Citation
Commercial alleys

Material Information

Title:
Commercial alleys from wastelands to urban assets
Creator:
Grote, Karen
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
56, iv leaves : illustrations (some color), maps (some folded), plans (some folded) ; 28 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Alleys -- Design and construction ( lcsh )
Alleys -- Design and construction -- Colorado -- Denver ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves i-iv).
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Landscape Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
submitted by Karen Grote.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
11978486 ( OCLC )
ocm11978486
Classification:
LD1190.A77 1983 .G76 ( lcc )

Full Text
I atZDTE
COMMERCIAL ALLEYS: From Wastelands to Urban Assets


COMMERCIAL ALLEYS: FROM WASTELANDS TO URBAN ASSETS
THIS THESIS RESEARCH IS SUBMITTED AS PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR A MASTER OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE DEGREE
AT THE
UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT DENVER COLLEGE OF DESIGN AND PLANNING GRADUATE PROGRAM OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE
SUBMITTED BY KAREN GROTE AUGUST, 1983
0
ACCEPTED:
DATE:


Table of Contents
Purpose of Study.............................p.4
Research Process.............................p.5
Definition of Alleys.........................p.6
History of Alleys............................p.8
Design Vocabulary............................p.13
Hypothesis...................................p.20
Issues.......................................p. 21
Case Study...................................p.22
Design Process...............................p.23
The Region...................................p.24
Inventory....................................p. 29
Physical Framework...........................p.31
Alley Features...............................p.32
Use & Users..................................p.33
Analysis.....................................p.36
Opportunities & Constraints..................p.37
Pedestrian Suitability.......................p.40
Recommendations..............................p.41
Alley Design.................................p.48
Alley Analysis...............................p.50
Concepts.....................................p.51
Conclusion...................................p.55
Appendix.....................................p.56
2


RESEARCH


Purpose of Study
This study is an exploration of alleys, their history, image and function in urban commercial areas. It is intended that this document will serve as a vehicle for further review and discussion of alternative alley uses in Denver commercial areas and other towns and cities across the country.
4


Research Process
Topic------------------
Definition ------------
History ---------------
State of the Art-------
------- Hypothesis
& Issues
The Region--------------------
5


Definition
A definition is necessary to understand the essence of an alley and kind of alley referred to in this study.
The word "alley" derives from the medieval Latin word "aleia" meaning a passage, and later from the French word "allee" meaning a walk or passage.'*' According to the Oxford English dictionary, an alley is a passage between buildings, a narrow street or lane, or a free space between two lines of any kind.
The definition of the alley which is the subject of this study is: a narrow lane between buildings, usually
through the middle of a city block in commercial areas,
2
giving access to the rear of buildings.
Two types of alleys exist in the urban environment, commercial and residential. Both types have the following similar characteristics:
1. They are small and serve a support function, such as access for service and parking;
2. They lack formal design;
. . . 3
3. They have above ground utilities.
Commercial alleys are urban open spaces, but their
treatment is different than other open spaces such as streets and parks. Alleys are, in most cases, treated
as wastelands.


In his book, Alleys: A Hidden Resource, Grady Clay says, "the alley is the outback world of the unmentionable, if not the unwanted, the displaced of modern society." He continues, "out of sight, out of mind, the American residential alley has been the academic,
geographic and social outcast of the built environment
4
for at least a half century.
Lawrence Halprin states that "our perception of cities or areas depends on the landscape of open spaces. In our imagination it is open spaces rather than buildings we remember."
Our perception of alleys is a result of their neglect and function in the urban environment. Before a discussion of change can take place, it is necessary to explore alley history to see why this attitude
evolved.


History
A delve into alley history will uncover the function of alleys from their origin to the present day. This discussion will begin with a look at the history of alleys in the United States. Later in this thesis, alleys in Washington, D.C. will be analyzed historically.
Alleys or narrow streets were seen in Greece as early as the 5th Century B.C. Streets in medieval cities were the most basic units of public space and their widths were strictly enforced. It was required that they be no wider than was necessary to allow for passage of goods and people.^
In the United States, alleys evolved indirectly from the National Land Survey of 1785 which was responsible for the future layout of the west. Cities were carved into rectangular blocks and lots. At this same time, the gridiron pattern was applied to the open countryside. As a result, the framework of most 19th century
7
cities was reinforced by the alley.
The history of alleys in Washington, D.C. is the most documented system in the United States. This is because of racial and political problems after the Civil
g
War. These problems were created by slaves and miscreants taking refuge in hidden alleys and passageways.


The problems included mass imigration into the city,
housing shortages and the poor being unable to afford
housing. People had poured into the city and as the
city became larger, property owners divided up blocks
of land and inserted alleys, thus being able to squeeze
more tenants onto their lots to increase their income.
Alley housing became a trend. Most alleys were laid
out in blind-alley or hidden styles and they allowed
only one or two outlets to the main streets. By 1897,
9
Washington, D.C. had 333 alleys.
Congress set up the Washington, D.C. Board of Health in 1870 which gave them the power to condemn and tear down housing that did not meet their standards. In 1890, alleys were being changed to minor streets so alley housing could be justified, but by 1892, Congress began prohibiting occupancy in houses that were in alleys less than 30 feet wide."^ This was the beginning of the negative alley perception that is still with us today.
The New Deal Congress in 1934 set up an Alley Dwelling Authority (A.D.A.) and gave it the power to condemn land. Between 1934 and 1944 the A.D.A. rid the city of 532 alley houses, 43 alleys and 40 alley blocks. 20 alleys were still inhabited as of 1970. Today, well-to-do Washington residents have their homes in alleys.^
9


During the 19th century, there was an alley trend
throughout the United States. Cities were laid out with
12
alleys included in their network.
The 20th century brought about a different trend. Alleys began losing their popularity. In the 1920's, the land speculation boom changed the way lots were laid out. This reduced the number of alleys that were
created. Planning was done in the cheapest way possible
. 13
which minimized access and utilities.
The Depression in the 1930's also aided in depopu-larizing alleys through the use of cost-cutting housing layouts. It was then that the suburban pattern began, resulting in utilities no longer being relegated to the neglected back.'*'4
American car makers in the 1940's made cars longer and wider. This caused a shift in parking patterns from alleys to streets and front yards. Alleys and rear garages were too narrow and small to fit the new large trend in automobiles.^
Today, alleys still exist in our urban fabric but are no longer included in the planning of developments and communities. Most alleys still function as access for serve as they have since their origin. They are still perceived as wastelands but current trends indicate a change in alley usage. This change in usage is caused by a change in perception and vice versa.


Some examples of new alley usage can be seen in commercial business districts where alleys are being converted into pedestrian arcades. Alleys are being eliminated in some areas because new high-rise buildings replace them, and in other areas the backs of the buildings are being converted to store fronts for economic reasons.
With the growth of cities and a demand for more space, neither a negative nor an ignorant attitude toward alleys is viable. Wasted alley space should be a thing of the past.
Throughout history alleys served basically the same functions, have gone through phases of popularity, and have been associated with urban problems. Today alleys are slowly taking on new uses and are looked at to provide even more choice in urban environments.


Design Vocabulary
In order to understand the problem of changing alley use, a design vocabulary for alleys will be developed in this paper. This vocabulary can be used to understand alleys and their function, notwithstanding their geographic location or setting.
This design vocabulary will be applied in the case study. Alleys in the Denver region will be examined to see how historical attitudes and perceptions are manifested today in their physical framework, features, use and users. These characteristics will be mapped and assessed to determine changes in alley use.
Several elements combined make up the physical framework of alleys. These elements are:

13


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18


This design vocabulary can be employed to examine and assess any alley for a different use, but geographic setting must be considered. Application of this method to reach new alternatives for alley use occurs in the
case study.


Hypothesis
The hypothesis of this study is:
COMMERCIAL ALLEYS IN DENVER CAN ADD MORE CHOICE FOR THE PEDESTRIAN IN THE URBAN ENVIRONMENT AND THE VISUAL IMAGE OF ALLEYS CAN BE CHANGED TO PROVIDE A STRONGER AND MORE ENRICHING HUMAN EXPERIENCE.
20


Issues
Several issues arise from an examination of alleys
1. Can there be multiple uses if alleys function primarily for service?
2. Can multiple use functions be optimized?
3. Can all alley spaces provide pedestrian choice?
4. Can alleys become economically viable spaces?
5. Can alleys become safe spaces to the users?
6. Can alley image be changed?
What are the problems endemic to design implementation?
7.


CASE STUDY
The Cherry Creek North Commercial area has been chosen as the model for this case study.
22


Design Process
inventory
analysis
recommendations
concepts
design


The Region
Cherry Creek North is located in the city of Denver, three miles southeast of the central business district. The area is accessed by major streets and known throughout the Denver region for its pedestrian scale and specialty boutiques.
Stable residential neighborhoods surround Cherry Creek as does a regional shopping center and large magnet stores which attract people from all over. The area is platted on the grid system with alleys running through the middle of blocks. Alleys are visible from the street and are heavily used for access. No other commercial area in Denver, except the central business district, has so many alleys.
Because of heavy growth in the area, there is a demand for more space. Alleys in Cherry Creek need to be adapted to accommodate growth.
The climate of the region makes this a particularly interesting place to study alleys. The summers are hot, the winters are cold, the sun shines 70% of the year, and there are very few cloudy days with a minimal amount of rainfall (12 inches per year)."*"^ As a result of this climate, people are outdoor oriented and demand more open space for outdoor activities.
24


The strong sunlight in the region helps to brighten
the urban environment. In most cities, alleys are
generally very dark and shady places. The history of
Denver's alleys began in the 19th century.
Denver had an abundance of alleys like most 19th
century cities. They were laid out when the city was
platted. Streets were 80 feet wide with blocks that
measured 266 feet by 400 feet and were bisected by 16
feet wide alleys in the east side of Denver and 16h
17
feet m the west. From then until now they have been
used for service and access.
Alleys in downtown Denver are unique because they
were laid out on a diagonal. In 1858, when the city
was platted, the course of the Cherry Creek played a
great role in the street arrangement. This did not
occur in all parts of the city. Other areas were platted
18
in typical east-west, north-south pattern.
In 1864, Denver began taxing property owners for
maintaining and improving alleys which adjoined their
property. Rocky Mountain News articles dating back to
1871 indicate there has always been a problem with
unclean alleys in Denver. In the 1870's the City
Marshall ordered that all alleys be cleaned because
they threatened the health of the city and presented a 19
bad image. Today, alleys are still maintained by the city.
25


Efforts have been made to fight crime in the alleys
and improve conditions. Some alleys have been paved
20
but the majority of residential alleys are gravel.
In April of 1978 lights were erected in alleys that had
21
a concensus of 50% of the homeowners.
In summary, there has been a small, barely perceptible improvement in alley conditions. Denver's alley history is similar to other 19th century cities, but the uniqueness of alleys in Denver results from the area's particular climate and culture. The current population boom, coupled with an economic recession, indicates a need to study the alley's potential and added usable space in the urban environment. For these reasons, an alley study is vital to the continuing vibrancy of the Denver region.
26


Regional Analysis
27


N>
00


Inventory
The alley vocabulary developed earlier will now be applied. Existing conditions of physical framework, alley features and use and users will be mapped.
29


Physical Frame work
The physical framework of alleys in Cherry Creek is generally sporatic and incongruous. Buildings are of all sizes and styles, with most one to six stories high. The building heights permits sun to shine into alleys at various times during the day. The scale adds to pedestrian comfort.
Alley enclosure is not complete and open spaces are left to haphazard parking. Spatial sequence is generally varied making interesting spaces for people. All alleys are extremely visible from the street and views into these alleys are unattractive to pedestrians.


Alley Features
Cherry Creek North alley features are consistent with past attitudes and perceptions about alleys. It is obvious that alleys in this area are the "outback."
The wall color and textures are diverse and many times planning is ignored entirely. They are generally not maintained. Litter and potholes cover the surface. Pedestrians feel unsafe because the alley is oriented to vehicles, and alleys provide hiding places out of the public eye for undesirables to habitate.
Alley furniture, such as dumpsters, utility poles and wires are visible and chaotic and not to pedestrian scale. A hard hot pavement, coupled with a lack of vegetation, make alleys undesirable to the pedestrian user.
32


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Use & Users
LAND USE
Adjacent and surrounding land use determines the degree of activity in an alley. Some alleys in Cherry Creek North are used more heavily than others because of their land use (retail, office).
Most land use is devoted to parking and the alleys are used for access to these parking areas. The remainder is a mixture of retail, office and open space.
USERS
A user survey and the writer's observations reveal who uses Cherry Creek alleys, when the alleys are used, and how they are used.
Alleys in Cherry Creek North are heavily used by vehicles for access to parking lots and delivery of goods and services. Light pedestrian use occurs for access to parking lots and linkages from one retail area to another.


Analysis


Opportunities & Constraints
An examination of physical framework, alley features and alley use and users indicates advantages and disadvantages of improving alleys for pedestrians.
The alleys that present the most opportunities for pedestrian use are: alleys between retail areas, alleys that have activity generating land uses, such as retail or restaurants, alleys with open spaces and floors that vary or buildings that are set back several feet from the alley itself, and alleys that have pedestrian scale buildings which allow sun to shine inside.
Several constraints or disadvantages that arise when improving alleys for pedestrians are the need for service in an alley and access to parking lots. These are both hazardous and cause conflicts between pedestrians and vehicles.
37


Pedestrian
Suitability
The alleys, which are best for pedestrian use, were determined by assessment of the physical framework, alley features and use. These alleys require the least amount of change in framework, features and use to become pedestrian spaces. They not only require the least modification, but also entail the least expense in their modification.


Recommendations
General design recommendations for creating a positive pedestrian experience in alleys were formulated after assessment of the physical framework, alley features and use and users of the alleys.
Physical Framework
1. INFILL TO CREATE ENCLOSURE
2. REDUCE THE AMOUNT OF VEHICULAR PARKING BY CONSOLIDATING PARKING
3. MAINTAIN EXISTING SCALE OF BUILDINGS TO BE CONSISTENT WITH THE NEIGHBORHOOD CHARACTER.
4. MAINTAIN SPATIAL VARIATION OR SETBACK IN FLOOR TO CREATE SPATIAL INTEREST.
5. CREATE ENCLOSURE IF INCOMPLETE
41


Features
1. GEAR ALL VISIBLE SITE FEATURES TO PEDESTRIANS
2. SITE FEATURES WHICH ARE NOT AMENITIES, I.E. GARBAGE, UTILITIES, AIR CONDITIONERS ETC., SHOULD BE SCREENED, REMOVED, OR RESTRUCTURED.
3. CONSOLIDATE AND CENTRALIZE TRASH
4. SITE FEATURES SHOULD BE INTEGRATED WITH THE ENVIRONMENT AND CHARACTER OF CHERRY CREEK NORTH.
5. TRASH RECEPTACLES, HEATING AND AIR-CONDITIONING EQUIPMENT AND POORLY MAINTAINED AREAS SHOULD BE SCREENED.
42


6. SCREEN PARKING WITH VEGETATION OR FENCING.
7. SIGNS SHOULD BE VISIBLE, SIMPLE, & WELL PROPORTIONED
8. SIGNS SHOULD BE MADE OF MATERIALS COMPATIBLE WITH THE BUILDINGS.
9. COLORS SHOULD HARMONIZE WITH BUILDINGS IN THE AREA.
43


10. ALLEY ENTRANCES SHOULD BE ATTRACTIVE TO PEDESTRIANS
11. ENCOURAGE ACTIVITY IN ALLEYS FOR PEDESTRIANS
12. ALLEY INTERSECTIONS SHOULD PROVIDE PEDESTRIAN SAFETY
13. SHADE HOT SUNNY ALLEYS WITH DECIDUOUS TREES WHEN POSSIBLE
14. BRIGHTEN DARK ALLEYS BY ALLOWING SUNLIGHT TO SHINE IN OR WITH LIGHT COLORED WALLS
44


Use & Users
1. ENCOURAGE HIGH ACTIVITY USE AT ALL ALLEY ENTRANCES TO GENERATE ALLEY ACTIVITY
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2. ENCOURAGE HIGH ACTIVITY USE ON EITHER END OF ALLEY TO GENERATE ACTIVITY IN ALLEY



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3. MAXIMIZE ACTIVITY GENERATING USES, SUCH AS RETAIL, RESTAURANTS, ETC.
4. SEPARATE PEDESTRIANS FROM VEHICLES WHEN POSSIBLE
46



5. DEFINE USE AREAS WITH PAVING MATERIALS
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6. LIMIT SERVICE TO CERTAIN TIME OF DAY
7. MINIMIZE ACCESS TO PARKING LOTS.


Alley Design


Alley Analysis
Alley number 10 was chosen for physical design in this
case study because it requires the least modification for
creating a good pedestrian experience.
The site analysis indicates the following:
*the alley floor is varied and allows opportunities to create interesting pedestrian spaces and to define use areas within the alley.
*both entrances are hazardous to pedestrians but because of the width of the alley there is an opportunity to separate the uses
*entrances to retail space exist on the alley but are poorly defined.
*the alley is used heavily by pedestrians as well as automobiles because of location and retail use on both ends and throughout the alley.
*use areas are poorly defined
*the alley has several pedestrian access points between buildings
49


Alley Concepts
CONCEPT I-MULTIPLE USE SPACE
This concept asserts that existing retail land use allows access for a minimal amount of parking, service and delivery.
Pedestrian paths are defined along the alley and at entrances to buildings. Pedestrian and vehicular paths are separated by use of paving and trees.
Utilities are placed underground and trash is centralized and screened. Alley entrances are made attractive by use of vegetation, paving and lighting.
A parking ramp is proposed at the south end to accommodate existing parking.
A pocket park on the north end is designed to provide a pedestrian entrance to the alley.
51


CONCEPT II-PEDESTRIAN SPACE
Concept II increases outdoor pedestrian activity space as well as the economic base of the area by infilling with retail shops where zoning allows.
Access for service and delivery is limited to morning hours between 6:00 a.m. and 10:00 a.m. and open only to pedestrians after 10:00 a.m. This concept provides for pedestrian safety and allows for a unique pedestrian experience.
Parking for existing and proposed infill is provided at the south end of the alley and vehicular access is allowed. Pedestrian paths are provided and will aid in pedestiran safety. Trees are planted to soften and shade the alley. A pocket park in the space east of the north entrance provides another dimension and entrance for pedestrian.


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Conclusion
From this alley study, one can conclude that the poor attitude and perceptual image that has been attached to alleys since their origin is no longer viable in our changing society. From studying Cherry Creek North alleys one can see that alleys can add more pedestrian choice to the urban environment if their physical framework* features, and users are carefully analyzed. In return our poor image of alleys will begin to change in time if they can provide a more enriching human experience.
55


Appendix
56


1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
FOOTNOTES
Clay, Grady, "Alleys: A Hidden Resource", p. 6 Webster's Dictionary
"Behind the False Front's, Landscape Architecture,
November , December 1982, p. 71
Clay, Grady, "Alleys: A Hidden Resource", p. 7
Halprin, Lawrence. Urban Open Spaces, p. 4-6
Saalman, Howard, "Medieval Cities", p. 32
Clay, Grady, "Alleys, A Hidden Resource", p. 7
Ibid, P- 7
Ibid, P- 7
Ibid, P- 9
Ibid, P- 9
Ibid, P- 9
Ibid, P- 7
Ibid, P* 13
Ibid, P- 13
"Colorado Climate", pp. 9 and 63
"Cities of the American West: A History of Frontier Urban Planning", Chap. XIV
Smiley, Jerome C., "History of Denver"
Rocky Mountain News, April 18, 1971, p. 1, c.2
Interview with Aaron Riveira
Rocky Mountain News, April 6, 1978, p. 6


BIBLIOGRAPHY
Alexander, Christopher. Notes on the Synthesis of Form, University Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1966
Bacon, Edmund N. Design of Cities, The Viking Press, 1967
Canter, David. The Psychology of Place, St. Martin's Press, New York, 1977
Cities of the American West; A History of Frontier Urban Planning. Chap. XIV
Clay, Grady, Alleys: A Hidden Resource, Grady Clay and Company, 1978
Clay, Grady. Close-Up: How to Read the American City, Grady Clay and Company, 1973
Clay, Grady. "Right Up Our Alleys", Historic Preservation, July 1978
Clay, Grady. "The Roving Eye The Invisible Urban Realsm: Alleys, Backlots and Outbacks, pp. 440-443, Landscape Architecture, September 1977
Clay, Grady. "Shakeout" Notes on Post-Street Generation", Landscape Architecture, July 1981
Cullen, Gordon. Townscape, Architectural Press, London, 1964
Culter, Lawrence Stephan and Sherry Stephens. Recyling Cities for People: The Urban Design process, CBI Publishing Co., Inc. Boston, Mass., 1982
Design Engineering Dept., City and County of Denver, Interview with Aaron Riveria
The Denver Post, Denver, Colorado March 31, 1946, p. 5a April 3, 1946, p. 1 October 28, 1952, p. 23 February 10, 1953, p. 3
-i-


Eckbo, Garrett. Urban Landscape Design, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 91964
Farbstein, Jay and Kantrowitz, Min. People in Places; Experiencing, Using and Changing the Built Environment, Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1978
Fleming, Ronald Lee and Halderman, Lauri A. On Common Ground; Caring for Shared Land from Town Common to Urban Park, The Havard Common Press,
Inc., 1982
French, Jere Stuart. Urban Space, Kendall/Hunt Publishing Co., 1978
Greenbie, Barrie B. Spaces: Dimensions of the Human Landscape, New Haven and London; Yale University Press, 1981
Halprin, Lawrence. Cities. New York; Reinhold Book Corporation, 1963
Handbook of Urban Landscape, The Architectural Press, London, 1973
Hosken, Fran P. The Language of Cities,
Cambridge, Mass. Schenkman Publishing Company,
Inc., 1972
"In Montreal Promenades Weave MxDs into an Integrated Core", A.I.A., September 1977
Jackson, J.B., Lewis, Pierce F., Lowenthal, David, Melnig, D.W., Samuels, Marwyn S., Sopher, David E. Tuan, Yi-Fu. The Interpretation of Ordinary Landscapes; Geographic Essays, Oxford University Press, 1979
Jacobs, Jane. The Death and Life of Great American Cities, New York, N.Y., Vintage Books, 1961
Kaplan, Stephen and Rachel. Humanscape; Environments for People, Duxbury Press, 1978
King, Leslie J. and Golledge, Reginald G. Cities, Space and Behavior; The Elements of Urban Geography, Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, N.J. 1978
-ii-


Larsen, Lawrence H. The Urban West at the End of the Frontier, The Regents Press of Kansas, Lawrence, 1978
Lynch, Kevin. The Image of the City, M
Press, 1960
Lynch, Kevin. What Time Is This Place?
Press, 1972
Newman, Oscar. Defensible Space, The MacMillan Co., 1972
Noel, Thomas J. Denver's Larimer Street: Main Street, Skid Row and Urban Renaissance, Historic Denver, Inc., 1981
Olgyay, Victor. Design with Climate: Bioclimatic Approach to Architectural Regionalism, Princeton University Press, 1963
Pushkarev, Boris and Zupan, Jeffrey M. Urban Space for Pedestrians, Cambridge, Mass. The MIT Press, 1975
"Recycling Streets", Progressive Architecture, January 1977
"Relph, Edward. Rational Landscapes and Humanistic Geography, Barnes & Noble Books, 1981
Rocky Mountain News, Denver, Colorado
April 24, 1866, p. 1, c. 1
February 22, 1867, p. 4, c.l
April 9, 1869, p. 4, c.2
May 3, 1869, p. 4, c. 2
July 28, 1871, p. 1, c.5
October 3, 1871, p. 1, c.4
June 26, 1882, p. 6, c.3
May 15, 1884, p. 7, c.5
April 4, 1884, p. 4, c.6
November 17, 1940, p. 11
October 31, 1977, p. 6
February 26, 1978, pp. 2-3
April 6, 1978, p. 6
January 10, 1979, p. 50
-iii-


Saalman, Howard. Medieval Cities, George Braziller, 1968
Simonds, John Ormsbee. Landscape Architecture, McGraw-Hill Book Company, inc., 1961
Smiley, Jerome C. History of Denver, 1901
Steele, Fritz. The Sense of Place, CBI Publishing Co., Inc., 1981
Tuan, Yi-Fu. Landscapes of Fear, Pantheon Books, 1979
"Two Buildings United by Bridging and Glazing an Alley", A.I.A., Mid-May 1978
Ubbelohde, Carl, Benson, Maxine, and Smith, Duane A. A Colorado History, Pruett Publishing Co., Boulder, Co
Urban Open Spaces, The Smithsonian Institute, Rizzoli, New York: The Smithsonian Institute, 1979
Whyte, William H. The Social Life of Small Urban Spaces, The Conservation Foundation, 1980
Wiedenholft, Ronald. Cities for People: Practical Measures for Improving Urban Environments, Van Nostrand Rheinhold Company, 1981
Zeisel, John. Inquiry by Design: Tools for Environment-Behavior Research. Wadsworth, Inc., 1981
-iv-


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