Material Information

Hjermann, Nils
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
64, [6] leaves : illustrations, charts, maps, plans (some color) ; 28 cm


Subjects / Keywords:
Housing -- Colorado -- Aurora ( lcsh )
Architecture, Domestic -- Colorado -- Aurora ( lcsh )
Architecture, Domestic ( fast )
Housing ( fast )
Colorado -- Aurora ( fast )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )


General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
Nils Hjermann.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
13775748 ( OCLC )
LD1190.A72 1982 .H58 ( lcc )

Full Text
environmental design aijraria library

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Introduction ......................................... p&> 1
Introduction to Region ................................ " 2
Introduction to Area .................................. " 6
The Site ............................................. "11
Project Goals and Objectives .......................... " 23
Consumer Identification .............................. " 24
Buyers' Preferences ................................... " 26
The Denver Market; Consumer Identification ............ " 33
The Denver Market; Conclusions ........................ " 36
Code Analysis ......................................... " 38
Zoning Analysis ....................................... " 49
The building Program/P.U.D. applied to my Site ...... " 33
Cost and Construction Time Analysis ................ " 34
Room-by-Room Analysis of Space Requirements ........... " 56
Square Footage Requirements-/Plans .................... " 67
The Chaparral People .................................. " 63
Selected Advisory Board for Spring 1963 ............... " 83
Meeting Schedules for Fall 1982 ....................... " 64

Chaparral is a housing project
It is based on a housing developement in Eastern Aurora put up by an interstate housing developer, Lieberraan Homes Inc.
I have worked closely with the architect of the project, Micnael Knorr A.I.A. of Eugene Conroy & Ass. as well as the planners, the en6ineers and the developer.
I have done extensive research on consumer preference within the attached-house market, as well as specific identification of who the most likely buyers in the Denver market might be, his/hers economy, their shopping price range, their needs and wishes in housing.
I have included typical plans as built today in the 'Square Footage Requirements' section ranging from 500 sf to 1400 sf.
There is an approved P.U.D. for the site and I have analyzed the developers' interpretation of it and what it would mean in numbers if applied to my site:
My site is one phase of the total Chaparral developement; Chaparral covers over 16 acres in total while my site, referred to as Phase I covers approx.
2.5 of these acres.
Hopefully you will enjoy working yourself through this preperation I have;
In very generalized terms the scope for this project is to provide housing according to today's need and, to produce a design and a program that works within the zoning variance policy of the City of Aurora, as typified in the approved P.U.D. for Chaparral.

Denver, the 'Mile-High City', is Colorado's center for government, culture and industry. Over one million citizens live within the metropolitan area. The city is located at the end of the plains, on the foothills of the Central Rocky Mountains. The climate is sunny and mild and semi-arid as the rest of the Central Rocky Mountain area. Extremely warm or cola weather is short-lived, and the area enjoys approx. 310 sunny days a year.
The Standard Metropolitan Area includes all parts of the surrounding counties, Adams, Arapahoe, Boulder, Denver, Douglas, Gilpin and Jefferson -totalling approx. 4,600 square miles.
It incorporates four basic housing locations Denver itself, the surrounding ing cities and suburbs, unincorporated areas and the more remote rural areas of the front range and the mountains.
The discovery og gold in Cherry Creek in 1838 started three riotous, rival prospectors' camps. The area was under Kansas Terrotory, and when the camps agreed to cooperate it became known as Denver, after the Kansas Territorial Governor at the time James Denver.
Denver was small compared to high country boom towns. During the Civil War Denver raised an army that actually stopped a Confederate invasion from lexas, which wanted the North's gold. A decade later we got the Denver Pacific Railroad which changed Denver-history more than any other single
event both before and after -. Population soared from 3,000 to 33,000.
Denver went bancrupt however, in 1893 when the silver market collapsed.

Within a year the richest gold discovery in the nation was found in Cripple Creek; Within the next golden decades Denver built curbed streets, viaducts, city parks with statues and fountains, a Capitol Building, a Civic Center, the Moffat Tunnel for water diverson, hotels, newspapers, tneaters and even planted 30,000 trees!
Toaay it is the highest metropolis in the US and It is served by one of the busiest airports in the country, Stapleton Intercntional and by two interstate highways and a plethora of US and state highways.
Colorado and specifically Denver has remained insulated from recent nationwide recession.
Unemployment in this country is currently 10.47.. Our national output in housing was in 1961 1.1 million (Unemployment in construction is today 207.). 1.1 million is the lowest productivity level since 1946.
Merchandise trade deficit is 7.6 billion $ the worst in US history.
Some places are much worse; Detroit has 15.27. unemployment and build only 1.3 units per thousand. In Cleveland they built (-in 1981) a miserable 1 unit per thousand.
As comparison we built approx. 8 units per thousand in 1946. In 1981 nationally we constructed 4.2 units per thousand.
Colorado has remained remarkably insulated: In September 1982 the unemployment was 4.37. and we were building homes at a rate of 10 units per thousand! In Denver the numbers are 4.07. and 8 units per thousand still very heal-
thy numbers.
People in other parts of the US want to live here; The 1970-population was 2,209,596 and in 1980 it was 2,689,964 a 30.87. increase!

The Colorado resident's income has been continuous and growing At the same time sales rate of most consumer products including automobile sales has been falling. What has happened to his income? Part of the answer is more dollars going to housing (-the major increase in diverted income lies in the increased savings rate of this country.)
Still a good indicator is VA and FHA applications, they haven't been so high for years. Further inflation has definitely been lowered; The September inflation rate is 5.97. (annualized) in comparison the annualized figure for all months since January 1979 437.! Inflation has traditionally been important to the industry; It will when it is as low as now help keep the cost of lumber from Oregon down, steel from Pennsylvania and all other capital intensive goods that go into a home are also kept down -.
The reduction in interest ratest rates is paramount; Whether you are a believer in supply-side economics or not most people in the construction and real estate industries believe a present prime rate of 127. is the major thing that keeps us out of trouble.
This is the lowest prime since 1979. Long-term rates are also falling, VA and FHA at 127. is the lowest since 1979.
What does all this mean for the builder and for the consumer? Well, in the last years the developer assumed cost of financing to be between 10 and 127. of total house cost. This is no lonfoer true -. Lower rate means he doesn't get penalized for holding a hard-to-sell product, and as buyers get easier access to low-cost financing he will pick up the house quicker increased

this should ideally result in, or should be translated into more housing value.
There is two segments in housing that will benefit from these trends more than the average real estate product; 1) Apartments. Rents have increased tremendously and the market has accepted it there is actually a solid demand for rental units presently.
2) Attachea-nouse ana multi-family. All tne factors above will help the condo/-townhouse sefament of the industry; They will also become increasingly popular with the reduced size of the American family, because of the increased number of divorces, because of the heavy influx of singles, because of increase in mingles and Decause of the sharp upturn in the senior population. They all have something to gain here lower maintain-ance, better security, improved social atmosphere and lower initial price which the boominb first-time buyers wTill take advantage of.
All these groups and the actual numbers they represent will be looked into under 'consumer identification'.

Aurora is the fastest growinfe city in the state and the fastest growing city for its size in the nation.
Major employers in the area include United Pipe and Foundry and government facilities like the Buckley Naval Air Station, Lowry Air Force Base, Fitzsimmons Army Medical Center, the Air Force Accounting and Finance Center etc.
Samsonite is also located in Aurora. The city has presently over 175,000 residents and it lies both in Arapahoe and Adams counties. Aurora Public Schools and Cherry Creek District #5 are the school districts.
Taxes are in the high-average range; There are three weekly newspapers and numerous recreational facilities (-see map). Aurora borders on the Cherry Creek Resevoir and Recreation Area. There are also several major shopping centers located here.
The median age is low, around 26 years, and the median income is in the mid 20's.
Aurora Mall and Buckingham Mall are within 15 minutes by bus or car on very direct routes. These routes are Parker Road, Havana and 1-225, and they are fed into from the site by East Hampden and East Quincy Avenues. The Cherry Creek Reservoir and Recreation Area is within 5 minutes by car from the site; This area provides a place for swimming, fishing water skiing and camping.
Further we have the Denver Tech Center west of the Reservoir and within 10-15 minutes by car from the site. It is a large office-park/business

The local school system is also fairly close to the site, less than 4 miles.
Also of importance is the highly industrialized area around 1-70 with its major federal facilities as mentioned. Similarly Stapleton International Airport is easily accessable, and so is downtown Denver. See map for major roads ano locations.
The site is located on the fringe of the rapidly residentialized East Aurora. It is accessed by East Quincy Avenue from the south and the Phase I part of the Chaparall developement is accessed from South Richfield Vay via Sout Richfield Street which ends in East Quincy Avenue, the latter being the main artery to the area and tne site.
Please look at Regional Map, Subdivision Map and Site Map for locations.
Also I will here mention some of the most recent additions to the (built) environment surrounding my site; The most important thin6 one sees is the dominance of detached homes in the area, this is true for all pre-75 construction and also (-but to a lesser degree) true for post-1975 develope-ments. The character is detached homes -.
Of comparable recent developements I will mention the 'Cinnamon Villafce' immediately to the N-W of the site, and 'Today Homes/Hampden Hills' immed-ately to the N of the site. Also to the N of the site we have the 'Sprin-tree/Soutn' developement and the 'Hie,b Point IV'. All these recent developements are within the less-than 1 square mile formea by East Hampden and East Quincy Avenues on the north and the south, and Tower Road and Himalaya
Road on the west and east.

However, and as mentioned these ar all detached-house developements and it is also interesting to note the price range they are all under $110,000
and mostly between $60,000 ana $^0,000.

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My site is part of the first phase of the Chaparral developement
The first phase is officially named Block I & II, and my site is part of
the latter, Block II. Block II is further divided into tracts, Tract B,
C and D (Tract A comprises Block I). My site is Tract B.
On the West side -. S. Richfield Way constitutes the Western; borderline.
This is a 285.70' stretch of this road, it makes a turn as it comes in from the South-West and leaves the site at its North-Western corner.
Here the Western site-border makes a 90 degree turn towards the North,
(S. Rifle Way) and it runs 231,40' North before it turns East;
It runs East for 185.20' before it makes another 90 degree turn Southward. Then it runs South in a broken line for 695.10' until it turns West it runs 311.20' West until it brings us back to S. Richfield Way, our starting point.
On the West side (I will go around site in the same order I described its geographical limitations-) we have Chaparral's Block I or Tract A;
It will be for the most part consist of similarly designed units as our site, at a slightly lower density.
At the North-Western corner of our site we have the Mill Run Subdivision, which presently has no housing due to utility easements.
On the Northern border we have existing housing, mostly detached unite built in the last decade. On the Eastern side, the most interesting area bordering the site, we have West Tollgate Creek, a minute river that swells up considerably in early Spring and its 100 year Flood Plain Limit makes it a future green belt of quite some size over 300' across.

This, the Eastern fereen belt is the one side that gives our site its natural potentials as far as views and open space of some size is concerned.
On the outh side of our site, we have the remaining Block 2, i.e. Tract C and D. As you can see from the map these tracts, specially Tract D is a approx. 600'x600' block which in planning-terms gives far more freedom to wnat to put on the site, but also makes the site (Tract D) far less attractive than ours.
Tne main characteristics of Pnase 1 will be dealt with next.
I will here look into the features of the site which are positively unique or pleasurable in the lifeht of its use as a location for housing;
The first thing that strikes one is the view to the East, and the pleasure of not having any visual barriers for quite some aistance;
The second great quality of the site is its topography; Its steps down from its Western borderline at approx. 3665' to a low level on its Eastern border of approx. 3650'. Taking into consideration the quite small dimension East-West this is a grade differential vith potentials. At the narrowest the site measures approx.120' East-West. See Site Map.
The gradinfe down towards the East and the view in this direction plus the proximity of a substantial green belt these are the sites most prominent features.
Also on the East side of the site, we have a few existing trees approximately in the middle of the site (North-South direction) and there also is, which is quite unique indeed in this semi-arid part of the Metro area, a natural spring at this point. The sprin6 is quite productive and would support far more trees and &reenery than what is presently there; Over the years trees have
been cut down and the City got rid of some (-and most of the bushes) a their 30' utility easement is crossing right over this ecologically sensitive area.


There seems to be only one substantial site-problem that would have to be dealt with prior to construction; The 100 Year Flooding Limit does enter the site at its (quite narrow, East-West) center. Otherwise there is no problem with ero-tion, slippage or any other geological disorder.
Of course, one can state that the Eastern orientation of the site certainly is no advantafce from a solar point of view1, with a potential conflict of overheating early in the day if passive solar features are introduced and, the potential problem of avoiding blare and provide shading for low early-morning winter sun.
Access for residents: Access is very good as S. Richfield Way runs North-South the entire length of the site.
Other access: Fire Lane easements must be dealt with (-see later under Building Codes), and I can briefly mention that the required 26' easement probably can be quite successfully incorporated where needed and most likely it would leave the center (-in architectural and topographical terms) free from this requirement. Most likely it will be provided for in the more substantial (wider) North end and South end of the site, and most likely combined with open air parking.
The water problem: As mentioned the 100 Year Floodinb Limit intersects the site and must be dealt with; The most obvious solution wTould be to take a storm sewer across the site West to East, dovm towards West Tollgate Creek. This is a quite inexpensive and obvious solution, but requires the establishment of a Puulic Utility Easement along this route.
Of more human functional requirements except for housinfa, it seems obvious that
the central part with the site qualities as mentioned above would lend itself

beautifully to a common area if this must be provided as an on-site amenity.
(See later as we uistuss tne program.)
Tne functional requirements as to residents moving within the site, house-to-house, parkin^-to-nouse, etc. snould not t.ive any problems.
Nor should maintainin/; the site *,ive any special problems as Ion., as the slope (wnicn is 102. on tne Western side, 20/. towards the East -) is naudleu

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Produce a sense of permanense ana a sense of community with common faci-lities witnin the real neecs and tne economic scope of the consumer. Further create an exterior environment that makes sense architecturally anu tnat is easyly maintained; The use of tne site s natural potentials is paramount.
Produce a paiKin^ program tnat complies witn the P.U.D.
Analyse the viacility of additional outside-unit amenities, like additional storage etc.
Produce homes; Individualized and easily identified homes -.
Homes should as far as possible satisfy the consumer needs and preferences.
Views are important;
Visual and acoustic privacy are important.
The use of and the amount of natural light is important.
A practical attitude to security of units as well as common amenities. Provide logic connections between units and common area and between common area and outside-community public area.
- Provide some access to open-air space within each unitswithout Excessive trade-offs as to other goals.
In general the scope for this project is needs and preferences in housing, within to a developer and that works within the the City of Aurora and complies with the
to answer to the consumer's a program that is acceptable present zoning policies for City's building codes.

This survey is aimed at defining most of the parameters in the business of housing as seen from those responsible for the design, the market--ing, the selling of housing The buyer preference within ones market is paramount to the success of a potential housing-scheme, one have to
be serious about the character and mood of the shopper.
First of all the number of buyers are down compared to the average number in the last decade; Only 20-25% of those expressing a desire to buy can in fact buy 'straight away' (-within the same quarter).
The number of realistic shoppers decreases in % as one move up-market,
20% of single-family shoppers find themselves able to buy, 25% of attached-house shoppers are able -. For the developer this means a difficult and sensitive (-to initial price, to financing as well as everything touched on in this survey) single-family market, btit also a more optimistic more manageable attached-house/multifamily market." This, a particular market's holding pattern is the initial and most crucial of analysis, and there are a host of studies that seem to point in this general direction; An increasingly stronger attached-house/multifamily market.
Secondly, a potential buyer's income is important; Attached-house shoppers lag behind detached-house shoppers with over $4,000 and the gap is growing (Two years ago: $540). The overall median income for detached-house shoppers was $39,020 compared to the second group's $34,840. Also, detached-house buyers are older, approx. 34 years this trend is unchanged over the last 5 years. In the attached-house market the consumer profile on age, income, present housing status and reason for wanting new home -

is less unified and thus it becomes more important to know where the market
is at, and where it is moving;
The largest attached-house group is the one made up by a couple, with the head of household being 35 or under (24% of all attached-house shopper).
Median household income would be $34,000, median age of household head 28 years, 44% own house/condo presently and 47% says "they're tired of renting" while 44% need tax benefits/inflation hedge.
Next biggest group (19%) are families head of household over 35 (45.6), making on the average $45,130 of them are two-income families), they would typically have two kids. 85% own house/condo now and their reasons for buying attached are "less yard-maintenance" and tax benefits/inflation hedge, both ranking highest with 30% each.
Just below this group we have couples with head of household being over 35,
18% of total attached-house buyers;
They earn nearly the same ($42,210) and also here ^ of them have two incomes. 72% have grown kids and a high 83% own their present home -.
Their reasons for buying are "smaller home" (31%) and less maintenance (29%). Just behind couples with head over 35 comes an important group; Important because it is growing more rapidly than others, especially in the Denver market as the we'll see later investigating local trends; The group: Singles. Typical singles statistics: Age is 31, income $26,600, sex: 49% male, 51% female, 40% are presently owners, they are aware of real estate advantages: 61% wants inflation hedge/tax benefits, and nearly half (46%) are fed up with be-
ing renters.

The rest of the market is made up by families headed by person under 35 (12% of total-, age 29.7, income $34,000, lh kids on average, 57% presently own home, 43% want larger home and 40% see it as a good tax/inflation policy) and single parent (5% and growing rapidly, an amazing 87% being female -)
and unrelated persons (mingles) buying together (6% and also growing they generally have better incomes than singles ($31,000 as compared to $26,600) and cutting tax and beating inflation are main reasons for buying together).
These are all national statistics and they are valid in this design prepe-ration for a number of reasons, most importantly because they give a more truthful future picture than a local-only survey does -. In the end of the chapter I'll sum up these findings on the counts they relate to our task specifically.
Why can only 1/5-1/4 of the potential market see themselves buying now? Interest rates must come down -. The acceptable highest rate seems to be 13% or close. On either coast the magic number is 14% or thereabout, Denver says 13.2% is acceptable.
Secondly the consumer puts the limit on the maximum down payment he can make; Locally $10-15,000 seems acceptable (-compared to $20-25,000 on the West Coast). Obviously detached-house buyers are willing to put down more than attached-house buyers, allthough the difference is smaller in Denver than anywhere else (except Texas-).
Thirdly the initial total price of the house stops many from purchasing;
In Denver both consumer groups look for homes in the range &80,000-$85,000 which is low nationally. Also, Denver is off the national trend by having detached- and attached-house consumer groups shopping in very much the same
price range (-only $ 1,500-$2,000 difference, nationally there would typi-

cally be a $10,000 difference in maximum price that is acceptable.
As interest rates are considered high (they've come down to 11^% as I write this-) the main hindrance isn't so much income vers, price (- income vers, down payment rather) as income vers, maximum monthly
payment: Here Denver is in the middle of the (national-) picture, detached-house owners would be willing to pay $740 while attached-
house owners thought they could afford $730 again a curiously narrow margin between the groups.
The (very interesting) similarities here in Denver between these two consumer groups and their financial aims and capabilities stems from the fact that the house shoppers' median annual household income is actually bigger for the attached-house shopper than for the detached-shopper (by $2,500). In this aspect Denver is unique nationwide !
In other words we have a relatively affluent condo-/town-house buyer in Denver, a paramount factor for the decision-makers in the local housing industry.
Also of interest (-less so for the designer) is the fact that the buying
public still hesitate -and would rather avoid to accept so-called creative
financing methods; Rollover and shared-appreciation mortgages are the
least acceptable, variable-rate and graduated payment seems to be more
acceptable while the standard 30-year mortgage is still very much in
preferance (-its use is actually growing, which of course is a result of
interest rates coming down).
1*)Rollover loan: interest rate is renegotiated every five years; no prepayment penalty. Shared-appreciation mortgage: lender or builder receives \ or of home's appreciation in exchange for 3-6% lower interest

The trend here is a growing % wants a new home, as opposed to those looking for both new homes and resales; 55% detached-house shoppers belonged to the latter group, the rest to the new home only group; The significant fact a developer attaches importance to, is the growth of the new house only shoppers within 18 months it might have overtaken the new-or-resale group -.
Looking into particularies of the housing market, there are things that have not changed much the last five years; The consumers' love for their cars is apparantly as strong as ever: The further away they must park from their home the less acceptable it seems. Similarly, open-air parking and carports etc. doesn't score high. Acceptability grows dramatically if car can be parked in an enclosed space within 100 ft. of dwelling; Also one additional parking space makes a big difference to consumers, being detached-house or attached-house buyers.
This is the most important part of a consumer survey, when the basic developer policy is decided on: (Smallest) acceptable unit size in square feet;
Room/size priorities (relative importance of rooms-); Critical number of bedrooms; Critical number of bathrooms; For the designer this is the very core of any consumer analysis.
First of all the sqare footage the shoppers look for is coming down:
From 2,000 sf to 1,900 sf for detached-houses and from a little over 1,700 sf to nearly 1,450 sf for attached-houses since 1980; Especially for the attached group this is a significant reduction, and the most important single result of the consumer surveys, after they have given you a fair
1*) Important because down-sizing means rooms, or size of rooms must be sacrificed to achieve smaller units; Less important space goes first.

idea what to build, detached or attached.
This initial decision of detached vers, attached I have solved in the favour of the latter, a decision made on a multitude of facts (most of which will become apparant in the local market survey in the end of
this CONSUMER TRENDS-chapter) of which the nature of the site is one.
So which rooms/spaces do the consumer sacrifice in the process of achieving his 1,450 sf expectancy?
Well, the den or 'extra' bonus room goes first -. Also the breakfast nook and the dining room can be reduced to achieve a genral scale-down. And storage space (-next) is the next to be reduced.
Kitchen holds an incresingly prestigious place in the buyer's mind;
It is the "most important room in the house" for the majority. A close second is the main (-or master) bedroom -. And, as mentioned the garage sees a revival in overall importance, nationawide it outdoes the living room in significance! To a European this is a rather American contradictionary fact -where the car 'lives' is more important than where the family happens to live, and more important than the family room, all bedrooms except the main bedroom etc.
An important future trend seems to be the growing importance of the living room and the consolidation of a defined kitchen-space.
Number of bedrooms (-or more likely the expectancy of the number of bedrooms in an affordable house) is dropping, for the attached-house buyer. Ove-r half (56%) wants three bedrooms; \ wants two -(26%), and one out of six wants four (16%).
Number of bathrooms: Nearly half wants two bathrooms (45%). Over a third wants two and a half -(35%), and 10% need only one and a half.

Keep this in mind: Only 1% (!) of attached-house shopper could do with one bedroom only and one bathroom only. Especially concerning bathrooms this % is interesting; And the message is obvious: As it stands today there are definite limits to the down-sizing trends.
In the end of this preperation, I have added a privately done survey on developers' use of passive solar features in the Denver area; It is an in-depth study of developer (-and their designer's) attitude to solar concepts in housing. It addresses large-scale developements of 'passive solar homes' in the hundreds to the one-by-one custom designed and custom built jobs; It is complimented with site lay-out, interview with developer and interview with architect in each case.
And the investors and the builders do have good reasons for their newborn preoccupation with solar; Surveys from the whole nation show an increase in consumer interest for energy efficiency; In this area that is, among other things, translated to solar application in residences.
In Denver approx. 85% of potential buyers are willing to pay $1,500 extra for upgraded insulation. Last year the figure was 75%, and by 1982 it has outranked the classic favourite add-on, the fireplace.
Similarly, 42% wouldn't mind paying $1,000 extra for solar water heating (DHW) last year's figure: 29%.
This revitalized interest in energy savings doesn't stem from the fact that solar makes more sense vers, conventional sources now compared to its performance vers, other sources a year ago the performance edge in favour of solar hasn't changed significantly the last 3-4 years; But consumer accep -
1*) In both cases the figures derive from surveys done during late fall/


tance certainly has; (certainly to active solar application
This is of course, due to the enormous publicity on the matter over the
last years; The public becomes (increasingly-) 'educated' on solar.
The inclination to pay extra for solar is as strong with attached-house
buyers as with detached-house buyers.
Number two on their energy-efficiency shopping list is double-pane windows (in Denver, highest pro double-pane consumers in the country, 85% would pay $500 for this, and over half would pay $2,500 for a total
window replacement).
Similarly, Denverites or 30% of house-buying Denverites, wouldn't mind spending $8,000 (!) on solar water and space heating, and 40% would do the same for $2,800 worth of solar DHW heating.
Nearly one third of the house-buying public were acceptable to heat pumps (at cost of $2,000), and the same percentage were in general stating 'a more energy efficient' house a major reason to buy.
These are all figures for Denver, and represent trends which already have been picked up by the large developres and solar will increasingly influence this very consumer responsive industry.
In applying this set of information to our initial buyer identification survey, it simplifies matters that age and income makes little if any difference when it comes to energy-saver preferences.
This doesn't hold true however, for shoppers in the $200,000+ market, but
that is insignificant in light of the nature of my program -.

What extras are consumers most willing to pay for?
Fireplace, even at $2,000+, is a favourite with 80% of the buying public In the kitchen of all shoppers wouldn't mind paying a total of $1,500 extra for microwave, ceramic tile countertops and a greehouse window -.
Over 60% want a walk-in pantry.
Also % of all shoppers would pay nearly $3,000 extra (!) for a balcony/ patio and a mirrored wardrobe, and 60% would pay $800 extra for an oversized tub, ceramic tile tub/shower enclosure and a double vanity basin.
On the outside:
In Denver brick is the thing now -. At least half of all consumers would pay over $1,000 extra for it and $1,500 extra for a bay-window. Also, double front doors are in for entry as well as a wooden or tile floor in hall/entry space. About 1/3 would pay $4,500 (!) extra for a Spanish tile roof or $2,800 extra for a wood shake roof or $1,700 for an asphalt shingle roof.
Now, this is very important to consider from the very first stage of creating a satisfying housing-program: 60% wouldn't mind paying extra for 'extra space' (bonus room, attic, basement, oversized garage etc.) 60% of these extra space shoppers could see themselves paying $5-8,000 extra, i.e. equalent to a one-bedroom space, in cost.
And to save up to % of this sum 75% of extra space shoppers wanted space left 'unfinished'.
By the way the field-work done for this survey on consumer preferences was actually done in the city of Aurora, by Denver Consulting Group,
Aurora, CO.

In the Denver Metropolitan area, 34% of the market was controlled
by singles in 1981. This is much higher than the national average.
Also it is up 17% from the 1977 Denver market. 29.6% of all sales
in 1981 was to singles.
The single buyer impact has for some time been typical for all large
cities particularly in the west (represented 33.4% of all sales in the West last year -).
According to the last U.S. Census singles make up 90% of all 'nonfamily' households, up 60% from 1970. At the same time the divorce-rate has nearly doubled nationally and more than doubled in Denver.
In Denver, singles living alone comprises around 85% of total nonfamily market, i.e. the percentage of non-family non-relatives (the mingles market) accounted for about 15% of all non-family.
Also important, is the fact that in Group 2. 20% of all families are single-parent 'families' that is, they will most likely belong to our problem group statistically but will shop in lower income/singles-young couples group (Group 1).
In Denver, the typical Group 1 shopper is between 23 and 35 years of age. Also on the rise is the first-time shopper. Trailing this group is the divorcee market both groups have jumped at least 10% within the last year.
The total Denver Metro population has increased sharply over the last decade, over 30%. This growth seems to continue. In housing we presently build over 10 unit homes per thousand Denverites; The national figure is approx. 4.2 homes per thousand.

Denver also has lower unemployment figures than the rest of the nation (4.5% compared to 10.5%) and higher income among all home-owners than
the national average; It must be mentioned that Denver stands out statistically when it comes to Group 1. incomes; Non-family home-owners
and shoppers are much better off financially than the national average for this group.

CONSUMER IDENTIFICATION CONCLUSION Two major consumer groups are identified.
1. Couples where the head of the household is 35 or under ($33,900) and singles ($26,640). Together they make up 41% of the total
attached house buying public.
2. Couples where the head of the household is 35 or over ($42,210) and families with head of household being 35 or over ($45,130). Together they make up 37% of the total attached house buying public.
The problem group is families with head of household 35 or under,
($34,200); Their economy falls in Group 1, their needs fall in Group 2.

The dramatic change in the way people live and own property in favour of attached home ownership is typified locally by higher-
than-average percentage non-family ownerships; 85% of these being singles. Non-family ownerships are growing relative to family setups .
Also the non-family portion of the market is more affluent than the national average (Group 1).
Also and more in line with the nation on the whole, is the rapidly growing number of first-timers.
The buyer preferences were identified in the item-by-item room-by-room "Buyers' preference" section.
The Denver preferences were mentioned in all cases were it didn't coincide with national preferences.
There are a few more specific statistics on Aurora and U.S. Home, Colorado Northwest Division published in November 1982 a marketing study that came out with typical Group 1. mortgage payments for the area to be $500 to approx. $725. The study was primarily aimed at identifying the needs and wishes of the lower (income-) end of singles/mingles market and couples under 35. It indicated a need for housing priced between $40,000 and $65,000, or 450 sf. to approx. 925 sf.
Also in 1978 and by now really outdated as things move swiftly in this business, a market study was done for Pier Point P.U.D. (especially for

'Village 7') but it has some relevance as Pier Point is relatively close to the site in question, and more so because it concentrated
on the (-still important) more traditional Group 2. consumer:
Most buyers were anticipated to be 45+ and empty-nesters.
They expressed a need for extensive recreational facilities, like pool- area, steam room, sauna, raquetball courts, billiard rooms etc. Also the majority wanted a party/meeting room with small kitchen and fireplace;
First of all, this group wouldn't anylonger be a developer's -(or anyone else that would optimize their response to the latest market research) prime concern; The market has moved significantly, as my research has shown.
Later I will investigate the builders/developers's response to the future market by what has just been built, and by what is presently being planned. This one will see reinforces the trend as outlined in consumer identification and buyer preferences.
In the Pier Point analysis over 40% of potential buyers wanted 1250 sf. homes, a similar percentage wanted 1450 sf. and 1/5 of all shoppers wanted 1750 sf. or more. Since then, the Group 2. market has moved down in size, but has kept their preference for most in-house amenities: Over 80% wanted 2 bedrooms 1 3/4 bathrooms in 1978, this is basically unchanged by 1982 for non-family part of Group 2.

The City of Aurora requires new construction to comply with the Uniform
building Coue of 1979 ('1979 Edition').
In this analysis I will consider the fire regulations implicit in UBC 1979.
1 will not consider fire regulations related to underground parking (b-1
/Oiiiii ) b s t:: > i i w- not per l oi Li i c p r o... r Gii.
ior tie silt- v.hic.i like rhosc. oi residential eastern Aurora, is a-fee ted by a Planned Unit Developemenl. Inis polity of issuing's tor ik v 'nt a i uni- to ni^h-aensi Ly v.itain the City of Aurora will, as we snail see, eflect the parkin^ pro0ram
Tne Octupancy Classification we will be dealing witn in relation to the appropriate fire code, will be R-l for housing and B-3 for parkinfa, or actually for parkinb garages:
- R-l housing can only us Type-1 fire resistant material. There is no minimum (-or maximum) square footage.
- B-3 parking must use Type-II 1-hour at 50,000 sf or Type II N at 30,000 sf.
- From R-l to B-3 there must be 1-hour seperation.
- R-l requires 1-hour rating when wall in question is less than 5 ft from property line. Most likely this will be the case. See P.U.D. for zero-
lot-line construction requirements.

(-Exterior Wall Fire Rating cont. -)
- B-3 requires 1-hour rating as well, when less than 20 ft from property line. EXTERIOR WALL OPENINGS LIMITATIONS:
- R-l can not nave any openings less than _/ ft from property line.
- B-3 can not have any openings in exterior walls when it is attached to
nousc toujotcnt to interior property line'). o ti 11, tni s docs o: course permit doorways etc. trom house to j.araoc*
floor fill ratilgs:
- R-l Type-1 Fire Restistive must have a 2-hour fire rating.
- B-3 Type-II must have a 1-hour rating. (Type-II refers to max. 1-hour continuous use).
- R-l as above (-for floor).
- B-3 Type-II as above.
- R-l Type-1 must use 1 hour fire rating.
- B-3 Type-II must use the same.
- R-l Type-I must use 3-hour fire rating.
- B-3 Type-II must use 1-hour fire rating.
1*) B-3 Type-II N does not have to comply with any hour-fire rating.

- R-l Type-1 one does not need sprinkling in any case, i.e. unlimited square
- B-3 Type-II one can build 30,000 sf on first floor or 100,000 sf total before
installin. sprinkler systems. lor B-3 Type-II N one can build up to 60,000 sf witn sprinkler system, or overall 120,000 sf. If system is automatic one
c-_.i oouuli square fool;. in multi-stor> buildings and triple it i f one ouii -ds one floor.
As one secs the maximum allowable square foota£e without any sort of sprin-klcr stems makes it. an reuunaanl issue for our parkin*, pro., ram The same is true for the MAXIMUM HIGHT ALLOWANCE related to sprinkler system beint required or not for our building program it will not apply.
This section will deal with no. of exits for common areas -.
- Party/-meeting room with 13 sf per occupant or more must have at least two exits if total number of persons designed for exceeds 30.
- For locker rooms with 30 sf or more per occupant and that can hold 30 occupants or more, must have at least 2 exits.
- Swimming pools has the same requirements, if designed for 30 people or more.
- Also, it must be noted that ramps or elevators must be provided if there is vertical distance to open-air groundlevel. This should provide necessary fire precautions for handicapped.
Also there are fire reflations that effect interior spaced (common spaces) were the occupance 'load' is lar6e -. However, this doesn't effect our pro-6ram as it first becomes a limitation w:i th 300 people in a single space (6round

floor) or 21)0 people on one aoove-ground level.
- Must be provided at any exit for stories not at ^rounu level.
* eoor nil:s i s' 1 n u.. ..1 i .! l. o.. oi i i i. e j ; li 11 siiouiu Li i> vi v.;i 'i sc
Lh uazaruous area or 2 j o^cupaL .. Ocid cxcce cjk 0
- It snouio oe operable from insiue wiinout a key.
- If aoor is larger than 3' x b'-c" (-or holds these measurements) it inesi. open SO deDrees or more.
- Door used for fire exit must not exceed 4'-0" in width.
- No sliding, revolving or overhead doors may be used.
- If you introduce a change in level of 11 or more there must be a V landinfc on either side of door.
- Stairs serving j0 people or more must be at least 44" wide.
- Stairs serving less than 30 people can be 3b" wide.
- Private stairs serving 10 persons or less, must be at least 30" wide.
- Handrail can project into width of stairs by maximum 3V'.
- Rise & tread: Rise must be between 4" and IV'. Run must be 10" or more for
any stair with one flight of stairs or more.
- R-l space can use windin0 stairs if run exceeds b" at any point or if run is
at least 10" wide 12" from side of stairway.
- Circular stairs can also be used if minimum run-width is 10" or less, and with
radius of at least 2x width of stairway.

(Stairs Requirements cont.-)
- Spiral stairs may be used in R-I units, but one stair can only serve 400 sf and must be at least 26" wide,12" from tread the run must be at least 7V', rise can not exceed 9V and headroom must be 6'-6".
- Landinfe must have a dimension in the direction of travel that is equal to stair width, but doesn't have to exceed 4'-0". No door should reduce landing dimension with more than half. There cannot be more than 12' vertically between landings.
- If stair is wider than 68" need intermediate handrails, otherwise the rules
require handrails on either side in general. Important exception is resi-
dential stair with width of 44" or less needs only one handrail, placed on the open side.
- Guardrails shall not be placed below 42" in hight, and bannisters must be spaced 9" or less.
- Handrails must be lower, between 30" and 34" above the nosing of tread.
- If building is four stories or more (any type bldg.) and there is a requi-
red interior stair going to the upmost floor, one must also provide a hatch (approved type) to the immediate exterior.
- In such structures- (four stories or more) one must also provide a stair
leading to the roof, unless this stair has a slope of 4 in 12 or more -then such an extension is not required.
- And, headroom must be at least 6'-6" from tread nosing to soffit.

- Exit corridors must be continuous.
- For occup. load of 10 or more, corridors must be at least 44".
For R-I minimum width is 36". Any corridor must be at least 7'-0" in clear hight.
-And lastly, if tnere is a need for multiple exits, corridors should
lead in either direction from any 6iven interior point (-to seperate exits) ana dead-enu corridors should not exceed 20' in lenfotn.
- Width of ramp should be as for stairs pointed out earlier.
- Slope should not exceed 1 in 6 for ordinary ramps and 1 in 12 for handicap ramps.
- If slope is 1 in 13 or more landings are required at top and bottom and intermediate landings for every 5' rise.
Top and bottom landings must be 3'-0" or longer. If door opens into a ramp, its width must be at least 42" (-width of ramp, not door).
- Handrails and guardrails as for stairs.
- Shaft enclosures: R-I all types 2-hour fire rating.
B-3 all types -11-hour fire rating.
- R-l individual unit-structures do not require enclosed stairways.
- Nor does the B-3 structures we deal with in our program.
- If exit enclosure is needed (-say, for common- or exercise-rooms) the exit door shall have a 1-hour rating if we have a 1-hour rated construction, and 1^-hour rated in a 2-hour rated construction.

- If you want to call an exterior space 'yard' it must at least be 3' wide plus 1' extra for every story you add over 2 stories.
- Court must be at least 3' wioe
- A court must be 101 in width if it is enclosed on 3 sides or more - unless
the 3rd (or 4th) side opens into a yard (or another court) or a street, etc.
- Ai so, as wi Ui yards, a court must increase in width vitn a foot and in
lenctn with 2 feet for each sfcory over 2 stories.
- Exit lighting must be illuminated at any time the building is occupied.
Light intensity must be 1 foot candle (p floor level.
- Exit illumination shall be povcered by seperate circuits of rest of bldg.
- There should be exit signs at every exit doorway (-and whereever else it is needed) and it should clearly indicate the direction of egress.
Exit signs must have 3/4" x 6" letters, minimum.
- Exit signs also need to be lighted, with 2 x 15 watt electric lamps, min.
- Also the signs must have seperate circuits, independant from all other circuits in the building, including light for corridors and exit enclosures. This is a requirement for R-I with occup. load of 100 or more -.
- And, as mentioned stair shafts/vestibules and exit enclosures also need
emergency lighting.

- In residential situations, a 4" clay/concrete wall or reinforced concrete wall or hollow masonry wall is sufficient. Alternatively one can use 5/8"
fire clay tile or 2" clay brick or 4^" fire brick. Also, in the case of
stonework one must provide 12" thickness, and with unburned clay b".
- The chimney opening in residential situations must be at least 2'-0" over roof's highest point.
- R-I dwellings and guest-rooms used for overnight stay must have fire/smoke detectors. The smoke detector must be mounted on ceiling or on wall in central location, or in corridors or other areas that provide access/exit to sleeping quarters. The smoke detector can receive power from building wiring, and as I understand it it cannot be battery powered.
- This is the last point on my fire code analysis; If a R-I floor area exceeds 1500 sf and there is less than 20 sf opening provided above ground level in each 50' of exterior wall (-on one side, if opposite wall is less than 75' away) -then you need automatic sprinklers. Openings must also be 30" or more in width.
This point will probably not be necessary to accomodate in our program, Typically sprinklers and enclosed shafts/exits are avoided in design as they are costly, and the additional extra building volume is not worth it.
- Automatic sprinklers must be provided however, at the top of rubbish/ linen shutes (high fire-hazard area) as well as in all terminal rooms.
- Also, I will go trough R-I units with four stories or more (less than 150' in hight); In non-sprinkled situations use Class I, II or III stand pipe;

In Class I and II you must provide a hose, no hose in Class III stand pipe. If sprinkled, You use Class I or III stand pipe and no hose is necessary.
- For B-3 there is no automatic sprinkler requirements that will affect our program.
- k-1 rooms are special hazard area if it contains a boiler or some heating plant. The room then needs to be seperated from rest of the building by a 1-hour Fire Rating, seperating construction.
- Spaces as mentioned above, (containing boilers, furnaces, incinerators or other fuel-fired equipment) must be provided with at least 2 means of egress _if: 1) room is larger than bOO sf, 2) the largest fuel-fired equipment exceeds 400,000 BTU/hr input capacity. The exits must not be sepe rated by a horizontal distance larger than ^ of the horizontal dimension between them.
- The frames for skylights must be non-combustible. Also, they must be designed to carry all potential roof loads.
- If glazing is at an angle of less than 4b degrees to horizontal, it must be mounted at least 4" above roof plane.
- Flat wire glass supports must be at least 2b" (?.
- Corrugated wire glass supports at least j'-0" (?, in corrugated direction.
- Thickness of tempered or wired glass at least 7/32".
- If you use non-wired glass it must be screened with wire no. 12 and with mesh at 1" x 1".

- R-I residential space must have ceiling height of at least 7'-b" or under special conditions 7'-0".
- B-3 must have clear height of at least 7'-0".
- Every E-I dwelling unit must be provided with a kitchen with a kitchen sink, a bathroom wibh a wrater closet, a lavatory or either a tub or shower and must provide not ana cold water for sink lavatories ana showers and tubs.
- Lavatory clear area of 2b" x 27" x 12".
- Mirrors mounted at 40" height.
- Showers, finished height 70" above drain.
- Also, for showers and tubs shatter proof doors and panels are required.
- Exits must be at least 3'0" x 6'-8" clear width, and so must any exit door. Also, the latter must open full 90 degrees.
- Changes in elelation must be with a ramp (-see 'Ramp Requirements' for slopes);
- Toilet: Clear space must not be less than 42" wide and 48" long in front
of a water closet. Acees must be at least 44" when door is fully open.

- R-I bedrooms, guest rooms, dormitories and all habitable rooms wtthin
dwelling must have natural lifcht provided by exterior blazed openings not less than 1/10 of the floor area minimum of 10 sf of glazing.
- All bathrooms and laundry rooms must be provided witn natu al ventilation
y operable windows 01 exterior opt s v.iih an area ol i/zv or 11001 area or minimum 1'^ si.
- All rooms within a dwelling unit must be provided with natural ventilation with area of at least 1/20 of floor area or minimum 5 sf.
- Mechanical ventilation can be used instead ol operable exterior windows:
It must provide 2 airchanges/hr in all guest rooms, bedrooms and in all habitable rooms.
- In public corridors 1/b of air supply must be taken from the outside.
- Bathrooms and laundry rooms that has mechanical ventilation must have the system directly connected to the outside It must be capable of delivering at least 5 airchanges/hr.
- B-#, or garages does in principle have to comply with the same requirements as above; Mechanical ventilation must supply at least 15 cfm/occu-pant, or 5 cfm at all times when in use.
- Also, exit lighting for garages (-if it doubles as a fire exit) must be possible to control from a central in-house location.

The original zoning classification for the developement area where my site is
located was P.C.Z.D., whicn basically called for any construction to comply witn a 4open space requirement.
riov.cve- i l i c ct-usuless lor me lo e veiope a pro- ram tna t omp 1 ies v. 1 i:i lii s classification, as most of Aurora, ai.u certainly triw majority of new rtsiuen-tal construction is ucsi^neo attoiaina to specific Planned Developement Unit programs; As a matter of fact, P.U.D. 's are Dteominc tiic rule rather than tne exception for new residential developements in the City of Aurora.
The City has developed feuidelines to cope with zoning-variances, and usually one is permitted to put up construction w7hich exceeds the present zonin^ with 107. in density. This is also the case for the site in question and for the Chaparral developement in general.
The site area (Chaparral) is 16.344 acres.
The P.U.D. approved density is Id.9 dwelling units per acre, totalling 261.
The proposed and approved units were: Zero-Lot-Line Dwellings
Townhouse cluster homes Condominiums
The maximum bldg, height is set to 3d ft.
Within these parameters a program developed on the next pages I will show the breakdown of units in numbers and percentages.
I will also describe the parking requirements according to the approved P.U.D.

DWELLING UNIT BREAKDOWN according to approved P.U.D.:
Total number of permitted dwellings 261; -or, min, open space: 40.57..
Zero-Lot-Line lots (S.F. Lots) ............. 15 - or 7/.
Townhouse cluster homes .................... 91 - or 357.
Condominiums ...............................152 - or 587,
Total number of units 261 - (1007.)
rurtncr breakdown of program:
Townhomes; (look at Square Footage Requirements for exact breakaovns of
spacers for oiffernt units-).
Type A (2 Dedr., den/opt. bedr. 2 full baths lUuO sf) ... 32 or 337.
Type B (2 bedr., 2 full baths 850 sf) ......................... 30 or 337.
Type C/Min6les unit (1400 sf) .................................... 2y or 347.
Total number of units 91 (1007.)
Condominiums: (look at Square Footage Requirements for exact breakdowns
of spaces for different units-).
Type A (2 bedr., 1 full bath - 775 sf) .................... 72 - or 477.
Type B (1 bedr., 1 full bath - 650 sf) .................... 34 - or 227.
Type C/Studio unit (500 sf) ............................... 46 - or 307.
Total number of units
152 (1007.)

It is useful to define clearer how one arrives to the number of parking
spaces as related to the different units;
Number ot btuoio units x 1
" j ucuroom units
" - aim 3 oeaioom units x
" S.F. Bero-Lots (2 bear. ana 3 bedr.) x 2
Standard space according to U.B.C.'79 9* x 20*
Gara e space " - 101x 211
Compact space
-7.5'x 16'

Total number of required off S.F./Zero-Lot ...............
Townhouse ...................
Condominiums ................
i o ta 1
street parking spaces 453.
36 spaces, or 6/o
167 " or 377.
233 or -2 -5 /o
(10 0
For calculations now one arrived at tnese figures, see next pa_,e
Further breakdown of off-street parkin0 profarams S.F. Zero-Lots:
Garages (-covered) .......... 36 spaces, or 30V.
Open uncovered .............. 3b______11 , or 307.
Total 72 spaces (1007.)
10 x 21, covered 9 x 20, open ...
Compac ts ......
9 x 20, open ................ 170 spaces, or 677.
Compacts .................... 83______" or 337.
56 spaces, or 337. 30 " , or 187.
81 " , or 467.
167 spaces (1007.)
263 spaces (1007.)

THE BUILDING PROGRAM/P.U.D. applied to my site, PHASE 1:
The numbers that I have discussed refer to the whole developement, -
as 1 have applied the approved P.U.D. to come up with tne developer's program for the entire developement
Howevei, 1 am usinfe only Phase i, or block l, 'iract B on the subdivision map
.ii 111 t {' i.. l : i i hove vt : j.. 1i = v (3 / j c 1 ) not c omp) t i *. ,
J am therefore interested in translating the overall developement P.U.D, to my site specific as to arrive to some conclusion of what i wouia De alioveo to construct on this part of the subdivision; under the present zonong policies:
Tract B, or Phase I as I will call it covers 2.46b acres, ie. rougly 1/6 of Chaparral.
Under the present P.U.D.'s density guidelines I could construct 39 units on this site, or 15,9 units per acre.
Having investigated the limitations of the approved P.U.D. and the developers interpretation as seen in his building program on the previous four pages, we can go back and apply the same percentages to our site (Phase I) and see what numbers we come up with.
This should be looked upon as I guideline only obviously the builders' present program does not necessarily have to followed but as it pretty much fates full advantage of the approved P.U.D. it gives us a framework to v^ork within;
The Chaparral-program figures as translated to my site, Phase I is marked in the right-hand column in yellow outline, on the last 3-4 pages.

This information is not redily available in detail.
This is due to a number of thin6s one of which is the developer's right to keep this information to himself certainly for as long as the project is still selling
The architect does have some information on cost, as that is a major preoccupation in the developement of his desifen; Still, he lacks the overall economic picture and understandably cannot give me any figures on cost of non-union labour cost of bulk-purchased appliances, etc, etc.
Still there is however an 'official' construction cost figure available, $23 per sf;
This figure does not include land or improvement on land, nor cost of the construction of any common facilities outside the building itself, nor cost of land and improvent on land for these common facilities.
I can however give you the'sales prices of Chaparral units now selling I have selected units that are comparable to the 'generic' units referred to in this
Townhouse A (2 bedrm. opt. den/bedrm. 2 full baths) ................. $71,930
Townhouse B (2 bedrm. bath) ......................................... $63,930
Condominium A (2 bedrm. 1 full bath) ............................. $47,400
Condominium B (1 bedrm. 1 full bath) ............................... $44,300
Condominium C (Studio - 1 sleeping alcove, 1 full bath) ............ $38,000
These are prices per 11-01 1982 and does not include optional features like fireplace ($1,500 extra-), air conditioning (same), oven, micro wave, refrigpa-rator and washer/dryer (the last five items total $1,975 extra-)

This gives us a market price of approx. $67-$70 per sf, or approx. 3 times
the construction cost figure (-no wonder they are in this business!)
Further investigation (-with the City of Aurora) showed that the developer, Liebermann Homes Inc., picked up the land for far below ordinary market value as it was forclosed by the City because of real estate tax default,
and auctioned.
To sum this up one must agree that the economic picture is a complex one,
and that T have some (-valid J think) reservations as to the reality of the figures given me like the net construction cost figure of $23/sf.
Costruction time can not be given in any meaningful way, as the whole develope-ment of which my Phase I constitute l/6th is developed parallell;
However, in the interview with the architect and a representative for the developer, it would have taken approx. 13 weeks from start (excavation) to completion (move-in), or roughly 3 months if Phase I (or Tract B as it is referred to officially) was to be developed in a consecutive fashion on its owti.

This is directly tied to the consumer-preference research included in this presentation, and in particular the preferences of the Denver
In this overview I will comment on:
BUILDING (BLDG.): T'nis section rtfers to tne buyer's neects and pre-
li.rv.nces as iucntifico.
AKCrilILCiUKL (ARCh.): This section refers to tne uesibner's respon-
sibility to constantly De aware of potential conflicts arisinb from eitner the developer or the consumer's interpretation of the probram;
The developer's and the consumer's wisnes and preferences have of course priority as to the final product but the designer has an independant responsi ponsibility to view both groups' demands critically in a professional manner.
TYPICAL PLANS: The last section in tnis analysis will include rou0h
beneric plans for later sidelines in the design-process. I will also establish some sort of reference to the square ft. requirements that seems appropriate for each plan;
I will two townhouse units, one 'mingle' unit and th
three condominium units.

I will briefly mention these points:
The designers must carefully consider and visualize the different activities and their related spaces and how they effect each other:
Peaceful privacy vers, group activities. Noise-generatinfa activities vers, quiet occupation. Also quality of natural light vers, amount and location of artificial light.
Space relation to kitchen, dining room (-if any), entry and bedroom.
Circulation patterns.
Relationship to outdoor space (-if any).
BLDG.: Worktops, dishwasher, oven, refrigerator, microwave, sink(s),
cabinets, HVAC: fans, garbage disposal, trash compactor (-if any). Good lighting, stress on task light.
Thought-out circulation within work stations.
Optoonal green-space.
Well-designed relation to dining area, entry and to additional food-storage (-if any).
Operable windows.
ARCH.: The kitchen is becoming an increasingly important room with the
consumer, and certainly in townhouses its value as a room rather than a food-preparation corner must be assessed.
Remember it has traditionally been a family meeting ppint.
Also natural light and views should be considered important.
Plants like kitchens due to extra humidity -.

BLDG.: Shelving.
ARCH.: Pantry was wanted by 607. of all attachea-home buyers; In any
well-planned community it should at least be considered
BLDG.: Most likely designed as an integrated space rather than a room.
Must hold larbe table (-or taule tnat can be folded out) and must ue able to seat typically 6 persons witn access to/from cnairs on all sides, and serving access on at least two sides while party is seated.
ARCH.: Consider carefully the dining area's 24-hour use; How much space
can be given over to eating (-or formal eating) only? An important decision to make as far as sq.ft.-economy' is concerned.
In any case consider its interaction with a sun-space/green-house, if the latter is included in that particular program.
If you introduce a character of formal dining consider built-in cabinets to hold glassware, etc.
Allways be sensitive to circulation, specially to kitchen and to living room. Consider proximity of kitchen and how food and hardware is transported to and from table.

BLOG.: Double Deo or possibility of placing two single beds
Make-up table and chair. One additional chair.
Storage: Cnesl oi drawer. Warorobe, preferably built-in
version, one per person or double siz^.
Walk-in closet if needed.
goou Len.ral licnl, as well as natural licht. lask li^htin^ by uedsLands and by make-up table.
ARCH.: Consider carefully sun's patn in desibninfa access for natural
A: ain the atmosphere created is paramount; Circulation: Clothinfo storage relates to beds; Bedroom relates to bathroom; Bedroom should preferably have access to open-air (balcony-) space. Operable windows are a minimum if no other open-air access is provided.
Finally wnere should master bedroom be placed on plan which rooms/spaces should it open into?
BLDG.: As above; Two smaller beds if room accomodates (two) children. Also built-in furniture (beds, desks, wardrobe).
Consider play- and (school-)work areas. Natural light must be provided, as well as good task lighting where appropriate.
Easy access for cleaning.
ARCH.: Consider carefully its relation to living room and master bedroom
Do you want (-as parents) to know when children enter/leave room? Consider proximity to bathroom.

BLDG.: Bathtub, shower, water closet, vanity(-ies) with mirror(s), cabinets: Personal-, medical- and towel-cabinets.
HVAC: Outside-air supply, exhaust fan.
ARCH.: Privacy: Acoustically at all times. Visually when enterring/
Avoid if possible, tne minimal batn; Provide natural li^ht in relation to bathtub. Also consider plants (tney don't mind the humidity).
Research shows people spend some of their most meditative and creative moments in tnis space and that is not supposed to be a joke. Take the bathroom seriously as architecture.
1/2 AND 3/4 BATHS:
BLDG.: Water closet, (single-)vanity, mirror, towel- and personal cabinets.
HVAC as in full bath.
ARCH.: Minimum-size designs are acceptable as this space has few ambitions beyond being a support-bathroom/lavatory.

BLDG.: Shelvinb, rods.
Good general lifehtinb.
ARCH.: Must be planned veil so as much volume as possible (-all levels) can be utilized without interferring with circulation (-door movements) ana not blocking one stored item from anotner.
BLDG.: The space itself, typically with built-in Dench and BBQ.
ARCH.: Very important how outdoor this space is; Consider carefully
transition indoor space private outdoor space (semi-) public outdoor space.
The program for private outdoor space would typically be different from a townhouse to a condominium, but does not have to be -.

As stated in the introduction of tnis cnaptcr commom amenities would have to be critically assessed on the basis of Lnc total economy of tne project an assessment first of all relateo to the specifics of
U.c consumer .roup address.a.
i_>pical buup I amenities wc^iu Uc q~ite minimal; Depending on the overall size of tne project it mi^ht be limited to a louuy space ana an elevator (-it rcquireu), to a par ty/-raee tine room with a small
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I will however, consider a more generous common amenities profaram based on tne needs of a fully developed Phase I with Group II townhouses as well as condominiums.
BLDG.: Mailboxes and directory. An air-lock entry. A lounge-area with chairs. Art piece(s).
ARCH.: Consider a practical security policy at this level; Also, and
of fareat importance give the space a representational and welcoming feeling.
Lighting is critical: Typically spot and low-key general lighting s combined; Consider the (lifeht-)contrast as one enters from ou tside.
Consider carefully: Circulation patterns in relation to front
door, lounge-area and elevator (-if any) and stairs.

BLDG.: Comfortable lounge area, fireplace, kitchenette with cabinettes, sink and reficerator.
Also, TV/video Optionally one can provide pin6-pong table or pool table, or other games.
AKCh.: Follow up tne sensitivity anu care of the livin0 room pro0ram;
rul yjL1 1 l > / L Ol.hikO.. I OO.Vi iiu w L iiO c i OOrv UZiiiC^C L S £ 1 j y liiipc. r bO *£ i \ nowever it should accomooate typically 1j persons at one time and must be easy to service (consider access to outside/-delivery vehicle) and easy to clean.
BLDG.: Weight-liftinb station or free weights and bench(-es).
Lockers in a dressing area, showers, wc.
ARCH.: This could be a very interesting space; As it should spell recreation I would try to avoid using small boxy spaces, but rather using plants" (planters) etc. for necessary visual barriers between (male and female-) zones.
Also use natural materials, stained or untreated (untreated surface-) wood; stone as well.
Consider carefully: Use and circulation between sexes; How space relates to showers/dressing area/we's. How space relates to outdoor (-what about a greenhouse-like space to catch the sun?)
Also how does it relate to swimming-pool (-if any), to common room (-if any)? Important questions the overall functional relationships between common areas -.

BLDG.: The pool, and its supporting HVAC: Heating elements, purification elements, clorination equipment, filters, pumps.
Also, humidity control, fans.
Lounge area with couches, chairs and table (-this depending, on no. of users, price-class etc.)
ARCH.: auovc. It is, 1 tnink very important to use the potentials such
a space offers people relax here, plants tnrive in tne humidity, the presence of water -. Consider a green-house space, look carefully into tne possibility of using (or connecting to-) the outdoors.
It might cost a bit more per sq.ft, but the space might be unusable for its purpose (physical and mental recreation-) if being to strip pea of sensitive architectural features.
Also pool mechanism can be placed below floor next to pool, in a space below (common if there is a say, garage-structure there any way) or it can be put in a seperate service room; Be careful wTith noise pollution. Consider ease of maintainance.
BLDG.: Man-made landscaping. Benches. Optionally sport/-game areas, typi cally tenniscourts. Consider introducing water.
ARCH.: A very essential area. Try to put in some originality as generated by topography; Be, however, sensitive to the latter ; The site must be responded to meaningfully. Consider circulation carefully. Also consider carefully sunanfeles and views as related to rest
Consider security -.

BLDG.: Desk(s), chairs, (built-in) cabinets, large flat cabinets for archi-tectural/engineerin6 drawin&s, (built-in) safe (OFFICE).
Work benches, plenty of storage (shelvinb), flexible lay-out, solid materials,(MAINTAINANCE AREA).
ARCH.: Office: Representaule, easy to work in. Easy and obvious access
Irom outside. Important to enhance atmosphere -. Paintings, art pieces.
Also consider security -.
Maintainance area: Provide good overall lighting and very good and flexible task lighting. Must be well insulated acoustically. Also, consider access of over-sized material, door openings, out-
side vehicular access for deliveries etc.

This section outlines typical generic plans typifying lay-out for differnt housing set-ups; It must be stressed that this is not design as such -rather it is a reference-source for square-footage requirements and rough outlines of room relationships. The plans and the numbers reflect current developer practice in the Denver area.
I v.ill look into:
1) Townhouse A: 2 bedrooms + optional bedroom/den, 2 full baths: 1030 sf.
2) Townhouse B: 2 bedrooms 1 and % bathrooms: 850 sf.
3) Condominium A: 2 bedrooms 1 full bath: 773 *f.
4) Condominium B: 1 bedroom 1 full bath: 650 sf.
5) Condominium C (Studio): 1 sleepin6 alcove 1 full bath: 500 sf.
6) Minfcles Unit: 2 Master bedrooms 2 full batns: 1400 sf.
Again we must respond to market trends; Consumer preference is in some cases above^wt^at is here presented but the down-sizing here reflected does go well with very recent research done in the City of Aurora by U.S. Home (see 'The Denver Market: Conclusions').
The U.S. Home survey directly addressed the $-amount customers were willing to pay monthly however, they made it clear to the shopper (in the qustionaire)that a $500-$725 mort6age is translated into 450 sf. to 925 sf. units costing roughly between $40,000 and $65,000;
1*) Very few attached-house shoppers were looking for 1 (full) bathroom units, 1^ and 1 3/4 seemed to be the low limit.

In generalized terms, it seems that the particular Denver market is willing to sacrifice square footage if It can keep the amenities (in-house) it has grown customed to. There definitely are limits to down-sizing and presently the acceptable townnouse figure is around 650 sf. and condominium approx.
450 sf. Denver has (like most high-pressure, growing, cities with a large single-population) a tolerance for low square footage but a rather high expectancy for optional (expensive-) in-nouse amenities.

TOWNHOUSE A: 2 Dedroom + optional den/bedroom, 2 full baths: 1050 sf.
1*) Master bedroom ...... .. 135 sf
- Second Dedroom .. 100 sf
- Den/opt. bedroom .... .. 135 sf
- 1st full uatnroom ... . <40 sl
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- Livin& . iO sl
- Dinin. area .. 7 j sf
- ki tchen .. 100 sl
- Pantry .. 10 sl
- Storage .. 40 sf
- Closet . 70 sf
- Launary/-uLility ..... .. 70 sf
Total less entry, etc ., .. 820 sf
Total .. 1000 sf 1050 sf (820 sf plus 20% *,ives 1025
1*) bedroom closets seperated out under 'closet'.

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TOWNHOUSE B; 2 bedroom, 1 and ^ oathrooms:
- Master bearoom ......... 133 sf
- Second uedroom........... SO sf
- Full bathroom ........... AO sf
- ^ batnroom .............. 3j sf
- Livin.. too........... ti-'j sf
- uiniu0 room ............. 7j sf
- Kitchen ................ 100 sf
- Pantry .................. 10 sf
- Storage ................. AO sf
- Closet .................. 30 sf
- Laundry/-utility ...... 30 sf
Total less entry etc .... 760 sf
630 sf.
830 sf (780 sf plus 107.-)

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CONDOMINIUM A: 2 bedroom, 1 full bathroom: 775 sf
- Master bedroom....... 135 sf
- Second bedroom ........ 13j sf
- Full bathroom ....... AO sf
- Livin6/-dininfo area ... 250 sf
- Ki tenet) .............. 00 sf
- itora^c .................. 30 sf
- Closet ................... 50 sf
- LriTdryZ-u ti 1 i tv ..... 30 s t
Total less entry, etc ... 695 sf
77J sf (b95 sf plus 107.-)

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CONDOMINIUM B: 1 bedroom, 1 full bathroom: 650 sf
- Bedroom 135 sf
- Full batnroom AO sf
- Livinb/-ainine, area .... 250 sf
- Kitchen oO sf
- 6loiact 2 0 s f
- Closet 30 sf
- Laundry/-utilitv ....... 20 si
Tote. 1 <- r s entry t to ,,. . ooo sf
650 sf (565 sf plus approx. 107.-)

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CONDOMINIUM C (Studio): 1 sleeping alcove, 1 full bath: 500 sf.
- Sleeping alcove ,. 100 sf
- Full bath 40 sf
- Livins/-dininfc area .. ,. 200 sf
- Kitchen ,. 60 sf
- Closet 25 si
- Utility 10 sf
if'tcl less entry, etc .. . 4 50 si
Total ,. jOO sf (450 sf plus 107.-)


MINGLES UNIT; 2 master bedrooms, 2 full bathrooms: 1400 sf.
Presently there seems to be a need in Denver for housing answering to the needs of 'unrelated couples' a sizable part of the large non-family attached-house shopping market referred to as the mingles market.
In traditional real estate terms this is not a permanent situation and
vill in lact disappear when the present 'bad economical times' ana the aoublir.b-up effect that follows it disappears;
However, some rethinking of long-established real estate-market terms seems to have become appropriate and one can certainly discuss the future of the min6les market, but the real estate industry is still agree ing on a couple of thinbs that will come on strong in the 80's and 90's -and these new markets are as far as building-program is concerned, very similar to my 'mingles' example:
1) Senior citizen housing; This is by far the fastest growing population group in this country up to year 202b. The real estate consumer impact will come on strongly from the late 80's early 90's onward. A design-package with shared common facilities without sacrificing privacy etc. will give an added social quality (-which is much needed among older people) for less money -. This is basically the mingles principle.
2) Main unit plus rental unit: Rental market has outrun inflation/con-construction cost increase and is per today (4th quarter 1982) the fa test ^rowin^ real estate market, looking better than townhouse/condo and condo-conversion, and far better than office rental.

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Main unit plus rental -,ives the buyer/investor (who lives in main unit) the adueo income through rentin0 out second (-smaller) unit, gets a good inflation hedge (rents has kept ahead of inflation) and a depreciation object for reduced taxes; It makes sense to the developer as nis u.rn-over of built leal estate increases (-he sells two at the time) anu his profit per square root increases (-he spends less per completed square iool tnan vita a smaller (in si.) project).
In a prcstiii-uay mingles unit there usually is one paper on the whole real estate (-one owner), but two lion-related persons live there both paying typically half of the mort a..e each, i.c. no rental. For a mingles unit-ciortgage one person can qualify on one income, or they both qualify together on their added-up incomes. Most developers that today offer financing also offer this latter option for mortgage qualification.
Here is the square foota6e break-down of a typical mingles unit:
- Master bedroom sf
- Full bathroom sf
- Living/-dinig area ... sf
- Kitchen sf
- Storage sf
- Closet ... 25 sf
- Lauudry/-utility ... 15 1*) sf
Total less entry, etc .... 620 sf
Total ...................... ldQQ sf (620 sf x 2, plus 10 7.-)
1*) Utilities would typically be located on lower level, serving both units. 2*) The upper level is an exact replica of the lower level. Entrance, utilities is common. See plan for further explaination -.


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THE CHAPARRAL PEOPLE Architect, developer, Engineers etc.
The developer: Liebermann Homes Inc. /Chairman Chris Dreher
The Architect: Eugene Conroy & Ass. /Michael Knorr A.I.A.,
Civil Engineer: Mile-Hi Engineering, Inc./Richara J. Weed, C.E Planning Consultant: Davie A. Clinber Inc. / D.A. Clinfaer, my
SELECTED ADVISORY BOARD Resource People for the Thesis Sprin
UCD Instructor Archi tec ture
Struc tures
- bob Kinoig, UCD
- Michael Knorr A.I.A.
- Holder, UCD
also mu contact my contact -. contact -.
-1963 semester.
- G Lons, UCD

MEETING SCHEDULES during Fall-82 semester:
September 2nd -Architect : Thr thesis program in general
September 16th M # Discuss site specifics
September 16th -The developer: i1 i .'cuss the market in general
Septemoer 27th -School instructor (R Kindifa): Submission of revised thesis-
l T I.OUt I 1 : un -Archi tec t: Discuss aesifcn issues
0c.tober 15th -Developer Discuss P.U.D.
Or toV t '6th -Scool instructor (R Kindi..): Discuss thesis, general
Oc tober 25tn 11 # II
Oc tober 2oth -Arcnitect: Discuss design issues in detail
Oc. tober 29 tn -Aurora Fire Dept.: Fire requirements
Oc tober 29 th -Aurora Planning Dept.: Zoning variance policy, P.U.D.
November 4 th . II
December 7 th -Architect: Final meeting with architect,
discussing design, market etc.
I do not look on the work done in this semester to be completed at this point;
I will continue to meet with the architect/developer, and I will continue to follow and up-date market trends; This is paramount if this project will have any validity reflecting a 'real' situation -.
Further, I will discuss with my instructor how the semester will be set up -how much time to be spent on schematics, developement and construction details, and how the spring thesis meeting, schedule should be planned.

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