Citation
Windstar

Material Information

Title:
Windstar
Creator:
Koch, Jeffrey L
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
160 unnumbered leaves : charts, maps ; 22 x 30 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Architecture and energy conservation ( lcsh )
Earth sheltered houses -- Colorado -- Snowmass ( lcsh )
Energy conservation -- Endowments ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 158-160).
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
Jeffrey L. Koch.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
09739184 ( OCLC )
ocm09739184
Classification:
LD1190.A72 1982 .K58 ( lcc )

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SELECTED ADVISORY BOARD:
Architectural:
Leslie Ullman: Lead advisor (design)
John Anderson I*aul Heath Edward Hazria Don Woolard
Fnergy: /
Don Woolard: Lead advisor (energy)
Doug Balcomb Ed Mazria
Structura1:
Davis C. Holder
Mechanical:
Gary Long Fred Dubin
Thesis Preperation:
Leslie Ullman Paul Heath
Gary Lonq (programming and master p lann ing )




TABLE OF CONTENTS
ADVISORS .................................... 1
INTRODUCTION ................................ 4
SITE......................................... 9
CLIMATE..................................... 19
CODES...................................... 29
ENERGY...................................... 52
PROGRAM..................................... 78
DESIGN..................................... 141
SYSTEMS.................................... 142
APPENDIX................................... 143
BIBLIOGRAPHY
158




The Windstar Foundation was founded by John Denver and Micheal Crum in 1976. It was founded with the intent that it could be used as a 'clearing house' for ideas involing alternate energy developement. Since that time Windstar has been refining its purpose and how it can serve the community. To better illustrate what The Windstar Foundation is about* the following is from one of their pub lications.
We must recognize that humankind has reached a crossroads. Continuation of our old ways or depleting the planet's resource base will put all people in a serious crisis with regard to security and sustainabi1ity. Resoinses can fluctuate between despair and short-sighted attempts to "enjoy it while it lasts"... yet our present situation can be seen as an exciting opportunity* an opportunity for our society to become a gentle* sustainable whole. Our ability to take advantage of this opportunity for transformation depends on each of us individually Each person* from the businessman to the bricklayer, the surgeon to the songwriter* will need to draw on deep inner resources in order to move toward equilibrium with planetary needs and resources. Each person must take conscious responsibility for all aspects of his or her life. Each person must choosebetween a future of deprivation or a future of transf ormation.
The Choice
No time has been more appropriate. The Choice is clear. Beyond the "no" of the 60's, through the introspection of the 70's* a positive vision of humankind and of nature has emerged. Limitations on every and resources direct us towar a more sensitive relationship with others and with the natural world. Only a vision of harmony and wholeness can guide us in meeting the challenges of the 80's a decade crucial to the future of our p lane t.


Windstar can help bridge the chasm between where we are now and where we want to be. Its purpose is transformationin our attitudes toward earth's resources* in our feelings about culture and community* in our approach to individual development. Conversion to solar technology and application of conservation measures can be of great benefit worldwide. Windstar considers it an important task to research* develop* and conclusively demonstrate the cost effectiveness ana solid economics involved in conversion to solar technology and application of conservation measures. Educational programs and research at Windstar investigate and integrate areas of contemporary society as diverse as ecology* education* business* politics* architecture* the arts* science and spiritual growth. These programs bring together leaders and visionaries in many fields with all who are interested in participating and helping create a loving* supportive community environment. The spirit of Windstar is for all who share this vision.
The world must learn to "live lightly on the planet", bringing continual renewal to ourselves and to our environment.
The purpose of this thesis is to provide me with an opertunity to bring together the past three of educational experiences into a sin-
81e major design project. The project will e a Energy/Education Center for the Windstar Foundation. The facility will be approximately 35*000 sq. ft. and will emphasize strong design ana the demostration of energy efficient systems. The following document is a collection of data and its analysis. It is this booklet that will serve as the reference guide for WINDSTAR.








VICINITY


I
I
X
^ m i
0 500 1000 2000
SITE LOCATION


ACCESS
The site is located approximately 13 miles from Aspen* Colorado in the Rocky Mountians just outside of Snowmass. Access is Snowmass Creek Road via Highway 82 between Glenwood Springs and Aspen. Access directly onto the site is in the northern end and it is at this end that the specific buldling site is located. This is the only year round vehicular access to the site.


RAINA








m SECTION 4
SECTION 5


UTILITIES Potable water
Water is supplied by wells with water for the gardens via two irrigation ditches.
Sewage
Wastes are handle by a septic tank system. Gas
Gas is supplied bu a propane tank and serviced by Droxol of Carbondale> Colorado.
Electric
Electrical needs are met by a wind machine which is tied into Holy Cross's power Grid. Any excess is purchased by Holu Cross and any additional needs are supplied by Holy
Cross.
Telephone Service
Telephone Service is supplied by Matel Bell.
Backup Bac ki
will be a combination of
0-JU71-J
010 to I
L*
UTILITIES






INTRODUCTION
Analysis of site and climate are of the importance. In energy concious design climate have the largest impact on the So much so that every aspect of design> materials! spacial organization# etc. > influenced by their parameters.
greatest site and build ing.
form*
are


CLIMATIC DATA: Location: Stations: Elevation:
Latitude:
Longitude:
! JAN ! FEB i MAR ARP i i i 1 3 1 > 1 < ! JUN i JUL AUG i SEP ! OCT 1 NOV 1 1 i Z 1 Z 1 < 1 1 1 1 O 1 in i Q i
DAILY SOLAR l 1 til 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 -- + 1 1 l 1 -- + 1 1 l 1 1 i 1 l 1 1 1 1
X 5UN5HINE 1 1 t 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 -- + 1 1 1 1 1 -- + 1 i 1 i 1 1 1
DD HEAT 1 til 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 i 1 l < l 1 I 1
DD COOL 1 1 I 1 1 ; i : i 1 i 1 1 1 1
MEAN MAXIMUM 1 l 1 1 1 1 -- + 1 1 l 1 1 1 1 I i 1 1 -- + 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 -- + i i 1 i i i i -- + i i i 1 -- + i i i i i -- + i i 1 l 1 i i 1
MEAN 1 1 1 -- + 1 1 1 1 1 -- + 1 1 1 1 + i | ; : : i l 1 1 i 1 t
MEAN MINIMUM 1 ill 1 1 1 1 1 i i i i i i i -- + i i i i i -- + i i i l 1 t i 1 1
NEUTRALITY ** i : : : 1 1 i : : i i l 1 1 1 1
DAYS PRECIP l 1 lit i i i I 1 i i i i --+ i i -- + i i i -- + i i 1 t 1 i 1
MAXIMUM RAIN 1 -- + i i i i i -- + i i i 1 ~ + 1 1 i i i i -- + i i i 1 -- + i i i i -- + i i 1 1 i 1
MEAN RAIN l 1 t i i l 1 i + -- i i i i i + -- + -- i i i i i i 1 i i i i 1 1
MINIMUM RAIN 1 i f t 1 1 i i i i i i 1 i i 1 1
THUNDERSTORMS t 1 it i i i 1 i i i i -- + i i i -- + i i i i i -- + i i 1 i i i 1 1
MAXIMUM SNOW * ii i i i l 1 i i i i 1 i i i 1
RH MINIMUM 1 i i ! l 1 : : : i 1 i i t i 1
RH MAXIMUM 1 iii i i i l 1 i i ! i i 1 i i 1 1
DIRECTION 1 i i i i ; ; i i 1 i i 1
PREVAILING 1 i + -1 + -- i i i i i + i i 1 1 i i i i 1 i i i 1
X CALM 1 253535 33SBS5 it i i i i SB 25 3523 25 25 : i : i 1 i i i 1
** Neutrality: passive buildings Tn=ll. V + 0.334 (deg C>
other buildings Tn=23. 9 + 0.295 (deg C 22. >exp(-((deg C -
Where: Tn = The temperature of neutrality
22)/(24 x sr2))A2>


TEMPERATURE
90
DEGREE DAYS H&C
1300
1330
1200
1030
900
730
600
430
300
130
O
btu's


TOTAL SOLAR RAD ON A HORIZONTAL SURFACE BTU/FT2/DAY
2500 2230 2000 1730 1300 1230 lOOO 730 300
230 -+-----+---+----+----+-----
I I I I I
O +------+---+----+----+-----
FEB MAR ARP MAY
btu/ft2iJAN per dag
i i T T ++++ JUN JUL AUG SEP
| |
-f- -f
OCT NOV DEC
-I
PERCENT SUNSHINE
lOO -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
I I I ! i ! I I I i I I
I I I I I I
80 -+-----------+------+------+------+
I I i
70
60
!
30 -+
I
40 -+
I
30 -+ + + + + + + + +
i : ! 1 l 1 1 1 ! 1 ! 1
20 i i + i i i i + i
i i 1 1 t 1 1 1 1 i I 1 1
io -+ +
i ; 1 i J 1 S 1 1 1 l 1
0 + + + + + + + +
7. I JAN FEB MAR ARP MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC


I
I
I
\
Ctn______i
500 1000 20
S0LAR_ACCESS
The site has full solar access year round. Percent sunshine is typically in the 70 V. range with January being the only exception with about 30%.
MSOLAR ACCESS


INTRODUCTION
The climate description and design recommenda tions on the proceeding pages are taken -Prom 'Regional Guidelines for Building Passive Energy Conserving Homes' written by the AIA Research Corporation. This particular climate analysis was done for Ely, Nevada and is considered representational for the region in which Windstar is located. Upon comparison of the climate analysis of Aspen and Ely, the similarity is extremely close. Therefore the recommendations made for Ely hold true for Windstar as well.


GENERAL DESCRIPTION
The Alpine Region is a high/ mountainous# and semi-arid above 7/000 feet in the southern latitudes and 6/000 feet In the northern latitudes. It Is characterized by cold to cool temperatures and bu very high temperature variations between day ana night. This provides the opportunity of storing either heat or coolth during appropriate times of the day to be used when needed. Winter temperatures range from IS degress F to 40 degrees F. The summer temperatures range from 40o to 80oF. Heating for buildings is required virtually every month throughout the year. Cooling is is never a problem with adequate ventilation.
Precipitation is also affected by these microclimatic differences. Increases in altitude also cause Increases In precipitation. Rainfall is heaviest in the summer# with an average of up to three inches per month. In winter# precipitaton is predominantly snow which can average up to 20 inches per month. Snow may remain for as long as 6 to 8 months# depending upon the slope orientation and the altitude of the location.
Human comfort# as indicated bu this graph# ranges from 65 degrees F to 80 degrees F at reasonable humidity levels. The alpine climate offers a very limited period of comfort from mid-July to mid-August. The remainder of the year is too cold for comfort.
High humidities can adversely affect comfort during warm or hot times or the year. The alpine climate# however. never experiences these high temperatures or humidities.


BASIC CLIMATE CONDITION
In this climate, conditions are too cool for comfort about 10 months of the year. Mid-June to mid-August offer the most comfortable periods.
TEMPERATURE AND HUMIDITY
BASIC CLIMATE CONDITIONTOO COOL FOR COMFORT WHAT ARE THE CLIMATE'S ASSETS and LIABILITIES
Climate and comfort are not purely a function of temperature and humidity. The effects of solar radiation, wind, moisture addition, and diurnal temperature ranges can significantly improve (or jeoparidize) individual and room comfort.
TEMPERATURE AND HUMIDITY (decreases comfortable periods)
1. TEMPERATURE: A LIABILITY WHEN IT'S TOO
COOL FOR COMFORT
The most important design consideration in this climate is the extreme predominance of cool and cold temperatures. A properly designed passive building sould respond by minimizng heat loss to the outside.
THE BASIC CONDITION: TEMPERATURE AND HUMIDITY
TEMPERATURE AND HUMIDITY PLUS SOLAR HEAT GAIN (Increases comfortable periods)


2. SUN: AN ASSET WHEN IT'S TOO COOL FOR COMFORT
Since heating is the primary concern for this climate/ the sun is a valuable ally throughout most of the year. Every opportunity should be taken to collect and store heat from the sun for use at night. The very high percentage of available sunshine further enhances these solar possibilities.
THE BASIC CONDITION: TEMPERATURE AND HUMIDITY
TEMPERATURE AND HUMIDITY PLUS WIND (decreases comfortable periods)
3. WIND: A LIABILITY WHEN IT'S TOO COOL FOR COMFORT
As our base comfort graph indicates/ only one month of the year is comfortable/ with the remaining months either too cool or cold. Wind/ therefore/ is a significant liability/ draining heat from the interior of the house through infiltration.
THE BASIC CONDITION: TEMPERATURE AND HUMIDITY
TEMPERATURE AND HUMIDITY PLUS DAY-TO-NIGHT TEMPERATURE SHIFTS (increases comfortable periods)
4. DAY-TO-NIGHT TEMPERATURE SHIFTS: AN ASSET
The very dry conditions characteristic of the Alpine residential climate provides for high temperature fluctuations between day and night. If properly designed/ a passive structure can take advantage of the differences by


storing heat from sunshine during the day to heat the space at night. Conversely* if cooling is ever required* the building can store the coolness at night to condition the space the next day.
WHAT CAN BE ACHIEVED?
By taking advantage of the sun and daily temperature fluctuations and by protecting against the cold winds* passive designs can
trovide t6V. more comfort during the gear.
ven greater improvements could be realized by including a uiell-designed solar system for heat gain and storage.
RECOMMENDED
In building for this predominantly too cool reg ion:
1. Keep the heat in and the cold out.
2. Let the sunlight in.
3. Protect from the wind.
4. Flatten day-to-night temperature swings.
general building guidelines is presented to elp you develop your own solution to energy conservation in home building. Each design priority is illustrated with a series of regional examples* starting with building siting* orientation* form, enclosure, and opening design* and ending with the more complicated passive technologies which are explained below. The recommendations are illustrated to indicate some of the alternate ways to apply these energy conservation guidelines in design and construction.


SUMMARY
Because this climate is relatively easy to build for in that all of the conditions too cool for comfort during most of the year and is never too hot there are no conflicts in the design considerations. This greatly simplifies the task of designing the house. All of the guidelines presented can offer significant reductions in heating loads adding up to 167. more natural comfort annually.
1. KEEP THE HEAT IN AND THE COLD TEMPERATURES OUT.
Temperatures are a liability most of the year. This suggests compact floor plans# extensive insulation and wellprotected openings
2. LET THE SUN IN.
Collecting solar heat in heavy walls# sun-rooms# or greenhouses minimizes heating needs throughout the year. Passive solar systems can almost eliminate the need for mechanical heating.
3. PROTECT FROM THE WIND.
Site the house to prevent cold winds from drawing heat from it. Provide airlock vestibule entries and use wind breaks.
4. IN CLIMATE WITH A BIG DAY-TO-NIGHT TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE# USE MASS TO SMOOTH OUT TEMPERATURE FLUCTUATION.


WHAT SHOULD BE BUILT HERE?
In summary. this climate is relatively easy to build for in that all of the conditions are consistently too cool or cold for comfort thus minimizing design conflicts. Temperatures are primary concern. Maintain a compact plan to minimize the exterior surface area, and attempt to "nestle" the building into the site. Insulate the house thoroughly and use thermal masses in the interior to modify temperature swings. Pay special attention to windows. using multiple glazing and being sure to inslate at night. Minimize the number of exterior doors. and provide them with airlocks or vestibules. Cluster all chimneys and flues in the center of the house. Maximize solar gain by building on north slopes facing south and by taking into consideration trees and mountains which may cut off winter sun. In addition to massive materials, use dark colors and rough textures on the exterior of the building to maximize heat absorption. Finally. in designing to avoid the cooling effect of winds, use landscaping and windscreens to protect the house.


The following microclimate studies were done bu Greg Mozian for Windstar and describe the whole site. The microclimate that best des cribes the building site is JUNIPER.


:>rl
EXISTING
BUILDING
LEGEND
TREES llSa SHRUBS FTTI GRASSES I 1 MARSHES ROCK OUTCROP EH3 SPARSE VEGETATION r-1
VEGETATION


LOWLAND SAGE
VEGETATION: serviceberru/ sagebrush.
GROUNDCOVER and GRASSES: snakeweed, rabbitbrush, brome grass, bearded wh eatgrass.
FLOWERS: Scarletgi1ia, Lupine, Aster, Indian paintbrush.
SOIL: Tan, fine grain, sandy soil, topsoil thicker around grass clumps with accumulated dead matter.
SLOPE: 37. north-western exposure.
NOTES: Serviceberry is replacing dead sage, paths are woven between sage, appears to be well established and hardy, heavy with rabbit droppings around central sage.
JUNIPER
VEGETATION: Juniper (Rky. mtn. and one
seed )
GROUNDCOVER and GRASSES: rice grass,
thistle, buckwheat, wild rye, hol-lygrape, mallow, alfalfa, horsebrush, sweetclover.
SOIL: Exposed shale, clay, poor topsoil.
SLOPE: 207.307. southern exposure.
NOTES: Study site includes 4 very
distinct microclimates. Portion nearest ditch is lush with good topsoil and tall grasses. Erosion increases and vegetation is minimal as the slope rises.
HIGHLAND SAGE
VEGETATION: Sagebrush, horsebrush, ser-
viceberry
GROUNDCOVER and GRASSES: Rice grass, crested wheatgrass, buckwheat, snakeweed, rabbitbrush and cactus.
SOIL: rocky, sandy, minimal topsoil.
SLOPE: 207.-307.t western exposure.
NOTES: Serviceberry re-establishing
after overgrazing. Receives direct afternoon sun.


OAK
VEGETATION
TREES: oak
GROUNDCOVER: Rice grass* Rye grass*
Yarrow* Buckthorne* Gooseberry* Hollygrape* Serviceberry Mountain mahogany* Chokecherry FLOWERS: Arrowleaf* Balsamroot* Scarlet gilla* Rose* Lactuca* Daisy* Geranium
SOIL: Grey dry and loose* erodes
easi lu.
SLOPE: 30%-40%* eastern exposure NOTES: Very dense growth* very difficult to walk through many deer and rabbit droppins. Irrigation ditch is 50 feet from the base of the transect.
ASPEN
VEGETATION:
TREES: Aspen* Alder (thin-1eafed>*
Dogwood
GROUNDCOVER: Wild hollyhock* Bane-
berry, Biscuitroot, Dandelion, Serviceberry, Black current, Por-tors lovage, Copper mallow
FLOWERS: Violet* Rose* Lupine* Rky.
Mtn. clematis
SOIL: Moist* Sometimes boggy* thick humus layer
SLOPE: 30%, gentle to steep, south
exposure
NOTES: numerous birds* very cool and lush
MARSH
VEGETATION:
TREES: Aspen BUSHES: Serviceberry
GROUNDCOVER:Potentills, Houndstounge, Yarrow, Wild iris* Rush grasses SOIL: 90% covered with water* thick
sod* poor drainage, floating bogs. SLOPE: gentle 4% north exposure NOTES: Grasses are thick and matted*
knee-high* many dead aspen and



dead shrub brush ind going through transi and afternoon sunpoc ated. Peaceful and it is extremely wet a resting spot
icates area is tion. Morning kets are cre-quiet however to be used as
GRASS I
VEGETATION:
GROUNDCOVER bearded buc kwhea rabbit low, thi FLOWERS: as rent
SOIL: back
shale
SLOPE: 207., NOTES: As s the slop of the
frass c he enti ground species
and GRASSES: Desert &
wheatgrass mule grass, t brome grass, snakeweed, brush, hounds tounge, mal-stle, sweet clover spurge, ter, penstemon, squaw cured, cracked, small rocks,
southern exposure oil erodes and washes down e it collects at the base crested wheat and brome reating a topsoil layer, re slope is covered with squirrel burrows. Grass indicate poor soil.
GRASS II
VEGETATION:
GRASSES: clover, alfalfa, thistle,
bearded wheatgrass, timothy and brome.
SOIL: hard and lumpy, light brown; good topsoil through drainage area and sunbacked on other.
SLOPE: spoon-shaped, east exposure at 157. slope
NOTES: north and south sides at 257
slope, drainage down the center from irrigation ditch above (very thick with thistle) directly reflects the results of intensive graz ing.


INTRODUCTION
The following tables are a computed estimate of the amount of solar flux that will reach a flat plate collector. The program* SOLAR FLUX* was written by Dr. Don Stafford Noolard for an Apple Computer. This information will be used for estimation of collector sizing and proformance analysis.
LATITUDE= 39. 28
TILT ANGLE= O AZIMUTH= 180
SOLAR IRRADIATION ON COLLECTOR (BTU/FT/HR AT 21ST DAY OF MONTH)
TIME MONTH
1 2 3 4 3 6 7 8 9 IO 11 12
7 0 6 29 37 73 81 73 37 30 3 0 O 7
8 19 44 72 100 116 121 113 99 72 42 18 11 8
9 33 81 1 IO 137 130 134 130 133 109 78 32 43 9
io 81 110 140 163 177 180 177 164 138 107 80 69 10
1 1 99 128 138 183 194 197 193 181 137 123 97 87 11
12 103 134 164 189 200 202 199 187 163 131 103 93 12
13 99 128 138 183 194 197 193 181 137 123 97 87 13
14 81 110 140 163 177 180 177 164 138 107 80 69 14
13 33 81 HO 137 130 134 130 133 109 78 32 43 13
16 19 44 72 lOO 116 121 113 99 72 42 18 11 16
17 O 6 29 37 73 81 73 37 30 3 0 O 17
TOT 609 872 1182 1473 1624 1668 1619 1439 1173 843 397 313


LATITUDE* 39. 28
TILT ANGLE= 23 AZIMUTH* 130
SOLAR IRRADIATION ON COLLECTOR (BTU/FT/HR AT 21ST DAY OF MONTH)
TIME MONTH
1 2 3 4 3 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
7 0 30 67 88 96 98 96 87 66 27 0 0 7
8 67 99 122 137 141 141 140 136 121 96 66 50 8
9 119 144 164 173 177 176 176 173 162 141 117 107 9
10 149 173 191 201 200 199 199 199 189 170 148 138 10
1 1 163 183 203 212 211 208 209 209 201 182 161 132 1 1
12 160 182 199 208 207 204 203 203 197 179 138 130 12
13 142 163 180 189 189 187 188 187 178 160 140 132 13
14 110 130 147 137 139 138 138 136 143 128 109 101 14
13 68 87 103 113 119 120 118 114 102 83 67 60 13
16 22 38 33 66 73 73 73 66 33 36 21 15 16
17 O O 3 17 23 28 23 17 3 O O O 17
TOT lOOO 1231 1434 1363 1397 1394 1387 1349 1419 1204 987 903
LATITUDE* 39. 28
TILT ANGLE* 23 AZIMUTH* 163
SOLAR IRRADIATION CBM COLLECTOR (BTU/FT/HR AT 21ST DAY OF MONTH)
TIME MONTH
1 2 3 4 3 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
7 O 23 33 71 78 SO 78 70 33 21 O O 7
8 39 87 108 121 123 123 124 120 107 S3 38 43 8
9 112 133 133 163 164 163 163 162 132 132 HO 101 9
io 146 168 183 194 193 191 191 192 183 163 143 136 10
11 163 186 203 210 208 203 207 208 201 183 163 133 1 1
12 167 188 203 212 210 207 208 209 203 183 163 137 12
13 134 173 191 198 197 193 196 196 189 172 132 144 13
14 126 146 162 171 171 170 170 169 161 144 123 117 14
13 86 103 122 132 134 134 134 131 121 103 83 77 13
16 36 36 72 83 90 91 89 84 72 34 33 26 16
17 0 7 21 34 41 44 41 34 21 6 O 0 17
TOT 1031 1276 1473 1391 1611 1603 1601 1373 1463 1230 1038 938


LATITUDE= 39. 28
TILT ANGLE 25 AZIMUTH ISO
SOLAR IRRADIATION ON COLLECTOR (BTU/FT/HR AT 21ST DAY OF MONTH)
TIME MONTH
1 2 3 4 3 6 7 8 9 IO 11 12
7 O 13 37 32 39 61 39 32 37 14 O O 7
8 49 73 91 103 107 108 107 102 90 71 48 36 8
9 lOl 122 139 148 130 149 149 147 137 120 99 91 9
io 138 139 176 183 183 181 181 182 174 137 137 129 IO
1 1 162 183 199 206 203 201 202 203 197 180 160 132 11
12 170 191 207 213 211 208 209 211 203 188 168 160 12
13 162 183 199 206 203 201 202 203 197 180 160 132 13
14 138 139 176 183 183 181 181 182 174 137 137 129 14
13 lOl 122 139 148 130 149 149 147 137 120 99 91 13
16 49 73 91 103 107 108 107 102 90 71 48 36 16
17 O 13 37 32 39 61 39 32 37 14 O 0 17
TOT 1070 129 3 1491 1397 1613 1608 1603 1383 1473 1272 1036 976
LATITUDE 39. 28
TILT ANGLE 2D AZIMUTH 193
SOLAR IRRADIATION ON COLLECTOR (BTU/FT/HR AT 21ST DAY OF MONTH)
TIME MONTH
1 2 3 4 3 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
7 O 7 21 34 41 44 41 34 21 6 0 0 7
8 36 36 72 83 90 91 89 84 72 34 33 26 8
9 86 103 122 132 134 134 134 131 121 103 S3 77 9
10 126 146 162 171 171 170 170 169 161 144 123 117 IO
1 1 134 173 191 198 197 193 196 196 189 172 132 144 11
12 167 188 203 212 210 207 208 209 203 183 163 137 12
13 163 186 203 210 208 203 207 208 201 183 163 133 13
14 146 168 183 194 193 191 191 192 183 163 145 136 14
13 112 135 153 163 164 163 163 162 132 132 110 lOl 13
16 39 87 108 121 123 123 124 120 107 83 38 45 16
17 0 23 33 71 78 80 78 70 33 21 0 0 17
TOT 1031 1276 1473 1391 1611 1605 1601 1375 1463 1230 1038 938


LATITUDE= 37. 2B
TILT ANGLE= 23 AZIMUTH* 210
SOLAR IRRADIATION ON COLLECTOR (BTU/FT/HR AT 21ST DAY OF MONTH)
TIME MONTH
1 2 3 4 3 6 7 8 7 10 11 12
7 0 0 3 17 23 28 23 17 3 0 0 0 7
8 22 38 33 66 73 75 73 66 33 36 21 13 8
7 68 87 103 115 117 120 118 114 102 85 67 60 7
10 110 130 147 137 137 138 138 136 143 128 107 101 10
1 1 142 163 180 187 189 187 188 187 178 160 140 132 11
12 160 182 177 208 207 204 203 203 177 177 158 150 12
13 163 183 203 212 211 208 207 207 201 182 161 132 13
14 147 173 171 201 200 177 177 177 187 170 148 138 14
13 117 144 164 173 177 176 176 173 162 141 117 107 15
16 67 77 122 137 141 141 140 136 121 76 66 50 16
17 O 30 67 88 76 78 76 87 66 27 0 O 17
TOT lOOO 1231 1434 1363 1377 1374 1387 1347 1417 1204 787 703
LATITUDE* 39. 28
TILT ANGLE* 40 AZIMUTH* 130
SOLAR IRRADIATION ON COLLECTOR (BTU/FT/HR AT 21ST DAY OF MONTH)
TIME MONTH
1 2 3 4 3 6 7 8 7 IO 11 12
7 1 42 83 78 lOO 77 77 77 83 38 0 0 7
8 71 124 142 147 144 141 143 146 140 121 88 70 8
7 148 167 182 183 177 173 173 181 180 167 146 137 7
io 177 173 203 204 176 171 173 202 203 172 176 168 10
1 1 187 203 212 210 201 176 200 208 210 200 183 178 11
12 177 174 202 200 172 187 170 178 200 171 177 171 12
13 133 167 177 173 168 164 167 173 173 166 134 148 13
14 118 130 138 138 133 130 132 136 136 127 117 111 14
13 71 82 70 71 87 87 88 70 87 81 70 63 13
16 22 31 37 40 40 40 40 37 36 30 21 16 16
17 O O O O O O 0 0 O O O 0 17
TOT 1147 1337 1468 I486 1440 1408 1427 1470 1432 1313 1134 1064


LATITUDE* 39. 28
TILT ANGLE* 40 AZIMUTH* 160
SOLAR IRRADIATION ON COLLECTOR (BTU/FT/HR AT 21ST DAY OF MONTH)
TIME MONTH
1 2 3 4 0 6 7 8 9 IO 11 12
7 O 32 63 72 73 72 72 72 62 29 O O 7
8 79 106 120 123 119 116 118 122 119 104 77 61 8
9 138 106 160 160 108 103 106 163 164 103 136 127 9
io 173 189 196 193 184 179 183 191 194 186 171 164 IO
1 1 190 200 212 208 198 192 196 200 209 202 188 182 1 1
12 190 204 211 206 196 191 190 204 208 202 188 182 12
13 174 187 194 190 181 170 179 188 191 180 172 166 13
14 142 100 162 109 102 148 lOO 107 160 103 141 130 14
10 98 111 1 18 117 112 109 111 116 116 109 97 90 10
16 43 08 66 68 60 64 60 67 60 07 42 33 16
17 0 7 14 17 17 17 17 16 14 7 0 O 17
TOT 1227 1410 1021 1018 1400 1416 1442 1001 1002 1387 1212 1140
LATITUDE* 39. 28
TILT ANGLE* 40 AZIMUTH* 180
SOLAR IRRADIATION ON COLLECTOR (BTU/FT/HR AT 21ST DAY OF MONTH)
TIME MONTH
1 2 3 4 0 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
7 0 20 39 40 44 43 44 44 39 18 0 0 7
8 63 84 94 96 92 90 92 90 93 82 61 49 8
9 120 136 144 142 136 132 134 140 142 134 119 1 12 9
IO 161 170 182 178 169 164 168 176 179 173 109 103 10
1 1 186 199 206 201 191 180 189 198 203 197 184 178 1 1
12 194 208 214 208 198 192 196 206 211 200 192 186 12
13 186 199 206 201 191 ISO 189 198 203 197 184 178 13
14 161 170 182 178 169 164 168 176 179 173 109 103 14
10 120 136 144 142 136 132 134 140 142 134 119 112 10
16 63 84 94 96 92 90 92 90 93 82 61 49 16
17 O 20 39 40 44 43 44 44 39 18 0 0 17
TOT 1204 1436 1044 1032 1462 1420 1400 1012 1023 1413 1238 1170


LATITUDE* 39. 28
TILT ANGLE= 40 AZIMUTH* 193
SOLAR IRRADIATION ON COLLECTOR (BTU/FT/HR AT 21ST DAY OF MONTH)
TIME MONTH
1 2 3 4 3 6 7 8 9 io 11 12
7 0 7 14 17 17 17 17 16 14 7 0 0 7
8 43 38 66 68 63 64 63 67 63 37 42 33 8
9 98 111 118 117 112 109 111 116 116 109 97 90 9
10 142 133 162 139 132 148 130 137 160 133 141 135 10
11 174 187 194 190 181 173 179 188 191 183 172 166 1 1
12 190 204 211 206 196 191 193 204 208 202 188 182 12
13 190 203 212 208 198 192 196 203 209 202 188 182 13
14 173 189 196 193 184 179 183 191 194 186 171 164 14
13 138 136 163 165 158 133 136 163 164 153 136 127 15
16 79 106 120 123 119 116 118 122 119 104 77 61 16
17 O 32 63 72 73 72 72 72 62 29 O 0 17
TOT 1227 1410 1321 1318 1433 1416 1442 1301 1302 1387 1212 1140
LATITUDE* 39. 28
TILT ANGLE* 40 AZIMUTH* 210
SOLAR IRRADIATION ON COLLECTOR (BTU/FT/HR AT 21ST DAY OF MONTH)
TIME MONTH
1 2 3 4 3 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
7 O 0 O 0 O 0 O 0 0 0 0 0 7
8 22 31 37 40 40 40 40 39 36 30 21 16 8
9 71 82 90 91 89 87 88 90 89 81 70 63 9
10 118 130 138 138 133 130 132 136 136 129 117 1 11 10
1 1 133 169 177 173 168 164 167 173 173 166 134 148 11
12 179 194 202 200 192 187 190 198 200 191 177 171 12
13 187 203 212 210 201 196 200 208 210 200 183 178 13
14 177 193 203 204 196 191 193 202 203 192 176 168 14
13 148 169 182 183 177 173 173 181 180 167 146 137 13
16 91 124 142 147 144 141 143 146 140 121 88 70 16
17 1 42 83 98 100 99 99 97 83 38 O 0 17
TOT 1149 1339 1468 1486 1440 1408 1429 1470 1432 1313 1134 1064


LATITUDE* 39. 28
TILT ANGLE* 3 3 AZIMUTH* 130
SOLAR IRRADIATION ON COLLECTOR (BTU/FT/HR AT 21ST DAY OF MONTH)
TIME MONTH
1 2 3 4 3 6 7 8 9 IO 11 12
7 1 31 94 102 97 94 96 lOl 94 47 O O 7
8 108 140 132 147 137 131 136 146 130 137 103 83 8
9 167 183 187 178 163 138 163 176 183 181 166 137 9
io 193 203 203 194 179 171 177 192 203 202 192 186 10
1 1 198 207 206 194 178 171 177 192 204 203 197 192 11
12 186 193 191 179 164 137 162 177 189 191 184 180 12
13 138 163 161 130 136 130 133 148 139 162 157 133 13
14 1 18 122 120 109 98 93 97 108 118 121 117 1 14 14
13 69 73 70 61 33 49 32 60 69 72 69 66 13
16 20 21 18 10 4 2 4 10 17 21 20 17 16
17 O O O O O 0 O 0 O O 0 O 17
TOT 1218 1338 1404 1324 1211 1136 1199 1310 1388 1339 1207 1130
LATITUDE* 39. 28
TILT ANGLE* 33 AZIMUTH* 163
SOLAR IRRADIATION ON COLLECTOR (BTU/FT/HR AT 21ST DAY OF MONTH)
TIME MONTH
1 2 3 4 3 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
7 1 38 68 69 62 38 62 68 67 35 0 0 7
8 93 118 124 117 105 100 104 113 123 116 91 74 8
9 134 166 166 133 140 133 139 133 164 164 132 143 9
IO 188 196 194 180 164 136 162 178 192 194 186 181 IO
11 203 210 206 191 174 163 172 189 204 207 201 197 11
12 200 206 202 187 170 161 168 183 200 204 199 193 12
13 182 187 183 168 132 144 130 166 181 183 180 177 13
14 149 134 150 136 122 113 121 133 148 132 147 144 14
13 103 109 106 94 82 77 81 93 104 108 102 98 15
16 47 36 33 46 37 33 36 43 34 36 46 38 16
17 0 7 6 0 0 0 0 0 6 6 0 0 17
TOT 1320 1447 1460 1343 1208 1142 1193 1327 1443 1427 1304 1249


LATITUDE* 39. 28
TILT ANGLE* 33 AZIMUTH* 180
SOLAR IRRADIATION ON COLLECTOR (BTU/FT/HR AT 21ST DAY OF MONTH)
TIME MONTH
1 2 3 4 3 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
7 0 23 38 34 26 23 26 33 37 21 0 0 7
8 72 89 91 82 71 66 70 81 90 88 70 38 8
9 132 141 139 126 112 106 111 123 137 139 131 123 9
10 173 179 173 160 144 137 143 158 173 177 171 167 10
1 1 197 203 198 182 163 136 163 180 196 200 193 192 11
12 203 211 206 190 172 163 170 187 204 208 204 200 12
13 197 203 198 182 163 136 163 180 196 200 193 192 13
14 173 179 173 160 144 137 143 138 173 177 171 167 14
13 132 141 139 126 112 106 111 123 137 139 131 123 15
16 72 89 91 82 71 66 70 81 90 88 70 38 16
17 O 23 38 34 26 23 26 33 37 21 O O 17
TOT 1333 1481 1488 1338 1208 1139 1196 1341 1470 1438 1338 1284
LATITUDE
TILT ANGLE* 33 AZIMUTH* 193
SOLAR IRRADIATION ON COLLECTOR (BTU/FT/HR AT 21ST DAY OF MONTH)
TIME MONTH
1 2 3 4 3 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
7 0 7 6 O O 0 O O 6 6 O O 7
8 47 36 33 46 37 33 36 43 34 36 46 38 8
9 103 109 106 94 82 77 81 93 104 108 102 98 9
io 149 134 130 136 122 113 121 133 148 132 147 144 10
1 1 182 187 183 168 132 144 130 166 181 183 180 177 1 1
12 200 206 202 187 170 161 168 183 200 204 199 193 12
13 203 210 206 191 174 163 172 189 204 207 201 197 13
14 188 196 194 180 164 136 162 178 192 194 186 181 14
13 134 166 166 133 140 133 139 133 164 164 132 143 13
16 93 1 18 124 117 103 100 104 113 123 116 91 74 16
17 1 38 68 69 62 38 62 68 67 33 0 O 17
TOT 1320 1447 1460 1343 1208 1142 1193 1327 1443 1427 1304 1249


LATITUDE3 39. 28
TILT ANGLE3 33 AZIMUTH3 210
SOLAR IRRADIATION ON COLLECTOR (BTU/FT/HR AT 21ST DAY OF MONTH)
TIME MONTH
1 2 3 4 3 6 7 8 9 IO 11 12
7 O O O O O O O O O O O O 7
8 20 21 IS IO 4 2 4 IO 17 21 20 17 8
9 69 73 70 61 33 49 32 60 69 72 69 66 9
io 118 122 120 109 98 93 97 108 118 121 117 114 10
1 1 138 163 161 130 136 130 133 148 139 162 137 133 11
12 186 193 191 179 164 137 162 177 189 191 184 180 12
13 198 207 206 194 178 171 177 192 204 203 197 192 13
14 193 203 203 194 179 171 177 192 203 202 192 186 14
13 167 183 187 178 163 138 163 176 183 181 166 137 13
16 108 140 132 147 137 131 136 146 130 137 103 85 16
17 1 31 94 102 97 94 96 101 94 47 O 0 17
TOT 1218 1338 1404 1324 1211 1136 1199 1310 1388 1339 1207 1130
LATITUDE3 39. 28
TILT ANGLE3 90 AZIMUTH3 133
SOLAR IRRADIATION ON COLLECTOR (BTU/FT/HR AT 21ST DAY OF MONTH)
TIME MONTH
1 2 3 4 3 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
7 1 70 121 119 104 96 103 118 120 64 1 0 7
8 128 138 139 140 119 109 117 138 157 155 126 103 8
9 172 177 167 142 119 109 117 140 164 173 171 163 9
IO 174 171 136 130 106 96 103 128 134 170 173 172 10
1 1 136 149 132 103 82 73 81 103 130 148 153 156 11
12 123 113 97 70 49 41 48 69 93 113 123 127 12
13 86 74 34 29 IO 2 9 28 33 74 86 89 13
14 43 29 8 0 0 0 O 0 7 29 44 48 14
13 3 O 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 O 3 8 15
16 O 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 16
17 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 O 17
TOT 888 943 894 735 389 326 380 724 880 930 884 868


LATITUDE3 39. 28
TILT ANGLE3 90 AZIMUTH3 130
SOLAR IRRADIATION ON COLLECTOR (BTU/FT/HR AT 21ST DAY OF MONTH)
TIME MONTH
1 2 3 4 3 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
7 1 38 93 83 66 37 63 84 94 33 1 0 7
8 118 140 134 110 86 76 83 108 133 138 116 96 8
9 167 167 131 122 96 83 94 120 149 166 166 162 9
10 179 173 133 121 94 83 93 119 131 172 178 178 10
11 173 163 141 109 82 71 80 107 139 162 172 174 1 1
12 133 141 118 86 60 30 39 84 116 141 153 155 12
13 124 110 86 33 31 21 30 34 83 110 123 127 13
14 87 72 48 18 0 0 0 17 47 72 87 91 14
13 47 32 8 0 0 0 0 0 7 33 48 51 15
16 11 0 0 O 0 0 0 0 0 0 11 13 16
17 O 0 O 0 0 0 0 0 O O 0 0 17
TOT 1060 1036 934 706 313 443 306 693 921 1047 1033 1047
LATITUDE3 39. 28
TILT ANGLE3 90 AZIMUTH3 163
SOLAR IRRADIATION ON COLLECTOR (BTU/FT/HR AT 21ST DAY OF MONTH)
TIME MONTH
1 2 3 4 3 6 7 8 9 io 11 12
7 1 43 62 44 23 14 22 43 61 39 0 0 7
8 lOO 113 101 73 43 37 47 71 99 112 98 82 8
9 131 146 126 93 66 33 64 92 124 143 130 147 9
10 173 163 139 104 76 64 74 103 137 162 172 173 IO
1 1 178 166 141 103 76 64 74 103 139 163 178 180 1 1
12 171 138 132 96 67 33 66 94 130 137 170 173 12
13 133 138 113 77 49 38 48 76 111 138 132 133 13
14 123 1 11 83 31 23 14 24 30 83 HO 124 127 14
13 89 76 32 19 0 0 0 19 31 76 88 90 15
16 44 38 16 0 0 0 0 0 16 39 44 39 16
17 0 4 0 0 O 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 17
TOT 1183 1136 967 662 430 341 419 631 931 1147 1176 1166


LATITUDE* 39. 28
TILT ANGLE* 70 AZIMUTH* 1BO
SOLAR IRRADIATION ON COLLECTOR (BTU/FT/HR AT 21ST DAY OF MONTH)
TIME MONTH
1 2 3 4 3 6 7 B 7 IO 11 12
7 O 24 23 1 O O O O 23 23 O 0 7
8 74 78 61 30 6 O 3 30 60 78 73 63 8
7 124 113 72 38 32 21 30 37 70 113 123 123 7
io 134 141 116 80 32 41 31 77 114 141 133 133 IO
1 1 171 138 131 74 63 33 63 73 127 157 171 173 11
12 177 163 136 77 67 37 68 78 134 162 176 177 12
13 171 138 131 74 63 33 63 73 127 137 171 173 13
14 134 141 116 80 32 41 31 77 114 141 133 133 14
13 124 113 72 38 32 21 30 37 70 113 123 123 13
16 74 78 61 30 6 0 3 30 60 78 73 63 16
17 O 24 23 1 O O O O 23 23 O 0 17
TOT 1223 1173 786 623 377 287 366 616 770 1170 1216 1207
LATITUDE* 37. 28
TILT ANGLE* 70 AZIMUTH* 173
SOLAR IRRADIATION ON COLLECTOR (BTU/FT/HR AT 21ST DAY OF MONTH)
TIME MONTH
1 2 3 4 3 6 7 8 7 IO 11 12
7 O 4 O O 0 0 O 0 O 4 O O 7
8 44 38 16 O 0 0 0 0 16 37 44 37 8
7 87 76 32 17 o O o 17 31 76 88 70 7
IO 123 111 83 31 23 14 24 30 83 110 124 127 IO
11 133 138 113 77 47 38 48 76 111 138 132 133 1 1
12 171 138 132 76 67 33 66 74 130 137 170 173 12
13 178 166 141 103 76 64 74 103 137 163 178 180 13
14 173 163 137 104 76 64 74 103 137 162 172 173 14
13 131 146 126 73 66 33 64 72 124 143 130 147 15
16 lOO 1 13 lOl 73 48 37 47 71 77 112 78 82 16
17 1 43 62 44 23 14 22 43 61 37 0 0 17
TOT 1183 1136 767 662 430 341 417 631 731 1147 1176 1166


LATITUDE* 39. 28
TILT ANGLE* 90 AZIMUTH* 210
SOLAR IRRADIATION ON COLLECTOR (BTU/FT/HR AT 21ST DAY OF MONTH)
TIME MONTH
1 2 3 4 3 6 7 8 9 io 11 12
7 O O 0 O 0 0 0 O 0 O 0 O 7
8 11 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 11 13 8
9 47 32 8 O o O o O 7 33 48 31 9
10 87 72 48 18 o O 0 17 47 72 87 91 10
1 1 124 HO 86 33 31 21 30 34 S3 no 123 127 11
12 133 141 118 86 60 30 39 84 116 141 133 133 12
13 173 163 141 109 82 71 80 107 139 162 172 174 13
14 179 173 133 121 94 83 93 119 131 172 178 178 14
13 167 167 131 122 96 83 94 120 149 166 166 162 13
16 118 140 134 110 86 76 83 108 133 138 116 96 16
17 1 38 93 83 66 37 63 84 94 33 1 O 17
TOT 1060 1036 934 706 313 443 306 693 921 1047 1033 1047
LATITUDE* 39. 28
TILT ANGLE* 90 AZIMUTH* 223
SOLAR IRRADIATION CW COLLECTOR (BTU/FT/HR AT 21ST DAY OF MONTH)
TIME MONTH
1 2 3 4 3 6 7 8 9 IO 11 12
7 0 O 0 O O O 0 0 0 0 0 0 7
8 0 0 0 O 0 O 0 0 0 0 0 O 8
9 3 0 O O O 0 o O O O 3 8 9
IO 43 29 8 0 O 0 0 0 7 29 44 48 IO
1 1 86 74 34 29 IO 2 9 28 33 74 86 89 11
12 123 113 97 70 49 41 48 69 93 113 123 127 12
13 136 149 132 103 82 73 81 103 130 148 133 136 13
14 174 171 136 130 106 96 103 128 134 170 173 172 14
13 172 177 167 142 119 109 117 140 164 173 171 163 13
16 128 138 139 140 119 109 117 138 137 133 126 103 16
17 1 70 121 119 104 96 103 118 120 64 1 0 17
TOT 888 943 894 733 389 326 380 724 880 930 884 868




INTRODUCTION
This section deals with guidelines* rules of thumb* and recommendations for energy con-cious design as they pertain to this project.


ENERGY-CONSCIOUS DESIGN AND NEW BUILDINGS
The following recommendations are from a 'Energy Concious Design' by Fred Dubin and Gary Long on energy conservation design guidelines.
1. To increase heat gain due to solar radiation on walls and roofs. use a dark-colored finish having a high absorptivity
2. Where sloping roofs are used, face them to the south for greatest heat gain benefit in the wintertime.
3. To reduce heat loss from windows, use minimum percentage of the double glazing on the north wall.
4. Where codes or regulations require operable windows and infiltration is undesirable. use wndows that close against a sealing gasket.
5. Use permanently sealed windows to reduce infiltration in climatic zones where this Is a large energy user.
6. To take advantage of natural daylight
within the building and reduce electrical energy consmption. consider: Use clear
glazing. Reflective or heat-absorbing films reduce the quantity of natural light transmitted through the window.
7. In climatic zones where outdoor air conditions are suitable for natural ventilation for major part of the year. provide operable windows.
8. In climatic zones where outdoor conditions are close to desired indoor conditions for a major portion of the year, consider: Adjust the configuration of the building to allow natural cross ventilation through occupied spaces.
Use deciduous trees for their summer sun
9.


shading effects and windbreak for buildings up to three stores.
10. Cover exterior walks and/or roof with earth and planting to reduce heat transmission and solar gain.
11. Locate building on site to induce airflow effects for natural ventilation and cooling.
12. Locate buildings to minimize wind effects on exterior surfaces.
13. Select site with high air quality (least contaminated) to enhance natural ventila-t i on.
14. Select a site that has topographical features and adjacent structures that provide windbreaks.
15. Utilize sloping site to partially bury buildings or use earth berms to reduce heat transmission and solar radiation.
16. To allow the use of natural light in cold zones where heat losses are nigh energy users/ consider operable thermal barriers
17. Provide wind protection by using fins/ recesses/ etc. for any exposed surface having a U value greater than O. 5.
18. Reduce heat transmissions through roof by one or more of the following items:
a) Insulation
b) Equipment and equipment rooms located on the roof.
19. Increase roof heat gain when reduction of heat loss in winter exceeds heat gain increase in summer.
a) Use dark-colored surfaces
b) Avoid shadows
20. Reduce infiltration quantities by one or more of the following measures:
a) Reduce building height.
b) Use impermeable exterior surface materials.


c) Provide all entrances with vestibules; where vestibules are not usedi provide revolving doors
21. Consider length and width aspects for rectangular buildings as well as other geometric forms in relationship to building height and interior and exterior floor areas to optimize energy conservation.
22. Provide textured finish to external surfaces to increase external film coefficiency .
23. Use concrete "slab-on grade" for ground floors.
24. Avoid cracks and joints in building construction to recude infiltration.
25. Avoid thermal bridges through the exterior surfaces.
26. Construct exterior uialls< roofi and floors with high thermal mass with a goal of 100 lb/cubic ft
27. Utilize building configuration and wall arrangement ( horizontal and vertical sloping walls ) to provide self-shading and windbreaks.
28. Construct building with minimum exposed surface area to minimize heat transmission for a given enclosed volume.
29. Select building configuraion to give a minimum north wall to reduce heat losses.
30. Select insulation to give a composite U factor from 0.06 when outdoor winter design temperatures are less than 10 degrees F to 0. 15 when outdoor design conditions are above 40 degrees F.
31. Insulate slab on grade with both vertical and horizontal perimeter insulation under slab.
crackage area around
a) Reduce


doorsi windows* etc. to a minimum.
b) Provide all external doors with weather stripping.
c) Where operable windows are used* provide them with sealing gaskets and cam latches.
d) Locate building entrances on downwind side and provide windbreak.
32. Use ceiling fans to destratify temperatures in heating season.
33. Use greenhouse insulation panels* one side reflective (up for summer)* one side black (up for winter).
34. Use UV inhibited acrylic for non-yellowing greenhouse glazing.


DAYLIGHTING
In an effort to provide a warm. natural light source as often as possible in the Ulindstar Foundation and to cut down the energy required for day-time lighting. daylighting techniques mill be used.
The site offers excellent opportunities for daulighting; full solar exposure. high percentage of daily radiation and good luminance distribution for sky conditions.
Recent conservation interests have focused on a complement between changing environmental cycles and building design. urging the designer to integrate building and nature rather than isolate the two. Daylighting is a very attractive way to blend environment with building and it can be used functionally to accent space, deote movement and punctuate activities.
Even on north elevations. the reflected light in the winter will be increaased by the probable accumulation of some snow on the north side.
PATTERNS FOR GOOD DAYLIGHTING DESIGN INCLUDE:
a) The bigger the window, the better
b) The higher in the wall the window is. the better
c) The higher the ceiling, the better
d) Openings are best horizontal
e) Predominant E-W building axis
f) Daylighting falls off rapidly as we move deeper into a room <15 20' maximum)
g) For each 4' of window overhand, the light coming into the room is reduced approximately 50"/..
BEAM DAYLIGHTING
a) Increases daylight penetration
b) Can use mirror reflections and solar courts
c) Simplicity and low cost is necessary


TOPLIGHTING
a) Best for general illumination
b) Skylights with direct sun exculsion
c) Domed or peaked skylights provide more light than flat
d) Shafts and reflectors can be used to direct light
e) Moveable insulation can be very effective
f) South facing admits light and neat
g) North facing admits light only
CONTROL
a) Needed to distribute light
b) Overhangs may be translucent to admit diffused light
c) Screens, shrubbery and trellises are used to control light
d) Overhangs with reflective surfaces underneath reflect ground radiation
e) Light shelves reflect light inside
f) Parapet walls can be used to reflect light into a north-facing clerestoru
g) Variable exterior controls add flexibility
1. Window awnings
2. Tiltable louvers
3. Tracking mirrors (sophisticated but effective)
h) Interior controls
1. Diffusers soften light-like drapes
2. Interior louvers stay cleaner and let heat into building
3. Eggcrate louvers can be used under a skylight
4. Prismatic block can accept and redirect light
5. Light colored floors. ceilings help amplify light
i) People will adjust devices to reduce discomfort but must be sensitized to adjust for increased comfort


INTERGRATION
a) People must turn off lights when not needed or automatic switching systems to monitor daylighting levels
b) Dimmers and selective switching help reduce load
c) Work stations should be oriented so that the occupant faces parallel to the window to reduce glare* provide good contrast and high visibility
In order to check daylighting concepts# models will need to be built and carried to the site for testing. The models are scaled and accurate acccording to reflectivity of room surfaces# opening sizes ads transmission values of light-emitting elements.
LIGHTING RULES OF THUMB
1. A clear design intent should be evident in all elements of the visual field. Visual perception is a gelstalt experience: clear synthesis of related elements and architectural systems facilitates their comprehension ana establishes a consistent background of visual relationships which can be modulated in a meaningful wau to provide subtle but extremely valuable orientation and guidance information
2. When structure is illuminated# the light should emphasize the structural module# shape and material in a consistent fashion.
3. One should light continuous planar surfaces evenly# so they appear continuous. Items on wall can be highlighted.
4. Low Light low color temperature High Light = High clor temperature Interiors = warm light
5. Same amount of interior# artificial light will appear brighter at night than day# so provide partial cut-off switches or d immer s


6. Glazing to provide view of outdoor conditions and sunlight/ switchable perimeter lighting.
7. Shape and placement of exterior windows should be derived primarily from the nature of the view. Avoid clerestories unless only way of daulighting. High windows do not add much view and do add sku glare. Keep head at 7' or under or add top screens to high windows.
8. To eliminate visual noise/ use large-scale elements (deep window reveals) for sunshading so large window areas are clear/ or use fine mesh screening to overlay an even texture.
9. Letthe nature and location for 3 dimensional objects be evident.
10. Use lighting contrast/ detectable difference = 2:1/ dramatic difference = 10:1
11. Diverse elements seem less confusing when seen against plain backgrounds. Partitions sould be kept below eye level unless they homogenize with the ceiling structure.
12. Emphasize potentially dangerous edges in circulation paths by changes in materials/ the se of color/ or definitive shadows.
13. For good backlighted graphics/ make letters in signs brighter than background.
14. An objects relative brightness influences its position in the inherent visual hierarchy. To insure visual prominence/ avoid bright competing objects in same field of vision.
15. To avoid "black hole" of windows at night/ illuminate outside landscape and sculpture (reduces unknown/ increases security)
16. Do not backlight scenes to simulate daylight.


17. Grazing light emphasizes surface texture.
18. Avoid highlighting unpleasant# undesirable or distracting elements.
19. Avoid striped or checkerboard lighting patterns.
20. Avoid dark-glassed <10#4 transmission) windows near clear glass gloomy look.
21. Avoid translucent walls and glass block, translucent skylights (use smaller, clear skylights). Use pyrimidal skylight wells to increase visual size of skylight.
22. Avoid visually-noisy light louvers. Tuck lights away behind elements. not exposed ana baffled (baffles become very bright).


Other patterns to consider:
1. Evergreen trees are extremely efficient in terms of wind reduction when planted to the north and northwest of a structure but seriously impede solar access when planted to the south. Deciduous trees are useless in terms of functionality when sited to the north and extremely efficient for shadng the summer sun when planted on the south and southwest. Existing vegetation must be thoroughly analyzed for its energy efficiency potentials. It is possible that some vegetation will have to be removed entirely or transplated if conditions allow.
Evergreen trees are appropriate on the north and northwest to screen winter winds. The shelter belt created by these plantings will be ten times the height of the trees. Wind velocity can be reduced by 50V. in the sheltered area resulting in a considerable reduction in heating requirements. For instance/ to maintain interior comfort zones in a 10 mph wind# 80.6 degrees are required/ whereas in a 1/10 mph wind/ 62 degrees are necessary. In the foothills ecosystem evergreens grow very slowly; consequently/ design must reflect a reasonable average height of 10 to 12 feet and place them accordingly. Man-made wind screens may have to be designed for semi-arid environments to complement natural plantings. Needless to say/ all plantings should be drought tolerant or indigenous in order to reduce water consumption and insure survival.
2. Laying out "streets" on an east-west axis allows for maximum solar gain/ solar access and potential for wind reduction/ whereas with north-south orientation/ energy efficiency is minimal. If north-south streets are necessary due to topography/ adequate wind breaks must be provided and buildings must be sited awkwardly inrelation to the "street".


3. Taller buildings must be sited to the
north of shorter ones to insure solar
access. if they are not sited to the
north* even active solar systems would be useless in the mid winter months.
4. For winter solar gain* medium colored
hard surfaces should be places on south facing terraces and patios. Ground covers and grasses should be planted a-round the residence to reduce albedo and modify day time temperatures.
5. In a climate with wide temperature fluctuations* the structural shell is critically important. The shell should be capable of blocking undesirable winter cold while admitting winter sun for warming. Insulation and mass are the available means of buffering climate. Mass masonry products contain large a mounts of embodied energy of production and should be used selectively on south and east-facing walls where they can store and later release direct solar radiation.




The Windstar Foundation is made up of four different occupancy types* so four different code searches were necessary. The construction type is Type III.
The classrooms* office space and library fall into Occupancy Group A-3
1. FLOOR AREA
Construction type:
Occupancy type:
Basic Allowance
Area <505a):
III
A-3
13* 500 sq. ft.
Fire Zone 3
Increase 005b):
Added Stories
Increase (505b):
Side(s) Separation
Increase (506a):
Fire Exiting System
Increase (508b&c):
Total Allowable Area
13, 500 sq. ft. 13, 500 sq. ft.
40, 500 sq. ft.
2. FIRE RESISTIVE REQUIREMENTS
Construction type: III
Exterior Bearing
Nalls: 4
Interior Bearing
Walls:
1
Ext. Non-Bearing Walls: 4
Structural Frame: 1
Permanent Partitions: 1
Shaft Enclosures: 1
Floors: 1
Roofs: 1
Exterior Doors & Windows: 2003b
Inner Court Walls (504c): 1
Parapets Required (1709a): same as wall below
Attic Draftstops Required (3205b): enclosed attic space 3000sq. ft
Attic Ventilation Required (3205c): enclosed rafters 1/150 or 1/300 for top and bottom vents
3. WALL AND OPENING PROTECTION
Fire Resistance of
Exterior Walls: 1
Openings in
Exterior Walls: 3/4
4. BUILDING HEIGHT
Allowable Stories: 1
Fire Sprinkler
Increase (507): 1
Total Allowable Stories: 2
Maximum Height 65 ft.


OCCUPANT LOADS
Story: 2
Occupancy Group: A-3
Area: 40, 500 sq. ft.
Sq. Ft. per Occupant: 100 sq. ft.
Total Persons per Floor: 202
Total Number of Persons in Building: 405
6. EXIT REQUIREMENTS
Number Exits Required Each Floor (3302a): 1
Number Exits Required Total Building (3302a): floors
Required Width (3302b): 50 divided by occupancy
Ramps Required: yes for ground level with toilet, no for others
Corridor Widths (3304b): 44 Inches
Dead End Corridors Limit (3304f): 20 feet
Corridor Construction (3304g): see above, no specialcase
Stairway Widths (3305b): 36 inches
Stairway landing Depths(3305f): 36 inches
Stairway to Roof (3305o>: 4 or more stories, 1 stair to roof
Smoke Tower Required (3309): if floor is 75 ft. above ground
Exit Signs Required (3312b): only to clearly identify
Exit Sign Seperate circuit (3312c): no
OCCUPANCY UNIT LIVE LOADS
Uniform load = 50 psf
Concentrated load = 2000 lbs/2. 5 sq. ft.
OTHER REQUIREMENTS
Fire Ratings & Construction : B-2 & M = 1
Enclosure of Vertical Openings (1706): more than 2 floors, 1 hour rated
Light ( '05 sections, Chapter 6-14): all habitable rooms get natural or artificial light
Vent ila ti on: natural = 1/20 floor area or mech. = 5 ft. 3/min outside air of 15 ft. 3/min. total
min. 1 W. C. /sex (near
bu) with window or
duct
Sani tat ion:


Fire Extinguishing System Required (3802): in floor area 1500 sq. ft. without sufficient openings
Dry Standpipes Required (3803): only if 4 stories or 20/ 000 sq. ft. per floor.
Net Standpipes Required (3805): only if 4 stories or 20/ 000 sq. ft. per floor
Combination Standpipes Required (3a02): only if floor area 1500 sq.ft, without eough windows
Special Hazards & Requirements: chimneys special/ heating plant
(see Group Occupancies) 1 hr. enclosed
Exceptions and Deviations: heating plant if 400. 000 BTU'S/(See Group Occupancies)hr


The Windstar Foundation is made up of four different occupancy types* so four different code searches were necessary. The construction type is Type III.
The classrooms* office space and library fall into Occupancy Group B-2
1. FLOOR AREA
Construction type:
Occupancy type:
Basic Allowance
Area (505a):
Fire Zone 3
Increase 005b):
Added Stories
Increase (505b):
Side(s) Separation
Increase (506a):
Fire Exiting System
Increase (508b&c):
Total Allowable Area
III
B-2
18, 000 sq. ft.
18, 000 sq. ft. 18* 000 sq. ft.
52, 000 sq. ft.
2. FIRE RESISTIVE REQUIREMENTS
Construction type: III
Exterior Bearing
Walls: 4
Interior Bearing
Walls:
1
Ext. Non-Bearing Walls: 4
Structural Frame: 1
Permanent Partitions: 1
Shaft Enclosures: 1
Floors: 1
Roofs: 1
Exterior Doors & Windows: 2003b
Inner Court Walls (504c): 1
Parapets Required (1709a): same as wall below
Attic Draftstops Required (3205b): enclosed attic space 3000sq. ft
Attic Ventilation Required (3205c): enclosed rafters 1/150 or 1/300 for top and bottom vents
3. WALL AND OPENING PROTECTION
Fire Resistance of
Exterior Walls: 1
Openings in
Exterior Walls: 3/4
4. BUILDING HEIGHT
Allowable Stories: 4
Fire Sprinkler
Increase (507): 1
Total Allowable Stories: 5
Maximum Height 65 ft.


OCCUPANT LOADS
Story: 5
Occupancy Group: B-2
Area: 54. 000 sq. ft.
Sq. Ft. per Occupant: 100 sq. ft.
Total Persons per Floor: 108
Total Number of Persons in Building: 340
6. EXIT REQUIREMENTS
Number Exits Required Each Floor (3302a): 2
Number Exits Required Total Building (3302a): 2 per floor
Requ i red Width (3302b): 50 divided by occupancy
Ramps Required: yes for ground level with toilet. no for others
Corridor Widths (3304b): 44 inches
Dead End Corridors Limit (3304f): 20 feet
Corridor Construction (3304g): see above, no specialcase
Stairway Widths (3305b ): 36 inches
Stairway landing Depths(3305f): 36 inches
Stairway to Roof (3305o): 4 or more stories. 1 stair to roof
Smoke Tower Required (3309): if floor is 75 ft. above ground
Exit Signs Required (3312b): only to clearly identify
Exit Sign Seperate circuit (3312c): no
7. OCCUPANCY UNIT LIVE LOADS
Uniform load = 30 psf
Concentrated load = 2000 lbs/2. 5 sq. ft.
8. OTHER REQUIREMENTS
Fire Ratings &
Construction: B-2 & M = 1
Enclosure of Vertical
Openings (1706): more than 2 floors#
1 hour rated
Light ( '03 sections.
Chapter 6-14): all habitable rooms get natural or arti-ficial light
Ventilation: natural = 1/20 floor
area or
mech. = 5 ft. 3/min outside air of 15 ft. 3/min. total
min. 1 W. C. /sex (near
by) with window or
duct
Sanitat ion:


Fire Extinguishing System Required (3802): in floor area 1500 sq. ft. without sufficient openings
Dry Standpipes Required (3803): only if 4 stories or 20/ 000 sq. ft. per floor.
Wet Standpipes Required (3805): only if 4 stories or 20000 sq.ft, per floor
Combination Standpipes Required (3802): only if floor area 1500 sq.ft, without eough windows
Special Hazards & Requirements: chimneys special/ heating plant
(see Group Occupancies) 1 hr. enclosed
Exceptions and Deviations: heating plant if 400/ 000 StO'S/(See Group Occupancies)hr


The Windstar Foundation is made up of four different occupancy types, so four different code searches were necessary. The construction type is Type III.
The classrooms, office space and library fall into Occupancy Group H-3 & H-4
1. FLOOR AREA
Construction type:
Occupancy type:
Basic Allowance
Area (505a):
Fire Zone 3
Increase (505b):
Added Stories
Increase (505b):
Side(s) Separation
Increase (506a):
Fire Exiting System
Increase (508b&c):
Total Allowable Area
III
H-3 & H-4 11, 200 sq. ft.
11, 200 sq. ft. 11, 200 sq. ft.
33, 600 sq. ft.
2. FIRE RESISTIVE REQUIREMENTS
Construction type: III
Exterior Bearing
Walls: 4
Interior Bearing
Walls:
1
Ext. Non-Bearing Walls: 4
Structural Frame: 1
Permanent Partitions: 1
Shaft Enclosures: 1
Floors: 1
Roofs: 1
Exterior Doors & Windows: 2003b
Inner Court Walls (504c): 1
Parapets Required (1709a): same as wall below
Attic Draftstops Required (3205b): enclosed attic space 3000sq. ft
Attic Ventilation Required (3205c): enclosed rafters 1/150 or 1/300 for top and bottom vents
3. WALL AND OPENING PROTECTION
Fire Resistance of
Exterior Walls: 1
Openings in
Exterior Walls: 3/4
4. BUILDING HEIGHT
Allowable Stories: 2
Fire Sprinkler
increase (507): 1
Total Allowable Stories: 3
Maximum Height 65 ft.


5. OCCUPANT LOADS
Story : 3
Occupancy Group: H-3 & H4
Area: 33# 600 sq. ft.
Sq. Ft. per Occupant: 100 sq. ft.
Total Persons per Floor: 112
Total Number of Persons in Building: 336
6. EXIT REQUIREMENTS
Number Exits R
Each Floor (
Number Exits R
Total B
(
Requir ed (
Width
Ramp s Requir ed
equ ired 3302a):
equ ired ui1 ding 3302a):
3302b):
2
2 per floor
50 divided by occupancy
yes for ground level with toilet# no for others
Corridor Widths (3304b): 44 in
Dead End Corridors Limit (3304f): 20
Corridor Construction (3304g): see above special
Stairway Widths (3305b): 36 in
Stairway landing Depths(3305f): 36 in
ches
feet
# no case
ches
ches
Stairway to Roof
<3305o>: 4 or more stories# 1
stair to roof
Smoke Tower
Required (3309): if floor is 75 ft.
above ground
Exit Signs Required
(3312b): only to clearly
identify
Exit Sign Seperate
circuit (3312c): no
7. OCCUPANCY UNIT LIVE LOADS
Uniform load = Concentrated load =
50 psf
2000 lbs/2. 5 sq. ft.
8. OTHER REQUIREMENTS
Fire Ratings &
Construction: B-2 & M 1
Enclosure of Vertical
Openings (1706): more than 2 floors#
1 hour rated
Light ( '05 sections#
Chapter 6-14): all habitable rooms get natural or artificial light
Ventilation: natural = 1/20 floor
area or
mech. = 5 ft. 3/min outside air of 15 ft. 3/min. total
min. 1 W. C. /sex (near
by) with window or
duct
Sanitat ion:


Fire Extinguishing System Required (3802):
Dry Standpipes
Required (3803):
Wet Standpipes
Required (3805):
Combination Standpipes
Required (3802):
Special Hazards &
Requirements:
(see Group Occupancies)
Exceptions and
Deviations:
in floor area 1500 sq. ft. without sufficient openings
only if 4 stories or 20, 000 sq. ft. per floor.
only if 4 stories or 20 000 sq. ft. per floor
only if floor area 1500 sq.ft, without eough windows
chimneys special* heating plant 1 hr. enclosed
heating plant if 400, 000 BTU'S/(See Group Occupancies)hr


The Windstar Foundation is made up of four different occupancy types, so four different code searches were necessary. The construction type is Type III.
The classrooms, office space and library fall into Occupancy Group B-2
1. FLOOR AREA
Construction type:
Occupancy type:
Basic Allowance
Area (505a):
Fire Zone 3
Increase (505b):
Added Stories
Increase (505b):
Side(s) Separation
Increase (506a):
Fire Exiting System
Increase (508b&c):
Total Allowable Area
III
B-2
18, 000 sq. ft.
18, 000 sq. ft. 4, 500 sq. ft.
40, 500 sq. ft.
2. FIRE RESISTIVE REQUIREMENTS
Construction type: III
Exterior Bearing
Walls: 4
Interior Bearing
Walls:
1
Ext. Non-Bearing Walls: 4
Structural Frame: 1
Permanent Partitions: 1
Shaft Enclosures: 1
Floors: 1
Roofs: 1
Exterior Doors & Windows: 2003b
Inner Court Walls (504c): 1
Parapets Required (1709a): same as wall below
Attic Draftstops Required (3205b): enclosed attic space 3000sq. ft
Attic Ventilation Required (3205c): enclosed rafters 1/150 or 1/300 for top and bottom vents
3. WALL AND OPENING PROTECTION
Fire Resistance of
Exterior Walls: 1
Openings in
Exterior Walls: 3/4
4. BUILDING HEIGHT
Allowable Stories: 4
Fire Sprinkler
Increase (507): 1
Total Allowable Stories: 5
Maximum Height 65 ft.


OCCUPANT LOADS
Story: 5
Occupancy Group: B-2
Area: 40, 500 sq. ft.
Sq. Ft. per Occupant: 100 sq. ft.
Total Persons per Floor: 405
Total Number of Persons in Building: 2025
6. EXIT REQUIREMENTS
Number Exits Required Each Floor (3302a): 1
Number Exits Required Total Building (302a): floors
Required Width (3302b): 50 divided by occupancy
Ramps Required: yes for ground level with toilet* no for others
Corridor Widths (3304b): 44 Inches
Dead End Corridors Limit (3304f): 20 feet
Corridor Construction (3304g >: see above* no specialcase
Stairway Widths (3305b ): 36 inches
Stairway landing Depths(3305f): 36 inches
Stairuiau to Roof
<3305o):
Smoke Tower
Required (3309):
Exit Signs Required
(3312b):
Exit Sign Seperate
circuit (3312c):
4 or more storiesi 1 stair to roof
if floor is 75 ft.
above ground
only to clearly identify
no
7. OCCUPANCY UNIT LIVE LOADS
Uniform load = 50 psf
Concentrated load = 2000 lbs/2. 5 sq. ft.
8. OTHER REQUIREMENTS Fire Ratings &
Construction: B-2 & M = 1
Enclosure of Vertical
Openings (1706): more than 2 floors*
1 hour rated
Light ('05 sections*
Chapter 6-14): all habitable rooms get natural or artificial light
Ventilation: natural = 1/20 floor
area or
mech. = 5 ft. 3/min outside air of 15 ft. 3/min. total
min. 1 W. C. /sex (near
by) with window or
duct
Sani tat 1 on:


Fire Extinguishing System Required (3802): in floor area 1500 sq. ft. without sufficient openings
Dry Standpipes Required (3803): only if 4 stories or 20. 000 sq. ft. per floor.
Wet Standpipes Required (3805): only if 4 stories or 20. 000 sq. ft. per floor
Combination Standpipes Required (3802): only if floor area 1500 sq.ft, without eough windows
Special Hazards & Requirements: (see Group Occupancies) chimneys special* heating plant 1 hr. enclosed
Exceptions and Deviations: heating plant if 400, 000 BTU'S/(See Group Occupancies)hr


The Windstar Foundation is made up of four different occupancy types, so four different code searches were necessary. The construction type is Type III.
The classrooms, office space and library fall into Occupancy Group M-2
FLOOR AREA
Construction type: Ill
Occupancy type: M-2
Basic Allowance Area (505a): 18, 000 sq. ft.
Fire Zone 3 Increase (505b): -
Added Stories Increase (505b): 18, 000 sq. ft.
Side(s) Separation Increase (506a): 4, 500 sq- ft.
Fire Exiting System Increase (50Bb&c): -
Total Allowable Area 40,500 sq. ft.
FIRE RESISTIVE REQUIREMENTS
Construction type: Ill
Exterior Bearing Walls: 4
Interior Bearing
Nalls:
1
Ext. Non-Bearing Walls: 4
Structural Frame: 1
Permanent Partitions: 1
Shaft Enclosures: 1
Floors: 1
Roofs: 1
Exterior Doors & Windows: 2003b
Inner Court Walls (504c): 1
Parapets Required (1709a): same as wall below
Attic Draftstops Required (3205b): enclosed attic space 3000sq. ft
Attic Ventilation Required (3205c): enclosed rafters 1/150 or 1/300 for top and bottom vents
3. WALL AND OPENING PROTECTION
Fire Resistance of
Exterior Walls: 1
Openings in
Exterior Walls: 3/4
4. BUILDING HEIGHT
Allowable Stories: 1
Fire Sprinkler
Increase (507): 1
Total Allowable Stories: 2
Maximum Height 65 ft.


OCCUPANT LOADS
story: 2
Occupancy Group: M2
Area: 40* 500 sq. ft.
Sq. Ft. per Occupant: 100 sq. ft.
Total Persons per Floor: 405
Total Number of Persons in Building: 2025
6. EXIT REQUIREMENTS
Number Exits Required Each Floor (3302a): 1
Number Exits Required Total Building (3302a): floors
Required Width (3302b): 50 divided by occupancy
Ramps Required: yes for ground level with toilet* no for others
Corridor Widths (3304b ): 44 inches
Dead End Corridors Limit (3304f): 20 feet
Corridor Construction (3304g): see above* no specialcase
Stairway Widths (3305b): 36 inches
Stairway landing Depths(3305f): 36 inches
Stairway to
Roof
<3305o): 4 or more stories* 1
stair to roof
Smoke Tower
Required (3309): if floor is 75 ft.
above ground
Exit Signs Required
(3312b): only to clearly
identify
Exit Sign Seperate
circuit (3312c): no
7. OCCUPANCY UNIT LIVE LOADS Uniform load =
50 psf
Concentrated load =
2000 lbs/2. 5 sq. ft.
8. OTHER REQUIREMENTS
Fire Ratings &
Construction: B-2 & M = 1
Enclosure of Vertical
Openings (1706): more than 2 floors*
1 hour rated
Light ( '05 sections*
Chapter 6-14): all habitable rooms get natural or arti-ficial light
Ventilation: natural = 1/20 floor
area or
mech. = 5 ft. 3/min outside air of 15 ft. 3/min. total
min. 1 W. C. /sex (near
by) with window or
duct
Sanitat ion:


Fire Extinguishin System Required ?3802): in floor area 1500 sq. ft. without sufficient openings
Dry Standpipes Required (3803): only if 4 stories or 20, 000 sq. ft. per f 1 oor.
Wet Standpipes Required (3805): only if 4 stories or 20. 000 sq.ft, per floor
Combination Standpipes Required (3802): only if floor area 1500 sq.ft, without eough windows
Special Hazards & Requirements: (see Group Occupancies) chimneys special, heating plant 1 hr. enclosed
Exceptions and Deviations: heating plant if 400, 000 BTU'S/(See Group Occupancies)hr


REQUIRED SEPARATIONS BETWEEN OCCUPANCIES
! A-3 i B-2 i H-2 H~3 N-2 !
===== ====i = sss= = = = = = =:==:=: = sr: = = =; = = = = = r: =
1 A-3 1 1 i l i

! B-2 t 1 ; I I i

i H-2 1 i t i !
!
i H-3 t 1 i l i 1
1
! H-2 1 i 1 1


BUILDING ENVELOPE REQUIREMENTS
Design Criteria
a) The stated U value of any assembly* such as roof/cei
increased and the U value for other components decreased provided that the total heat gain or loss for the entire building envelope does not exceed the total resulting from conformance to the U values specified in Table 5-1. Complying U for building envelope shall be determined as follows:
Value Line 1 or 3 x Gross Wall Area +
Value Line 5 x Roof Area x Value Line 6
x Floor Area
Gross Wall Area + Roof Area + Floor Area
b) In addition to the criteria set forth in this section* the proposed design may take into consideration the thermal mass* orientation and exterior color of the building components* using verified criteria developed by a recognized research organization* xn considering energy conservation when approved by the Building Official.
Heating Criteria for Nonresidentia1 Buildings
a) Buildings that are heated shall have a combined thermal transmittance value (U) of the gross area of the elements of the exteror building envelope not exceeding the values given in Table 5-1. Equation 1 shall be used to determine acceptable combinations of building component and thermal properties to meet this requirement.
b) Floors Over Unheated Spaces:
For floors of heated spaces over unheated spaces* the U value shall not exceed the value given in the following table.


c) Slab on Grade Floors:
For slab on grade floors. the thermal resistance of the insulation around the
?erimeter of the floor shall not be ess than the value given in the following table. The insulation shall extend downward from the top of the slab for a minimum distance of 24 inches, or downward to the bottom of the slab then horizontally beneath the slab for a minimum total distance of 24 inches and shall be an approved type.
HEATING AND COOLING CRITERIA FOR NONRESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS
OTTV = overall thermal transfer value
1. Values shall be determined by using the graphs (figures 2.3. 4. and 6) using heating degree days as specified.
Equation 1A
U wall = U wall x A wall + U glazing x A glazing + U door x A door
A wall assembly
Equation IB
U roof = U roof x A roof + U glazing x A glazing
A roof assembly
Equation 1C
U floor = U floor x A floor
A floor
Equation 1
U envelope= U wall x A wall + U roof x A roof + U floor x Aa floor
A envelope


Note: Where more than one type of wall* win-
dow/ roof/cei ling/ door and skylight is used/ U and A terms for those items shall be expanded into subelements as: U wall/ A wall + U wall/ A wall/ etc.
11 2 2
Equation 2
OTTV = U wall x A Opaque wall x TDeq + A glazing x SF x SC + U glazing x t
A gross wall
Note: Where more than one type of wall is
used/ the respective terms for those elements shall be expanded into subelements as:
WHERE:
u SS
A wal 1 ss
A roof SS
A floor =
A wal 1 ss
A glazing =
A door ss
A floor a*
OTTV
TDeq =
SC =
"delta"t =
SF
The average thermal transmittance of the gross area Gross area of exterior walls Gross area of the roof/ceiling as-sembly
Gross area of floor
Opaque exterior wall area
Non-opaque exterior wall area
Exterior door area
Area of floors of heated and/or
mechanically cooled spaces over
unheated spaces except slabs on
8rade
verall thermal transfer value Temperature difference value (from table below)
Shading coefficient of the glazed areas (see Definitions)
Temperature difference between exterior and interior design condition F
Solar factor value (to be determined from Std RS-*?)


Temperature Differences for Equation 2
Walls:
Weight of Construeti on
Lbs per Ft2 TDeq Factor
0-25 44 26 40 37 41 70 30 71 and Above 23
INSULATION OF AIR HANDLING DUCT SYSTEMS
All ductsi plenums and enclosures installed in or on Buildings shall be thermally insultated as follows:
a) All duct systems/ or portions thereof/ shall be insulated to provide a thermal resistance/ excluding film resistances of:
R t(hr> < F) 13
Where t = the design temperature differential between the air in the duct and the surrounding air in F.
Additional insulation with vapor barriers shall be provided to prevent condesation/ unless it can be shown that condensation is not a problem.
Exception: required to required in 1. Where
Duct insulation (except where prevent condensation) is not any of the following cases: t is 25 F or less.
2.
Supply or return air ducts installed in unventilated crawl spaces with insulated walls.



3.
When the heat gain or loss of the ducts/ without insulation/ will not increase the energy requirements of the building.
4. Within HVAC equipment.
5. Exhaust air ducts.
LIGHTNG SWITCHING
Local switching and/or other approved control devices shall be provided for each lighting circuit/ or for portions of each circuit/ so that partial lighting required for custodial or for effective complementary use with natural lighting may be operated selectivel y.
Illumination Level Criteria
For the purpose of establishing a budget/ levels of illumination shall be those listed in Std RS-8. Those levels shall be used as follows:
a) Task lighting
In most cases/ the levels of illumination listed are for specific tasks. These levels are for the task areas defined in Std RS-8/ or, where not defined/ at all usable portions of task surfaces. In some cases/ the levels of illumination are listed for locations. These levels are to be considered as average levels.
b) General Lighting
In areas surrounding task locations/ the average level of general lighting/ for budget purposes only/ shall be one-third the level for the tasks
?erformed in the area but in no case ess than 20 footcandles. Where more than one task level occurs in a space/ the general level shall be one


third the weighted average of the specific task levels.
c) Non-Critical Lighting
In circulation ana seating areas where no specific visual tasks occur, the average level of illumination shall be one-third of the average general lighting in the adjacent task spaces but in no case less than 10 f o otcand 1 es.
Determinging Illumination Levels and Areas
a) Determine the visual tasks that are expected to be performed in each space (the commonly found tasks at each work station) and the number of planned work locations where tasks will be performed. If assumptions are made, their bases shall be indicated.
b) Select the illuminaton level in foot-candles for those expected tasks.
c) Calculate the total task areas to be illuminated to the same level by multiplying the number of work locations by 50 sq. ft. per work location. If actual task area is greater than 50 sq. ft.. the actual area shall be used. If the sum of all tasks is greater than 50 percent of the total space area. then the task area per work location shall be reduced proportionally. so that the total task area is limited to one-half the total space area. If special task lighting or localized lighting is to be employed. use actual task areas and point calculation procedures.
d) Calculate the level of general lighting by multiplying the task lighting level by one-thxrd. where there is only one task level. or by taking one-third of the sum of the products of the task levels <2> and their areas (3) divided by the total task areas.


) Calculate the level of non-critical lighting.


Because of structures an tu>een them an tures it is cations as th The followin Sheltered Hou Issues"* U. S. Development*
the newness of earth sheltered d the significant difference be-d convientional building struc-necessary to examine the impli-ey pertain to codes and zoning, g conclusions are from "Earth sing:Code* Zoning* and Financing Department of housing and Urban April 1980.


CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS AS THEY PERTAIN TO CODES
Based on a review of all of the model building codes as well as extensive interviews with code officials/ architects/ builders and others in the construction industry/ it is apparent that building codes may present obstacles for earth sheltered housing construction in some/ but not all cases. In addition/ they raise some significant issues as to the mechanism for dealing eith alternatives to the present codes/ as well as questions concerning the effectiveness of the current codes in addressing new systems and detaiIs.
Since local codes as well as earth sheltered designs vary widely/ it is difficult to generalize about attitudes and experiences with code problems. Most aspects of earth sheltered housing are compatible with existing building codes and many homes have been built in compliance with the codes. Nevertheless/ there are a few key areas that represent un-necesary impediments in certain designs. In these cases/ it would be desirable to eliminate constraints and allow for alternatives as long as minimum health and safety standards are met. The following list includes conclusions and recomendations on the code constraints that have been identified/ the mechanisms for alternatives/ and relevant code Issues.
1.UNIFORM STANDARDS
In general/ there is no need or desire for separate standards to be applied to earth sheltered housing in the codes. Any of the suggested code modifications concerning fire egress/ natural light and ventilation should be applicable to all types of housing.
2. EDUCATION REGARDING CODE ISSUES
Since codes are not universally applicable/ especialy in rural areas/ widespread information and education about the critical concerns of structural safety and adequate fire


egress are essential. Alsoi in areas where the code is in effect/ educational programs that address earth sheltered housing issues are recommended for building inspectors.
3. PERFORMANCE VS. PRESCRIPTIVE STANDARDS
It is generally accepted that performance standards allow for greater flexibility in design and thus appear more suitable for innovative structures such as earth sheltered housing. However/ inherent impediments in the process of administering performance standards make their suitability as the onlu form of standard somewhat questionable. Enforcement of performance standards isz in part/ based on an individual code official's discretion/ which can result in varying standards being applied. Secondly/ the proof of
Eerformance must be furnished be the owner/ uilderz resulting in additional time and cost for him. Thus/ modifications to existing prescriptive requirements seem the most direct avenue for chamge at this time.
4. ALTERNATE METHODS AND MATERIALS PROVISIONS
The Alternate Methods and Materials provision found in all model codes technically allows for any variation from the code in which equivalent performance is demonstrated. As-suchz it could be considered as a means of dealing with all of the code conflicts presented bu earth sheltered houses. However/ due to tne impediments and uncertainty in using this process/ it is advisable to directly modify any code advisable to directly modify any code provisions that create unreasonable constraints and use the Alternative Methods and Materials procedure for unforseen problems.
5. FIRE EGRESS
Although bedroom windows which open directly outside seem to be the best alternative for gress in cade of fire/ they should not be the nly allowable method. Windows opening into greenhousses and glass covered atriums which


lead to a second path of escape should be acceptable as well as any bedroom with doors leading to two seperate paths of escape. Also the maximum sill height for windows used for egress could be raised where a permanent structure adajacent to the window provides a stable step-up area to meet the maximum sill height conditions.
6.NATURAL LIGHT AND VENTILLATION
It is recommende that natural light and ventilation provisions which reauire a window opening directly to the outsiae for every habitable room be modified to allow for more design flexibility, most of the codes already allow mechanical ventilation to be substituted for natural venti1lation, so this presents no problem. However, HUD should review the areas where substitution is permitted in the Minimum Property Standards since they differ from the building codes in this respect. windows which open into greenhouses and glass covered atriums should clearly be an allowable means of providing natural light. While it is generally agreed that tere are physical and psychological benefits to natural light and view, it does not follow that it must be present in every habitable room. Thus, it is recommended that artificial light be allowed as a substitute for exterior glazing in some rooms as long as the overall aggregate glazing requirement for the house remains at 8 to 10% of the floor area of the habitable rooms combined.
7. GAURDRAILS
Guardrails at roof edges and retaining walls are not always appropriate or necessary for safety, depending on the location of the house, houses in rural areas isolated from public access may not require any protective measures. For houses in urban conditions where protection wil usually be required, the most acceptable solutions are a fevce or barrier at the edge of the vertiscal preventing access to the roof area.


8.PROHIBITION OF BELOW GRADE SPACE
Any code provisions that prhibit space should be eliminated. Present definitions of basement and cellar and their app11cavi11ty to earth sheltered space should be reviewed. If as is normally the case# constraints are imposed or confusion is created by such definitions. they should be modified or earth sheltered space should be defined separately.
9. STRUCTURAL DESIGN
Structural safety is a great concern with earth sheltered houses. Although the codes provide adequate general information for all structural design, specific problems found in earth covered structures are not clearly addressed. In addition an earth sheltered house (unlike a conventional wood-frame house) will require a strucural analusis be a competent engineer to ensure the safety for the occupants. This issue does not directly require any code modifications but should be considered be state and local governments in their licensing requirements.
10. WATERPROOFING
Minimum standards in the codes for waterproofing earth covered roofs and walls are either too vague or inadequate to assure a competent job. Such standards are difficult to set since there is a variety of procucts with differing characteristics. Further research is therefore necessary to set standards. this recommendation relates to the model standards development, which is seen as very beneficial in the financing area.
11. ENERGY USE
Present code provisions that limit energy use do not clearly deal with buildings incorporating earth sheltering passive solar heating, and thermal mass. However. an alternative energy use which proves the structure to be equivilant to the code minimum may be presented for houses with these features. Al-


though earth sheltered houses can be accepted under the energy code. by using this method, it is more difficult and costly for the owner/ builder. Information on the heat loss through earth sheltered walls and roofs, gain through passive solar collection and thermal storage effects of earth sheltering is still being developed. As soon as reliable data on the energy performance of these elements can be compared directly with the existing code
?rovisions. the provisions should be shel-ered to give proper credit to these energy f eatur es.




The development of the program for Windstar was a result of a series of interviews with Windstar personell, participantsi and obsei vation of daily routines and workshops. The needs are based on where Windstar might be in ten years. Assumptions have been made pertaining to community involvement/ number of staff and users.


I ADJACENCY MATRIX




AREA
ssssssssssssssss ssssssssssss:
ADMINISTRATION
: SQUARE FOOTAGE COMMENTS

2700
Conference Room General workspace Lounge Main Entry Offices Reception l OOOOOO 1 i l 200 150 S 1 1 1 1 150 i 1 1 1
ARCHITECT 1300 Conference Presentation 200 1 1 1 !
Drafting Area 230 1
General Work Area 250 1 1
Architectural Library 400 i
Storage 200 1 1
Office 200 1 1
AUDIO VISUAL/PUBLICATIONS
General Work Area
Darkroom
Film
Offices
Photographic/Graphic
Revi eu
Storage
1700
Work Area
I
I
!
i 230 I 200 ! 130
i 120 100
i 400 i 200 i 130
COMPUTING
3360 !
I
I
i
Air Conditioning Machine Room Offices Users Area Tape Library
Room
! 120 2000 ; 200 120 lOOO
I 220 linear ft
120 :


AREA
sssssssssssssssr sssssss;:
FOOD SERVICE
4000
SQUARE_FOTAGE_
COMMENTS
Dry Food Storage Employees: Lockers and Toilets Eating Area Kitchen: Cleaning Cook ing Food Prep Main Office Rece iving
Refrigerator storage Serving Counter Trash Room
200
65-80
1200: 120-150
400-500 450-550
120
50-70
160
40 linear ft. 90-110
5
LIBRARY 7120 8500 1 1 1 8500 gross sq. ft.
Av ! 1000 i Equipment storage and viewing rooms
Card Catalogue ! 300 1
Check Out Area ! 400 1 1
Entr y ! 250 1
Equipement Storage i 100 1 1
Film Library I 100 1 1
Film Viewing ! 100 1
Music Listen ! 80 80 200 !
Offices i 120 120 120 1
Peri od icals { 100 t
Read ing Area ! 1200 1
Rec i evmg/Sh i pp ing ! 450 1 1
References ! 100 1
Stac ks ! 3000 l 1
Storage I 300 1 : i i
MAINTENANCE
Bus/Garage/Storage Office
Work shop/Storage
: ;
4170 ! i
: i
! 840 260 1 50 !
: 120 :
! 2800 i
I i
MECHANICAL
Building Proformance Equi pement Observation
1000 i J
: :
: :
I 50 i
S 800 !
! 150 !
: ;


AREA
S5 S333 58!
MISC
lOOOO
Break Area Communications Dish Clrculatlon/stairs Data Collection Lecture Rooms Observation Restrooms Trash Room
! SQUARE FOOTAGE COMMENTS
! 300 i Outdoors
i 6330 ! SOX of total
: bo ;
i 630 630 630 I
i 300 300 300 i
i 1AO i
: 120 S
i i