Citation
Las Casitas

Material Information

Title:
Las Casitas
Creator:
Jhaveri, Pallavi
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
102 unnumbered leaves : illustrations, forms, maps (some folded), plans (some folded) ; 30 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Housing -- Colorado -- Denver ( lcsh )
Older people -- Dwellings -- Colorado -- Denver ( lcsh )
Community health services -- Colorado -- Denver ( lcsh )
Community health services ( fast )
Housing ( fast )
Older people -- Dwellings ( fast )
Colorado -- Denver ( fast )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaf 102).
General Note:
Cover title.
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Architecture in Urban Design, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
[Pallavi Jhaveri].

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
09657418 ( OCLC )
ocm09657418
Classification:
LD1190.A73 1983 .J493 ( lcc )

Full Text
PROJECT CONTAINS-
ELEDERLY HOUSING NEIGHBOURHOOD HEALTH CLINIC LOW RISE SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING
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ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN AURARIA LIBRARY


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The information contained in this document was collected and compiled during 1982 1983 as partial completion of requirements leading to a Master's degree in Archietecture-Urban Design from the University of Colorado, Denver.
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Thesis Advisor Prof. G. Long Prof. E. F. Benda
Faculty Thesis Committee Prof. John Prossor Prof. E. F. Benda
Advisory Board
Ms. Marylin Kirk Architect
Denver Housing Authority
Mr. Keith Sutton Director
Denver Housing Authority
Mr. Robert Englke Principal Archietects Englke Architects


INTRODUCTION
The Bureau of Census states that by 1985 there will be 28 million people over the age of 65 in the United States. Changes that have occured within the traditional family unit plus an increasing trend toward a more mobile society have in part brought about a situation where many of the elderly will not be living within their core family. They may not even be residing in the communities specifically for senior citizens has become a unique and relevant issue. This is a design issue that needs to be addressed at both national and local level.
The comprehensive plan for Denver says under "Public Housing" the special needs of elderly and handicapped households should be met with particular attention give to choosing locations that are well supplied with services, mass transit and public facilities. In Denver there are approximately 25,000 households consisting of elderly and handicapped persons with some need for housing assistance. Housing for elderly, with a variety of types of accommodations and including several types of meal services, should be provided to meet the varying needs of elderly persons.
Health facility is essential part for elderly housing project. Comprehensive plan for Denver by City and County of Denver under section of "planning for public facility". An evaluation of existing facilities indicates that adequate facilites for neighborhood health care services should be provided where the need is demonstrated. The existing health center near Federal Boulevard and 11th Avenue may need to be expanded or replaced within next 2 or 3 years.
The comprehensive plan for Denver also says under "Planning for landuse: Housing" says 13% of Denver's 220,000 housing units are substandard condition. Much of this substandard housing lies along the Platte River Valley extending around the Downtown Denver area. Public actions undertaken must be coordinated with private actions and must be designed to stimulate housing investment. The construction of new housing should be undertaken with the goal of providing decent, safe and sanitary housing for all Denver residents. New residential development should give priority consideration to environmental concerns and energy and resource conservation.


THE SITE:
The "Las Casitas" project is proposed in Sun Valley neighborhood located at 11th avenue and Federal Boulevard. In Denver comprehensive plan it has been designated as residential area. A health clinic is proposed to replace the existing one. Denver Housing Authority designates this area as appropriate site for housing projects for elderly. DHA also designates this area for demolition of deteriarated houses and proposed low income, low rise, single family or town houses. Retail shops could be added to make a buffer between Federal Boulevard and elderly housing project.
The project site is bounded between Federal Boulevard and Decatur Street, and West 11th Avenue and Holden Place, 13.3 acres,Offers the potential of the area and will both enhance the lives of elderly and be enchanced by their presence. It is an ideal site on which to develop a successful elderly housing project. N.W. quadrant, (3.3 acres-160 units) has been spared for this purpose. (Vacant site).
The project site also offers the potential of the area with already working existing "Westside Health Clinic" to replace it with all new facilities and new building. Comprehensive plan for Denver already show the importance of replacement within 2 to 3 years. S. W. quadrant(3.1 acres)30,000 sq. feet has been spared for this purpose (vacant site).
The project site has some old substandard housing existing on the East side, 6.8 acres-60 to 80 units. DHA has approved the demolition and then that site has a great potential for some type of low income,low rise, single family house or town homes.
An overall look at the surrounding community indicates that a variety of services and activities are within close proximity of the site.
Specifically:
* Westside Health Clinic offers health services on south west corner.
* A church on the east side for religious function.
* Fairview School on the East side for educatonal function for the proposed future community.
* A wide range of restaurants on Federal Boulevard.
* Commercial strip with some auto stores, building materials stores, etc.
* Existing residential neighborhood surrounded that makes a buffer between proposed project and industrial area. Also this established residential, commercial neighborhood gives full advantage on project site of previous public investments.
* Rude Park(public) on the north side of the project sit across the Holden Place, has some amenities like bicycle path, jogging path, some sports. Nicely mantained park. This park will offer recreational aspect and will provide nice view to the elderly residents.
* Connected with RTD routes to downtown shopping area and many other areas.


THE EIDEPLY: A PHGFTLE
The opportunities and limitations of our environment affect how we behave and how we feel, particularly so for persons whose physical ar.d emotional reserves are declining. Instinctively we know, but need to remind ourselves, that so very often the behavior we observe among older persons is better explained by the opportunities society does or does not provide than by some mysterious process called aging. Time after time in both communities and in longterm care institutions we have seen the lives of older people trans formed by better income, better housing, better transportation, more accessible medical care, and new learning opportunities. Which brings us to the most important point of all. Impoverished environments mask the enormous potential of older persons.
If older people are as varied and capable as the facts indicate, then we have a social responsibility to increase the options for living available to our older citizens.
George L. Maddox, Director Center for the Study of Aping and Human Development Duke University
In designing buildings for the elderly, the designer-must address a group of needs that have seldom been explicit in the program. However, if one of the roles of architecture is to provide a supportive environment, then buildings must be designed in such a wav as to facilitate rather than frustrate those who use them.
In terms of the elderly we need to see older people as individuals with an even greater diversity in terms of health, personality, intellect and overall competence than other segments of society.


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DENVER ELDERLY: A PROFILE
Population over 60 .... Population over 65 Population over 75
Marital Status* bO# of 60+ are married coudes, (dramatic drop from 1975) Eoual number are single females (includes widowed/divoreed/sineTe).
Living Arrangements ... of 60+ Rent: 36.5^ (slightly higher percentage of older persons 65+ rent) Own: 63.5^ (dramatic decline from over 1975) 60+: 52^ live alone (in 1 person households)
Income: 60+ .... 505? have incomes under $7,700, 6% on Old Are Pension 25^ have incomes under $U,200
65+ .... 50^ have incomes under $6,200 25% have incomes under $3,700
Transportation Mode ... . .... 39^ own their own car 315? get rides with friends 19^ use regular bus service 1% get rides from agency see transportation as serious problem


DENVFP ELDERLY: A PROFILE (cent.)
Length of time a
Den-.'?- resident: ............ 82& have lived in Denver 20+ years
Less than have lived in Denver
less than 5 years ...................
Less than h% have moved to Denver in the last year ....................
Priority Problem Areas: ..... Income Home Health
Inflation Transportation
Health
Distinctive Features of Denver Elderly:
1. Greatest concentration of chronically mentally
ill elderly----10 mental health facilities in
Denver.
2. Presence of Boarding homes.
3. Concentration in nursine homes---32 facilities
3,^5^ beds in Denver
(While these statistics pertain specific-11 to the elderly within Denver, they give a general orofile of the elderly in the eurfcurbun areas as well).


For some cf the elderly physical limitatl ons may includej
* Less motility and ability
* An impaired sense of balance
* Slowed reaction time
* Reduced strength
* Reduced sight, hearing and other senses
* Confusion or forgetfulness
While these limitations must be considered and designed for, there will probably be other people living within the same facility who are not afflicted by such disabilities. The design challenge then becomesone of designing a project which successfully meets a multitude of possibly disparate needs.
To best solve this problem a series a gerontological design goals have been developed by Joe J. Jordan, F.A.I.A. and are applicable to the design of an elderlv housing project. The goals are as follows:
* Increase opportunities for individual choice.
* Reinforce the individual's level of competence.
* Minimize dependence ar.d encourage personal independence.
* Improve comprehension and orientation.
* Stimulate participation.
* Encourage social interaction.
* Provide individual privacy.
* Reduce distractions and conflicts.
* Provid.e a safe environment.
* Hake activities and services accessible.
* Improve the public inaae of the elderlv
* Plan for growth and chanme.
Gercntontological facilities are new building types whose form is still evolina. Trends indicate that they are continually increasing in numbers and size as our elderlv population grows. To better understand the local elderly the following information has been compiled by the Denver Commission on Aging.


GOALS: ELDERLY HOUSING
GOALS: (FUNCTION)
*Provide Quality Housing:
^Promote independence and autonomy. The environment should be one that provides opportunities for individuals to continue to live well.
*Provide opportunities for interaction between residents and community.
*Provide opportunities for individuals to make choices regarding what to do, where to go, and who to see. (e.g. The environment should enable socializing but not force it.)
1). Make the project something the Sun Valley & surrounding Community can relate to, use and feel comfortable with. 2). Provide housing and social services for seniors now residing in the Sun Valley & surrounding neighborhood. 3). Provide opportunities to maintain the integrity of the family. 4). Provide 2000-5000 sq. ft. of speculative office/commercial space within the project.
GOALS: (FORM)
*Facilitate individual mobility and order the environment to provide sense of orientation for residents.
*Promote feelings of security in the context of:
* feeling safe in carrying out day to day activities.
* alleviating fear of potential intruders.
^Provide opportunities whereby individuals can continually discover new ways to achieve satisfaction and new ways to be.
^Promote feelings of self worth and individuality. The environment should communicate a residential as opposed to an institutional image.
*Provide for physical and psychological comfort of residents.
^Promote sense of indentification with, pride in, and control over the project as a whole and the private and semi-private spaces within.
1) . Achieve a sense of "human scale" which manifests itself at many levels of
perception, (e.g. as viewed from passing car, as touched by the residents)
2) . Shape building configuration so as to take advantage of positive environ-
mental conditions and mitigate against adverse environmental effects. 3). Achieve sense of compatibility with neighborhood and community in terms of scale and character.
GOALS: (ECONOMY)
^Primary: Initial costs
*Secondary: Maintenance and operating costs ^Tertiary: Life cycle costs
1) . Maximize number of living units without reducing quality of life for residents.
2) . Avoid duplication of goods and services already available in the community.


GOALS: (TIME)
1). Provide an environment that addresses the changing pattern of need, of
individuals as they age. 2). Cultural changes will, in coining years, create a population of seniors possessing very different attitudes and lifestyles. Provide an environment that is able to accommodate these changes.
FACTS: ELDERLY HOUSING FACTS: (FUNCTION)
* Services offered at other D.H.A. elderly housing projects: Health clinic, milkman and produce, food stamps, voting registration and voting, volunteer placement, social service assistance.
* Special Events offered at other D.H.A. elderly housing projects: Candy and bake sales, craft sales, dinners, dances, "fiestas."
* Activities offered at other D.H.A. elderly housing projects: Art classes, ballroom dancing, bingo, card parties, ceramics, leather, macrame, movies, needlework, pool leagues, social hours, square dancing, silk screen.
* Senior Services now provided within the neighborhood U.D.A.G. boundaries:
*Meal Service
*Auraria Community Center
*Health Clinic
*Mariposa Health Clinic
*Community Homemakers
*Denver Visiting Nurse Service
*Meals on Wheels
*Denver Department of Social Services
* Goods and Services within easy walking distance: Food store, restaurant, bank, post office.
* Goods and Services within walking distance or accessible by public transportation Hospital, Civic Center, churches, concert hall. *
* According to the 1970 census there were 1,547 people over age 60 living within neighborhood U.D.A.G. area.
* D.H.A. Resident Statistics:
Age: 5% under 60
23% 60-69
39% 70-79
33% 80 and over
Sex: 73% Female 27% Male
Automobiles: 20% of Residents Average Income: $2,000 $4,000/year


FACTS: (FORM)
* The site is an island surrounded by primary vehicular arteries.
* The site is located at an urban hub at the transition from the C.B.D. to the West Side neighborhood.
* Height of buildings in proximity to site:
North: Rude Park, Community Center 1-2 stories West: Commercial Strip Residences 10-15 stories
Northwest: High rise Apt. Bldg.'s at Colfax & Federal 10-15 stories South: Existing Residential, small commercial 1-2 stories
* A landscape plan is currently being implemented around the perimeter of the site.
* Future development in proximity to site:
West and South Site Development is not certain. The planning department has recommended a mix of commercial and residential use.
* Statistics indicate that site is located within a high crime district relative to other areas of the city.
* Tests indicate that air quality exceeds acceptable standards on and around the site.
* Tests indicate that noise levels on West side of the site are high and that 30' 0" setback requirements only bring levels down to an acceptable level.
* DURA Requirements: Conform to following setbacks or provide alternative measures for mitigating against noise:
Set Backs
*Zoning CRD: Federal Blvd. 30 0"
Parking:
Health Center 25% of area provided
Residential .33 cars/unit
Maximum Density(per F.A.R.) 160 Units
*Height Restruction (Mountain View Ordinance)
*14 stories *ANSI Standards
*A11 public places must be accessible to the handicapped.
*Physical and Perceptual Aspects of Aging:
*Vision Loss of acuity and visual field, light sensitivity, clouding of the lens', hardening of the cornea.
*Hearing Loss of frequency range *Touch Loss of sensitivity and agility
*Motion People do things slower. Loss of sense of balance and sense of body in space.


FACTS: (ECONOMY)
* Studies tend to show that differences in terms of most indices of elderly response to high rises and low rises not significant.
* Studies have shown that high density low rise projects can approach the cost effectiveness of high rise projects.
* According to D.H.A. officials, the greater the number of units provided, the higher the per square foot budget which may be allocated for the project.
* According to studies by the Michigan Housing Authority, a minimum of 100 units is required to support a community center.
* Current project budget is very limited: $60/ft^ (1982 dollars). According to the Means Cost Estimate Guide average elderly housing runs $58.60/ft.^ on an average site. Given the difficulties of the site, budget limitations become even more severe.
FACTS: (TIME)
*Age/Loss Continum
Separation of Children Death of Peers Loss of Spouse Sensory Acuity Losses Motor Output Deterioriation Age Related Health Problems Reduced Physical Mobility
*D.H.A. Resident Statistics:
Age 5% under 60 years
23% 60 - 69 years
39% 70 - 79 years
33% 80 and over
50-60 years 60-70 years 60-70 years 60-70 years 80 years 80 years 80 years
CONCEPTS
CONCEPTS: (FUNCTION) ELDERLY HOUSING
*Accessibility:
*Provide opportunities for activity on site intended to bring community in.
Senior Center To provide full range of senior services to the UDAG Area. May also draw from elderly living downtown.


CONCEPTS:(FUNCTION) Con't.
Commercial Space To be defined after other proposed commercial space in the
neighborhood becomes more defined.
Community Office Space To be made available to community based service
organizations.
*Facilitate circulation to and from site.
Pedestrian
*Pedestrian bridge allow for second level connection to development North of site.
*After planned system of pedestrian crossings to better accommodate elderly. Public Transportation
*Provide bus shelters for north-south route along Federal Blvd. east-west route along 9th Ave.
*Provide access on site for transportation programs for the elderly. ^Flexibility
*Office space should provide for division into large and small suites.
*Community Center space should provide opportunities for a specific agency to modify space to meet their requirements.
*Territoriality
*Spaces allocated for residential, community and office use should be clearly defined and the "territory" associated with each clearly articulated to avoid any confusion regarding what belongs to whom.
*Activity
*Provide opportunities for residents to inobtrusively observe activity and people on and around the site.
*Provide place where large families may gather.
CONCEPTS; (FORM)
*Environmental Quality *Make Quiet Places
*Use building mass to create "noise shadows."
*Reduce impact of noise by buffering with mass and placing outdoor spaces below sound source.
*Use corridor as buffer for habitable spaces(single loaded corridor). *Place functions not as sensitive to noise closer to noise sources like commercial to buffer other spaces.
*Provide heavy curtains to absorb noise entering unit. *
*Sealed air conditioned spaces mitigate against the effects of both noise and air pollution.
*Provide for direct sunlight into each apartment during some part of the day.


CONCEPTS: (FORM) Con't.
^Accessibility
*"Barrier Free" Design means more than simply providing handrails, grab bars, and other devices which aid the handicapped. The environment must provide these devices, but it should do so in a way which removes any sense of stigma associated with the handicapped. Aids and special devices should be integrated with the architecture, as opposed to applied to it.
*Response to
sensory losses
*
*
*
*
*
provide brighter illumination create high contrast between elements use larger sizes of printed material use redundant cuing avoid glare
in the visual field
Hearing reduce background noise and echo
Touch * use exaggerated textures and larger, more easily manipulatible
hardware
Motion * provide wider circulation spaces to allow people to move
comfortably at different speeds.
* provide non-slip flooring, handrails, and emergency aid devices which may be activated from different positions.
*Flexibility (expansibility, convertibility, versatility)
Within Unit provide for varied furniture arrangements and other means by which individuals may make places their own. (Alcoves, flexible partitioning, moveable closet and storage units)
Common Spaces
Office Spaces
* provide oppurtunities to divide spaces for different activities to occur simultaneously. (Alcoves, room proportions, which lend themselves to division) *
* provide open bays with opportunities to penetrate the building at several points.
*Territoriality *Provide for defensible space.
* "The environment should reinforce inhabitants in their ability to assume
territorial attitudes and preogatives."
* "The environment should improve capacity of residents to casually and continually survey the non-private areas of their living environment indoors and out."
* "The environment should provide mechanisms which neutralize the symbolic stigma of the form of housing projects, reducing the image of isolation, and the apparent vulnerability of the inhabitants."
* "Access to semi-private and private zones should occur at points adjacent to safe public activity areas."
*Provide a hierarchy of physical and social realms. The progression from most public to most private should occur in discreet levels each of which is clearly identifiable by both residents and visitors.


*Compatability
* Primary relationship to both the neighborhood and the C.B.D. may be established by the use of scale and massing. Location of the larger mass may relate more towards the northeast section of the site; conversely the building mass may scale down towards the south and west sections of the site to provide a transition to the scale of the neighborhood.
* Compatibility with the image of "home" may be achieved by two primary means:
* Architectural detailing addresses perception at a personal level. The elements of architecture that people touch may be used to communicate a sense of home. Doorways, trim, floor finishes, and the like should be detailed to reinforce the image of the individual residence.
* An institutional image is most commonly strengthened by simplification of form and fenestration, reducing the richness of the building image by providing a sense of singularity. The institutional image may be broken down by modulating the shape of the building in such a way that it reads as an aggregate of places as opposed to a singular mass. If the scale of the individual unit can be made apparent, a sense of the parts of which the whole is made is communicated. The individual dweller is given a "piece" of the whole with which to identify.
CONCEPTS: (ECONOMY)
^Environmental Quality
* Given the difficulties of the site, (noise, access, pollution, etc.) providing quality housing may require an increase in the budget. Air conditioning, for example, which is typically considered an amenity, is probably a necessity on this site.
*Flexibility
* While active solar systems are prohibitive in terms of cost at this time, provisions should be made for future installation should the need or opportunity arise. These provisions should include general building orientation and configuration, as well as installation of mechanical systems which may be converted to use with solar panals. *
* By separating the office space from the residential space introducing an appropriate structural system, the office space may achieve the opportunity to grow. This would enable D.H.A. or whichever agencies occupy that space to expand.
*Compatability
* By centralizing the bulk of the units in a tower configuration and using a limited amount of building area to make a scale transition to the neighborhood and common outdoor space, a compatability between the economic desirability of centralization and the aesthetic desirability of human scale may be achieved.


CONCEPTS: (TIME)
*Accessibility (same as Accessibility Form)
* Graduated demands, redundant cuing, and alternative means of circulation
may provide an environment that is sensitive to a broad range of individuals. Design for the most handicapped exclusively tends to provide a bland, nonchallenging for others who are less handicapped.
*Flexibility (same as Flexibility Form)
* Flexible partitioning and the general capability of a building to change and grow will allow the environment to accommodate changing patterns of use. The building should be able to become a multi-family housing project should the need for centralized housing for the elderly no longer exist.






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GENERAL SITE CONSIDERATIONS:
Primary outdoor living areas should be located on the southwest side of structures and protected from north and northwest wind.
Deciduous vegetation should be used on the south side to provide summer shading and penetration in winter.
Steeply pitched roofs on the windward side will help deflect winds.
Blank walls should be protected with earth berms, evergreen vegetation, walls or fences.
Use planting for windbreaks.
Earth berms will protect the building from winds and stablize indoor temperatures by moderating diurnal swings. These berms also reduce noise intrusion.
For purpose of solar radiation utilization, building should be on south or western slopes.
Roads should be oriented to avoid winter winds and channel summer breezes.
Paving with hard reflective surfaces should be either reduced as much as possible on the south side of the structures or the paving should be shaded to reduce excess heat and reflectivity.
Use light colored pavements to reflect sun on the north side.
Use vines, trellises or canopies to shade south and west walls.
Decks provide a less reflective and cooler paving surface, and air circulation in some cases. Hard surfaces should be used for terraces, since solar heat will increase the length of evening use.
If the exposure in within 20' of true south, solar systems are suitable.


CENTRAL COPE REQUIREMENTS
Exit doors shall swinp in the direction of exit travel when servicing any hazardous area or 50+ people.
Mininur of two exits for assembly areas, apartments.
Corridors not less than hh" in width and 7'-0" to ceiliner.
Dead end corridors cannot be more than 20-0" in length.
Stairways must be minimum, for winding stairs/circular stair requirements see p. of the UBC.
Ramps must be Uh wide minimum and shall not exceed 1:10 for exits and 1:8 otherwise.
Ramps having slopes greater than 1:15 shall not have landings at tr= top and bottom and at least one intermediate lardirn shall be provided for each 5'-0" of rise. Top and intermediate landinrs shall have a dimension a 5'-0" and the bottom landing shall have a dimension of 6'-0".


BAPRIEP FREE DESIGN GUIDELINES
Site Development
Public walks should be at least 48 inches wide and have a gradient not greater than 5%. These walks should be a continuous common surface, not interrupted by steps of abrupt level changes. All walks should have level platforms at the top; at least 5'-C" x 5-0" if ?- door swings out onto the platform, and at least J-O" x 5'-0" if the door does not swing onto the platform. Each of these platforms should extend at least one foot beyond each side of the doorway.
Grading should attain a level with a normal entrance that will make it accessible to people with physical disabilities.
Parking Lots
Tne parking spaces for use by people with physical disabilities should be clearly identified.
The parking space should be opn on one side, allowing people to get in and out of an automobile onto g level surface, suitable for wheeling and walking.
Care should be taken so that individuals need not walk or wheel behind marked cars.


Paros
Pamps should not have a slop greater than 1 foot rise in 1? feet, or 8.33^*
Ramps should have handrails on at least one side, preferably two, that are 32 ir.cnes in height from the surface of the rar.p, that are sir.ooth, and extend 18 inches beyond the top and bottom of the ramp. Careful attention should be taken to avoid handrail surfaces tnat become heated in exterior conditions. Care should also be taken that the extension of the handrail is not in itself a hazard.
Farps should have non-slip surfaces, and should also have at least six feet of straight clearance at the bottom. They should also
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have level platforms at 30-Tot intervals for rest and safety pruposes and should have level platforms wherever they turn.
Entrances
At least one primary entrance to each building should be usable
by persons in wheelchairs.
At least one entrance usable by nersons in wheelchairs should be on a level tnat makes elevators accessible.
Doers should have a clear opening of no less than 32 inches when open and should operate by a single effort.
The floor on the inside and outside of each doorway shall level for a distance of five feet from the door in the direction of the door swing and should extend 1 foot beyond each side of the dccr.
All doors should have kick plates extending from the bottom of the door at least 16 inches from the floor.


Stairs
Souare nosings should not be used on steps, and all stairs should have handrails J2. inches high as measured from the tread at the face of the riser.
Stairs should have risers that do not exceed 7 inches.
Floors
Floors should have non-slip surfaces. Where carpeting is used, it should be a commercial grade with tightly looped weave forming a hard surface. It should be glued down from wall to wall (no pads). No loose rugs should be placed in areas to be used by persons with physical disabilities.
Toilet Rooms
Toilet rooms shall have at least one tcilet stall that is 3 feet wide, is at least k feet 3 inches (preferably 3 feet) deep, with a door that is 32 inches wide and swings out. The stall should have handrails on each side, 33 inches high and parallel to the floor, lj inches in outside diameter, with ly inches clearance between rail and wall, and the rails should be fastened securely at ends and center. Finally, the stall should have a water closet with the cert 20 inches from the floor: wall mounted watcr closets with narrow understructures th^t recede sharrly are the most decimole.
Toilet rooms should have lavatories with narrow aprons, mounted at su~h a height as to be usable by perrons in wheelchairs. It is important to cover or insulate oipes to rrotect against bums.
Kirrors and shelves should be provided no higher than h-0 inches above the floor, measured from top of shelf and bottom of the mirror.
Toilet rooms for men should have wall mounted urinals with basin opening 19 inches from the floor.


Water Fountains
Water fountains or coolers shall have up front spouts and controls, and should be hand ODerated or hand and foor operated. The basin should be 36 inches from the floor.
Fully recessed water fountains are not reconm.ended, but care should be taken to recess the fountain so that it will not become a hazard to the visually impaired.
Identification
Raised letters or numbers should be used to identify rooms or offices, and placed at a height between V-6" and 5'-6",measured from, the floor..
Doors not intended for normal use should be made identifiable by knurling the door handle or knob.
A minimum of 7 feet measured from the floor is required distance for signs, ceiling limhts and other fixtures.
Warning Signals
Audible warning signals should be acconnanied by simltaneous visuals signals.
To avoid visual 'washout' there should be color a^d texture contrast between the stair and the walkways..
Miscellaneous
Chairs should be 16 inches above the floor and equipped with armrests.
Tables should be 28 inches above the floor. Tables with four comer supports are easier to use as support than pedestal tables.
Buildings with symmetrical plans tend to be confusing for the visually impaired


AC01T~TC CONTROL CONSTRUCTION
Use carpeting whenever possible to eliminate noise, making sure that it will not impede wheelchairs.
Larpe panels of class should be double for acoustic as well as heating qualities.
Avoid hollow-core coors. Caulk at joints to eliminate noise transmissions. Pipe penetrations in walls should be insulated.
Avoid ultra-high frequency sound security systems which can be harmful tc people wearing hearing aids. Avoid low-cycle electric transformers because of potential problems with hearing aids.
Control of noire from fluorescent light "ballast" should be considered.
Heavy motors ar,d machines in mechanical rooms should be mounted on springs to eliminate noise transmission and vibrations. Acoustical cylinders can also be hung to absorb noise.
Air flows (heating and cooling) should be controlled so as not to ce noisy at diffusers. Metal dust work for heat and cooling transmissions can be insulated on the inside to provide good acoustic qualities with flexible connections to reduce vibrations. Avoid hirh RPM fans in air-transmission systems to reduce noise from sir-flows in duoswork.
Provide sound insulation in walls and floors to minimize both air borne and structure sound. Control transmission of exterior noise.


NARRATIVE CLIMATOLOGICAL SUMMARY
The Denver area envoys the mild, sunny, semi-arid climate that prevails over much of the central Rocky Mountain region, without the extremely cold moraines of the high elevations and restricted mountain valleys during the cold part of the year, or the hot afternoons of summer at lower altitudes. Extremely warm or cold weather is usually of short duration.
Spring is the wettest, cloudiest, and windiest season. Much of the 37 percent of the annual total precipitation that occurs in spring falls as snow during the colder, earlier period of that season.
Stormy periods are often interspersed by stretches of mild sunny weather that remove previous snow cover.
Summer precipitation (about 32$ of the annual total), particularly in July and August, usually falls mainly from scattered losal thunderstorms during the afternoon and evening Moraines are usually clear and sunny. Clouds often form during early afternoon and cut off the sunshine at what would otherwise be the hottest oart of the day Meny afternoons have a cooling shower.
Autumn is the most pleasant season- Local summer thunderstorms are mostly over and invasions of cold are and severe weather are infre-cuent, so that there is lesc cloudiness and a greater percent of possible sunshine than at any other time r"r the year. Periods of unpleasant weather are generally brief. Precipitation amounts to about 20$ of the annual total.
Winter has the least precipitation accumulation, only about 11$ of the annual total, and almost all of it snow. Precipitation frequency, however, is higher than in autumn. There is also more cloudiness and the relative humidity averages higher than in the autumn Weather can be quite sever, but as a general rule the severity doesnt last long.


Average Temperature
Heating Degree Days
Y.r Jan 1 Feb Mar 1 Apr 1 Mivl June j "Jinn Aug Sept | Oct | Nov | Dec Annual Season | July Aug {Septj Oct [ Nov Dtc Jan Fab Mar Apr May June Total
1939 19*0 30.9 21.4 23.8 33.* q *1.1 *7,4 60.1 31.8 67.1 69.2 76. i 73.1 71.1 70.8 66,0 64.1 33.1 34,6 91.1 13.1 38.3 33.1 51.3 30.3 1938.39 1939-60 14 0 9 6 106 1*1 347 318 776 13 898 876 101 1151 *6 1139 *1 8*7 *72 41* 271 2*5 25 18 38*8 6286
1991 19*2 19*3 1**9 1*93 31.4 27.9 33.1 30.1 31.9 36.1 21.9 39.! 32.* 33.8 d 91.6 44.J 33.4 34.1 *2.1 41.1 3*.^ 33.^ 32.9 38.0 56.1 64.J 64.1 65.8 67.0 61.9 72.ll 72.6 75.4 71.1 72.4 71.2 71.2 61.d 61.4 63.2 63.0 59.8 | 49,4 31.0 33.0 34.1 33.9 9.8 92.4 *0.7 90.1 91.1 33*6 36.9 19*1 30.1 30*9 50.9 *9.3 31.9 *9.7 *9.6 1960-61 1961- 62 1962- 63 1963- 6* 1964- 43 7 14 0 6 0 11 0 19 V 1* 90 27i 1W 29 III 396 *39 357 729 179 739 02 .703 490 7*3 1187 1130 961 1125 1 1026 1*11 1*17 1059 921 28 976 768 1082 109* 809 91* 8*8 982 1108 360 *17 *42 145 411 29* 173 156 230 2*5 63 71 30 72 61 6803 3828 6034 6030
19*6 #19*7 19*8 19*9 1930 31.4 39.( 26.9 16.1 2*.4| 39.1 28.1 26.* 30.4 38.4 .J 36.31 31.6 39.9! 38. ij 59. li *9.8 31.4 *1.2! *7,1 31.9 33,4 38.1 37.0 33.0 6.2 62.3 66.4 69.0 66.6 79.4 72,1 72.6 72.4 68.9 K:i 68.8 63,4 66,2 66,1 63.2 60.9 *8.2 33.4 31.1 *9.9 59,9 39.8 39.a 36.4 *8,4 l*.li 37.6 33*1 29.4 32*1 36*1 51.2 *9.4 *9.2 *9.6 30.4 1963-66 l06-67 1967.68 1968.69 1969-70 6 0 4 10 2 7 9 16 13 0 2*9 61 10* 145 39 307 391 38* 39* 01 6*3 699 729 71 749 924 101* 1186 111* 998 1122 959 1086 923 10*1 1017 32 85 21 73* 1 *79 791 1011 969 60* *98 635 378 612 20* 388 3*3 204 200 82 115 38 144 78 3664 6190 4037 6300
ll 1*32 1933 1*3* 1933 26.4 3*.9 39.6 36.1 27.1 33,4 33,*1 32,1 *3,ll 27, d d 41.J *8.1 *7.8 51.4 50. M 37.^ 36.8 33.6 37.a 3*,3 60.9 72.0 69.1 68.1 6*.0 73.1 71.1 7*.a 76.1 73.1 70.1 72.8 71.2 72.1 73. U 61. i 65.6 66.0 63,1 69,8 98.a 39.1 39.6 32.* 34.0 38. ll 32.1 *1.1] 4*.l 36.2 29*0 32*6 31*4 3**7 35*4 *8,3 30.8 31.1 33.9 90.2 1970-71 1911-72 1972-73 19TJ-7* 1914-73 0 29 *2 0 0 0 IS 0 9 196 271 107 166 1*9 31* *7* 397 121 181 770 771 960 738 03 977 1019 1239 129 1093 1018 1063 1162 1277 1026 38 32 20 31 987 17 6*1 771 671 52 0 *86 646 07 621 129 2*6 290 137 132 25 6 56 67 5 618* 3818 6903 377| 6306
1956 1937 1998 3*.( 23.8 32.9 27.1 *c,i 37,4 so,; 46, l| 3*.l) 37.8) 37.*! *9.1 *1.*! **.4 *9.4 63.^ 33,8 61.71 36.a 73.4 63.9 68. L 70.9 72. a 73.1 73, * 72,6 69.1 72.6 73.8 73.8 69.9 61.4 64.8 61. U 39.9 31.6 33.9 *8.1 31.2 36.8 60.4 37.4 33*1 39.6 33.8 36.1 51.3 30.2 31.4 30.0 1973-76 1976- 77 1977- 78 1971-79 0 0 2 0 * 7 19 20 1> 1*2 16 96 369 SO* S3* 16* *0 759 717 11 893 07 20 12*3 1506 ll-3 1206 760 7*9 9|6 59 771 663 6* 414 *15 254 117 111 4* 0 7 5300 3733
i960 27.6 29,8 36.11 JO.S M 6.l 7J. a ** 69.0 32.0 J9.5) 24.1 *9.7
1961 19*2 1963 196* 19*3 31.1 19.9 19.1 30.6 39.0 39,2 29,91 3*.*| 34,61 **.flj 30,* 35. i 39.8 66.L 63.1 71,1 72,9 d 56.1 62.8 30.a 39,6 J4.1 91.1 27.7 33.8 *8.9 Cooling Dej gree Days
37.3 27,9 27.4 37,if 31. 2*.0I so.a 60.9 3*. 37,IJ 66.7 7*. a 68.? 70.* 63.9 62.1 97.9 32.7' 1.7 90,1 28*1 31.a 30.1 *9.7 Year Jan Fab Marl Apr May June July AugS.pt Oct Nov Dec Total
31 2} 63.8 72,7 to.a 33.1 59. || 99.1 33.0 *9.6 0 0 0 0 39 99 112 18* 46 01 0 0 721 433
...J sM 64.4 76,9 70.8 6.a 32,a 91.1 11.9 30.3 1970 0 0 0 0 16 91 222 182 40
19*7 19*8 1*69 1*70 39.C 29.1 39.0 30.6 33,1 3*. 2 35.* 38,6 97,9! 90,*i 37,2 39,9j *4.a 41.1 37.a *3,1 32.d 33.9 39.1 38. ai 60.4 61. 61.1 69.a 69. L 71,1 74, T 72.a .a 6.l 73.8 73.9 62.1 60.9 64.1 39.1 32.1 91. 39,0 *9. * 33!8 39.1 39.11 26.1 28.9 32.1 33.1 48.9 49.9 48.3 1971 1972 1971 197* 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 u 0 P 0 0 0 6 2 36 1*9 110 118 178 201 210 1*9 107 148 107 *70 137 51 21 21 19 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 638 368 411 711
30,6 36.91 *7.8 3*.a 69.0 73.6 72.8 37.1 9.6 39.ij 31.* 49.3 1973 0 0 0 o 1 *9 2*6 192 19
1*72 l93 197* 1933 30.! 27.1 23.1 31.1 36.2! 39.9f 33.; 30,6 9*,8i 3*.K 91,21 ai.ij *8,1 *9,a *7.9 49,11 37.a 35.4 61.4 36.* 68.1 67.1 68.4 64.1 73.8 71.a 7* 7* 72.7 71.0 73.1 69.1 70.8 62.1 39.9 39.4 39,1 32,i: 39.1 32,6 33.a 32.8 3*,1 38.0 39.8 31.6 31.a 37.1 49.9 33.1 49.4 1976 1977 1971 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 tf p 7 0 1 11 12 111 219 132 124 2*7 108 176 182 171 12 1 101 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 667 799 748
39, 37. ll *9. a 36.7 66.1 79.* 70.a 61.8 *8,6 3*.l 19.1 31.0
38,17 34.6 51.i 60.1 71.9 7* 1 73.* 66.6 33,1 33.1
1*78 29.8 31,4 32,a 91.6 30,1 3*.4 66.9 7*.7 6*.6 63,0 59,1 37.8 2*.6
icoa 3*.6 *7,1 36.1 66.1 2,* 71.1 62.1 51.4 39.4 32.1 50.1
49,9 31.6 60,a 69.3 83.6 4.9 3.3 76,9 65.1 32.4 94.8
HIM 17.4i 20,8 26.t 36,8 *>.* 32.1 98.9 *7.6 46.1 37,6 26.4 i*.4 37.0
Precipitation
Snowfall
Year Jan F.b Mar Apr i May | June July ; Aug
l*l 0.82 1.1* 1.06 1.08' 1.251 1.0* 0.17! 0.19
I960 1.01 0.67 2.26 1 1.9*1 0.10 I 0.29
1**1 1.11 0.2* 1.21 3.28; I.Tii 2.** 1.29 1.8*
19*2 0.66 0.91 0.68 *.17 1.12 3.08 1.C2 C.77
19*3 0.23 0.12 0.*9 1.0* 2.96 1.22 0.72 1.28
19** 1.08 0.29 2.89 3.92 1.73 0.92 3.3* 0**6
19*3 0.70 0.9* 0.H 2.33 2.32 2.0 2 2.19 2.53
19*6 0.64 0.27 0.32 2.0* 1.95 0.82 1.61 1.38
19*7 0.37 0.87 l.o* 1.30 * 61 2.76 1.32 1.27
19*8 1.** 0.** 1.71 2.32 1.8* 1.9* 0.85 c.*i
19*9 1.17 0.U5 2.2* 1**4 3.31 9.27 1.33 C .92
1*30 0.47 0.2O 0.31 2.9*1 2.80 3.32 0.36 0.27
1*11 0.81 0.7 I.** 2.01 1.78 2.21 0.83 4.47
1932 0.01 0,66 2.12 2.73 3.0* 0.12 1.56 l.*l
1933 0.39 1.1* 1.11 1-29 2.66 1.** 1.93 1.29
193* 0.23 o.v* 0 * 0.88 0.60 0.66 1.99 C.31
1933 0.23 0.89 1.1* 0.*8| 2.47 1.3* 2.98 2*91
1936 0.1* 0.77 0.19 0.71* 2.3* 0.9* 4.17 1.8*
1937 0.32 0.71 1.0* *.1> 7.31 1.0* 1.29 2.03
1931 0.7J 1.00 !.* 1.73 * a *6 l.*' J.)5 1.17
19J9 1.2* 1.31 2.89 1.33 1.33 0.** 0.83 C29
1963 0.77 1.66 0.8* 2.36, 2.27 0.6* 1.31 o.c*
1*61 0.07 0.66 2.3! 1.061 *1*1 1.11 1.60 1.21
1*62 1.33 1.09 0.32 1.10 0.8* 1.32 0.3* 0. *6
1*63 0.7} 0.21 1**2 0.03' 0.68 3.39 0.39 2.92
1*6* 0.26 1.0* 1.38 1.23 2.33 0.82 0.72 0.27
1*63 1.00 1.27 1.20 l.0< 1.82 *! 6.*1 l.C*
1*66 1.28 0.32 1.46 0.3* l.*l 1.0* 2.0*
1*67 0.8* 0.39 0.79 3.991 *.77 9.6* 3.29 0.8*
1*68 0.31 0.7* 0.85 2.39 0.71 0.90 1.3* 2.33
1*6* 0.17 0.93 1.10 1.39 6.12 2.9 1.81 0.79
1*70 0.10 0.01 1.3* 0. *71 0.6* 3.83 1.67 0.34
1*11 0.13 0.71 0.53 1 j 1.1* 0.2> 1.20 0.83
1*72 0.36 0.** 0.5O 3.32 0 a ** 2.9* 0.65 2.71
1*71 1.31 0.16 1.79 3.75 3.0*' 0.20 2.*7 1.28
1*7* 1.03 0.82 1.32 2.2* 0.0*i 2.01 2.3* 0.16
1*73 0.23 0.37 1.1* * 2.80 2.11 2.781 2.00
1*76 0.19 0.5* 1.3* t.] 1.3* 0.63 2.3l! 2.50
1*77 0.16 0.27 1.2* 2.1*1 0.3* 1.02 2.98 1.00
1*78 Koao 0.27 0.27 1.07 1.821 3.*6 1.17 0.3* 0.26
MIAN 0.4T 0.18 1.10 2.01 1.9* 1.701 1.18
Nov i Dec Annual
Jan j Feb i Mar| Apr j MayjJuneiTotal
0.2*'
4.05j
2.*
o.ei
0. 07
T
1.17
1. H
0.91
0.*S
0.28
1.39
0.97
0.3*
0.23
0.77'
2.72
0.01
0.92
1.31
1.92
0.38
.67
0.19
1.29
0.*1
2.38
1.13
0.60
0.39
1.67
2.97
2.191
2.07
2.85
0.98
0. 29|
1. M
0.13
0.07
0.97
0.19
2.*9
2.9*
0.27
0.06
0.78
O.M
3.91
0.16
1.36
0.12
2.16
0.18
0.9*
0.06
0.66
0.27
2.62
0.37
2.96
2.96
0.77
0.09
0.31
0.19
0.*9
0.96
1.11
0.73
9.17
O.**
0.9*
0.92
0.97
1.69
0.30
0.91
0.98
1.93
0.09|
0.76,
0.62
0.28
0.91
0.32
0.93
2.97 0.7J 0.63 0 011
1.03
1.1T!
1.31
1.03 0.37 0.36
1.25'
0.99
0.7*
0.97
0.*9!
0.91
0.68
0.99
0.98
0.36
0.32
1.01
0.71
0.62
1.19
0.16
1.69
0.99
1.36
1.98
0.37
0.36;
0.37
0.37
0.9
0,-9
0.27
0.26
0.33
0.32
0,69 0. *9 1.02 0. '1 0. *9
0.62
0.-6
0.69
0.26
1.33
0.33 0. *7 0.31 0.73 0.33
0. *7
1. -6 0.31 0.32
0.29
0. 73 2.9* 0.29 0.77
0.321 0.i9,
0.39 0.-1
0.39| 0.62'
8.99
19.30
22.05 16.99
9.12
19.3*
13.39
16.3*
19.06 12.62
16.71 13.91
19.*J 13.*3
16.23 7.31
16.03
13.72 21.58
19.80 16,9* 1* .98
It.01 8.*9
12.23
10.1*
21.87
10.81
23.31 12.13 21.52
13.73
10.96
16.87
22.96 i*.03
19.31
13.*1 10.3*
11.73
1.12 1.001 0.69| 0.61 19.30
Indicates a station nove or relocation of instruments. See Station Location table.
Record mean values above are means through the current year for the period beginning in 1872 for temperature and precipitation, 1935 for snowfall. Temperature and precipitation are from City Office locations through 1934. Heating degree days are from City Office locations through June 1939. Snowfall if from City Office locationa through Jias 1934. Otherwise the data are from Airport locations.
1939-40 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.6 0.5 9.9 6.1 11.1 T 0.0 0,0 66.3
19*0-41 19*1-42 19*2-93 0.0 0.0 0.0 c.o 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 T 0.9 0.0 0.0 T 9,9 Is 7.0 2.2 4.1 2.3 6.0 8.7 9.5 3.0 9.0 8.0 3.0 12.1 1.9 11.3 1.6 3.3 10.2 7.6 7.3 28.1 8.5 T 21.6 0. 0 1. T 4.3 1.1 0,0 0,0 0.0 0,0 41.6 48.2 39.8 1.1 33.9
19*9-93 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.9 5.9 12.2 6.2 3.0 23.0
1*43-46 0.0 0.0 0.0 T 0.9 2.1 3.8 1.8 19.1 0.8 0.7 10.2 7.1 9.6 12.3 3.2 12.0 T 9.1 0.8 1.3 0,0 T 23.7 1.6 74.9 *0.1 32.9
1947.48 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.1 6.4 6.9 23.7 7.* 12.0 3.3
19*8-49 19*9-30 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.9 1.1 6.7 0.0 9.8 6.0 10.5 9.8 ,:l 19.2 5.9 12.1 9.0 13.6 0,0
1990-51 0.0 0.0 0.0 0,0 it.* 5.9 13.1 10.5 IT., 12.9 0.0 0.3 74.8
0.0 *.2 7.7 14.9 11.2 o.J 10.2 23.2 11.2
1*92-33 1*33-3* 1934-33 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.2 0.1 0.9 14.3 7.2 1.9 3.1 14.4 8.6 7.9 2.7 5.3 16.3 0.6 12.2 11.9 9.3 19.3 12.0 1.6 *. 1.7 2.6 0.0 0,0 0,0 1.1 33.0
1953-36 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 9.1 0.6 7.3 21.3 1.9 6.3 9.3 5.3 10.3 1.* 11.0 8.9 3.1 25.3 T 8.9 0,0 0,0 47.8 78.8 37.1 99.8 90.0
0.0 T 3.* 3.0 0.8 9.9 12.0 19.9 19.1 0.0
T 2.6 9.7 7.7 IT.* H. 26.8 It.*
1939-60 0.0 0.0 12.9 u. 3.) 2.1 10.1 18.3 9.0 9.3
0.0 0.0 .6 3.1 H.8 1.0 1.9 29.2 .* 6.6 0,0 0.4 71.3 36.9 37,1 33.9
0.0 3.8 6.2 11.* 1.8 17.2 11.3 9.8 10.0 0.0
1962-63 0.0 0.0 0.7 0,0 3.0 1.2 9.1 2.1 19.0 0.2
0.0 0.0 l.l 3.9 1.9 2.6 12.7 18.9 12.1
1*64-43 0.0 0.0 0.0 T 6.0 4.4 13.2 H.1 19.9 0,3
1963-66 1*66-67 1*67-68 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.9 T 0.0 0,0 8.9 1.7 3.5 1.0 9.* 5.9 1.9 13.1 3.6 9.9 3.0 l*.* 9.9 1.3 2.9 6.6 9.2 6.9 3.6 ll.l 2.9 3.0 T 0,0 0,0 0,0 44.9 *0.7 39.9 33.1 93.9
1968-69 0.0 0.0 0.* 5.8 6.9 t. *.2 11.2 1
1*69-70 0.0 0.0 0.0 31.2 5.1 S.l 0.9 0.3 20.5 6.1
1970- 71 1971- 72 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 9.9 17.2 0.0 5,9 3,1 9.7 9.2 1.9 19.9 0.9 8.4 9.9 8.6 10.9 12.1 ll.* 9.1 3.0 9.6 1.1 15.1 6.0 17.2 24.8 T 0.0 1.0 0,0 0,0 0,0 34.7 74,4 99.9 91.3 >3.7
0.0 0.0 2.1 9.3 30.8 8.2 10.8 12.8 H.8 7
1974-73 0.0 0.0 l. 1.0 11.9 2.1 3.6 9.0 16.3 10.9 6.1 0)0
1913-76 0.0 0.0 2.1 15.2 1,1 3.1 6.9 18.1 1.1 0.0 0.0 59.7 39.9 49.3
{976-77 0.0 0.0 7,2 4.3 1.1 2.6 3.1 9.6 9.1
1977.78 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.1 9.1 0.7 5.1 6.2 8.6
1978-79 0.0 0.0 T 2,7 6.9 1*.2
R2C0K0 I6M 0.0 0.0 l.T 1.8 T.T 6.9 T.f 1.1 12.6 .* r.t 1 99,0


STATION LOCATION
df.mvep, cou*Arr,
- - - - Henliun bIniv*
Sm Ground
Uval
L oca boo J "8 0. 1 2 1 t 3 e c c t % 111 a 5 £ ? t < s & Latitude North Lociyl! uda eat 1 S a a a b 11 IZ SI JS a jj v a * 5 % \ s a s e i 3 i 1 1 | 5 H 4 i I1 I1 i i j o 8 * 1 a 3 t CD b ? t c o L P E Re Marks
CTOTWTIVT
One or more locations 11/ ?/59 12/ 1/73 Voluntary observers, broken record.
cut
18th (formerly C Street) l Urlmr Streets 11/10/71 3/15/73 39* 45' 105* 00' 5177 51 e20 20 48 e Estimated.
Uoodwrd Building on Market (fcmxrly Holiday Street) between 15th. 8 16th Streets 3/15/73 11/30/75 400' Wv'W 39* 45' 105* 00* 5212 71 37 36 52
McCllntock Block 16th Street 11/30/75 7/01/77 350* ESC 39* 45' 105* 00' 5214 c70 c32 e32 e50 e Estimated.
Ih-oadwcll Block on Larimer Street 7/01/77 6/13/81 200' ENE 39* 45* 105* 00' 5214 80 45 44 60
Taber Block, 16th L Larimer Streets 6/13/81 12/01/87 200* wsw 39* 45* 105* 00* 5204 109 73 72 86
Pstterson 6 Thomas Block 17th 6 Curtis Streets 12/01/87 5/01/91 1100 ESE 39* 45' 105* 00* 5218 103 86 86 79
Clut Building 1700 Block an Arapahoe Street 5/01/91 10/01/95 375' N 39* 45* 105* 00' 5229 121 108 107 97 97
U. S. Post Office 16th 6 Arapahoe Streets 10/01/95 12/08/04 600' SV 39* 45' 105* 00' 5214 151 e79 a79 74 74 83 feet to 6/13/96.
Boston Building 17th 6 Champa Streets 12/08/W 1/29/16 800* E 39* 45* 105* 00' 5219 >172 129 128 119 119 b 136 feet to 3/1/10.
New Pest Office Building 19th 6 Stout Streets 1/29/16 Present 1000* ENE 39* 45' 105* 00' 5221 113 106 108 c9b d98 c98 c Removed 4/1/50. d Added 4/1/50.
/EIRPOFT
ttir.if tration Building apletcn Airfield 9/15/31 6/25/47 39* 46' 104- 53' 5292 59 46 46 5 42
-FAA Building Stapleton Airfield* Stapleton International Airpcrt 1(71/6** 6/25/47 5/07/69 0.3 mi.Km 39* 46' 104* 53* f 528 3 fJO 6 6 4 6 5 e5 e Coeciissloned 5200 feet ESE of thermometer site 8/1/60 f 5292 feet to 8/1/60. g 72 feet to 7/8/60. Featea mile data from 40 feet prior to 7/12/60.
W, E. Forecast Office Star-leton International Airport 5/07/69 Present 1.7 ml.ESE 39* 45' 104- 52' 5283 h20 5 5 4 4 4 h5 h Same site as prior to move of 5/7/69.
Subscription Price: $2.55 per year for nonthly data and annual summary. Foreign mailing $1.85 extra. Single copy: 20 cents for monthly or annua! issue. There is a mlnimxr. charge of S2.00 for each order of srielf-stocked issues of publications. Hake checks payable tc Department of Coamrrce, NCAA. Send payments, orders, and Inquires to Publications, National Climatic Center, Federal Building, Aaheville, NC 28801.
I certify that this is an official publication of the National Oceanic and National Climatic Center, Asheville, North Caroline 28801.
Director, National Climatic Center USCCW-NQAA-ASHEVILLE 1800
Atmospheric Admlni atret lor., and ie compiled from records on file at the
VtaZufp
US DEPARTMtNI Of COMMERCE NATIONAL CLIMATIC CENTER FEDERAL BUILDING ASHEVILLE. NC 28801
AN EQUAL OPPORTUNITY EMPLOYE ft
POSTAGE AND PEES AAlO U1 department os COMMENCE
210
FIRST CLASS


Meteorological Data ror The Current Year
Sut.on CHIMAPO ' STAPLE TON !NTt*tT|ONAl 4P Standard 11 m# uaad MOUNT AIN Latitude ** *3* N Longitude 10** 32 * W Elevation (ground) : *2* twi Y#^: 1|
2 >0*1
Month T *rxw* t\irs * f Peores davt Raw 65 *r Pvaripitetion in inetw. M.lathm hutri-Jitv. pet. Wind i I li t S u > 3 £ £ t n Number of dry. Wax tatwn (VTOt'IV mb
Avwagrt (itrtmn Wet*. eouiva'ant Snow. *oa cwPvti S X 03 1 11 (Iocs 1 17 tlm* 1 Nraullani I t. Q < E Fntrtt fit* Sun*44 to mmart |j li If I | t u t* II TamrwBtUr* *8
Mumnirn Minimum
J ; J fi £ | J 1 X i a s 6 O r I T 3 I 4- 11 o S i a 2 4- l! O r. S a X 21 s f o u Cl f I! i i 6 X O $ £$ f O Ibl is ll is b 5 f W wi "VV
J*N 37. 14.1 23.4 44 6 0 1 1206 0 0.27 0.13 1 3-16 5.3 2.3 23-24 69 33 34 66 04 1.0 3.4 74 MW 2* 69 6.4 6 4 16 6 1 0 2 0 4 21 i 14.9
Fri 42.7 20. 31.* hf> 24 7 17 J6 0 0 2 T 0.13 11-12 6.2 3.1 13-16 76 34 34 71 04 1.1 7.2 *8 NF 20 73 6.6 4 11 1 3 6 2 0 8 0 7 28 0 *.4
n 37.0 2t.6 4 3.3 77 31 -3 4 664 0 1.07 0.67 22-23 .6 4.3 2-1 60 39 13 31 34 0.6 8.1 27 W 16 84 6.4 9 8 14 a 4 2 1 0 1 13 2 >*.4
AM 63. t 36.4 3P. 3 8? 7 27 10 433 0 1.87 0.86 9 4.6 4.2 9 6* 38 33 31 2* 1.7 10.3 41 W 17 71 6.4 3 14 n 6 1 I 2 0 0 6 0 31.*
may 67.1 41.7 34.4 47 13 73 7 3 3' 12 3.46 1.12 30-1 13.3 8.9 3-6 64 *3 40 61 1* 1.7 4.1 44 58 16 65 6.1 4 8 14 12 1 3 l 0 0 2 0 33.4
JUN 0.6 31.1 66.4 41 24 41 1 87 132 l.P 0.44 4-3 0.0 0.0 63 19 14 34 16 2.0 7.9 38 N 7 67 3.7 10 9 u 7 0 7 0 11 0 0 u >-.3
JUl 0.4 3t.n 74.7 48 23 50 23 0 308 0.54 0.21 29 o.o 0.0 62 10 26 43 1* 1.4 .3 34 NW 16 71 4.1 12 14 3 3 0 11 1 22 0 0 c 8*8.1
At '0 IM 31.7 64.6 44 17 44 13 20 171 0.2* 0.11 2-3 0.0 0.0 63 31 1C 32 16 1.) 8.2 42 N 1 71 4.7 10 14 7 7 0 6 0 12 0 0 0 3>S.S
SM 1.7 48.7 64.0 6 4 6 37 71 96 103 0.0 7 0.07 19-20 T T 20 31 23 20 40 17 2.4 8.1 30 5 7 8 A 2.3 21 7 2 2 0 1 0 0 1 0
Of T 68.2 >7.9 33.1 1 78 23 366 2 1.43 1.7* 71-27 2.7 1.7 22 5* 31 78 49 16 0.4 7.2 26 NF 4 74 4.0 19 5 7 1 2 0 0 0 0 8 0 >4.3
NPV 44.1 21.7 37.8 78 8 27 811 0 0.3^ 0.34 25-26 6.4 4.8 23-26 66 43 46 6) 04 0.J 7.2 76 NW 28 46 6.0 1 1 6 13 3 2 0 4 0 3 24 c * 3 3,8
OfC 16.4 12.1 24.6 5* 4 -10 8 1243 0 0.87 0.38 3-6 1*.2 7.1 5-6 63 30 36 62 1 0.9 8.4 33 NF 4 72 3.1 10 10 11 7 4 0 1 0 9 >1 4 12.4
JUt OFC OCT MAY war
7 F AS 63.1 14.1 44.7 48 24 -10 8 6202 74* 11.70 1.2* 21-22 62.2 1,3 3-6 6* 40 38 36 16 0.6 8.0 34 5F 16 72 3.4 126 113 124 7* 21 4 20 32 31 T IP.*
Normals,
Means, And Extremes
Temperature. f Normal Dagrae dry. Bata 65 *f Precipitation In lnch* ReWtiv* humidify pet. Wind ? \ 2 M*n number 0< dm rjtor pramur*
Norm*) F.tramaa Water apuivaiant Snow, les pallet* 5 5 l Fatted mil* i f So nr*** to aunaat u 1 Tamcwrat Mav Ur** *F Mrv
f l X X 1 l i 5 \ * 1 Ibl {*
} 5 n r r 1 E k li 5 > E fc l| i; 05 11 17 II 1 C x! Is 5 L & o > £ If i f If u | 8 f 1 h 1. 1 1 y.)i
I si s 1 i I! 1 > 1! i > 1 J 1 J1 1 II 1 > j; > > j 1 1 a t > (l ocai tim. 1 1 t ii I t 1? o 1 £ li j 5? I is h *- h 5s t 5s 1 5si bi -vvl.
(1 44 4* 4 *4 4* 4* 44 18 18 18 18 10 13 16 It
J 43.1 16.2 27.7 71 17J 23 1761 1061 0 0.*1 1.44 1748 0.01 1632 l.Ot 1*62 21.7 1648 12,6 1*61 61 45 * 81 6.1 3 I) N 1*76 71 1.3 10 4 12 l 0 i e 1? 4 34,1
F 46,2 17.4 32.1 76 1*63 -10 1 7>6 702 0 0.63 1.66 1760 1770 1,01 1631 18.3 1460 9.3 1*51 66 41 * 2 84 6.3 S 49 NM 1*31 71 ll i 0 2 l
M 30. 21.8 37.0 4 1671 -11 174J 68 0 1.21 ... 1744 0.13 1743 1.48 1699 26.2 1461 16,1 1*52 67 *1 *0 81 10.0 3 1 N 1431 70 8.1 10 1) i 0 I* l :. j
A 61.0 31.7 47.3 3 1660 -2 177 J 323 0 1.63 4.17 1742 0.03 176 3.23 1*67 28.1 1413 17,1 1457 68 18 33 34 10.4 3 16 NW I960 87 8.1 7 10 11 1 i 0 II 32.4
n 70.1 4 > 6 77.0 in 164? 22 1734 231 0 2.6* 7.11 173< 0.08 167* 1.33 1671 11.6 1430 10,7 1*50 70 18 >6 80 6,6 S 14 li 1478 83 8.1 8 12 13 10 8 i a 1 0 I..J
J 80.| 31.7 46.0 104 1616 10 1631 0 110 . 4.67 164 f 0.10 1940 1.16 1670 0.1 1431 0.1 1*51 71 18 8 80 6.1 S 87 s 1438 71 1.1 11 8 0 10 a 8 0 0 1)8.1
J 7,4 38.6 71.0 104 1617 4 1 177| 0 X 6 1 1.78 .1 1663 0,17 1614 2.4? 1663 0.0 0.0 70 18 >3 37 l.l s 18 Iw 1*83 T1 8.* 9 1* 8 0 11 * 13 0 0 39.0
A 3,8 37.4 71.6 101 l 6 > 41 1764 0 20 1.26 4.47 1631 0.06 i960 1.41 1631 0.0 0.0 86 18 33 38 i.i s 2 N 1678 71 4.4 10 l* 7 0 l 10 0 0 31.t
1 77,3 47.8 62.1 67 1760 20 1771 1 to 1 4 1.1* 4.67 1661 T 194* 1.44 1616 11.) 1*16 19.6 1*16 89 18 >3 80 8.2 3 87 NS 1433 73 4.3 l) 10 7 f 1 X 1 0 31.'
0 66.8 17.2 72.0 1 5 6*7 > 1767 408 3 1.13 *.17 1646 0,03 1*62 1.71 1*47 31.2 1464 12.4 1*64 86 13 33 38 1.2 3 83 NS 1638 71 8.4 1* 8 1 1 1 0 6 9 H.l
N 3 > > 21.4 77.6 77 16*1 .8 1730 76| 0 0.76 2.77 1746 0.01 144* 1*26 1675 16.1 1446 13.3 1*46 81 44 *4 86 1.7 3 88 S 1682 83 4 11 9 10 2 a 1 0 u 13.8
0 46.1 18.7 32.6 74 L>. 1772 1006 0 0.61 2.84 177> 0.01 1*77 1.18 167J 30.6 1471 11.1 1675 81 44 o 64 6.0 3 31 N| 1631 88 ll 11 10 10 I 0 1 0 10 3 1)1.6
*18 v A 64.W 36.2 10.1 |l04 hio [1716 8016 623 13.31 7.11 M 7 3 f T [1444 1.33 l*U 36.1 14*6 16.6 1616 87 40 *0 l 6.0 3 18 IS 1*43 70 . 118 111 118 18 81 10 ) XI 4 811.8
Nan and ntrrMi above ara froa existing and comparable nipoiurn. Annual extremes have bean exceeded at other eitea In the locality aa followst Highest temperature 105 in August 1I7I saxiaiia monthly precipitation 1.57 in May 1I76 minimum monthly precipitation 0.00 in December 1881j maximum precipitation in 24 hours 4.53 in May 187i maximum monthly snowfall 57.4 in December 1613 maximum snowfall in 24 hours 23.0 In April 1885i fastest stile of wind 45 from Meat in May 1033.
(t) Length of record, yer, through the current yesr unless otherwise noted, bated on January data.
(b) 70* and above at Alaskan stations.
lest than one half.
T Trace.
*)W4Ai.S based on record for the 1441-1570 period.
MTC Of M EXTACSC The most recent In cases of nultlple occurrence.
fWVAtlJKG WHO 0IPfCTI0" Pecord through 1963.
WHO OIPECTIOS Mtmra1t Indicate tens of degrees clockwise from true north. 00 Indicates calm. fASTCST MlLC WHO Speed 1s fastest observed l-m1nute value when the direction 1s In tens Of degrees.


ENERGY GONSEVATION ALTERNATIVES
PASSIVE COLLECTOR CONCEPTS
Incidental Heat Traps
This method of passive collection can provide 25-60^ of heatinr requirements. Basically, though the use of south wall orientation to capture the sun in the winter and by using overhangs to shade the wall in the summer, heat is transmitted through the glass into the house. These surfaces absorb and re-radiate long wave radiation which cannot be transrcittedback through the glass, therfore the energy Is trapped and stored. Windows should be insulated from the inside at night to prevent heat loss. It is best to reduce the over-heating effect of the trapped radiation with heat storing materials such as concrete, brick, tile, stone or water.
A variety of purposes are served by this method Including: visibility, ventilation, natural illumatlon and heat collection.
Thermosiphcninc Walls/Roof
This is a primary method for moving captured heart to a point of use or storage.
This can be accomplished by using the solar heat trapped in airspaces in roofs and walls. When the tramped air temperature exceeds internal temperatures, it can b~ drawn off by forced air duct systems or by direct venting. The system works better with transparent roof or wall systems over the outside skin. Glass walls can be placed over an absorbing material,such as masonry, which has been painted dark to srve as heat storage. The air space between the masonry and class wall is vented to the interior at the top or rock storage elsewhere. A cold air return at the bottom of the wall in necessary to facilitate air circulation.


PASSIVE COLLECTOP CONCEPTS
Solar Ponds
This system uses water as a r.eans of heat storage.
Movable insulating panels are used to conceal or expose ponding devices located on the roof or in the walls of the structure. During the surr.ner, the panels are closed during the day, and sre opened at night to lose the heat to the cooler night sky. Inthe winter, the process is reversed, and the heat is radiated into the house and insulated by the panels in the evening.
ADVANTAGES 0? WARM-AIP PASSIVE SYSTEMS
* A system with electrical controls can be designed to operate manually in a power failure.
* Cost should be reduced through simpler technology and elimination of a separate collector.
* Collector serves multiple functions (can be a wall or roof).
DISADVANTAGES OF WARM-ATP PASSIVE SYSTEMS *
* May not be cost effective relative to warm air or water flat-plate collectors systems.
* Larger unobstructed areas are needed, to the south of the house for a vertical passi'-e collector than for a roof collector
* Hi scne clinates and for some passive systems, low winter sun
angles may be disturbing to the occupants.
* Potentially 1 ar?"' nighttime thermal losses from the collector if improperly ir.sulated.
* Some types require automatic or manual insulating devices which are eroe-sive a^d may require life style modification.
* Potential problems of occupant-privacy for passive systems, with large expanses of south facing glass.


ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVES
ACTIVE COLLECTOR CONCEPTS
The basic function of a solar system is the conversion of solar radiation into usable energy. Radiation is absorbed by a collector, placed in storage, with or without the assistance of a transport medium, ar.d distributed to the point of use. The performance of each oper?.tion is maintained and monitored by automatic or manual controls. An auxiliary energy system is usually available to supplement the output provided by the solar system and to provide for total energy demand if the solar system should become inoperable.
Warm-Water Flat-Plate Svstems
Solar heating using water as the neat transfer and storage medium is the most common system in use today. The basic components consist of a collector, storage, a system of piping, pumps, and controls for circulating water from the storage through the collector, and a distribution network for transferring stored heat to the dwelling space.
ADVANTAGES OF WARM-V *.TEP FLAT-PLATE SYSTEMS
* They have been proven repeatedIv to work well.
* Much less heat ex'-h^ge area Is ree\?ired than with an air system.
* The circulation of water uss jess ene^rv than the circulation of air with corresponding heat content.
* Piling, as opposed to ductwork, uses little floor snace, is easily interconnected, and can be routed easily to remote places.
* Water is a cheap and efficient heat transfer and storage medium.


disadvantages op warm-water flat-plate systems
* High Initial cost, particularly when expensive prefabricated collectors are- explored. However, the total -svstew cost nya^y be lowered with the use of large areas of lowere efficiency collectors.
* Leakage jrnjfwhere in the system car cause considerable amounts
damage to the system and, the dwelling.
* Contamination of the domestic hot water supply is possible if a leak allows treated water storage to enter the domestic water system.
* Care must be taken to prevent the occurrence of corrosion, scale, or freeze-up capable of causing damage or blockage.


APPENDIX I


11 OMMUNITV HIChAhCW 0= SPACC5
*>E*4S>E.
EHT&Y
FEPE.4
I VZtllCALAZ JC.\Z(MUC
(VLH
OF
t>Yl&LUN0
qNfr
!
! PtlRL|C
T
S2AA PU&UC
PRIVATE


n cmnuWITY HimAhCiiY or DPA
CCVA/AON FA-rip tW. UMIt P0PCH
PE PE circulation.
P/A&fSJNG


OCCmUNITY INTEnACTI^N

r 1
Ov/.
patio i


,4 C0W1NITY INTERACTION


OUTDOOR CPACVb
1-5 COAftUNITY MtNlTID
PLAY AhEA
tot lcto
PLAY &hOUMD7 0PLN PLAYHLLDb liAflD SPACED OOUftTI?
o?m v?ha
PICNIC APiPA'b PtfAPL /^M. TOHVPh^ATI^M AFitA
MAIL, LA^NPhY-TOC/NGE,
0 &A/AE n/A.,t^Lh *XOWJt,
g chAfT m,mtVNo iv\,
^ 0f f ICE, NLIh^PW- mi CAh£,
£1 CAWTE-CH, MAINTENANCE,
fT % DOAPiP,,.. YAhltTY IN CLLJ5TE 8 ADD I NTOPiE^T!


I (o DIVEhtJlTY OF UNWo
2,3,4.5 NO. S 0F&20ftM5
HOMOGENEOUS DEVE.
MIXED deve.


17 CCWVJNITY DENSITY
WWNDAME4? At>5ISf TO PEPIMC SpACE-S PHYSICAL
0?ZGLUZ 0K TXANSP^MMT PLANTING &DC5Eb>,DW.LIHlT t>OUMDAME5 lb WALL bOOte'Vl iNDOWb.
50-60 64WIT5 /ACRE 10-15 LIMITS / /NcSlCC. LESS
LAR6E OPEN SPACE / OPEN SPACE. INTERACTPN
F055IPLE RESTRICTED OUTSIDE
intemoi^ interaction.


1-& CO\NJNlTY -bOJMDAh!E-t>
COMMON. PAW DW- UNITS POtetl
toM poeuc JPMI penmt PWVAT& b&Ml RWftLIC
* j > l
PEP*.
CIWZ4LA-
-TIOM

PW6LIC
---f-----


2-1 CHILD t>LIPtNVIDI(9M:
CONTACT P-EAUIKED PHYSICAL AUDITOP.Y 4 VISUAL
CONTACT CONSTANT SUPERVISION
PHYSICAL VI56IAU AUDITOR
AGE yEARS... o
CLOtt i .. pwjKwAny
C-OrAMON plaY6ocwd city
NEI&HAOU&HftD PtAY
15
2-2 t>£!FEhVlt>l0N OF PLAY' AFrPA'b
CLOSE. /hEMOTE 0VtP)VW OF PLAY AREA'S VISUAL & AUhAL CONTACT TOT LOTS
VISUAL CONTACT OPEN PLAY FIELD.


?!>
pohcn
INDOOPl-OUTPOOh
OVEPiVIE-W fl->OA\ OMIT.

> PATIO


31 otCUNT'i cvtn/\ivi
PJtmtVI EXTEMOh >FACEt> CJWIT.


3-2 iZCUNTi' OVE-PiVttW
OVERVIEW 5EMI Rue>WC \ PPilVATE FftOM S>lt>£ £>F ONIT
¥ n r £>epp>m.-. UVINO 1 1 O- tn 2 TO *> STOP,IBS MAXIMUM, FOP) CX/fcPiVIEW.
COMMON PATIO DW> UMJ7 popich
peFBNPAC?te *5f^CE


3>3 tccannv CNtrWZY!
HieH-Ll6HTlMO MOST EFFECTIVE WHEN viOlWED WtTh A HlOti ^ENt>E OP CVtKVl&W.
V^tKh TEWCENCV WiA|(j*IT £. 5T|\ON<3> FtfM) IOENi
^VEhVIEW TENDENCY fOPi OVERVIEW IN U)U/ hl^E .


M OE-CmiTY U6HTIM6
l ^
A
APiEA LiOHTlM^
f 1 END'S OF &LPC>.
A'v
UNIT r \ \ )
( \ v_ \ \ /
J V_A_y
/' ( \ N 1 y
( A £ i
oarocvh nxranzs
fOFl EACH ONIT.


30 5E.OJP-1ITY LObb\L3
FUbLlC
(£0/AM^NlTY O??ICES
cymUNiry ^fpices
CCW/AEAC1AL AtoftA
F.MANAMA /MAINTENANCE OVERVIEW toOTH UtofclES
MMNT/MNAcE
Pf PUBLIC ^ ffilVATE SPACE5 |S PiE.QOlAED 70 PtoESEPiVE 0£fAUT WfcU- PEFIMED SPACES tttCOOfAi USE nAWvlAU eh^CILD toE.
Pl£S>lWENT ,P6lhAtoLE. <5 ATTP?ACri
fi ESI. ACTIVITIES
fiESIPENTIAL UDtotoY WITH VEPfTICAU TtoANSptfPfTATItfN.


4-1 MAINTENANCE nK>fWt>IHUTY.
PEFINE. LIMITS OF PSESlPENT'S PresPoWSHblUTY.
FM6LIC
AESfWSlftLlTY
---------i-
FEDC .
CIFiC£4 ia-
tion.
FAANN
FUfbUC
PiESRONSI /'bJUTW'
MAINTAINABLE :
OF P46LIC AMP PRIVATE- SPACES IS ftEtfUIFiCP TO PAESCftVE Qli^IT WELL hEPT 5 WELZ- -PEF/NCD SP*C* ENGOUAAGC. £/SC AlATEAnAL SHOLfL ftESlUENT £>a*,AtSLfi & ATTIVC SFtASS IS MO*T EFF£CTI\/e iEASIL FjEffP 6ft06iND OOVET^.H/VnO SLAf FA\/)N

/AAIMTAINANCE
A T£V£L0PP\£NT'5 ffrinz A^ET
/AAmTAINfcD..
NATIVE VeGCTATIdN.
*
v V.
' 't
\l\IIHH|llil| M IMtlMItf ||||#|l|
CONC. WAVh

AATthlALt)
AT=iE MMEIMAU*5> WHICH CAM ££ C^5>ILY


5-1 ret>R?wt>iv£M£ to 5>ohPioaMaM ate
^CMOOl-
^ f*iEtlDtNTIAL
--------------


3-2 ft^ttNTIAL IPENTITY
THE AHCHITECTUhAL FPMM 5 ttVE.UTMtNT A1AT bE SYMPATHETIC OP, COMTAAST wrm EXISTING NEIOttfcOUAHCWP IDENTITY at LA-S CASITAS. -SCALE fe UOtIT MUST fo£ COMPATIBLE. WITH EKISTiWC= E PAOft)>eD AAEAS.
CCNTAA3TIN&


6-1 UVADIUTY fOT£-NTlAL
APAPTlfrlt-VW CHOICE OF ON IT SIZE COPE FiEQUIftEPIENT fOR PIPiE SEPA RATION &
PAhTV WALLS
EOUIND LEVEL USED A5 PART OP UNIT OR SEP-Aft ATE d/iwrr.


G-2 UVADIUTY ADAPTABILITY
VAAY SIZ-E e>Y JJMITEP fntflwzuM0.
FLEXIBILITY : FREEDOM OF CHOICE


UVAblLlTY
FLEAlfrlLlTY
DININ6 fti/A. ft FAMILY f,V\
.T^.r nm ,
H'T-
1-4*
Living ftM.4p OA FAWLV ftM
PftlVACY
I
1 L <- inpii/ip^alS veay rftlVATE SPACE.

<- FAMILY
PApo I cwtUJMe unit


P*M>ONAMZAT10N
P&SI6N TO CREATE. INDfVIDLiAL SENSE OF IDENTITY TO LIMIT FLAM OFFSETS, EL-EVATI ON 5 COLOf^ TE*TORE WATER) IAL-<£ VARIETY, 0>P ARRAN GE/1EMT5
fi£S DENT OPPORTUNITY FOR EXTERIOR)
PATIO PWEUlNO OMIT
PERSONALIA &Y PLANT/M a YAAP PEOOPvATION
H1<3H FUSE. PO not pfAvfc 1?ffcSE OPfiofiTuN11


6-5 LIVAblLITY
ouiboopy spaces iw H\6>n fuse appohTctHty &2M6 COAAAON C>£iT£>O0p\ SPACE.
fc>ALCCNV at eACh fU^PA



mtrisy erncitNCV
WATPMAU iH^LATIOM POUblE GIAZIN %EAUANT5 £ WEATHEPi STFilPf
DRAPEAIEA
rt-
tOdJfeLE LAzliM^^EtALANT^ <5. I. IT Vs/tATHEfi -5TMFFIN.


ENtfrCH EFFICIENCY
ORIENTATION ^>hADIW<5 OF OLAZfNO* <£ THEPiANAL /AAS*=>.
O SUMMED StfAPINa
/
VlMTEFi HEAT <3AlM.


73 ENE.F16V Efficiency
TEChUOLOey \ ACTIVE g PASSIVE SO|_AEi ENEPiOY.
ACTIVE
PASSIVE


74 tffiCieNCV
MNt>^CAHN-


:M ACCt^t>lblUTY
fUANNEP F£>h EACti HAMOIOAflPED OMIT.
fttrwovoicoY
JpENTIf^f PI5A&ILITY TO te
AcCQtAOP,ATEp
AHTH^O?OMETrilC OP
eetECTEP pisAwunes
4*
PhV^ICAU PiESWEMENT EQUIPMENT PlEOUIPiEWNT KATtruM. h&zuihmtNT.
iMPAiPi/neKT or
VISION
HEAPilNa
MO&ILITV
Balance:
oooadjnatioN
^ENSATfOM
PIET
Aa/Na
P/^EA^E
AccipEMT
&IPTTH EFFECT


6-2 ACCE-5blblUlTY
TfPlCAU 4 Pi. 2 3T0
TO IAP\0E fcLV&.
WITH LANDSCApiNCb ACCE*jS|^E TOA HAND!CAPPE"D> TO /W0ID ^E^AECaATlON.
<4 Oh. pl/ellino UNIT
AOCP^IgplUTY
OOftNEFi MMIT MTH CDWT6IDE
PiAAf


&-Z ACCE^lfblUTY
SHAWN# or FACILITIES. SE-NIOPi CITIZEN APT. &Lt?. CL.0SE JO HANOI CAPFJP LIU 17.
stwet? seam pcs>lic ociTt?o0i*i space
nAHPicAPPtjp Access towapips Activity
FACILITIES


TIME/TAt>h Fh6>Cs5!)
JAN TO AAh APh MAY jzjne. JOY Acie WW OCT N0V WO JAW TO MAPI APPi MAY J4NE
IN(7 5)2 5a AMO* 1 3 fall .52 Sf fMlW£ ? <55
FÂ¥iOl IPE.K >LE/A rtfICAl IOM
PATA OATi EfiINk s
PiE*M ATiCH AN/ LY5I5
PEVEL 0P/AEN M CKi T OF TEAlA
PE y ALTf avjat/ /E5
fTiEFJ AXTELf- AFjED i NATIVE PfiE5 PfitP; ilMTATi M^AXfc ?N M.
6 ?^APtr r ^ JOf-'P MAL T+itsr > PPiE3 -EN7A ION
rhi>JE casITAV i t>UlCWT PAUAVl JHAVfcfil! INATWCTOPi'- PAJP EP. &EWPA.
!


:ELDERLY HOUSING:
NEEDS: SQ.FT
*UNITS
600 SQ. FT./B.R. x 160 Units Total/SQ.FT. 96,000
*ANCILLARY SPACE
Entry Vestibule 320
Lobby 1,500
Mail Room 150
Lounges 2,250
Health Room 1,020
Caretaker Apt. & Storage 744
Public toilets 288
Residential Storage @ 12 Sq. ft./Unit 1,920
Janitors closets (60 sq. ft. ea @ 12 firs.) 720
Mechanical Equipments @ 1% of floor area 1,300
Trash Rooms 150
Electric and Telephone room 70
Total SQ.FT. 10,432
Commercial Space Total SQ.FT. 5,000
^Exterior Space
Parking Residential (.33 sp./Unit) (160 x .33) x 350 Sq. ft./car 18,480
Visitors 12 spaces 4,200
Commercial space 1 sp/500 sq.ft. 10 sp. 350
Common Outdoor space @ 655 sq.ft./Unit 10,400
Service (3 loading berthe @ 160 sq.ft.) 480
Total SQ.FT. 37,060
:HEALTH CLINIC:
NEEDS:
Reception room records 1,000
G.P. Waiting 300
G.P. Sub Waiting 100
G.P. Consulting (3x150) 450
G.P. Examination (3x100) 300
G.P. Treatment 300
G.P. Secretaries 150
Dental Surgeon Waiting 300
D.S. Office (2x100) 200
D.S. Surgery (2x200) 400
Recovery 200
Lab & Dark Room 300
X-ray 200


:HEALTH CLINIC: (Con't.)
NEEDS: SQ.FT
Opthalmic Waiting 200
Op. Office 100
Op. Examination 200
Audiology 300
Chiropody 300
Creche 500
Creche cloaks & Restrooms 200
Speech Therapy 200
Children Waiting (Semi/Outdoor) 400
Pediatric Consulting 200
Pd. Examination 100
Offices-
Superintendent Secretary 150
Adminis trator 150
Director Social Service 150
G.P./Social Worker/Health Visitor 150
Interview 200
Nursing Officer 100
Medical Officers 500
Nurses Common room 200
Staff Cloaks 200
Staff Common room 500
Conference room 1,000
Staff toilets 200
Health Education 1,000
Health Visitors 500
Public Restrooms
Men 250
Women 250
Telephones, Typist 300
Incinerator 150
Caretaker's Apt. 900
Plant 300
Lounge & Cafeteria 2,000
Swimming pool 3,500
Lounge, restroom 600
Gymnasium 2,000
Library 2,000
Lecture Hall 2,000
Study and recreation 600
Circulation Corridors 3,250
Total SQ.FT. 30,000
Exterior Space:
Health Clinic parking Space 350 sq.ft./space
Doctors 6 spaces 2,100
Nurses, Secretaries, other staff 25 spaces 8,750
Patients 44 spaces 15,400
Total SQ.FT. 26,250


:LOW RISE SINGLE FAMILY HOMES:
NEEDS:
*UNITS SQ.FT.
Total Units 80 x (1300 Sq. Ft. each) 104,000
EXTERIOR SPACE:
Visitor parking 15 spaces 5,250
Residents parking 80 spaces 28,000
137,250
Total/SQ.FT.


Westside Health Center Met Space Allocation Page 2.
DEPARTMENT PROGRAM INITIALLY IN SQ.FT. CURRENT BUDGET SQUARE FEET PROGRAM ENHANCEMENT SIZE-SQ.FT. POTENTIAL NET INCREA FROM BUDGE SQUARE FEE
c Speech/Audio 905 150 150 -0-
O.B./GYN 2,500 1,000 i ,500 500
Teen 1,875 1,575 1,575 -0-
w Dental 3,475 2,000 2,800 800
Eye 980 -0- -0- -0-
Lab. 1.240 990 1,200 210
X-Ray 1,225 975 1,200 225
Adult Counsel 2,495 300 620 320
c Ped. Counsel 1,200 300 300 -0-
Administration 1,240 840 840 -0-
Staff Areas 1,860 1,000 1,500 500
Supply 1,460 1,000 1,500 500
Maintenance 530 500 500 -0-
C.N.S. 2,685 -0- -0- -0-
Net Sq.Ft. Total 46,715 22,695 1 28,530 +6,005
Gross Sq.Ft.Total 71,869 34,915 1 44,154 1 +9,239
COST
Projecting the construction cost to a proposed bid date in 1982 would indicate
at figure of Ninety Dollars ($90.00) per square foot


/
WESTS IDE HEALTH CENTER NET SPACE ALLOCATION
November 1981
PRELIMINARY RESOLUTION OF NET DEPARTMENT SQUARE FOOTAGE
DEPARTMENT PROGRAM INITIALLY IN SQ.FT.
Admissions 2,340
Medical Records 2,250
Business Office 300
Patient Advocate 330
Education 810
Nutrition 600
Social Work 960
Nursery 595
Transportation 610
Security 90
Pharmacy 1,080
Communications 80
Patient Areas 1,500
Adult 4,390
Geriatrics 1,395
Physical Therapy 1,210
Pediatrics 4,505
CURRENT BUDGET SQUARE FEET PROGRAM ENHANCEMENT SIZE-SQ.FT. POTENTIAL NET INCREASE FROM BUDGET SQUARE FEET
1,600 1,600 -0-
1,600 2,000 400
300 | 300 | -0-
150 150 -0-
-0- -0- -0-
100 100 -0-
100 100 -0-
-0- 200 200
-0- -0- -0-
90 -0- -0-
650 1,000 350
80 -0- -0-
500 1,000 500
3,390 3,390 -0-
-0- 1,000 1,000
-0- 500 500
3,505 l 3,505 -0-
EXGELKE ARCHITECTS
l\(l. BOX 2I.VI2
I > K N V K R, ('< I ,< IK AI >() X022I 0f>02 A I A


APPENDIX II



\ MILE Mj
19th
6th Ave.
LAND USE

Single Family Commercial Parks a Recreation Vacant E
Multi-Family Industrial Public 8 Semi-Public (SO
£
D
(/)
'a
m
i


CHARACTERISTICS:
1970 1960 1950 Change 1970 of Denver 1960 % of Denver
70-60 Total Total
1. POPCLAXICH TOTAL 3095 100.0 4138 100.0 3699 -25.2 0.6 0.8
Race White 2663 86.0 3701 89.4 * -28.0 0.6 0.8
Span!eh-Surname 2212 71.5 2344 56.6 -5.6 2.6 5.4
lack 263 8.5 365 8.8 * -27.9 0.6 1.2
Other 169 5.5 72 1.7 * 134.7 1.8 1.4
*2S 0-4 years 538 17.4 879 21.2 -38.8 1.3 1.6
5-17 years 1271 41.1 1534 37.1 -17.1 1.1 1.4
18-34 years 632 20.4 886 21.4 -28.7 0.4 0.8
35-64 years 494 16.0 617 14.9 -19.9 0.3 0.4
65+ years 160 5.2 222 5.4 -27.9 0.3 0.4
Gmx
Wales 1441 46.6 1922 46.4 * -25.0 0.6 0.8
Females 1654 53.4 2216 53.6 * -25.4 0.6 0.9
Marital Status Single 481 30.2 493 24.2 e -2.4 0.5 0.6
Married 829 52.0 1309 64.3 * -36.7 0.4 0.6
Widowed a Divorced 283 17.8 233 11.4 e 21.5 0.5 0.5
Household Relationship Heads of Households 737'^ **e -882 ** -16.4 0.4 0.5
Head of Primary Family 620 84.1 764 86.6 e -18.8 0.5 0.6
Primary Individual 117 15.9 118 13.4 * -.8 0.2 0.3
ducation (Persons 25+ Years)
Ho School Years Completed 89 *e 101 #* e -11.9 2.9 3.0
Years 123 *+ 312 #* * -60.6 0.4 0.7
13 Years 150 +* 127 ** e 18.1 0.2 0.2
College (4 or more Years) 6 +* 28 ** -78.6 0.0 0.1
Median 8.5 * 8.3 *# 2.4 68.6 68.6
Mobility
Same Residence (5+ Years) 1015 42.0 1118 35.9 * -9.2 0.5 0.6
Different Residence (Latest S Years) 1404 58.0 1999 64.1 # -29.8 0.6 0.8
Labor Force (Civilian)
la Labor Fores 599 43.0 747 36.8 * -19.8 0.3 0.4
Msployed 562 93.8 636 85.1 * -11.6 0.3 0.3
Champlayed 37 6.2 111 14.9 -66.7 0.4 1.5
Hot in Labor Force 795 57.0 1281 63.2 -37.9 0.5 0.9
Employment Type Commercial 151 25.2 202 31.8 e -25.3 0.2 0.4
Industrial 253 42.2 275 43.2 * -8.0 0.4 0.4
Public C Quasi-Public 89 14.9 66 10.4 34.9 0.2 0.2
Income of Families 9 0-5 3999 328 54.0 557 73.3 * -41.1 1.9 1.9
4000- 5999 121 19.9 124 16.3 e -2.4 0.9 0.4
6000- 7999 76 12.5 57 7.5 33.3 0.4 0.2
000- 9999 23 3.8 18 2.4 e 27.8 0.1 0.1
lOOOO- 14999 44 7.3 4 0.5 a 1000.0 0.1 0.0
15000+ 15J 2.5 0 0.0 * 0.1 0.0
Median (Family) 3690.0 ** 2802 *+ 31.7 38.2 44.0
Median (Family £ Unrelated Inds.) 3122.0 ** 2507 #* e '24.5 45.1 50.8
* not mlltblt
** not applicable


SUN VALLEY
1970 1960 1950 l 0'iai n|(. 1970 \ oi (K.tivir i960 t ol I>ciiv>r
1 % 1 II 70-1.0 Tot a 1 Total
2. housing unit:; TOTAL 74G 100.0 91/ 100.0 934 -18.6 0.4 0.5
Units in Gtruirturcs
One Unit 504 67.6 890 97.1 -43.4 0.4 0.8
2-9 Units 230 30.8 27 2.9 * '1S1. 9 0.6 0.1
10 or More Units 12 1.6 0 0.0 * ft 0.0 0.0
Year Built
1960-1970 19 2.6 ** H ** ** 0.1 **
1950-1959 207 27.8 428 46.7 ** -51.6 0.4 0.9
1940-1949 140 18.8 206 22.5 * -32.0 0.5 0.9
1939 or Earlier 380 50.9 283 30.9 * 34.3 0.5 0.3
Plumbing Condition
Sound 733 98.3 728 79.4 547 0.7 0.4 0.5
Lacking Plumbing 13 1.7 189 20.6 387 -93.1 0.2 1.0
Persons Per Koom
1.00 or Less 511 69.3 522 59.2 * -2.1 0.3 0.3
1.01 or More 226 30.7 360 40.8 * -37.2 2.2 2.6
Autcnobiles Available
Units with no Autos 393 53.3 422 47.8 * -6.9 1. 1 1.1
Units with Autos 344 46.7 460 52.2 -25.2 0.2 0.4
Occupancy
Owner-Occupied 66 8.8 166 18.1 J03 -60.2 0.1 0.2
Renter-Occupied 671 89.9 716 78.1 593 -6.3 0.7 0.9
Vacant 9 1.2 35 3.8 17 -74.3 0.1 0.4
Value
5 0-S9999 40 71.4 100 71.4 * -60.0 0.5 0.3
10000-14999 10 17.9 28 20.0 * -64.3 0.0 0.1
15000-19999 2 3.6 8 5.7 * -75.0 0.0 0.0
20000-24999 3 5.4 0 0.0 * ft 0.0 0.0
25000+ 1 1.8 4 2.9 * -75.0 0.0 0.1
Mean 9800 #* 8500 #* 4079 15.3 50.3 57.0
Rant
5 0- 59 443 70.4 611 86.3 -27.5 2.8 2.4
60- 79 145 23.1 81 11.4 * 79.0 0.8 0.5
80- 99 28 4.5 12 1.7 * 133.3 0.2 0.1
100-149 13 2.1 4 0.6 * 225.0 0.1 0.0
150-199 0 0.0 0 0.0 * 0.0 0.0 0.0
200+ 0 0.0 * * * 0.0 *
Naan 55 #* 45 ** 24 22.2 51.9 63.4
3. DENSITY
Parsons per Gross Acre 7.6 ** 10.1 *# 9.0 -25.2 93.3 130.0
Persons per Residential Acre 238.1 #* 65.7 *+ * 262.5 926.0 225.3
H.U.s per Gross Acre 1.8 +* 2.2 ## 2.3 -18.7 59.8 81.8
B.U.s per Residential Acre 57.4 #* 14.6 ** 294.3 592.8 141.6
Persons per H.U. 4.2 ** 4.5 #* 4.0 -8.1 156.0 159. S
Land Use Zoning Actual Value % of Denver Total
(Acres) (Acres) (000s)
(In Use) (Vacant) $ Per Zoning Act.
1 9 Acre Land (Occ) (Vac) Value
4. LAND (1970)
TOTAL 409 100.0 296 100.0 36 100.0 25302 100.0 61863 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.6
Zn Parcels 296 72,4 296 100.0 36 100.0 25302 100.0 85480 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.6
Residential 13 3.2 43 15.2 0 0.0 758 3.0 58308 0.1 0.2 0.0 0.0
Single-Family 9 2.2 0 0.0 0 0.0 572 2.3 63556 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0
Multi-Family 4 1.0 45 IS. 2 0 0.0 186 0.7 46500 0.2 0.5 0.0 0.0
Coaaercial 34 8.3 11 3.7 3 8.3 3673 14.5 108029 0.9 0.4 0.4 0.5
Industrial 115 28.1 217 73.3 33 91.7 9141 36.1 79487 1.2 2.7 1.7 1.9
Public 6 Quasi-Publie 55 13,5 +* ** ** ** 6322 *5.0 ** 0.9 kk kk 0.8
Parks and Recreation 43 10.5 23 7.8 0 0.0 4536 17.9 kk 1.5 0.2 0.0 10.1
Vacant 36 8.8 kk ** ++ *+ 872 3.5 24222 0.5 kk ** 0.8
In Streets s Highways 113 27.6 ** ** kk irk kk ** kk 0.8 kk kk kk
not avallabia


SUN VALLEY
SOUND ADEOUATE ENDANGERED BLIGHTED
OVERALL CONDITION
1970 Rank 1960 Rank * O
Housing Lacking Plumbing 1- Hojs.ng (Cna- 4 . Jr!, m : > O
Housing Built Pre-1940 2i o <
Housing Rent 3 ar
Housing Value 4 > o -
Housing Overcrowding 5' > 8
Auto Availability 6 > l \
Education Level 8
Unemp ioyment 8- 4 > o -
Median Family Income 9- * 1 > .
Crime Rate 10 -
Infectious Disease Rate 11-
Voter Registration 12'
Family Welfare 13' t
Child Welfare 14' <>
Old Age Assistance 15' 4
(Excellent) (Good) CITY' NORM (Fair) (Poor)
RANK(NEIGHBORHOOD#) 1 18 35 53 70
LEGEND:
1970 Condition = (better than) or (worse than) City norm. 1970 Rank = 1960 Condition = (worse than) City norm. 1960 Rank =0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15


PUBLIC AND QUASI-PUBLIC FACILITIES INVENTORY SUN VALLEY
TYPE OF FACILITY ADDRESS SITE OTHER INFORMATION INFORMATION
Public Facilities Parks and Recreation Mile High Stadium 20th Ave. and Clay 32.70 Ac.
Rude Park 13th Ave. and Decatur 10.50 Ac.
Rude Recreation Center 2855 W. Holden PI. (Incl. with Aff.-P. & R. Rude Park)
Education Fairview Elementary 2715 W. 11th Ave. 4.35 Ac. 975/833/850
Health Community Mental Health Team 990 Federal N/A
Westside Health Center 990 Federal N/A
Other Municipal Las Casitas-Sun Valley Homes 999 Decatur 39.77 Ac. 604 units


I. NEIGHBORHOOD OVERVIEW
LAND USE PATTERN (1970): Mixed OVERALL CONDITION (1970): Endangered
CONDITION (1960): Blighted N TREND (1960-1970) : Improving slightly An industrial neighborhood with pockets of public, recreational, and commercial development. A small residential section developed mostly prior to 1940 has been more recently augmented by public housing. Little recent construction activity -mostly industrial. Most of the residential enclave in the middle of the neighborhood is blighted.
I. NEIGHBORHOOD DESCRIPTION Population
Sun Valley is one of the smallest neighborhoods in Denver, both in total area (409 acres) and population (3,095). After a slight increase in population between 1950-1960, the area experienced a substantial decline between 1960-1970.
The neighborhood is predominantly White. After a very small loss during the 1960s, Chicanos still account for approximately seventy percent of the total. Anglos account for about fifteen percent, after a net loss of nearly 1,000 during the same period. Blacks also had a net loss of 100, and now account for nearly nine percent, while other races increased to nearly six percent.
School age children represent by far the largest single age category, as in 1960. The proportion of this group and infants remained far above the City norm in 1960 and 1970. All age groups experienced decreases since 1960. Family household size is significantly higher than the City average, and families continue to represent more than four-fifths of the households. The number of persons living in the same home for five years or more is only two-fifths of the total.
This has not changed substantially since 1960, and suggests relative instability.
The median education level is, and has been, considerably below the City average slightly beyond an eighth grade education. A high proportion of adults have had no schooling, and almost none are college graduates.
Unemployment is higher than in most of Denver's neighborhoods, but has declined substantially since 1960. The median family income is, and has been historically, the lowest of any neighborhood in Denver little more than one-third of the City median. More than half of all families are below the $4,000/year poverty level.


Housing
Sun Valley is one of the smallest neighborhoods in terms of total housing units (746). The number of housing units in Sun Valley has been decreasing since 1050. Since 1960 the total number of housing units decreased twenty percent, reflecting a loss of nearly half the single-family units, and a smaller net increase in multi-family units. Most.of the still predominantly single-family housing stock was built prior to 1940, and the multi-family public housing stock was built between 1940-1960. Many older housing units have been converted to multifamily. Less than two percent lacked some plumbing which was considerably lower than normal for the City. Overcrowding is much greater here than in the City as a whole. Although the number of overcrowded units decreased slightly during the 1960's, nearly one-third of all units remain overcrowded. Although the number of homes in which residents had no automobiles decreased during the 1960's,more than half the homes have no automobile.
Renter-occupied hemes are, and have been, predominant in the neighborhood, accounting for about ninety percent of all units in 1970. Owner-occupied units have decreased significantly and represent less than ten percent of the total. Vacant units represent a negligible percentage of the stock.
The average value of single-family homes was far below the City norm in both 1960 and 1970. With an average value only half the City norm, it was one of the lowest among all City neighborhoods. Nearly three-fourths of all units are valued less than $10,000. Mean rent during the same period remained far lower than the City average. With an average rent only half that for the City, it was the lowest among City neighborhoods.(Rental units are mostly public housing.) Nearly three-fourths of the units rent for between $0-59, and there are very few that rent for more than $100 per month.
Land Use
Land use is primarily industrial and public. The concentrated residential section in the area has a residential density much greater than the City average. This residential area is located in the center of the neighborhood and is surrounded by both heavy industrial and commercial uses. There is some vacant land available almost all in the industrially zoned category.
The actual use of land and zoning patterns are poorly correlated. Seme commercial uses are located in industrial zones, as are numerous housing units.
The neighborhood's total value per acre is below the City norm. Most of the taxable value of land and structural improvements is concentrated on industrial properties, and the per acre value is higher here than for comparable acreage around Denver. Among major categories of land use, only vacant land is more valuable per acre than comparable City-wide acreage.
Economic Activity
Sun Valley is relatively large in terms of the number of jobs generated in the area and has increased moderately since 1960. Industrial and commercial employ-menu are predominant, and have both increased substantially since 1960.


:i. NEIGH MORI IOOD ANALYSIS Condition Indicators
The-overall condition of Sun Valley in 1970 was endangered, which is a substantial improvement since 1960. Although Sun Valley ranks as one of Denver's most blighted neighborhoods in terms of most housing and socio -economic problems, there has been great improvement in plumbing and employment.
Present Activity
Const. Value (000's)
Single- Multi-Family Family
$30 $6
Comm Ind Public Park Total
$23 $135 $194
Total construction in Sun Valley during 1970-71 was small. More than half was related to industrial development, with most of the remainder going to singlefamily and commercial. This activity suggests a continued trend toward industrial development.
"V. NEIGHBORHOOD PROJECTIONS
1960 % Change 60-'70 1970 % Change 70-'80 1980*
Population 4138 -25 3095 -22 2400
Households 882 -16 737 -19 600
Persons/HousehoId Employment 4.7 3287 32 4.2 4312 30 4.0 5600
*1980 projections are based exclusively on historic and current trends.
Population and Households
A large decrease in total population is projected for 1980, along with a somewhat smaller decrease in total number of households. During the 1970's, the number of persons per household is expected to decline, but at-~a slower rate than in the earlier decade, following a City-wide trend. The level will still be among the highest for Denver neighborhoods.
Employment
A large increase in employment is anticipated for Sun Valley between 1970 and 1980, continuing the trend that occurred during the 1960's. Employment gains are likely for wholesaling, warehousing, trade, and public employment, which will each be major sources of employment.
G


Senior Hi- Rises
The Housing Authority constructed between the years of 1954 and 1971 six Senior Hi-Rises to accommodate approximately 700 Seniors over the age of 62 years of low- and moderate-in come. All buildings are located near transportation and have recreation centers within their buildings whose programs are available to the surrounding community. A waiting list of approximately 500 persons is maintained consistently demonstrating a continuing need for housing for the elderly.
Name No.
WALSH MANOR Colo. 1- 14
HIRSCHFELD TOWERS Colo. 1 -15
BARNEY FORD HEIGHTS Colo. 1 16
MULROY APARTMENTS Colo. 1- 17
WILLIAMS STREET Colo. 1 20
WALSH MANOR ANNEX Colo. 1 21
Location Occupied Units Popula- tion
1790 West Mosier PI. 12-30-65 99 127
333 W. Ellsworth Ave. 12-31-67 250 290
2024 Clarkson Street 6 30-68 100 105
3550 West 13th Avenue 3-31-70 49 54
1710 Williams Street 9-30-71 100 126
1775 West Mosier PI. 9-30-71 100 114
M


Name No. Location Occupied Units Popula- tion
LAS CASITAS HOMES Colo. 1-1 999 Decatur Street 3-31-43 184 634
LINCOLN PARK HOMES Colo. 1-2 1449 Navajo Street 12-31-42 421 1,086
PLATTE VALLEY HOMES Colo. 1-3 2855 Arapahoe Street 9-30-42 76 197
ARAPAHOE COURTS Colo. 1-4 2855 Arapahoe Street 9-30-42 76 187
COLUMBINE HOMES Colo. 1-5 201 South Yuma Street 3-31-53 198 430
WESTRIDGE HOMES Colo. 1-6 3537 West 13th Avenue 3-31-52 200 529
JAMES QUIGG NEWTON HOMES Colo. 1-7 4407 Mariposa Street 6-30-52 400 1,063
SUN VALLEY HOMES Colo. 1-8, 12 999 Decatur Street 12-31-52 420 1,320
CURTIS PARK HOMES Colo. 1-9 2855 Arapahoe Street 3-31-54 449 1,470
SOUTH LINCOLN PARK HOMES Colo. 1-10 1449 Navajo Street 6-30-54 269 785
WESTWOOD HOMES Colo. 1-11 3401 W. Kentucky Ave. 3-31-54 257 798
S7APLETON HOMES Colo. 1-13 201 East 51st Avenue 6-30-55 290 762


Dispersed Housing
Name No.
LEASED HOUSING Colo. 1-18
DISPERSED-ACQUISITION HOUSING Colo. 1-19
DISPERSED-CONVENTIONAL HOUSING Colo. 1-22
DISPERSED-TURNKEY HOUSING Colo. 1-23
DISPERSEDTURNKEY HOUSING Colo. 1-24
DISPERSED-TURNKEY HOUSING Colo. 1-25
DISPERSED-TURNKEY HOUSING Colo. 1-26
DISPERSEDTURNKEY HOUSING Colo. 1-27
DISPERSEDTURNKEY HOUSING Colo. 1-28
Popula-
Location Occupied Units tion
37th & Columbine 1974 28th & Hooker 960 So. Sheridan 69 365
Scattered 3-30-71 100 358
Scattered 9-30-72 100 504
Scattered 12-31-74 90 359
Scattered 3-31-74 100 444
Scattered 12-11-74 88 396
Scattered 12-31-74 35 153
Scattered 8 7-74 45 200
Scattered 11-20 74 56 Tsl 250


Dispersed Housing
Name No.
LEASED HOUSING Colo. 1-18
DISPERSED-ACQUISITION HOUSING Colo. 1-19 DISPERSED-CONVENTIONAL HOUSING Colo. 1-22 DISPERSED-TURNKEY HOUSING Colo. 1-23
DISPERSED-TURNKEY HOUSING Colo. 1-24
DISPERSED-TURNKEY HOUSING Colo. 1-25
DISPERSED-TURNKEY HOUSING Colo. 1-26
DISPERSED-TURNKEY HOUSING Colo. 1-27
DISPERSED-TURNKEY HOUSING Colo. 1-28
Popula-
Location Occupied Units tion
37th & Columbine 1974 28th & Hooker 960 So. Sheridan 69 365
Scattered 3-30-71 lOu 358
Scattered 9-30-72 100 504
Scattered 12-31-74 90 359
Scattered 3-31-74 100 444
Scattered 12-11-74 88 396
Scattered 12-31-74 35 153
Scattered 8-7-74 45 200
Scattered 11-20-74 56 6S2 250


Name No. Location Occupied Units Popula- tion
LAS CASITAS HOMES Colo. 1-1 999 Decatur Street 3-31-43 184 634
LINCOLN PARK HOMES Colo. 1-2 1449 Navajo Street 12-31-42 421 1,086
PLATTE VALLEY HOMES Colo. 1-3 2855 Arapahoe Street 9-30-42 76 197
ARAPAHOE COURTS Colo. 1-4 2855 Arapahoe Street 9-30-42 76 187
COLUMBINE HOMES Colo. 1-5 201 South Yuma Street 3-31-53 198 430
WESTRIDGE HOMES Colo. 1-6 3537 West 13th Avenue 3-31-52 200 529
JAMES QUIGG NEWTON HOMES Colo. 1-7 4407 Mariposa Street 6-30-52 400 1,063
SUN VALLEY HOMES Colo. 1-8, 12 999 Decatur Street 12-31-52 420 1,320
CURTIS PARK HOMES Colo. 1-9 2855 Arapahoe Street 3-31-54 449 1,470
SOUTH LINCOLN PARK HOMES Colo. 1-10 1449 Navajo Street 6-30-54 269 785
WESTWOOD HOMES Colo. Ml 3401 W. Kentucky Ave. 3-31-54 257 798
STAPLETON HOMES Colo. 1-13 201 East 51st Avenue 6-30-55 290 762
r v. imTb iff v v, a
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BITE PLAN
DECATUR ST


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A. UNIT TYPE A 8 UNIT TYPE 0
8. LOUNGE ARTS
9. DINING AND / C 10- KITCHEN
n. OUTDOOR ACT 12 FIRE ESCAPE Sr
NORTH elevation
-SCALE
SOUTH ELEVATION
SCALE
FIRST FLOOR DIAGRAM
1. 7-11 STORE
2. PHARMACY
UNIT TYPE '&


Transportation Planner, City & County Office, Dave Williams:
The "West Corner Light Rail Study" involves the corner of Colfax and Federal Boulevard. RTD has proposed in this study to appropriate a light rail station at this southwest quadrant.
The Department of Public Works has proposed a complete renovation of Colfax viaduct. This will change the entrance to downtown, providing two entrances. Colfax Avenue will be lowered. Detour work has already started for the Colfax viaduct. RTD has also proposed changes in bus routes.
RTD Light Rail Study:
RTD light rail will have a station integrated within or near the development, which also will include a transition center from bus to light rail. Frequency of light rail will be 4 to 5 minutes at rush hour, 10 minutes during other times of the day and night. Light rail will run from 6:00 A.M. to 12:00 P.M. The light rail station will be in the near vicinity, which is important for elderly housing, as one of the only sources of transportation for elderly is the public transit system.
The effective proposed scheme will cost 2 billion dollars, however, federal funds are possible. It could be a political issue and could take 10 years to materialize. DURA has also proposed commercial development at Colfax and Federal.
Parks and Recreation Department, John Dillavou:
Rude Park is currently a heavily vandelized, much abused public park at Federal and Colfax. In the future, landscaping with additional trees and benches, will upgrade the park. A recreation center is provided by the Parks and Recreation Department which includes bowling, swimming pool, gymnasium and arts and crafts facilities.
Sanchez Park is west of Federal and north of Valley. Basically, it is an open park. In the future there may be more trees with hiking and bicycling paths passing through it. The park can be upgraded by irrigation and additional grass.
Fairview Elementary School, 2715 West 11th Avenue:
This is one of the Denver public schools. It is basically a good rated school, but is running under capacity by 250 to 300 students. Students who attend Fairview, arrive at school by walking or riding


the bus from the surrounding neighborhoods of southwest Denver and also from the Sun Valley neighborhood. Students do not misuse the Las Casita site. Vandelism has not affected the school.
Colfax Viaduct, R. W. Hain, Traffic Engineer:
Howard Needles Tammen and Bergendoff (HNTB) has proposed the Colfax viaduct plan at 20 million dollars. This proposed viaduct will convert the existing Colfax into a six lane road from Federal Boulevard to downtown. This conversion will certainly make the traffic flow smoother. This will provide more access to the Sun Valley neighborhood and will add to its value and importance.


The Las Casitas Development was initiated by the Denver Housing Authority with a set program definition. Ify first approach was to accept the program without questioning the design architectually.
Then I did some research of the neighborhood its land use, overall condition, past trends, future forces on the site (light rail station, Dura Development and Colfax viaduct). This research work has justified my previous schematic design. Elderly housing will be more justified by being located near Federal Boulevard for mass transit accessibility.
A small shopping center for everyday needs on the first floor of the elderly housing is justified by its necessity. Westside Health Center will be an asset to the elderly housing neighborhood with all facilities. The mid rise housing will improve the stability of the school and will make the neighborhood more family oriented.


SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
The Sun Valley neighborhood will improve and gain recognition in the City and County of Denver with the proposed Las Casitas development. It will offer a stable and healthy mix of housing and relatively moderate prices for private ownership, rental and elderly housing. It will be attractive both in appearance and opportunity. Community facilities, parks, shopping areas and major employment centers will be easily accessible for the residents. The style, affordability and accessibility of the housing will begin to attract families, elderly and handicapped people to the Las Casitas development. Shopping area rehabilitation and remodeling is proposed by DHA along Federal Boulevard. Federal grant and low interest loan will be administered by DHA.
RTD light rail station and Dura commercial development at Federal and Colfax will bring dynamic change in the vitality and demand of the neighborhood in the coming ten to fifteen years. Colfax viaduct detour is already under construction. Completion of the viaduct will make the traffic smoother on Colfax. Parks and Recreation Department will improve the Rude park and the Sanchez park by landscaping them.
All these construction and development activities will generate tremendous employment opportunities for the neighborhood.
In terms of land use, this analysis has established that the Sun Valley neighborhood's land uses will be cohesive, stable and not threatened. The proposed Las Casitas project will reduce vacant land. Increased home ownership will make the neighborhood more stable. Federal Boulevard will be beautified by sign control, landscaping and consistent shopping development (entry to the parking from side roads). This will make the business areas healthier.
The crime problem will be controlled by the city and the residents.
The desirability and stability of the Sun Valley neighborhood will be largely due to the following assets:
- Proximity to Westside Health Center proposed in Las Casitas development.


- Readily available and future mass transportation (RTD light rail system).
- Moderately priced housing compared to many other Denver neighborhoods.
- Availability of adequate neighborhood schools, health center, churches, community center, parks and shopping facilities.
- Major developments, i.e., Colfax viaduct, RTD light rail station, Dura commercial development and Las Casitas development will affect the price of land in the neighborhood. It will increase the desirability and potential of the neighborhood.
The analysis concludes that the Las Casitas development will make a very desirable and livable neighborhood. In addition, the residents are urged to remain diligent in continuously monitoring the various positive elements that provide strength and stability to insure their neighborhood as a unique and desirable living environment.
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