PARK AT FARBER LAKES l~
TOWNHOUSES AMHERST, NEW YORK
In Preparation for Masters of Architecture Degree University of Colorado
WllM a10 Grady
This Thesis project is dedicated to Mom and Dad, my brothers, Chris and Tim, and to Karen, for their continuous love and suppor+ +hroughou+ my education.
Also, special thanks to Mr. Harold Farber for his time and enthusiasm.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. ProbIem Statement
2. Advisors *
4. Hi story
5. Maps: Vicinity / VIII age Development Plan Site Plan
6. Site: Analysis Recommendations
7. User: Types Needs Recommendations
8. Energy Considerations and Data
9. Soil/ Structure
10. Codes: Zon i ng BuiIding Energy
11. BIbi loqraphy
12. Design Solution
1. PROBLEM STATEMENT
Park at Farber Lakes Townhouses Location:
Town of Amherst, New York
Harold D. Farber 50 Lake Ledge Drive Wi11lamsviIle, New York
The Park at Farber lakes contains 80 acres of planned office buildings, retail commercial centers and residential sites, all of which will be fully serviced by the latter part of 1983-84. Ultimate development will Include:
a) Retail Establishments of approximately 45,000 square feet, consisting of quality specialty retail shops clustered around a central pedestrian area.
b) Offices of approximately 390,000 tn a landscaped office park with design controlled architecture and site planning. A retail banking facility of 3,600 square feet is also included as part of the plan.
c) Residential approximately 200 units of townhouse condominiums in two residential clusters complete with tennis and pool facilities with ample provision for open space.
The Residential project has been divided into two 100 unit phases. My proposal will be a portion of phase one consisting of 15-20 townhouse units sited along the northern shore of Farber Lake.
These townhomes have been defined as luxury units and will be designed for Amhers+s existing retirees and wealthy professionals. They have been priced in the $225,000 $350,000 market and will consist of a mix of the following:
- two bedroom, two bath 2,346 sq. ft.
- two bedroom, two half bath 2,622 sq. ft.
- three bedroom, two bath 2,649 sq. ft.
- three bedroom with loft, 2 bath 3,068 sq. ft.
2. SELECTED ADVISORY BOARD
* John C. Lake President
Beacon Hi I I Townhomes Englewood, Colorado
Consultant for Programming and Land Development
* Ron RInker Architect
Barker, Rlnker, Seacat Denver, Colorado
Consultant for architectural development
* J. Rolf Secklnger
Interior Design and Architecture Ticino Inc., a design collaborative Denver, Colorado
Consultant for Interior development
* Dr. D. Stafford Woolard Professor of Energy/Design University of Colorado at Denver Consultant for energy/climatic design considerations
The overwhelming majority of Americans indentlfy with and pursue the American dream. A key element of that dream Is home ownership, which for the greater part of the last 35 years has been defined as proprietorship of the single family detached house. However, during the course of our history other forms of housing have been of equal Importance in fulfilling the American dream. The row house is a form that dates back to the beginning of our nation. Because of the rise of the suburbs and, thus the attraction of the single family detached house it was not until the 1960's that a suburban form of the row house, the townhouse, re-emerged as a housing choice.
With rising housing costs, shrinking energy resources and significant changes in the demographics of those people entering the housing market, clearly forms of home ownership other than the single family detached housing will be tied to the quality of planning and design applied to them.
Good low rise urban and suburban clustered housing Is as hard or harder to design than a good custom built single family house. The individuals whose needs and aspirations should be given built form are unknown, and so the task becomes to provide an empty but flexible stage for them rather than a complete setting.
It is important to remember that housing like houses, is not just about finance or about government, or about technology, or even about architectural art, but it is about people and their simultaneously individual and social selves.
Main goals are two, and in some ways they are opposite of each other. On the one hand built form is given to a set of individual and personal needs and aspirations. On the other the house should express some more general concerns, responding to both its geographical and cultural place--and whenever appropriate adding to it. The former goal is individual and the latter one socialwhich is to say that the house is simply an expression of people, and of their tentative compromise between their own Individuality (which they need) and their own collective social purpose (which they also need).
The +own of Amherst, si+ua+ed +o +he north and eas+ of +he city of Buffalo, and having a land area of approximately 54 square miles, was a part of +he Holland Land Purchase in Western New Yorksurveyed In 1798 by Joseph Ellicot+. The town cen+er originated from the in+ersection of +he "Great Iroquois Trail" and "Ellicott Creek" an area later to be incorporated into +he village of Williamsvfile. Amherst was later incorporated into a town in 1818.
Events in Amherst history carefully recorded by Sue Miller Young in her book "A History of the Town of Amherst, New York", cover everything from Amherst's involvement with the War of 1812 against + he British to the opening of the first tavern and arrival of the first circus.
The population has grown from an estimated 3,133 people in 1845 +o its present popula+ion of 110,000, its proximity to +he city of Buffalo being a major catalyst for grow+h.
The land making up the Farber esta+e was originally purchased in the Ia+e 1800's as the Schelkup estate where Mr. Schelkup buil+ a country home for himself along the escarpment. The es+ate was I a+er purchased by a Mr. Wright in 1920 and eventually by Mr. Farber in 1940.
The proper+y then saw major changes with the northern area below the escarpmen+ being utilized as stables and grazing ground for 200 head of cattle. The southern area was sold for the development of homes in a division formed around Lake Ledge Road in 1950, as well as construction of WiI IiamsviIle High School in 1948.
The heads of ca+tle and s+ables have since disappeared and development of the remainder of +he property became possible wi+h the installation of accessible u+ilities in the 1970's.
Development options and concepts have been formed over the past ten years and a master plan has been developed. Cons+ructlon of +he first structure, an office building, was completed in 1981.
Development of the entire site will occur over the next five years.
- Vi I I age
- Development Plan
- S ite PI an
The project site and i + s environs lie within the Erie-Ontario Lowlands Physiographic Province of New York State, immedia+ely north of the Village of WiI Iiamsvilie, in the Town of Amherst, New York.
Site Description: The "Farber Property" fronts on the south side of Sheridan Drive a major east/west ar+erial serving the eastern suburbs of the Buffalo metropo!I+an area. The wes+ern boundary of the property lies 1,280 fee+ east of Evans Street, a north/south local road which intersects with Sheridan and continues northward as Hopkins Road.
The Farber property is bounded on the west by a large tract known as the Jacobs proper+y which is being developed and marketed for a mixture of uses. To date, parcels have been sold to +he U.S. Postal Service for a post office, Liber+y Mutual Insurance Company for an office building, and the Jewish Federa+ion for a high rise elderly housing development.
To the south the property abutts a steep escarpmen+ which serves as a buffer between the site and +he predom i nant I y s i ngIe-fam iIy res i dent i a I d i str i cts to +he south. To the east, the Farber property adjoins the Buffalo Country Club.
The Farber property is generally flat with a small lake and low lying sections at +he sou+h end. This lake is a strong focal point and also provides the mos+ aesthetic area of the site wi + h its large ma+ure trees bordering +he northern and eastern shores. The remainder of the site consists primarily of open meadows with a few small groupings of various vegetation.
The Existing Environment
The topography of the area is a direct resul+ of geologically recent glacial and post-glacial erosion and deposition. Typically, upland areas south of the project site have been mantled by glacial +ill deposits, which range in thickness from several inches +o several tens of fee+ and Immedia+ely overlie bedrock of Devonian age. A location map is included in this repor+.
Cl I mate
The climate of the region is classified as humid-con+inentaI, and is marked by seasonal extremes of heat and cold. In general, the mean annual temperature of the area is abou+ 47 F., wi+h extremes of about 95 F. and -35 F. Precipitation is usually well distributed over the year. However, excessively wet springs occur occasionally and summer droughts have occurred on an average of once every five years. The average annual precipitation is about 38 inches annually as recorded at the City of Buffalo. Of the to+al annual precipitation, it is estimated that about 50 percent Is lost as direct runoff, while the remainder is lost in the processes of evaporation, transpiration and groundwater recharge.
See Section 8 "Energy Considera+ions", for more detailed data, charts, and tables.
Geologically, the proposed site area Is one of geologic stability with little or no earthquake activity. However, in spite of the lack of earthquake activity, the Western New York State area is shown to be in an ear+hquake prone zone. Seismic design evaluations were no+ seriously considered during the developmen* of +he proposed plan.
Si+e Topography and Soil Considerations
The Farber proper+y is generally flat and sloping to the north. A small pond and a low-lying section exists at the back (south end). To the sou+h, the property abuts a steep escarpment, which serves as a buffer be+ween the si+e and a predominan+Iy single family district in the Village of
WiI IiamsviIle. Visibility over the entire tract
from Sheridan Drive is unimpaired.
Bedrock lies in +he range of 4 +o 25 fee+ below +he surface. Soils consis+ of a varie+y of clay, sandy clay, and silts, which should pose few problems for the developer.
See Section "Struc+ure/SoiIs", for more de+ailed data.
All public utilities are available to the area. Sanitary sewage can be discharged through an existing 10 Inch facility In Belvoir Road into the Town of Amherst Sanitary Sewer District No. 16 plant. This facility has been extended southerly along International Drive.
Public water is available from a recently constructed 16 inch watermain along the south side of Sheridan Drive. An 8 inch line extension of this also has been built in International Drive.
Electric power Is available through the existing facilities of the Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation. National Fuel Gas Corpora+ion has facilities that make natural gas available to the site.
Roads and Traffic
The subject site abuts approximately 1300 feet of Sheridan Drive, as shown on the location map. Sheridan Drive is a four land State main+ained roadway, which provides excellen+ eas+ and wes+ accessibility and exposure to the property. About 1280 feet to the west is Evans Stree+, a north/south local road which in+ersects with Sheridan and continues northward as Hopkins Road. This intersection is currently being Improved by the State, which should do much to reduce traffic congestion. In addition, Youngs Road, ano+her north/south local road to the east of +he site has recently been ex+ended. 1 + Is anticipated +h!s will relieve much of +he traffic on Evans S+reet.
Internally, the Farber tract will be connected to the Jacobs tract to the wes+ as Essjay Road by a road parallel +o and about 1100 fee+ sou+h of Sheridan Drive. 1 + will also tie into Evans Stree+ by means of roads within the Jacobs tract. I nternationaI Drive has already been buil + as a four land divided entrance at i+s intersection with Sheridan Drive. It should also be noted that none of the commercial traffic generated on the site will pass through any existing residen+ial areas.
Storm water re+ention Is necessary. A drainage plan has been developed for the area by what Is known as the Hydrograph me+hod as outlined in a Storm Drainage Design Manual prepared by the Erie-Niagara County Planning Board. The allowable ou+flow is the amount of wa+er +hat would leave +he undeveloped area during a storm that occurs once in ten years. Detention ponds are based upon tha+ quantity of water that would be genera+ed In +he area after it is developed during a storm that occurs once in 25 years.
The topography of the land Is a uniform slope to the north with a difference in elevation of about nine feet. Because of this, individual on site basins will continue to be used for the remaining 5.84 acres of land east of International Drive. The remaining property west of the road will be served by four re+ention basins along the wes+ property line. These will be at different elevations in order to conform with the slope of the land. All basins will discharge into Town Ditch No. 10, which provided the original drainage, and were approved by the Town of Amherst.
PopuI at ion
The proposed development itself represen+s growth in the Town of Amherst. in +he shor+ +erm i+ will bring in workers who may or may no+ already reside in the town +oge+her w!+h new residents in +he dwellings. Over the long term this development should induce further new growth in the general area.
Additional populations are projected below. Residential residents are based upon 3.5 persons per dwelling unit, office at 250 square feet per employee, and retail stores at 500 square feet per empIoyee.
Residential Off i ces Bank RetaiI
156 unit at 3.5
390.000 sq. ft. 3600 sq. ft.
45.000 sq. ft.
546 residents 1560 employees 15 employees 90 employees
Residents will consume about 100 gallons of water per day, and discharge a similar amount +o the sanitary sewer daily. Employees in the office
facilities or retail s+ores contribute about 25 gallons per day. Based on these parameters, wa+er consumption and sewage discharge should be:
Residential 546 residents at 100 54,600 gals, per
Commercial 1665 employees at 25 41 ,625 gals, per
Total 96,225 gals, per
Say 100,000 gallons of wa+er and sewage.
A ten inch sewerline runs north from the property into the Town of Amherst Sewer District No. 16 treatment plant. This line has a theoretical capacity of about 710,000 gallons per day, wi+h only a small flow at present. Obviously the impact on the sanitary sewer system is small.
A new 16 Inch waterline crosses the subject property at Sheridan Drive, and is fully capable of supplying ample water to the si+e, without creating any supply problems elsewhere.
According to a traffic study made in 1977 by the Town of Amherst, the average daily traffic on Sheridan Drive Is about 22,000 vehicles per day, and about 12,000 vehicles per day on Evans S+ree+. The development obviously will Increase the traffic
flow, which is estimated as follows:
i Land Use S i ze Park i ng Ratio Average Turnover Traffic Generation
1 Reta i1 1 45,000 5.5/1000 10 2500
V Bank 3,600 10/1000 15 540
1 Offices 390,000 4/1000 4 6240
156 Units 2/unit 4 1248
cars per day 10,528
A basic issue that will ease the traffic inflow to and from Sheridan Drive at its intersection with Internation Drive is an alternate si+e access in addition to the main entrance. The best solution is to secure a right of way in connection wi+h the Jacobs property west to Evans Street, which has been incorporated in the overall plan. The recently constructed Youngs Road extension to the west of the area is expected to relieve traffic on Evans Street.
Security is a provision for defense against intruders or s+rongers than violate persons privacy. Separated, private home entries and careful window placement play a significant role in designing privacy in+o a housing unit.
Control of commun i ti es precaution. access roads
vehicles entering the is being considered as a This would indicate I i m I -ted and entrances.
ownhome securIty number of
Lighting should give special emphasis to natural features or accent points of pa+hway or open space.
Care should be given to locate fixtures to eliminate shadow areas or other conditions which could pose a securi+y -!'hrea+.
Amen 1 + ies:
Amenities are comforts or conveniences designed into a residential development. This can include man made recreational facilities as well as a sites preserved natural features.
Benches in special locations with veiws or along circulation routes.
-Jogging Trails and Exercise Area
Jogging has become a national excercise pasttime. The provision of a jogging pa+h with occasional excersice areas Is an attractive amenity could be a possibility within 4'his design if integrated with the entire residential development.
From a land planning standpoint, a single community entry will make the entire communi+y more of a private court than a dangerous thoroughfare enhancing both privacy and security.
There are five basic areas within most townhouse developments that require lighting.
3. Open Space
4. Unit Entries
5. Unit Entry Walks
With either a linear or cluster road scheme general illumination that utilizes the same type of fixture placed along collector and subcollec+or rou+es is frequently necessary. This is typically required of developments having a density below seven units per acre, where the unit or garage wall mounted lights do not adequately illuminate cour+s or parking bays.
Townhouses should also provide lighting for open systems in order to gain the maximum benefi+ from them.
-Swlmming Pool / Clubhouse
An outdoor swimming pool Is one of J'he mos+ desired amenities for *ownhouses and condominuims. It serves as a place to socialize wi^h neighbors and become a focus for open space and meeting ground for *he whole community. Since the entire residential development will involve 100 200 u n 11- s, these could be a feasible part of the design.
The existing Farber Lake is the best existing amenity of the site. The lake serves as a focal point, as well as a beautiful backdrop for the townhouses.
A tennis court is a desirable amenity whose space requirements are not that demanding.
Parking and Garages:
Good site planning and design will create a livable environment for easibly marketable townhouses.
There should be parking provided for +hree cars per unit. Individual driveways are desirable as well as individual garages which are attached to protect user from harsh winter cold and snow of New York. Attached garages also enhance security.
Addi^ional parking (guest) may be provided through two design options, on s^ree4- or off stree+. Since on street parking is fostered by streets ^ha* are wider than necessary, it is preferable *0 have narrow streets with parking bays than 4o have wide streets wi^h parallel parking.
Building / Road Relationships;
There are essentially two basic kinds of unit building and parking re I ationships, the use of each type depending on the location of open space, density, amenities, and view. These two relationships are garage court entries and green space entries. Garage court entries have guest entries and garages or parking areas on the same side of the two townhouse unit. This arrangement works well for the central units of a townhouse building. It also avoids having to bring a guest e.itry walk all the way around a building. Green space refers to a 4ownhouse uni* type whose entry is at the side opposite from the garage, parking, or access court. This building type maybe used when open space and amenities are centrally located.
As buildings are first designed through consideration of how they will ultimately fit into the site plan, site placement must be studied in detail. Some of the factors to be considered are as follows:
The shape and scope of buildable land areas
The location of views and amenities Density to be acheived
Orientation to pedestrian and vehicular access
Character of the site's surroundings Street / Roadway:
Within actual residential areas, roads should emphasize character, safety, and convienence, not speed. These streets should signify +heir function through narrower widths and specifications not merely through signs for lower speed limits.
A roads function and environmentaI impact are based upon certain standards each of which must be considered in the design of streets for townhouses:
- Character of development Pavement widths Gradients
Edge treatments/curb types Drainage configurations Soil bearing capacities
- Right of way dimensions
The Entry Road:
The approach to a townhouse/condominiurn site is the first encounter with the development and entry placement significantly determine a communities image and visual character. Although a projec4-normally has some flexibility in locating the main road, it's final selection must first consider function and safety. Adequate site distances are the primary consideration. Locations of existing vegetation, etc. should also help to position entry and set the communities image. A well designed townhouse entry road might include earthwork, plantings and signage to create an element of surprise and openness.
For developments under fifty (50) units a single lane pavement width provides adequate access and egress. Proper turning radii are a minimum of fifteen (15) feet.
Service and Emergency Vehicles:
Fire equipment turning radii requirements must be accommodated In ownhouse site planning. Fire engines must go directly to an alarm by the quickest most efficient route.
The high cost of very large fire trucks, their frequently limited maneuverability and high maintenance costs have accelerated the trend toward use of smaller vehicles with smaller turning radii. This is fortunately happening at a time of widespread popularity of the mini neighborhood and the cost efficiency of smaller pavemen+ diameters.
A 70 foot turn around is adequate according to actual turning tests of a typical suburban community pump.
Trash Col lection:
Depending on the make and model, trash and refuse collection, truck may require turning radii of 55 to 57 feet.
For townhouses at grade rather than cen+ralized units, individual garbage cans may be kept in garages or in fence extension enclosures.
Plow mobilization within any size turnaround or col de sac is essent i a I.
7. THE USER
The potential users of this townhouse development have been identified by a market study as "Amherst's Existing Retirees and Wealthy Professionals".
In a development report it has been stated tha+ the project shalI be designed as "empty nester luxury housing".
The users can be separated into two groups; one identified as "Mature Families" consisting of married couples where the heads of the household are 35 years or older and having one or more children still living at home; the o+her identified as "Adult Families" consisting of a married couple where the heads of the family are 35 years or older and having no children living at home.
Mature FamiIy Adult Family
# of aduIts 1 - % - %
2 80 63
3 11 27
4 6 9
Presence of -
Chi1dren With 100 % -
Without - 100 %
Ages of Ch i1dren 0 5 years 15 % - %
5-10 years 25 -
11 -17 years 60
People per Household 3.1 % 1.5 %
With the interests of the individual in mind, -l-he factors of livibility, including function, safety, privacy security, identity and social interaction, are central to a carefully design, environmentally sound townhouse project.
A townhouse community must basically provide shelter in a functional and efficient manner, being organized, understandable, reasonably accessible and safe. Generally these goals are attained by combining compatible community elements and separating conflicting factors. For instance a member of large windows oriented to Farber Lake take advantage of compatible element thus enhancing livibility. Separation of roads from walkways enhances safety. Garbage/trash storage separated from the entries of the home again designs function and livibility into the residential surrounding.
Privacy and Security:
People need the option of controlling their contact with other activities and people at certain times. Besides visual contact, this privacy should Include, as much as possible, control over noises lights, and odors. Private areas within the confines of a home, privacy from neighbors sharing a common wall and private outdoor spaces are vital.
Security is a provision for defense agains^ intruders or strangers that violate a persons privacy.
Separated, private home entries and careful window placement play a significant role in designing privacy in+o a housing unit.
Identity and Character:
People express their individuality through the ownership of distinctive and unique property. Their homes and surroundings play a central role in this image setting function. A carefully designed community entrance as well as forceful architecture and created si+e features add special character and identity. Also to be considered is the existing character of the village of WiI IiamsviIle. The colonial forms, styles, and details of many of the turn of the century homes and commercial buildings offer a rich context within which one must design carefully.
Community and Interaction:
In a townhouse community interaction need not and should not be forced. As mentioned previously, there should be provisions for privacy. However, those convenient opportunities for social contact that are planned and designed into the community will be recognized and used as desired.
Also, within the home itself a provision for social interaction should be made by designing a "hearth" dining room, country kitchen or family room. The "hearth" or focal point should be planned for maximum family/guest interaction.
The site offers a very aesthetic setting, the main focal point being Farber Lake with the escarsmen'* beyond and with mature trees along it's northern shore.
Orientation to the lake is desirable for as many townhouses as possible. Units unable to front the Lake should be compensated by landscaping or orientation to a pool, common garden, or other amenity.
A market study made of the user groups identified as "Mature Families" and "Adult Families" received the following responses relevant to a townhouse design.
How many bedrooms and bathrooms would sui* the needs of your household?
Bedrooms 1 2 3 4 5 M.F. 3 fi 3 20 57 20 A.F. c.3 J P 22 44 12 12
Bathrooms- 1 - * 7*
1 1/2 3 2
2 26 54
2 1/2 17 2
3 49 29
Use of secondary bedrooms?
Den/TV Room 11* 15*
Guest Room 37 46
Office 9 10
Library/Study 9 15
Sewing/ironing 11 7
Would you prefer a one story , two
story or split level?
One Story 31* 56*
Two Story 37 10
Split LeveI 9 15
No Preference 23 20
How interested wou 1 d you be i n
purchasing a townhouse with lush
vegetation, streams or 1 akes,
extensive landscap ing?
Very Interested 37* 37*
Somewhat Interested 34 27
Not too Interested 11 7
Not at all Interested 17 29
Separate Livingroom and
Dining Room? CO o fe* 61$
Eating Space in the
Kitchen? 60$ 51$
Two Car Garage? 43$ 78$
Three Car Garage? 46$ 22$
Den located off the
Livingroom? 66$ 56$
Den located near
the Bedrooms? 29$ 32$
Upstairs? 86$ 61$
Downstairs? Question: Most important room? 11$ 29$
Livingroom 9$ 17$
Kitchen 60 51
F am i1y Room 23 20
Second most important room?
Livingroom 9$ 27$
Kitchen 20 20
Family Room 40 24
Dining Room 0 0
Master Bedroom 26 17
How important is a basemen+?
Very Important 60$ 66$
Somewhat Important 23 15
Not Too Important 9 5
Not at all Important 8 15
8. ENERGY CONSIDERATIONS AND DATA
Townhouses have an advantage over other forms of housing when It comes to energy conservation. The attached units provide insula+ion on one or more sides. With good climatic planning and design and flexible zoning and subdivision regulations entire buildings consisting of many homes may be oriented to incorporate passive solar energy techniques. This is equally true of proper wind orientation to reduce the negative effects of cold winter winds and to take advantage of the cooling summer breezes.
However, there are problems The ideal of having maximum southern unit exposure cannot be fully acheived when the long axis of the unit faces east west or when the southern facing wall is all or partly shaded by other buildings. Solutions to these problems requires careful consideration, particularly for the trade-offs between passive energy conservations and other design criteria.
One economical and operational opportunity for +he incorporation of active solar is that collection and storage facilities may be readily showed and need not be related to individual units. These collectors could be incorporated unobtrusively in common areas (hillside or berm) or on structures (common garages).
The location of Amherst, New York and the climate relevent to it will present a real challenge. It does not lend itself easily to passive or active solar design because of it's lower percentage of available sunshine and radiation. However, many techniques may bq incorporated if designed thoughtfully with careful calculations of each system.
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NARRATIVE CLIMATOLOGICAL SUMMARY
For nearly 75 years the National Weather Service Office at Buffalo was located downtown overlooking the waterfront. Instruments were exposed high above the ground level. On July 1, 1543, the office was moved to the Buffalo Airpor^. Roof exposures were maintained generally un^il August 1961 when radically lower levels were prescribed to meet aviation requirements. Vertical variability of many weather elements is much more pronounced than is the horizontal; hence, with the establishment of "ground" level exposures, discontinuity in the record has occurred.
The surrounding county is comparatively low and level to the wes-1-, gently rolling to the east and south, rising to pronounced hills within 12 to 18 miles, and to 1,000 feet above the level of Lake Erie at a point some 35 miles south-southeast of the City.
At the present location an escarpment of 50 to 100 feet lies east-west 1-1/2 miles to the north. The eastern end of Lake Erie is now nine miles to the west-southwest, while Lake Ontario lies 25 miles to the north, the two being connected by the Niagara River, which flows north-northwestward from the end of Lake Erie.
Buffalo is located near the mean position of the polar front. Its weather is varied and changeable, characteristic of the latitude. Wide seasonal swings of temperature from hot to cold are tempered appreciably by the proximity of Lakes Erie and Ontario. Lake Erie lies to the southwest, the direction of the prevailing wind. Wind flow throughout the year is somewhat higher due to this exposure. The vigorous interplay of warm and cold air masses during the winter and early spring months causes one or more windstorms. Precipitation is moderate and fairly evenly divided throughout the twelve months.
The spring season is cloudy and cooler than points not affected by the cold lake. Vegetation is retarded, a fact hat protects it from late spring frosts. With heavy winter ice accumulations in the lake, typical spring conditions are delayed until late May or early June.
Summer comes suddenly in mid-June. Lake breezes temper the extreme heat of the summer season. Temperatures 90 and above are infrequent. There is more summer sunshine here *han in any o+her section of the state. Due to the stabilizing effects of Lake Erie, thunderstorms are relatively infrequent. Most of them are caused by frontal action. To the north and sou^h of Ihe City thunderstorms occur more often.
Autumn has long, dry periods and is frost free usually until mid-October. Cloudiness increases in November, continuing mostly cloudy throughout the winter and early spring. Snow flurries off the lake begin in mid-November or early December. Outbreaks of arctic air In December an on through the winter months produce locally heavy snowfalls from the lake. At the same time, temperatures of well below zero over Canada and the midwest are raised 10 to 30 in crossing the lakes. Only on rare occasions do polar air masses drip southward from eastern Hudson Bay across Lake Ontario wi+hout appreciable warming.
Meteorological Data For The Current Year
Station: BUFFALO, NE M YORK GREATER BUFFALO INTL AIRPORT Standard time used: EASTERN Latitude: 56* N Longitude 7* M Elevation (ground) : 70s ,eel Ym,: 1981
Month Temperature * F Degree days Base 65 F Precipitation in inches Relative humidity, pet. Wind Percent of possible sunshine Â£ i I 8 0 c Is II Number of days Average station pressure mb
Averages Extremes Water equivalent Snow, Ice pellets 01 1 07 Loca 3. 1 13 time i X 19 Resultant L 8 4 < 6 Fastest mile Sunrise to sunset Precipitation .01 inch or more Snow. Ice pellets 1.0 inch or more Â§ 0 e 1 3 2 Â£ Temperdture F
E > s So l1 x ss Maximum Minimum
E >f 3 7 E >1 II > c. I I X 5 i 3 O E a 1 I 1 k- Greatest in 24 hrs. O 2 0 k- c 1 e 2 n O N 2 Q c 0 1 0 I! 9 j; 5 Q. 6 E Â§ 5 5 O <3 .Â£ T> SI 0. 0 0 3 O O (b) ll ? wj a s, 0 0 CN a, r> S c i 10 0 h X Elev. 706 feet mil.
JAN 2S.7 12.8 19. 3 5 Q 26 -7 6 1611 0 1.11 0.22 6-7 16.6 2.5 6-7 76 77 66 73 25 5.6 9.8 36 7.9 2 10 19 20 5 0 2 0 26 30 6 990.2
FEB <0.8 25.0 32.9 65 22 2 5 895 0 3.50 0. S 2 19-20 5.0 1.6 8-9 75 76 71 75 23 7.3 10.6 62 Sw 2 27 8.5 1 23 1 6 1 0 0 0 8 18 0 991.9
HAP <1.3 26.6 33.9 67 29 7 18 956 0 1.70 0.35 26-27 13.2 3.6 17 80 83 66 73 8.3 22 18 5 0 0 0 7 27 0 965.8
APR 56.6 37.8 6 7.2 78 6 23 21 527 2 3.09 0.65 17-18 T T 25 72 76 61 68 s.s 35 7.3 6 11 15 1 5 0 5 2 0 0 8 0 989.8
HAY 66.3 66.5 56.6 82 26 33 18 269 13 2.56 0.79 27-28 0.0 0.0 76 71 69 57 16 10 0 2 2 0 0 0 0 989.2
JUN 75.0 57.6 66.2 86 10 61 1 33 78 3.68 1.10 21-22 0.0 0.0 BO 80 61 66 2 6 6.1 8.6 29 su 25 SO 6.9 3 13 16 16 0 8 2 0 0 0 0 98 7.8
JUL 80.0 63.6 71.8 86 .. 68 23 6 225 5.05 2.06 19-20 0.0 0.0 79 78 57 65 25 7.3 6.1 7 12 9 0 8 0 0 0 0 991.2
AUG 77.8 62. 1 70.0 86 10 69 16 1 1 173 3.13 0.95 8-9 0.0 0.0 B3 B 1 60 70 18 10 0 7 0 0 0 0 0 991.5
SÂ£P 67.6 56.1 60.9 35 1 37 30 170 55 6.26 1.39 21-22 0.0 0.0 82 83 66 73 26 3.9 36 31 7.9 2 21 16 0 3 1 0 0 0 0 989.8
OCT 56.6 19.7 68.2 76 16 30 25 516 0 3.31 0.62 27-28 T T 23 79 82 61 72 28 2.6 9.8 Sw 18 36 7.5 5 21 1 6 0 0 1 0 0 6 0 992.9
NOV 67.6 33.2 60.6 69 5 21 10 732 0 2.22 1.18 15-16 1. a 0.8 21 81 83 63 76 28 5.5 10.5 s. 27 31 7.9 6 21 10 0 0 1 0 1 13 0 990.2
DEC 33.8 26.2 29.0 6 7 2 7 20 1108 0 2.87 0.56 22-23 26. a 6.1 10 85 82 76 80 27 5.6 10.9 36 SW 26 16 9.2 0 6 27 1 8 9 0 1 0 10 29 0 989.2
JUL JAN JUL OEC OCT
YEAR 55.8 60.2 68.0 36 -7 6 6632 566 36.66 2.06 19-20 59.2 6.1 10 79 79 63 71 25 6.5 9.2 65 Sw 18 61 7.6 63 93 229 170 20 33 13 0 52 129 ' 990.0
Normals, Means, And Extremes
Means and extremes auove are front existing and comparable exposures. Annual extremes have been exceeded at other sites in the locality as follows: Lowest temperature -21 in February 1934; minimum monthly precipitation .05 in August 1876.
(a) Length of record, years, through the
based on jar.jary data.
(b) 70 and above at Alaskan stations.
* Less than one half.
NORMALS Based on record for the 1941-1970 period, nitf nr n; EXTREME Th.2 meet recent in cases of multiple occurrence.
PREVAILING WIND DIRECTION Record through 1963.
WIND DIRECTION Numerals indicate tens of degrees clockwise from true north. 00 indicates calm.
FASTEST MILE WIND Speed is fastest observed 1-minute value when the direction is in tens of degrees.
Average Temperature Heating Degree Days
Year j Jan J Feb Mar ; Apr i May June | July | Aug 1 Sept | Oct | Nov | Dec jAnnuai | Seasonj July j Aug jSeptj Oct | Nov Dec Jan j Feb Mari Apr j May Junei Total
19*2 2*. 21 20. 36. 1 66. 56. 65 . 68 . 1 67.a 62.0| 5 T . 60.. 25.. 07.2 1961-6? c 17! 76i 2 3 722 It'S? 1310 1216 1002 609 195 6655
19*3 21. 3 25, 3C. | 36. 51 . 65. 71. j 68 .? 60. 1 6 . 261 2 13 6 15 832 1231 1*20 1288 907 6 18 370 57 7386
19*5 16. a 26. 66 , j 69. 50. 66. 70. 69.8 66. 69. 60.9 23.8 07.5 1966-6' 6 81 176 1* 680 1C97 1277 1092 1080 706 186 100 6985
19*6 27. J 26. 91 21 . 6* .. | 66. 55. 63. 71. 66 .C 66 . 56 . 66.6 31 .* 09.5 1965-66 2. 66 122 525 7*2 96? 1376 1116 931 668 6936
19*7 29. | 29. 63. 52. 65. 68. 75 ., 66. 59. 38. 20. 1666-67 19j 199 095 700 1126 1086 1239 10*7 560 657 * 69 37
1999 31. 21 31. 33. 65. 57. 72. 76. 71 .e 58 . 57. 38.C 33. 50.6 1968-69 1 29| 58 370 722 118C 1233 1125 1052 5*0 325 10? 6751
1950 35. Q 26. 28. 39. 57. 65. 69. 68 .( 1969-7 13| 161 167 *33 769 1260 1*59 1121 1076 552 255 66 7167
1951 28. 5l 27. 35. i 6$. | 57.' 66. 70. 68 .! 61. 56. J j. 30.6 08.3 1970-71 I 93 28 695 1161 1361 1057 1085 691 327 36 6866
1953 31. 30. 36. 66. r 56.1 67. 71. 70.5 63. 56. 63.9 36.6 50.6 1972-71 16 33 113 576 860 IPS* 1218 1152 1173 696 562 18 1 318 2* 66U2 6555
1955 26. 8j 27. 33. 51. 59. 66. 76. 73.a 62 .Â£ 56. 38.7 25. 09,6 1976-75 187 *83 738 102* 1077 118 7 1P01 1053 76* 175 32 6536
1956 26. 28. 30. 63. 53. 66. 68.9 69.C 58.9 55. 62. 36.2 67.9 1975-76 15 197 368 535 113* 1*00 958 853 557 358 *0 6*18
1956 25. 20. 36 . 68. 56.C 61 . 71. 68.9 62. 52. 6 1.8 22.3 06.9 1977-70 60 11C *73 6*6 11*6 1376 1378 1130 6 70 202 81 7337
I960 26. 27., 26. 68.6 58.1 65. 69. 69.C 66. so. 62.8 21.6 67.3 1979-8r 16 35 139 655 636 973 1208 1265 1022 559 2*0 162 6685
1961 18. 26. 36. 39.a 53.1 63.7 69.1 69.6 68.4 56. 60.8 29.7 67.6 1980-81 2 0 128 690 759 122* 1*11 895 956 527 269 33 6702
1963 18. 18. 35. 66.2 52.5 66. 70. 66.3 57. | 63.6 23.0 66.1
1965 23. 25.6 30. 1.2 59.6 66 . 67. 67.8 63.' 67. | 60.0 36.3 67.1 Cooling Degree Days
1967 29. 20. 30. 66. 50. 72i 7l! 68.1 60.7 SI. 36.3 33.0 67.6 Year Jan Feb j Mar Apr [ May June! July | AugjSepti Oct | Nov Dec Totji
1969 25. 26. 3C. 66. 56.7 66 . 70. 71.2 62., 51. 39.1 26.8 67.1 1969 d
1970 17. 26.6 30. 66.9 S 7.3 66. 71. 70.? 66 . 56 . j 61.6 27.6 67.6 1970 c 0 16 21 100 197 173 72 12 0 0 599
1971 20. 27. 29. 61.? 56.5 67. 68 . 67.8 6 5.6 58. 39.1 33.5 67.9 1971 c. 0 0 9 119 136 122 107 .15 0 0 508
1973 27. 22.9 6?.* 66.9 56.5 68 ., 72. 71.8 61.7 56 . 60.8 29.0 69.6 1973 c 0 6 2 126 233 230 78 3 0 0 678
1975 30. 29.1 30. 39.3 62.1 68. 72.3 69.7 58.3 51. 66.9 20.3 69.0 1975 c 0 0 90 129 238 171 3 3 0 0 636
1976 19. 31.a 37. 66. 53.6 68.7 67.? 67.5 60.1 66> 36.1 22.n 66.J 1976 c 0 0 8 7 169 109 119 *0 0 0 0 032
1978 20. 15.5 28. 62.5 57.6 65. 70.6 70.3 60.8 69 . 60.6 30.6 65.9 1978 c 0 0 0 52 91 2 28 189 173 35 0 0 0 560
1980 25. 21.2 31.a 66.1 50.1 61.9 71.7 72.6 62.6 68 . 39.6 25.3 67.1 19*0 0 0 0 32 56 217 262 58 2 0 0 607
1981 19. 32.9 3 3.7 67.2 56.6 66.2 71.0 70.0 60.9 68 . 60.6 29.0 60.0 198 1 c 0 c 2 13 70 225 173 55 0 0 0 5*6
MEAN 2*. 26.5 32.6 63.5 56.7 66.7 70.3 68.9 62.5 51. 60.0 29.5 67.3
MIN 18.* 17.S 25.2 35. 66.? 57.0 62.6 61.0 56.5 66 . 33.0 23.6 39.9
Year Jan | Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec Annual Season July [ Aug i Sept Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr | May JuneiTotal
196? 3.25 6.26 3.79 2.16 3.75 0.76 2.62 2.65 3.60 3.1? 6 .26 5.01 38.63 1962-60 o.c 0.0 0.0 T 8.7 26.7 16.9 17.7 10.6 5.1 T 0.0 85.5
1966 1.23 2.92 2.91 6.62 ?. 8 7 3.95 1 .06 6.17 3.63 1.66 3. 3 1966-65 o.c C.O 0.0 0.0 3.9 35.1 50.6 23.3 5.6 T 2.0 0.0 120.7
1965 3.71 3.06 6.26 3.15 2.86 2.55 3.97 1. 18 6.88 5.87 3.95 5.07 66.67 190' Ut in f
1966 1.03 2.67 1.61 1.27 3.59 2.03 2.75 6. 35 1966-67 0.0 C.O C.O 0.0 T 11.9 13.0 22.2 tals 0.0 0.8 0.0 65.6
1967 6.65 1.59 2.05 7.95 6.83 6.01 3.5- 1.80 2.11 0.6 6 6.01 1.96 35.16 0 .0 0.0 9.9 6.3 16.5 7.0 6.2 0.0 39.9
1969 2.71 2.66 2.52 2.81 2.62 2.09 1.17 2.58 3.1? 5.27 3.10 1.6 7 6.37 3.60 36.79 1969-5- 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 28.6 9.5 16.8 19.3 13.7 1? 8 0.0 0.0 88.7
1950 5.01 6.26 3.23 2.66 2.16 2.06 3.1? 6.12 1.95 2.36 6.83 1.06 37.38
1951 2.63 2.96 6.57 1951-5? o.c 0.0 0.0 1 17.7 31.6 16.8 8.9 7.6 II. 6 6.6 6.6 83.0
1952 3.75 2.02 2.51 2.56 3.91 1.13 1 .2* 3.12 2.72 0.68 2.89 2.57 29.16 0.0 0.0 0 .0 0.6 11.2 16.1 8.0 11.9 5.5 !.8 0.0 0.0 55.9
1956 2.96 3.72 5.26 3.95 1.35 2.57 2.0* 2.65 2.2C 9. 1 3 3.32 5.83 66.78 1956-55 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 0.7 31.2 28.5 12.0 11.1 0.3 0.0 0.0 86.8
1955 2.61 2.6? 6.60 3.35 1.65 0.11 2.13 6.81 2.97 8.12 6.20 2.82 39.79 n n 7* n ?n r 1* 3 ,, , , . 0 n
1956 2.12 3.33 5.25 3.69 0.99 1956-57 0.0 0.0 T P.0 16.2 3*.6 36.6 3.1 10.2 l..O 0.0 0.0 113.7
1957 6.92 1.65 2.23 6.86 6.03 2.9? 2.97 1.11 3.86 1.12 5.30 3.76 30.69 0.0 O.C 19.2 6.8 31.1 56.2 11.2 .2 0.0
1959 6.67 3.65 1.36 3.87 3.21 2.10 1.96 1 .9* 6.78 2.52 6.93 3.58 1.66 3.98 62.81 1959-6- 0.0 C.O 0.0 T 12.2 16.2 18.3 69.5 19.5 1.9 T 0.0 115.6
1960 3 90| 5.80 2.35 2.36 6.05 2.60 1 .80 3.75 1.20 1.89 2.96 2.57 35.16 I960 tl 15 0
1961 1.61 2.63 2.59 5.90 3.01 1961-6? 0.0 C.O 0.0 T S.6 30.2 26.2 28.2 6.7 .5 0.0 0.0 101.0
1962 2.78 2.65 1.23 2.25 2.36 2.80 1 .89 3.00 3.16 1.90 1.78 2.77 28.55
1966 2.12 1.09 3.72 3.36 2.91 1.55 2.57 5.02 0.77 1.89 2.09 2.5 0 29.67 1966-6* 0.0 0.0 0 .0 T 5.* 15.2 19.2 9.6 17.5 0.2 0.0 0.0 70.9
1965 3.27 2.99 1.97 1.90 1.21 1.50 3.69 6.12 2.37 5.07 6.69 2.6C 35.67
1966 3.76 2.11 1966-67 0.0 0.0 0.0 f .0 10.0 12.1 11.6 19.8 10.8 0.6 1.2 0.0 66.1
1967 1.18 1 39 1.20 2.60 3.69 2.50 1.57 6.06 6.36 6.7* 3.13 2.16 36.60 1967-68
1968 1969 2.18 3.85 0.97 1.62 6.16 3.75 3.51 3.83 2.68 2.06 2.77 6.09 3.09 36.16 1969-7 0.0 0.0 0.0 l.r 22.1 23.0 38.0 21.9 12.6 1.5 7 0.0 120.5
1970 2.06 1.76 1.7? 2.56 2.87 2.55 6.0? 2.01 6.55 6.2 C 3.20 3.25 36.71 197C 71 n n n n
1971 3.03 1971-72 C.O 0.0 0 .0 0.0 18.7 12.9 27.6 31.6 16.1 5.2 0.0 0.0 109.9
1972 1973 2.17 2.03 3.66 3.99 2.99 3.66 6.C6 0.99 6.19 3.06 2.96 6.28 3.A6 61.63 1973-76 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.0 23.1 19.7 22.6 12.9 7.1 0.1 0.0 80.7
1976 2.66 2.19 3.19 3.15 3. J6 3.86 1 .80 3.66 2.62 1.75 5.30 3.13 36.31 2 6 16.3
1975 2.11 2.97 2.9? 1.86 3.31 3.65 2.36 8.69 2.66 1.13 2.77 6.50 38.53
1976 3.191 5.59 1976-77 0.0 0.0 O.C 0.2 31.3 60.7 68.3 22.7 13.5 2.2 0.5 0.0 199.6
1977 1978 3.38 1.59 2.62 3.6 C 1 39 2. 70 3.66 1C.67 8.99 2.61 6.65 8..? 5 5 1971-79 0.0 o.c C.O 3.0 r 3.0 1". 1 *2.6 20.3 6.6 0.7 0.0 0.0 97.3
1979 5.63 2.01 2.68 3. IF 1.67 2.18 3.51 6.2* 5.61 j.i* 6.16 3.0 6 0
1980 1 .97 l .0* 6.05 2.6 ! 1.60 5.0? J .5* J .58 6.5 **.69 2.30 ? 6 5 1*. l 1900 n1
1981 1.11 3. sr 1.70 3.0' 2.56 3.6? 5.0* 3.13 6.26 3. 1 2.2? 2.*7 36.66 19* 1 -0? o.c 0.0 (1.0 1 1.8 26.0
MEAN 3.09 2.69 2.75 2.7r 2.86 2.7 2.96 3.21 3.C7 3.05 3.21 3.2? 35.58 Mt AN 0.0 0.0 T P.3 12.6 22.6 23.8 18.0
# Indicates a station move or relocation of instruments. Sec Station Location table.
Record mean values above are means through the currmt year for the period beginning in 1874 for temperature, 1871 for precipitation and I for snowfall. Data are from City Office locations through Juu* lq4J and from Airport locations thereafter.
Monthly Average Solar Radiation, Tempera^ure and Degree Days:
BUFFALO, NEW TOA A JUM
JAM FEB MAR APR MAT
MS 3*9 5*6 888 1315 1596 180*
VS 65 A 820 999 1037 9** 933
T A 2 3-7 2*.* 32.1 **.9 55.1 65.7
050 815 717 555 170 17 0
055 970 857 710 306 77 2
060 1125 997 865 *53 17C 13
065 1260 1137 1020 603 321 58
070 1*35 1277 1175 753 *62 151
LAT > *2. 9 ELET 705
JUL AUG SEP OCT MOV DEC TEAR
1776 1513 1152 78* *03 283 103*
968 10*3 112* 106* 710 562 10859
70.1 68.* 61.6 51.5 39.8 27.9 *7.1
0 0 2 52 309 685 3322
0 1 10 137- *56 8*0 *363
3 5 *9 269 606 995 5551
12 33 138 *19 756 1150 6927
72 101 257 57* 906 1305 8*68
Load Col lector Rates;
BUFFALO SSF s .1 .2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9
WW U6 17 6 - - - - -
4?. 9 N L WUNI 121 5 33 23 17 13 10 7 5
6927 DD C TW 20 9 - - - - - -
T(J A N ) = 24 R TWNI 115 51 31 21 16 12 9 6 M
DC - - - - - - - -
DGNI 115 50 29 20 13 9 6 3 -
Clear Day Solar Gain through Vertlcle, Double Glazing at Various Orientations:
44 North Latitude
N z z t. w SE, sw S MORI/
January 102 107 405 1004 1420 772
February 148 181 601 1 148 1506 1208
March 208 147 820 1206 1.124 1720
April 288 572 1000 1128 954 2 106
May 186 718 1081 1021 710 2522
|une 458 810 11 16 988 828 2642
My 400 741 1067 999 894 2508
August 108 575 072 1085 016 2172
September 21 n 341 787 1 144 1262 1660
October 1 54 187 582 1008 1418 1 186
November 104 MW vw 983 1388 788
t)e< ember 82 81 107 895 1202 808
=F JAN. F53. MAR APR. MAY JUNE JULY AUG. SEPT. OCT. NOV. DEC.
----RANGE OF COMFORTABLE TEMPERATURE
----AFTERNOON MAXIMUM TEMPERATURE
----AVERAGE DAILY TEMPERATURE
MORNING MINIMUM TEMPERATURE COMFORTABLE PERIODS IN THE YEAR BASED ON TEMPERATURE
Average air temperature conditions identify this region as severely cold and cool most of the year, with only brief seasonal comfort and minimal warm summer periods. It is not unusual for extreme winter temperatures to plummet considerably below zero degrees, often for days and weeks at a time, with snow reaching phenomenal depths in some areas. Summers are mildly comfortable, with cool mornings, warm afternoons, and occasional periods of extreme heat that are broken by heat storms and rainfall. Annual temperature extremes, not shown in the graph, often reach over 120 degrees, making the region one of the most rugged areas of the United States.
TEMPERATURE AND HUMIDITY
4;; "1 fH
JAN. FEB MAR. APR. MAY JUNE JULY AUG. SEPT. OCT. NOV DEC TOO HOT FOR COMFORT 13%OF THE YEAR TOO COOL FOR COMFORT 75% OF THE YEAR COMFORTABLE 12% OF THE YEAR
1. Most Important keep heat In and cold temperatures out.
Building homes t'oge^her to share hea^, sluing Into a hill or berming, combined with compact forms and well insulated construction, promises maximum energy savings.
2. Avoid the infiltration and corrective heat losses caused by cold winds.
Plant evergreens, build fences or provide other wind protection to prevent heat loss. Long sloping roofs can lift chilling winds over a hours. Protect en+ries and make use of an air lock entry to stop cold air from rushing through the house.
3. Let the Sunshine in.
Use full southern exposure for living and sleeping rooms. Windows and skylights can face winter sun but should still be well Insulated against heat loss during non sunshine hours. Add storage mass for day and night passive solar heating.
4. Flatten day to night temperature swings when Its too hot for comfort.
Block the sun's energy. Use reflective roof surfaces, vented attics, and shading devices to protect windows and walls. Use decidcious trees to provide cooling shade especially on outdoor living areas.
5. Allow for Natural Ventilation.
Capture summer breezes and allow them to flow through the home for natural cooling.
MAP OF LATITUDES AND STANDARD TIME ZONES OF THE UNITED STATES
9. STRUCTURE / SOILS
An advance soil survey done by the USDA Soil Conservation service identified the soil makeup of the site as an ODESSA SILT LOAM. I4- is defined as deep nearly level, somewhat poorly drained soil with fine-textured subsoil formed in reddish colored calcareous glacial lake clay and sil+ deposits. Permeability is slow. A temporary wa+er table comes within 12 18 inches of the surface during part of the year.
Depth to bedrock four foot +
Soli drainage-fair, free water is at one to four foot depths for short periods in the Springs, dropping to greater depths In the late Spring.
Soil Permeability poor 1.0 to .05 inches per hour.
Soli foundation quality poor has inability *o suppor+ great loads and the sides of cuts and trenches will have a tendency to slough-in.
Suitability as Sources of:
- Topsoi1 fair
- Sand unsuitable -Fill fair titter sjpil
Homesites with basements severe-- temporary wetness and soil instability which can result In a wet basement and settling or cracking of wallsand floors if not corrected. Principal soil problems -slowly permeable, seasonal wetness.
Underground utilities installation moderate. Principal soil problem, seasonal wetness. Installing the pipelines during the summer could overcome some of the soil wetness problems.
Sheets and roads severe principal soil problems
- seasonal wetness.
Present Day Zoning is divided between SC (Planned Shopping Center) MFR-6 (Multi-Family Residence), MFR-5 (Multi-Family Residence) and for office buildings. Zone MFR-6 permits 18-26 dwelling units per acre, where MFR-5 allows 12-17 dwelling units per acre. This development follows a master plan adopted by the town of Amhers^ after public hearings in 1977.
The building site is located in the MFR-5 zone and will comply with all zoning codes of Chapter 2B from the "Code of the Town of Amherst, County of Eric, State of New York".
Multi-Family Residential District Five (MFR-5) Intent:
To provide areas within the town for medium-density multi-family development where the relationship among buildings and between wings of a single building is regulated In order to assure adequate light and air to residents and protection to and from surrounding developing. Maximum density will be approximately twelve (12) to seventeen (17) dwelling units per gross acre, depending on dwelling unit size.
Permitted Structures and Uses:
Principal structures and uses.
Detached dwelling units as permitted and as regulated in the MFR-4A Districts.
Attached dwelling uni^s.
Dormitory, fraternity or sorority house.
Accessory structures and uses.
Any structure or use when accessory to a detached dwelling unit as permitted and regulated in the MFR-4A Di strict.
Any structure or use described and as regulated in Section 19 of this Part when accessory to attached dwelling units.
Design Regulations Principal Structures and Uses:
Detached dwelling units as permitted and as regulated in the MFR-4A Districts.
Attached dwelling units:
As permitted and regulated in the R-4 District; or according to the following reguI at ions:
A. Minimum land area for each dwelling unit:
(1) One or no-bedroom unit
(2) Two-bedroom units
(3) Three-bedroom units
2,562 sq. ft 2,904 sq. ft 3,630 sq. ft
B. Minimum lot width for each group development or separate structure not a part of a group development one hundred fifty (150) feet.
C. Minimum yards determined by formula In accordance with Section 19 of this Par4'.
D. Maximum lot coverage by
structures 40 percent
E. Maximum building height 35 feet
F. Minimum floor area for each dwelling unit:
(1) Zero (0) bedroom
(2) 0ne (1) bedroom
(3) Two (2) bedrooms
(4) Three (3) bedrooms
400 square feet 640 square feet 760 square feet 1,000 square feet
G. Building dimension and location-any main or longi+udinal wall of a sequence of units shall not exceed one hundred thirty-two (132) feet in length without a ninety degree (90) offset of at least ten (10) feet, and +he aggregate length of any wall, including its offsets, shall not exceed one hundred seventy-six (176) feet in length.
Design Regulations Structures and Uses
Accessory to Attached Dwelling Units;
When principal structures and uses are developed according to the regulations of the R-4 District, In accordance with Section 9-4 of this Part.
When principal structures and uses are developed according to Section 13-3.2.2, spacing shall be In accordance with Section 19-7 of this Part.
Maximum lot coverage, including principal structures 45 percent.
Maximum structure height 35 feet.
Access for Attached Dwelling Units:
Dwelling units within a group development may be arranged in groups of clusters. Each group or cluster shall abut a street; however, each dwelling unit within each group or cluster need not so abut, provided that:
A. Each dwelling unit is accessible by means of a private street to service and emergency vehicles.
B. The standards of design and construction for private streets shall meet applicable town specifications for public streets unless modified by *he approved site plan.
C. The location, design and
construction of all utilities meet a I I appIi cab Ie
specifications and are adequate to serve the needs of the group or cluster.
D. The procedures for the preservation and maintenance of private streets, pedestrian ways and common open space comply with a I I appIi cab Ie Iaws.
Yard and Building Spacing; MFR-5 and MFR-6
In order to encourage greater flexibility and design and more attractive arrangements of buildings and greater utilization of open spaces, yard regulations for attached dwellings in +he MFR-5 and MFR-6 Districts are hereby established. Buildings shall be arranged so as to assure privacy between adjacent structures and intersecting wings of structures, appropriate se+backs from streets, parking and recreation areas and to assure adequate light and air to residents and protection to and from surrounding development. Distances shall vary in relation +o the height of structures and the arrangement to other land uses and boundary lines.
Accessory To Walls of Structure Principal or Use BuiIdings
To Streets To Boundary Lines of Adjacent
. ? Public
Main1 End^ R.O.W.
(feet )(feet )(feet)
Private garage 15 10 25
Storage garage 303 153 25
Parking load ing and stacking area and driveway 154 104 203
Areas for 50 active recreation 30 25
Single Single Fami1y Attached or
De- dent ial
tached Di strlet
Private or Use Use
(feet) (feet) (feet)
10 10 5
10 10 5
55 10 5
30 75 15
Main wall: Any exterior wall of a building containing + he principal window of a living, dining and/or sleeping room or rooms.
End wall: Any exterior wall of a building o*her than a main wall and containing secondary windows required for ventilation and not intended +o provide a direct view.
Garage may be part of main apartment building or, if detached, as set forth above.
Parking, loading and stacking area may abut principal structure if that area does not exceed the minimum established by this ordinance and Is designed only for the use of the units within the structure.
Parking, loading and stacking area only.
BUiLDING CODES SPACE REQUIREMENTS General Requirements:
Building occupied or used in whole or in par* for purposes within the scope of +his Code, shall be designed and constructed so as to comply wi + h the requirements hereinafter set forth concerning size, light, heat, ventilation, and facilities, in order to provide safe and healthful environment.
The term, accessory use, shall have a uniform meaning and shall apply in the same manner and under the same conditions or restrictions to all buiIdings.
Habitable space except kitchens, shall be provided with natural ligh+ through one or more windows, skylights, transparent or translucen* panels, or any combination thereof, that face direc+ly on legal open spaces at least five (5) feet wide above adjoining finished grade, or above a roof. The amount of light shall be equivalent to that transmitted through clear glass equal In area to ten (10) percent of +he floor area of the habitable space.
Kitchens shall be provided with artifical lighting equipment and may also be provided with natural light.
VentiI at ion:
Habitable space except kitchens, shall be provided wixh ventilation in accordance with either of the foI lowing:
Natural ventilation through openable parts of windows or other openings in exterior walls Ihat face legal open spaces at least five (5) feet wide above the adjoining finished grade or above a roof, or through openable parts of skylights, providing total clear ventilation area equal to not less than five (5) percent of the to+al floor area of each habitable space; or
Mechanical ventilation providing at least two air changes per hour either of outdoor air, or a mixture of outdoor and recirculated air, in such proportion that a minimum of one air change per hour shall be outdoor air.
Kitchens shall be provided with natural ventilation as set forth in paragraph a of this section, or with mechanical ventilation exhausting not less than 150 cfm discharging directly to the exterior.
Location in Respect to Grade Level:
Floor level of habitable space shall be not more than four (4) feet below the average adjoining finished grade. No habitable space shall be located in cellars, except that below-grade space is permitted as habitable space where In conformity with the following conditions:
1. The grade adjoining one exterior wall for the entire width of the habitable space is at or lower than the floor level of the habitable space;
2. The depth is not more than four times the height; and
3. Such space conforms to all other requirements for habitable space.
A dwelling unit shall contain a* least one habitable space which shall have a minimum floor area of 150 square feet wi^h a minimum horizontal dimensions of ten (10) feet. Other habitable spaces, except kitchens, shall have a minimum floor area of eight (80) square feet with a minimum horizontal dimension of seven (7) feet.
Habitable space shall have a minimum height of seven (7) feet, six (6) inches, except that for habitable space under a sloping roof the minimum height in at least fifty (50) percent of the floor area shall be seven (7) feet, six (6) inches and the area where the heigh+ Is less than five (5) feet shall not be considered in computing required floor area.
Where exposed beams project below the celling of habitable space, and such beams occupy an area of five (5) percent or more of the area of the ceiling, the height of the space shall be measured from finished floor to the underside of the beams; where the ratio is less than five (5) percent, the height shall be measured to the ceiling, and the height to the underside of beams shall be not less than seven (7) feet.
NONHABITABLE SPACE General Requirements:
Nonhabitable space shall be provided with light aand ventilation adequate for the intended use of each space. Bathrooms and toilet rooms shall have provisions for privacy.
8athrooms, toilet rooms, kitchenettes, corridors and recreation rooms shall have a minimum height of seven (7) feet.
Kitchenettes, bathrooms, and toilet rooms shall be provided with light of sufficient intensity and so distributed as to permi+ the maintenance of sanitary conditions and the safe use of the space and the appliances, equipment, and fixtures.
Vent!I at ions:
Kitchenettes, bathrooms, and toilet rooms shall be provided with ventilation in acccordance with either of the the following:
Natural ventilation as set forth in section A 2002-21, except that such openable areas shall be not less than 1 1/2 square feet for bathrooms or toilet rooms and not less than three (3) square feet for kitchenettes, or
Mechanical ventilation exhausting not less +han 25 cfm for bathrooms and toilet rooms and not less than 150 cfm for kitchenettes. Ventilation for bathrooms and toilet rooms may be by means of wind-driven or gravity-operated devices or by mechanical equipment.
Stairs, both interior and exterior, shall be arranged and constructed provide safe ascent and descent. A fixed stair shall be provided where travel is required between two stories, each of which contains a habitable space or a recreation room, and between the first story and basement or cel Iar.
Disappearing or folding stairs may be used between an above-grade story and an attic without a habitable space or recreation room.
Minimum widths of reads shall be nine (9) inches, plus 1 1/8 inch nosing for closed riser type, or nine (9) inches for open riser type, except tha+ treads of folding or disappearing stairs intended for occasional use only shall have a minimum width of six (6) Inches.
Winder treads at converging ends of winders, exclusive of minimum 1-inch nosings, shall be not less than four (4) inches wide unless the winders are guarded at the converging ends by continuous handrails which prevent walking where the tread widths are less than six (6) inches. If the winder treads are without a minimum 1-inch nosing, the tread widths in these locations shall be not less than five (5) inches and seven (7) Inches, respectively.
Winder tread widths at a distance of eighteen (18) inches from the converging ends shall be not less than the tread widths as set forth In paragraph a of this section.
Treads shall be level and all other than winder treads shall be uniform in width, with no variation exceeding 1/8 inch in any one run of stairs.
R i sers:
Maximum heights of risers shall be 8 1/4 Inches except that the maximum height of risers of folding or disappearing stairs, exterior stairs to basements or cellars, and of other stairs intended for occasional use only, shall be nine (9) inches.
There shall be no variation exceeding 1/8 inch in the height of risers in any one run of stairs.
Widths of stairs connecting habitable spaces shall be not less than two (2) feet eight (8) inches clear between handrails or between handrail and opposite wall surface; except that stairs from a second story to a third story, and stairs to a basement and to a cellar shall not be less than two (2) feet six (6) inches clear between handrails or between handrail and opposite wall surface.
The minimum clear headroom over any portion of any fixed stair tread shall be not less than six (6) feet six (6) Inches measured vertically from the surface of the tread, except that the minimum shall be not less than six (6) feet four (4) inches over stairs from a second story to a third story and over stairs to a basement or to a cellar.
Handrails and Railings;
Stairs of steps of more than three risers shall have a handrail or railing parallel to the s+air slope on at least one side. Where one or both sides of such stairs or steps are open, railings shall be provided on open sides.
Window openings on stairs or landings, and well openings, shall be guarded by railings or other equivalent protection.
Landings, platforms and porches more than eighteen (18) inches above the adjacent floor or grade level shall be provided with railings on *he open sides, except where openings are required for access.
Top surfaces of handrails and railings shall be not less than thirty (30) inches nor more than thirty-six (36) inches in height above the floor or tread level. On stair runs, the height shall be measured directly above the riser face.
Clearance between handrail and supporting wall shall not be less than one and one half (1 1/2) inches.
Exit stairways may serve In common two dwelling units as set forth in section A 402-3.4.
In addition to the primary exit from a recreation room or a habitable space except kitchens, there shall be provided in each such space at least one opening for emergency use.
Openings for Emergency Use:
Openings for emergency use shall include doors or openable parts of windows, located so as to provide unobstructed egress to legal open spaces.
Such openings shall not impede egress in an emergency, shall have a minimum area of four (4) square feet, with a minimum dimension of eighteen (18) inches, with bottom of openings no higher than three (3) feet six (6) inches above finished floor in all above-grade stories, and no higher than four (4) feet six (6) inches where required in basement and cellar.
Width of Interior Exist Stairs:
Interior exit stairs in dwellings more than two stories in height shall be at least three (3) feet wide, and in all other respects shall comply with section A-205.
A building and all part thereof shall be of sufficient strength to support the design loads and to resist the deformations caused by such loads to which they may be subjected, without exceeding the allowable stresses as described in section A 305. Such loads shall include the dead load and the following imposed loads where applicable: live,
snow, wind, soil pressure including surcharge, hydrostatic head, and impact loads.
Loads set forAh In table A 304-2.2 do not include unusual concentrations, such as, bu4- not limited to, storage units, f loor-to-ceiIing bookracks, and elevator machine loads. Where such loads occur, suitable provisions shall be made for their support.
Where such unusual concentrations do not occur, structural members, and flooring spanning between the supporting structural members, shall be designed to support the uniformly distributed loads or the concentrated loads set forth in table A 304-2.2, whichever produce the greater stress.
Uniformly distributed live loads on beams or girders, when such structural member supports 150 square feet or more of roof area or floor area per floor, may be reduced as follows:
When the dead load is not more than 25 psf, the reduction shal I be not more than twenty (20) percent.
When the dead load exceeds 25 psf and the live load does not exceed 100 psf, the reduction shall be not more than the least of the following three criteria:
0.08 percent for each square foot of area supported
100 percent times (dead load psf plus live load psf) divided by (4.33 times live load psf).
For columns, girders supporting columns, bearing walls, and foundation walls, supporting 150 square fee+ or more of roof area or floor area per floor, J'he uniformly distributed liver loads on these members shall be not less than the following percentages of the total live loads on the foil lowing levels.
80 percent on the roof
80 percent on the floor Immediately below the roof
80 percent on below the roof
75 percent on below the roof
70 percent on below the roof
the second f loor
the third f 1 oor
the fourth f loor
Uniformly Distributed and Concentrated Live Loads:
Uniformly dlstr!bu+ed and concentrated live loads shall be the greatest loads produced by the intended occupancy and use, but in no case less than the minimum live load In conformity wi+h table A 304-2.2 . Where a concentrated
load Is not given, load shall be at least 250 pounds on an area one (1) inch in diameter; 200 pounds on an area one (1) Inch in diameter; 2000 pounds on an area thirty (30) Inches square.
Minimum snow loads shall be in accordance wi+h table A 304-3 and xhe snow map below, and shall be applied normal to the roof surface.
Minimum wind loads shall be In conformity with tables A 304-4a and A 304-4b, and shall be applied normal to +he surface. These loads are based on a design wind velocity of seventy-five (75) miles per hour at a heigh+ of thirty (30) feet above grade I eve I.
FI RE-SAFETY REQUIREMENTS PREVENTION OF EXTERIOR FIRE SPREAD General Requirements;
In order to retard the spread of fire, dwellings and accessory sturctures shall be loca+ed and constructed so that the distance between buildings and the fire resistance of exterior walls and of roof coverings are commensurate with the fire hazard involved.
Party WaI Is:
Where buildings are joined at a common lot line, such buildings shall be separated by party walls in conformity with the requirements set forth in this section.
Openings shall not be permitted in party walls. Construction:
Party walls shall form a continuous fire and smoke barrier beetween adjoining buildings from foundations to or through the roof, and in the event of removal or collapse of construction on one side shall not endanger the support of construction on the opposite side, and shall be capable of serving as exterior walls.
Party walls shall be constructed of noncombustible materials and shall extend not less than six (6) inches above roofs of combustible construction. When a roof is of noncombustible construction for a distance of at least 18 inches on each side of the wall, a party wall may terminate at the underside of the roof providing the junction of the wall and roof is made smoke+Ight.
Party walls shall be made smoketlght at their junction with exterior walls and the exterior wall shall be protected with noncombustible construction for a distance of at least eighteen (18) Inches on each side of the party wall. In lieu of such protection at the end of party walls in type five (5) construction, the party wall shall project through the exterior wall at least six (6) inches.
Where combustible members, such as joists and beams, are framed into party walls, such combustible members shall no+ extend through the wall but shall have at least four (4) inches of solid noncombustible material below and at the sides and ends of such members.
The fire-resistance rating of party walls between one-story one- and two-family dwellings without a basement shall be at least one (1) hour.
The fire-resistance rating of party walls between one- and two-family dwellings shall be at least two (2) hours, except as set forth in paragraph a of this section.
The fIre-resistance ratings of party walls between one- and two-family dwellings and buildings con+aining nonresidential occupancies of low, moderate or high hazard classification shall be at least 2, 3 or 4 hours respectively.
Enclosure of Exists and Stairways:
Exits, including stairways and passageways forming a part thereof, serving in common *wo dwelling units or passing through or adjoining another dwelling or any occupancy other Ahan residential shall be separated therefrom by a fire separation having a fire-resistance rating of at least 3/4 hour.
Acceptable Practice Method:
The Acceptable Practice Me+hod of the Energy Code provides the easiest method of determining compliance with the insulation requirements for one and two family homes. This method, which is a prescriptive approach, establishes minimum insulation values for various parts of the envelope.
The determination of these minimum insulation values in each area of the State is based upon the number of Degree Days for each county. Thus, these values are more stringent for areas such as the Northern Adirondacks.
This section graphically describes how these minimum insulation values apply to the various elements of one and two family homes. In cases where an element of the building envelope essentially consists of one material, such as concrete floor slab, the required R value of insulation is given. In cases where several materials make up the building envelope, such as an exterior framed wall, the R values of all materials and air spaces are combined and the required U value is given.
Use of the Acceptable Practice Method for determining compliance does not require extensive calculations. However, the Accep+able Practice Method is and a Il-or-none proof. Th i s means +hat all applicable par+s of the building envelope mus^ meet the minimum insulation values of the Energy Code as described in order to be in compliance.
L imjta-1'ions on Glass Area:
The Acceptable Practice Method establishes shortcuts *0 the calculations required for demonstratIon of compliance wi^h the Insula+Ion requirements of the Energy Code. These calculation shortcuts are possible only as long as the glass area of the house does not exceed certain limits. The Energy Code does not limit +he amount of glass that may be used in a house; the glass area is only limited when the Acceptable Practice Method is used.
The use of these glass area limits to es+ablish prescriptive minimum insulation values varies by Degree Day Zone, as described in the following table:
* If the glass area exceeds these values, Energy Code compliance must be demonstrated through the use of Part 4 Design by Component Performance.
If the glass area is below the limits outlined, the Acceptable Practice Method can be used and a I I sections of this Workbook are applicable for determ In i ng comp Ii ance.
Degree Day Zone
(as percentage of total wall area)
24? 21% 20 % 18? 16?
Degree Days by Zone Maximum U Value of Roof Assembly
continue insulation over top plate
vapor barrier1 ceiling finish
continue vapor barrier at wall
CAVITY INSULATION IN CEILING
soffit or eave vents
Degree Days by Zone Maximum U Value of Roof Assembly
8000 , .05
Insulation should cover the top plate of the wall Proper ventilation will help to limit moisture in the insulation.
continue vapor barrier @ wall
CAVITY INSULATION IN ROOF
baffles if requi red
soffit or eave vents
code compliance floors
FLOORS OVER UNHEATED BASEMENTS
(if basement wall is not insulated)
Maximum U Value of Floor Assembly Degree Days By Zone
FLOORS EXPOSED TO AMBIENT CONDITIONS
exposed to outdoor conditions (such as a vented crawl space)
Maximum U Value of Floor Assembly Degree Days By Zone
code compliance slabs
Degree Days By Zone Min. R Value
The insulation must extend at least 24" under the slab or at least 24" below grade down the foundation wall.
The insulation is installed on the inside face of the foundation wall and provides a thermal break between slab and foundation.
OUTSIDE FOUNDATION WALL
The insulation is installed on the outside face of the foundation wall and provides a continuous thermal barrier at the slab edge and foundation wall. All exposed exterior insulation above grade should be covered with a protective material.
BASEMENT WALLS below grade
protective covering over insulation
The insulation is applied to the outside face of the basement wal1, down a minimum of 24" below grade.
Minimum R* Value Degree Days by Zone
*For basement walls below grade, the "R" value shall include all of the thermal resistances of the wall components.
Insulation is installed inside the block cores. The wall assembly must have a minimum R value of 5.5, to 24" below grade.
INSULATING BOTH ABOVE GRADE AND BELOW GRADE BASEMENT WALLS
A non-bearing wall is built on the inside face of the basement wall to provide for batt insulation. This offers the possibility of finishing the interior surface of the basement wal 1.
Max. U Value Degree
of Wall Days by
This meets the above grade requirement of U = .08 and exceeds the below grade R = 5.5 (U = .19) requirement.
vapor barrier interior finish
The New York State Building Code requires a fifteen minute rating on all combustible insulation. Check with the local building inspector on required interior finishes.
ALL WEATHER WOOD FOUNDATION
The A11 Weather Wood Foundation system allows for easy installation of above and below grade basement wall insulation.
A U value of .08 will meet both above grade and below grade requirements.
code compliance doors and windows
. The Acceptable Practice Method contains two requirements for doors and windows: maximum U value requirements and maximum allowable infiltration rates.
RESIDENTIAL ENTRANCE DOORS
() U value of .4 or less
() Infiltration rating of 1.0 cfm/sf door area*
SLIDING GLASS DOORS
() Overall U value of frame and glazing of .69 or less
() Infiltration rating of .5 cfm/square foot of door area
() Overall U value of frame and glazing of .69 or less
() Infiltration rating of .5 cfm/ linear foot of crack length*
*cfm = cubic feet per minute Consult manufacturers information for U values and infiltration ratings. Infiltration testing must be made at 25 mph wind speed.
code compliance HVAC equipment
HVAC SYSTEM EFFICIENCY: ELECTRICALLY OPERATED
The Energy Efficiency Rating (EER) is the commonly used rating measure for.the efficiency of cooling systems. EER is the ratio of cooling capacity (in Btu/hr) to input energy (expressed in watts). In other words--how much energy input is required to produce the cooled air.
EER (Energy Efficient Ratio)
coolinq capaci tyv
The Coefficient of Performance (COP) is the commonly used rating measure for the efficiency of heat pumps.
COP is the ratio of energy output (in Btu's) to energy input (converted to Btu's).
COP (Coefficient of Performance) input
EER and COP both measure efficiency, the basic difference being that EER measures input in watts and output in Btu/hr and COP measures both input and output in Btu's. For both EER and COP, the higher the number, the higher the efficiency.
The Energy Code requires that electrically operated HVAC systems for heating and cooling meet minimum efficiency standards.
HEATING SYSTEMS (heat pumps)
COOLING SYSTEMS (included cooling mode of heat pumps)
Output under EER COP
65,000 Btu/hr 6.8 2.0
65,000 Btu/hr 7.5 2.2
Air source(uses air as energy Water source (uses water as energy
Conditions* COP Conditions* COP
47 db n r 43 wb 2,5 60
17 db 11; I,,h 1-5 water
*The dry bulb (db), wet bulb (wb) and entering water temperatures are industry standards that are used to rate all heat pumps under similar conditions.
HVAC HEATING EQUIPMENTGAS OR OIL FIRED
All gas and oil-fired equipment must meet certain standards for minimum combustion efficiency. This combustion efficiency represents the percentage of net usable heat resulting from the combustion process. Stack heat losses and the loss of heat due to combustion of hydrogen in the fuel are subtracted from the overall efficiency in order to determine this combustion efficiency.
The Energy Code requires a minimum combustion efficiency of 75% for gas and oil-fired combustion equipment. Manufacturer's information should indicate the combustion efficiency at maximum rated output for use in selecting and comparing equipment.
Proper and Routine Maintenance is necessary to maintain a high combustion efficiency. A homeowner should have the unit checked at least once each year before the heating season begins.
code compliance fireplaces
SITE BUILT FIREPLACES
A damper installed at the outside will keep cold air out of the duct.----
REQUIRED Infiltration through the flue shall be limited to 20 cfm or less when the fireplace is not in use. This may be accomplished through either use of a damper with an infiltration rating of 20 cfm or les^-oc^the addition of non-combustible doors.
REQUIRED A direct source of air from the outside must be provided. This outside air must be capable of supporting combustion of the fire.
A six-inch duct (30-35 sq. inches) will suffice for most fireplaces.
combusti ble doors
REQUIRED A damper must be installed on the source of outside air. A damper at the fireplace, inside the duct or at the connection to the outside will comply.
code compliance thermostats
For one and two-family dwellings, at least one thermostat must be provided for each HVAC system or each dwelling unit.
Each zone or story also must have either a manual or automatic means to restrict or shut-off the heating or cooling. This may be done through a thermostat, by a damper at the register or by a control valve at the unit.
code compliance thermostats
A therrrostat provides the means to control the heating and cooling of the building. The temperature scale on a thermostat must have at least the minimum range of available settings described below. The temperature scale may also have higher or lower settings as long as the required minimum range is included. The purpose of this requirement is to assure that the building temperatures may be adjusted to suit individual needs.
A thermostat which controls heating only
A thermostat which controls cooling only
A .thermostat which controls both heating and cooling
code compliance pipes and ducts
PIPE AND DUCT INSULATION
. 0 A.
Domestic hot water pipes in one and two family dwellings do not have to be insulated if they are 1" or less in diameter
Ducts or piping conveying heated air or water in unheated or unconditioned spaces must be insulated (see below).
where At equals the design temperature differential between the air in the duct and the surrounding air in OF.
NOTE -- R may never be less than 3.5.
BOILER OR FURNACE
4 , ^ 0
Piping Insulation (for piping other than domestic hot water)
Piping System Type & Temp Piping Size
1" and less IV to 2" Zh" to 4"
" Low Temp., 120U-200F ' R-3 R-4 R-4
Low Pressure, 201-250F R-4 R-6 R-6
Med Pressure, 251-305F R-6 R-8 R-10
code compliance water heaters
The Energy Code requires minimum operating efficiencies for gas and oil-fired water heaters. Limitations are also set on allowable standby losses.
standby loss not to exceed 4 watt hrs/hr/ sf. (Efficiencies for electric heaters are usually near 100%.)
standby loss not to exceed 2.3 + 67/volume of tank in gallons.
75% minimum recovery efficiency.
standby loss not to exceed 2.3 + 67/volume of tank in gallons.
80%'minimum combustion efficiency.
As the heater sits with a full load of hot water, heat loss occurs through the jacket or shell of the water heater. These standby losses can be limited by the type of construction and amount of insulation in the jacket.
The Energy Code limits these standby losses. For instance, on a 30 gallon gas water heater, the allowable standby losses would be limited to S = 2.3 + 67/30 gallons or 2.8%, which means that the heat loss/hr cannot be more than 2.8% of the total amount of stored heat. Models that specify meeting the requirements contained in Standard ASHRAE 90-75 will meet the Energy Code standby loss requirement.
COMBINATION SERVICE WATER HEATING/SPACE HEATING BOILERS
Some space heating boilers have a separate heating unit to supply domestic hot water on demand. Often called tankless coils, water is sent through the coil, heated by the space heating boiler and used on demand. To accomplish this domestic water heating, it is necessary for the boiler to be on, even during the summer. The standby loss which occurs from this situation is limited to that standby loss which must be calculated through a specific formula outlined in the Energy Code. It may be difficult for many smaller residential size combination water heating/space heating boilers to meet this requirement, so the specifications should be checked prior to equipment selection.
House with attached garage. The garage is s.lab on grade and unheated. The house has a heated basement and the ceiling is insulated. 7000 Degree Day Zone
The wall between the garage and house is part of the building envelope. This wall must be insulated to a Uw = .08 or less (approx. R-ll insulation).
and must meet requirements for entrance doors, door must have a Udoor = -4 or less and a max. tration rating of 1 cfm/sf of door area.
CEILING U = .05 or less
A.I.A. Research Corporation; Regional Guide IInes for Building Passive Energy Conserving Homes, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1978.
8alcomb, J. Douglas; Mayria, Edward; Nichols, Susan; Nichols, Wayne; Passive Solar Associates Workbook, P.S.A., 1980.
Bissell, Merrill Associates; Environmental Impact Statement Pertainting to the Development of the Farber Lakes Property Town of Amhers*, New York, 1980.
Engstrom, Robert and Putman Marc; Planning and Design of Townhouses and Condominiums, 1979 by ULI the Urban Land Institute 1200 18th Stree, N.W., Washington, D.C.
New York State Energy Office; Energy Code Workbook for One and Two Family Dwellings, June, 1981.
PhiI Iips/NorwaIk Company; Development Feasibility Analysis Farber Property, Amherst, New York, May 1980.
Young, Sue Miller; A History of the Town of Amherst, New York, 1965, Amherst, New York.
Park at Farber Lakes Townhouses
Amherst, New York
Thesis University of Colorado at Denver Scott William Grady
Fall 1982________________________________College ot Design and Planning____________________________________Master of Architecture.
Three Bedroom,. Three Bedroom / Four Bedroom...
-4 Units /Acres
First Floor Plan
5,0 5 10 15 a
Floor Plan One
.Unit A________________________________________________Unit B________________________________________________Unit C__________________________,,_______________________Unit D.
Second Floor Plan
s o a 10 n 10
Unit "A" Three Bedroom / Library 3300 SqFt.
Unit "B Two Bedroom 2625 SqFt.
Unit "C" Three Bedroom 3105 SqFt.
UnitD" Four Bedroom 3300 SqFt.
Floor Plans Two
I 0 I W 20
2. Operable Venetian blinds within fixed glass may be
heal gain and winter heat loss R 2 56
3- Operable casement with
triple glazing panels R.3,23
2 x 10 Wood Joist 10' Ball Insulation
Roofing Slate Sheathing
6 mil Vapor Barrier 5 5 Bait Insulation 2" Rigid Insulation Brick Face l" Air Space 2x6 Stud
Joist Spaces Insulated 2x10 Floor Joist
Pertially Foamed Urethene
2" Rigid Insulation to Extend Below Frostline
Poured Concrete Foundation
Section C C