Signs, remitted, .and..Hsg.ula.tsd
One nonilluminated real estate sign advertising "For Sale", "For Rent" or "For Lease" may be placed on the premises and shall not exceed thirty-two (32) square feet in area.
For signs whose faces are generally perpendicular to the street center line, only one of the following is permitted:
a) One free-standing sign advertising the use of the premises. Such sign shall be predicted on the basis of H square foot of total advertising area for each lineal foot of main street frontage of the lot providing that no such sign shall exceed one hundred sixty (160) square feet per sign face with a maximum ot two (2) faces. Corner locations which front on two (2) main streets shall be allowed one extra free-standing sign whose area per sign face shall not exceed fifty (50) square feet with a maximum of two (2) faces. No sign shall be higher than twenty-five (25) feet from the ground or protrude past the street right-of-way.
b) One fixed projecting sign which advertises the use or uses of the premises provided that the support for the same shall not extend more than

three (3) feet beyond the wall nor shall it extend above the parapet of any building. The maximum area for such sign shall be thirty (30) square feet.
For those signs whose faces are generally parallel to the street centerline:
a) A free standing sign as described above.
b) A fixed projecting sign as described above.
c) One flat sign or painted wall sign shall be permitted on each side of a building bordering upon a street, alley, or public throughfare (unless otherwise prohibited) advertising the main occupation or business use, provided that the total aggregate area of each such sign shall not exceed fifteen per cent (15%) of the building face area of the wall upon which the sign is placed. Signs painted on glass shall be included in the aggregate area. The above such sign shall not exceed one hundred sixty (160) square feet per sign.
One flat sign or painted wall sign shall be allowed on the rear of the building bordering upon a street, alley, or parking area, advertising the main occupation or business use, but the sign shall not exceed eight (8) square feet. Signs painted on glass shall be included in the aggregate area.

Certain Signs or Sign Structures Prohibited
Swinging projecting signs.
Off premises signs, except directional signs.
Snipe signs (a sign of temporary nature mounted on trees, poles, fences, stakes, or other objects and which advertise matter not applicable to the present use of the premises on which the sign is located).
Sidewalk and sandwich signs, except collapsible type signs.
Temporary political signs.
Roof signs except an aviation directional sign.
A banner sign, except for two (2) flag banners per model home or model apartment at times the home or apartment is open for inspection, and except the flying of the United States flag, the flag of one (1) other nation and either a state or municipal flag.
A sign which involves motion or rotation of any part of the structure or display or a sign containing intermittent lights or animation except a time and temperature unit, or a traveling message sign which is part of a sign permitted in the commercial districts, such part of the sign shall not exceed twenty-five (25) square feet in area.

An advertising sign placed on the side or rear of any building or property facing on a contiguous residential area if more than seventy-two (72) square inches or six (6) feet in height from the ground level.
Signs erected at the intersection of any streets or in a street right-of-way in such a manner as to obstruct free and clear vision; or at any location where, by reason of the position, shape, or color, it may interfere with, obstruct the view of, or be confused with any authorized traffic sign, signal or device; or which makes use of the words "stop", "look", "drive-in", "danger", or any word, phrase, symbol or character in such a way as to interfere with, mislead, or confuse vehicular traffic as determined by traffic engineering.
Signs which exhibit thereon any lewd, lascivious, indecent or immoral wordings, character or illustration.
Signs which produce sound or noise. Signs which emit smoke, vapor, particles or odors.
Signs of any kind which extend into or above or are anchored or placed in any portion of the right-of-way of a city street or sidewalk area, or used public street or public sidewalk.
Canopy signs.
Flat signs projecting more than eight (8) inches from wall of building.

Vehicular signs.
Asathatic Resulttjpp.s
The scale of the sign must be consistent with the scale of the building on which it is to be placed or painted and the neighborhood in which it is placed.
The overall effect of the configuration or coloring of the sign shall not be garish. The colors shall not conflict with other signs already on the building or in the immediate vicinity.
Special Signs
Parking area signs may be erected at each point of egress and ingress to a parking lot or area, and such signs shall not exceed four (4) square feet in area nor extend to a greater height than five (5) feet above the ground, and shall be erected within the parking area. Only one such sign shall be allowed at each point of ingress and egress, providing such signs do not create a traffic or pedestrian hazard.
A directory consisting of signs each having an area of seventy-two (72) square inches (four (4) inches by eighteen (18) inches) per sign and may be attached to a free-standing sign; said directory signs must indicate the organization or business endeavor in the particular commercial district. Such signs shall be included in the aggregate area for free-standing signs.

Each main use and each accessory use in commercial districts may have one painted main use sign on windows provided it does not exceed twenty per cent (20%) of the glass area being used.
.Clearance. B.eigkt
A sign projecting over areas where vehicular traffic may be required to pass through or beneath shall be erected to maintain clearance distance of fourteen and one-half (14%) feet from the free passage of such vehicles.
Rigid Construction:___Wind Loading
Every sign shall be constructed in such a manner as to withstand wind pressure of fifty (50) pounds per square foot. Sign contractors or owner(s) shall submit plans showing location, structural members and design calculations for wind loading and for signs thirty-two (32) square feet and over.
Sign Materials
No sign constructed of combustible material shall be attached to any structure or building if such sign has enough area to require a permit.
No sign may be placed to block any exit from the building or to interfere with light and ventilation to any building or structure.

Where wood penetrates the ground or is attached in any way to masonry or concrete, said wood shall be of an approved pressure-treated type.
All materials used in constructing signs shall be of a type to resist weather exposure.
Any plastic used in a sign shall bear an Underwriter's Laboratory Seal.
Any electrical components shall be in accordance with the city electrical code.


A building that is used for two or more occupancies, classified within different occupancy groups, shall be considered a mixed occupancy building.
A mixed occupancy building shall be governed by Height and Area limitations applying to the principal intended use. Accessory occupancy shall not exceed the area limitations nor be located at a story height greater than that permitted for such occupancy group and type of construction being used. The major use of the building shall determine the occupancy classification.
Unless otherwise prescribed, the separation of mixed occupancies shall provide not less than one (1) hour fire resistance.
Minimum Fire Resistance Separating Two Occupancies
Automobile Parking Structures
1 hour 1 hour 1 hour 2 hours
The separation between private garage and any occupancy shall be the minimum fire resistance specified except in the case of a one or two-family dwelling, fire resistance shall not be required.
Roof Coverings
A two and one-half (2h) inch in twelve (12) inch pitch may be used with two hundred thirty-five (235) pound asphalt shingles.

Gutters shall be of a noncombustible material.
Water from the roof which would flow over a public sidewalk shall be carried by means of conductors under the sidewalk through the curb to the gutter, or roof drains may be connected directly to a storm sewer.
Commercial buildings exceeding twenty-three (23) feet measured from the highest finish grade to the ceiling of the highest floor, exempting apartments constructed as Type I, II, III, and IV of three (3) stories or less, having an exterior opening corridor with a maximum of one hundred (100) feet from unit entrances to exterior stairs.
Walls and.. HandrailS-giL-S-tai££.s
All stairs of forty-four (44) inches or less shall have walls and handrails on both sides, except that a handrail may be utilized on one side only, providing the opposite wall directly is above the stair stringers. The handrail must be between thirty (30) and thirty-four (34) inches in height.
All stairs of more than forty-four (44) inches in width shall have walls and handrails on both sides. The handrails shall be thirty to thirty-four (30-34) inches in height.

When the width of a flight of stairs exceeds eighty-eight (88) inches, one or more additional handrails shall be provided and be continuous between landings and not more than sixty-six (66) inches between railings.
Fire Alarms
A manual fire alarm system shall be installed unless the building is equipped with an automatic fire system or an automatic sprinkler system.
Footing ..Designs
For frame buildings constructed on solid original ground, concrete piers and footings or poured concrete footings with masonry piers for interior supports may be used.
All exterior foundations shall form continuous walls; footings shall be at least four (4) inches wider on each side than the walls above them. When concrete blocks are used for foundation walls in frame buildings, footings and reinforced steel are required. Blocks shall be bonded with six (6) inch thick cap extending the full width of blocks reinforced with two (2) No. 3 reinforcing bars. Anchor bolts shall extend through the blocks to the footing steel. Hollow units shall be filled with grout in cells containing these anchor bolts.

Hollow Units
The minimum thickness of exterior bearing walls of hollow masonry shall be eight (8) inches. Masonry units shall be supported at such intervals that the wall panel within the horizontal and vertical supports shall not exceed two hundred fifty-six (256) square feet. For solid masonry walls the distance from center to center to vertical supports shall in no case exceed twenty (20) feet and for hollow walls of masonry or hollow masonry units, such distance shall not exceed sixteen (16) feet.
Lateral support shall be obtained by reinforced concrete columns at all corners and required intervals. These columns may not be smaller than eight by twelve (8 x 12) inches and have not less than four (4) five-eights (5/8) inch reinforcing rods, with one-quarter (H) inch ties spaced twelve (12) inches apart.
Reinforced concrete tie beams shall not be smaller than eight by twelve (8 x 12) inches and have not less than four (4) five eights (5/8) inch reinforcing rods, two (2) at the top, two (2) at the bottom. Minimum lap of steel shall be thirty (30) diameters.
Reinforced coping beams shall not be less than six (6) inches thick but not less than sixty-four (64) inches in cross section and shall not have less than two (2) one half (h) inch reinforcing rods. Such beams shall be anchored to the tie beams immediately underneath with reinforced concrete struts not smaller than eight

by twelve (8 x 12) inches having not less than four (4) one-half {%) inch reinforcing rods and placed one strut over each column. Coping beams shall be installed along the top of the rakes of gables if the area of the gable is fifty (50) square feet or more.
Masonry walls shall be throughly bonded and anchored at points where they intersect and where they abut or joint the reinforced concrete or fire-proofed steel framework of the building.
Piers and buttresses relied on for lateral support shall be of sufficient strength and stability to transfer the wind forces to the ground. When walls are dependent upon floors for lateral support, provision shall be made in the building to transfer the lateral force resisted by all floors to the ground.
Mortar used in masonry construction shall be cement mortar or cement-line mortar.
Where columns carry concentrated loads the minimum size shall be twelve by twelve (12 x 12) inches.
Scuppers for roof outlets shall be a minimum of two (2) square inches for every hundred (100) square feet of roof surface and an overflow of the same size shall be provided not more than two (2) inches above the roof deck. Scuppers should be screened against debris stoppage. When leaders are carried down inside of the building, they shall be the same size as required for

downspouts and shall be caulked cast iron, screw joint wrought iron water pipe, or copper pipe or plastic pipe.
Any woodwork below the actual roof framing coming in contact with interior or exterior masonry shall be approved wood of natural decay resistant or pressure treated wood.
Roof. Framing and sheathing
Roof joists or rafters when supported on a ribbon board shall lap and be well nailed to the stud. At four (4) foot intervals, rafters must be fastened to the supporting plate, masonry beam, steel beam or other supporting member by means of bolts, heavy iron straps, joists anchors, or other devices with the end result being the building is effectively tied down from the rafters through the building to the footings. All strap nailing shall be in shear. Show rafters in eave overhangs must be extended inside of the supporting member approximately the same distance as the cantilever extends outside and must be securely fastened to cats cut between the main roof framing. Minimum bolted top plate on masonry or steel shall be two by six inches (2 x 6).
-59- Attjc. Space
Interior attic access opening shall be not less than twenty-two by thirty-six inches (22 x 36). Access opening lids shall be easily removed and located in the corridor. Heating and air conditioning equipment must not be located more than five (5) feet from the access opening. A disappearing stair shall be installed where air conditioning equipment is located in the attic.

Vertical Openings
Openings in floors or roofs, except one and two family dwellings shall be enclosed to prevent the spread of fire from story to story.
Elevators shall not be in a common enclosing shaft with a stairway and the path of travel from one flight of stairs to the next shall not pass directly in front of elevator doors.
Where a hoistway extends into the top floor of a building, fire resistive or machinery-space enclosures shall be carried to the underside of the roof if the roof is of fire-resistive construction, and at least three (3) feet above the top surface of the roof if the roof is of non-fire-resistive construction.
Pits extending to the ground shall have noncombustible floors and be so designed to prevent entry of ground water into the pit.
Hoistways of elevators serving more than three (3) floors shall be provided with a means of venting smoke and not gasses.
All partitions enclosing vertical openings shall have fire resistive ratings extending from floor to floor or floor to roof. Where the openings are offset at immediate floors, the offset and floor construction shall be oc construction having fire resistance not less than that required for the enclosing partitions.
View panels in one (1) hour fire resistive partitions shall be limited to one thousand two hundred ninety-six (1,296) square inches with no dimension greater than fifty-four (54) inches of one-quarter (H) inch tabeled wire glass assemblies installed in steel frames, but shall

not exceed twenty-five percent (25%) of the wall area separating a room from a corridor.
Partitions along exit access corridors shall be one (1) hour fire resistant construction. Regardless of the Type of Construction, non-fire rated partitions may be constructed within rooms not exceeding three thousand (3,000) square feet in area.
Every exterior wall within fifteen (15) feet of a property line shall be equipped with approved opening protectives.
Exits shall be so located that the distance from the most remote point in the floor area shall meet the specified distance. When floor areas are divided and the egress travel in the room does not exceed fifty (50) feet, the travel distance to an exit shall be measured from the corridor entrance.
When more than one (1) exit is required, at least two (2) shall be located as remote from each other as practicable and shall be so arranged to provide direct access in separate directions.
When open stairways or ramps are permitted as a path of travel to a required exit, the distance shall include the distance from the stair or ramp, to the outside door in addition to the distance required to reach the stair or ramp.
There shall be not less than two (2) approved independent exits, accessible to each tenant area, serving every story except in one and two family dwellings.

2 1-500
3 501-1,000
Business occupancies having a per floor area not over three thousand five hundred (3,500) square feet served by that exit and not over two (2) stories in height provided the occupant content shall not exceed forty (40) persons above street level. Maximum distance of travel to the exit shall not exceed seventy-five (75) feet.
Exit access shall be so arranged that dead end pockets or hallways in excess of twenty (20) feet in depth shall not occur.
Every sleeping room shall have at least one operable window or exterior door for emergency egress. The units must be operable from the inside to full clear opening without the use of separate tools. Where windows are provided as a means of egress, they shall have a sill height of not more than forty-four (44) inches above the floor. The minimum clear opening shall be five and seven-tenths (5.7) square feet. The minimum clear opening height dimension shall be twenty-four (24) inches. The minimum width dimension opening shall be twenty (20) inches. Exception: Grade floor windows may have a minimum net clear opening of five (5) square feet and a sill height of not more than forty-eight (48) inches above the floor.
The width of the means of egress shall be measured in units of twenty-two (22) inches. Fractions of a unit shall not be counted except that twelve (12) inches added to one or more full units shall be counted as one-

half (k) unit. The width shall be measured in the clear at the narrowest point. Handrails may project three and one-half (3^) inches and door jambs one (1) inch on each side of the measured width.
The capacity of persons per unit (22 inches) shall be as follows: 100 persons per unit in level travel, 60 persons per unit on stairs. The capacity of stairs shall be determined by the floor having the highest occupancy content and not the total building occupancy.
The aggregate width of passageways, aisles, corridors serving as access to exits shall be at least equal to the required exit width.
The minimum width of any means of egress shall be thirty-six (36) inches in the clear.
The minimum width of exitway access corridors shall be forty-four (44) inches.
Doors opening into the exit access corridor shall not reduce the corridor width to less than one-half (*s) the required width during the opening process. When fully open, the door may project seven (7) inches into the corridor.
Stairways in three (3) stories or less shall be enclosed in one (1) hour fire-resistive construction. Stairways in four (4) stories shall be enclosed in two (2) hour fire-resistive construction.

Any exterior balcony may serve as a means of egress if it complies to all requirements of height, width, travel distance. All balconies raised more than thirty (30) inches above the ground shall have guardrails not less than forty-two (42) inches in height. Intermediate vertical or longitudinal guardrails shall prohibit the passage of a six (6) inch sphere. The bottom rail shall reject the passage of a sphere two (2) inches in diameter.
Balconies serving as a means of egress shall be maintained as a path of travel without obstruction.
Every required exit shall provide continuous and protected egress discharging into a street, open space leading to a street or into an exit court.
The slope of floors in exits shall not exceed one (1) foot in ten (10) feet.
The treads and risers shall be proportioned so that the sum of two (2) risers and a tread, exclusive of projection of nosing, s not less than twenty-four (24) inches and not more than twenty-five (25) inches. The height of a riser may not exceed seven and three-quarter (7^) inches, and treads, exclusive of nosing, shall not be less than nine (9) inches wide. Every tread less than ten (10) inches wide shall have a nosing approximately one 81) inch over the level immediately below.
Treads and risers shall be uniform in any one flight of stairs.
Circular stairs may be used as an exit providing the minimum width of run is not less than ten (10) inches and the smaller radius is not less than twice the width of the stairway.

A flight of stairs shall not have a vertical rise of more than twelve (12) feet between floor or landings. The width of the landings need not exceed four (4) feet when the stair has a straight run. Doors opening onto a landing shall not reduce the landing to less than one-half (^) the required width. When fully open, the door may project seven (7) inches onto the landing.
All stairs of more than three (3) risers shall have handrails located not less than thirty (30) nor more than thirty-four (34) inches above the leading edge of the tread.
Stairways of less than forty-four (44) inches in width having a wall immediately adjacent to the treads on one or both sides may have handrails on only one side.
The minimum width of any stair serving as a means of egress shall not be less than forty-four (44) inches, except that stairs serving an occupancy load of less than fifty (50) people may be thirty-six (36) inches in width.
Minimum headroom shall be six (6) feet eight (8) inches, measured vertically from the nearest nosing to the nearest soffit. The minimum shall be maintained for the full width of stairs and landing.
Guardrails are required on all landings more than thirty (30) inches above grade. Guardrails shall be not less than forty-two (42) inches in height.
Exceptions: Guardrails within dwelling units may be thirty-six (36) inches in height.
Roof gardens or other roof purposes shall have a stairway as required for such occupancy. Where stairs are not provided to the roof, scuppers of a size not less than two (2) feet by three (3) feet shall give access to the roof.

All required exits shall be equipped with exit signs in all occupancies of fifty or more. Illumination shall be provided from a separate circuit. A battery operated light may not be used.
Paths will be provided for the physically disabled and/or handicapped which are unobstructed, and devoid of curbs, stairs, or other abrupt changes in elevation. Changes in elevation of 1" or less need not be ramped.
Corridors included in such paths are of a width between walls not less than forty-four (44) inches.
Single walk through swinging doors and one leaf of multiple leaf swinging doors shall not be less than thirty-two (32) inches in width. All walk through openings shall provide not less than twenty-nine (29) inches in clear width.
Accessibility to such buildings shall be provided from rights-of-way and parking areas by means of a pathway leading to at least one entrance generally used by the public. Where curbs exist along such pathways, inclined curb approaches having a gradient of not more than one (1) foot in twelve (12) feet and a width of not less than four (4) feet shall be provided.
Parking spaces shall be identified by above grade signs. Each space shall not be less than twelve (12) feet in width.

TOTAL spaces,in lot
up to 25 1
25-50 2
51-75 3
76-100 4
Accessibility within the building shall be provided utilizing at least one of the required means of egress at ground level and shall include access provisions to each floor. Elevators shall be included in the contemplated access pattern.
Elevator entrances shall be identified at each floor by means of a plaque located five (5) feet above the floor on the right jamb bearing square-edged numerals at least one and one-half (1^) inches high raised at least twenty-five thousandths (.025) of an inch and adjacent braille symbols.
In buildings equipped with water foundations, at least one such shall have a spout within thirty-three (33) inches of the floor and shall be equipped with front mounted hand controls. When accessible foundations are mounted in alcoves, the alcoves shall be of a width not less than thirty-two (32) inches.
Where public telephones are provided, at least one (1) shall be so installed that the headset dial and coin receiver are within fifty-four (54) inches of the floor. Unobstructed access to within twelve (12) inches of the telephone shall be provided. Such access shall not be less than thirty (30) inches in width.

In buildings equipped with restrooms for use by the public or general tenancy, at least one restroom for males and one for females on each floor shall be made accessible to and useable by the handicapped. Such restrooms shall be marked by generally recognizable symbols. Exception: Unisex, single occupant restrooms for the handicapped may be provided in lieu of separate facilities for each sex. Such shall comply with the minimum dimensions and be equipped with a water coset, lavatory and lockable door. When the entrance to the restroom is a vestibule containing a series of doors, there shall be an unobstructed space between the door not less than four (4) feet in width and five (5) feet in length.
Each restroom shall be provided with at least one toilet stall approachable through an unobstructed passage forty-four (44) inches in width and a space not less than five (5) feet in diameter, or fifty-two (52) inches by seventy-two (72) inches for one hundred eighty (180) degree turns by wheelchairs.
The toilet stall shall be at least three (3) feet in width and at least four (4) feet eight (8) inches preferably five (5) feet in length, be equipped with an outward swinging door to provide a clear opening of not less than twenty-nine (29) inches, be provided with handrails of twenty-four (24) inches mounted on each side wall thirty-three (33) inches above the floor and capable of supporting a two hundred and fifty (250) pound load, and be equipped with a water closet whose seat is fifteen (15) to nineteen (19) inches above the floor.
Where mirrors, towel dispensers and disposal units are provided, at least one shall be installed within forty (40) inches of the floor.

These provisions need not apply to the buildings or areas within buildings which are frequented only by employees and where the work performed within these areas cannot be reasonably performed by the handicapped unless such areas lie in the path of egress from areas normally used by the handicapped.
Group B-business buildings with five thousand (5,000) square feet or less per floor having accessibility at habitable grade levels but without elevators.
Hallways within residential dwelling units having no walk through openings in the sidewalls may be less than forty-four (44) inches in width but shall be not less than thirty-six (36) inches wide.
Within dwelling units, toilet rooms providing twenty-nine (29) inch clear passage need not comply with the other provisions of this section.
Ramps seven (7) feet and less in length required to provide accessibility need not be provided with hand rails.


The interrelatedness of the variety of building uses in a multi-use design is an important consideration in site planning and sequencing of events dealing with public exposure facilitating successful business operations and privacy for residents living within the building. Horizontal circulation and automobile traffic patterns will be designed to provide separation of the public/private interests. Landscaping will be used to accoustically and visually serve as buffer zones betv/een these areas.
A review of the major areas of the building
Major Office Space 10.000 square feet
This will be the Gratia Office, an insurance and real estate firm. Major exposure will be to the north for southbound traffic visibility and daylighting opportunities. Parking adjacent to the office will serve the needs of the employees. The space will primarily be one level, the partner's areas somewhat inflexible in design, the staff and secretarial areas flexible in lay-out. An internal spatial distinction will be made between the two areas of business (real estate, insurance). Accoustical buffers with high visibility (they currently use plexiglass partitions) is important.
Retail Spaces -_3.i5QQ. squai;Q..fee_t
Seven small retail spaces will be laid on 500' plans for flexibility in rentability. These will be designed to accommodate types of businesses which are not heavily dependent on pedestrian visibility for sales, such as florists, interior designers, jewelry stores, fine art and antique businesses, etc.

Pjaafesfiional .Spaces QQ.Q ..square, feet
These offices are intended to attract small professional offices such as lawyers, psychiatrists, doctors, engineers, brokers, photographers, etc. Flexibility in design will allow for spatial variations, although the basic layout will focus toward six spaces, one thousand square feet per space.
Cafe 500 square feet
An informal food service will be included in the site to be used primarily as a take-out service for persons already at the site. The Zoning Variance Review Board will grant a reduction in parking requirements for this case.
Residential. Units 4 ,500 square feet
Four clustered, luxury apartments (or condominiums) will vary in size: (1 bedroom 850 sq. ft., 1 bedroom 1,000 sq. ft., 2 bedroom 1,200 sq. ft., 2 bedroom 1,500 so. ft.) and incorporate into the spatial arrangement a portion of the public green space, buffered from the more public side, to serve as a transition between public and private.
Privacy among the residences is important (a central corridor serving four entrances in a linear arrangement is not acceptable), as is security, both psychological and physical, and the degree of public awareness offered to the residents. For energy considerations, these spaces may best be located with major southeast exposures to allow natural ventilation from the coastal breezes to enhance Florida living. The units may be most efficiently placed on an upper level of the building, accessible by stairs, a small hydraulic elevator incorporated to transport the handicapped and freight to the residences and

other spaces above grade level. Adjacent, open parking will be provided for the two smaller units, an enclosed space will be provided for the larger units within the unit.
Public. .Open. Spac.b.5.rQQQ-&quar.s-fee.t
The owner wants an open, shaded area on the site to serve as strictly public, visible from the major public areas of the building, designed to be used throughout the day. A water element would enhance the cool feeling of the space. The owner's concept is to design a small Florida park within the site which major spaces open onto. This space may be spatially divided and meander through the site to address the needs of the various adjacent spaces.
Because of the high water table, parking will be at ground level as required by code. Shaded and buffered by landscaping, the automobile intrusion will be visually and accoustically minimal. Lighting will be provided for evening use. Ground cover will not be a sea of black asphalt, a more acceptable material will be cboosen on aesthetic and functional qualities, as tile or brick, which may vary in pattern between parking and traffic areas. Physically, security may be provided to the residential parking areas if permissible by fire codes. Due to excessively strict parking requirements, the Zoning Board is presently reducing the ratio requirements.


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Gale Research Co. Weather, Atlas, of the.United .States> Detroit: Book Tower, 1963.
Knupp, Connie, and Thomas Stoffel and Stephen Whitaker. Isolation Data Manual:. Golden: Solar Energy Research Institute, 1980.
Mazria, Edward, She..Passive ,Solar. Sr.ergy.BPQk/ Emmaus:Rodale Press, 1979.
McGuinnes, William and Benjamin Stein, and John S. Reynolds, Mechanical and Electrical Equipment for Buildings. Mew York: John Wiley and Sons, 1980.
Morton, David, By Biscayne Bay, Progressive Architecture, (March, 1983), 122-130.
National Geographic, Atlas of the World. Washington: National Geographic Society, 1975.
Palma, Micky, Shg--Ajr_ch.itact.*.s.Gnils,. tQ. Pac.Ui.t.y Planning, Architectural Record Books, Washington, D.C. 1981.

Rush, Richard, Building in the Path of Nature's Wrath, Progressive Architecture, (February, 1980), pg. 106-114.