RTD CIVIC CENTER TRANSFER FACILITY Denver, Colorado
An Architectural Thesis University of Colorado at Denver
Submitted by: Kenneth Kosnar
December 15, 1982
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction Section 1
Denver Socio/Economic Profile Section 2
Goals and Objectives Section 3
Civic Center Area -Land use patterns -Zoning districts -Pedestrian routes -Civic Center Height Control Ordinance -Traffic volume and direction Section 4
Zoning Ordinance Review Section 5
Building Code Review Section 6
Vehicular Design Criteria Section 7
Pedestrian Design Criteria Section 8
Handicapped and Elderly Requirements Section 9
Acoustical Design Criteria Section 10
Site -City location -Site plan -Survey -Floods -Soils -Utilities -Climatological Criteria -Anticipated pedestrian circulation patterns -Recommended RTD local and express bus and shuttle routes Section 11
Program Section 12
Bibliography and Acknowledgements Section 13
The 16th Street Mall is a major step in the revitalization of Downtown.'Denver. It is a mile-long transit/pedestrian thoroughfare that creates a stimulating people-place in the midst of a seemingly uncontrolled building boom and offers-:-' a wide range of activities for the visitor. Two transit facilities at opposite ends of the mall will act as an interface between express and regional buses and the free shuttle vehicles that serve the Mall.
The Civic Center Transfer Facility will serve as an entry to downtown Denver, and for many visitors will create a first impression of this city. The facility is intended to encourage a variety of uses that will complement the urban quality of the Civic Center site. An outdoor plaza space, a quality restaurant, and an array of small commercial uses will set th< character of this "gateway to downtown Denver," making the experience of using the city's mass transportation system a pleasureable one an incentive to energy conservation, improved environment, and relief from vehicular congestion.
The facility will also provide^ a place of gathering and excitement for the large Civic Center Greent as it should be.
TOTAL POPULATION, DENVER METROPOLITAN AREA: 1970-82
County/Area 1970 1980 Absolute Change . % Change 1970-80
Adams 185,789 245,944 60,155 32.4
Arapahoe 162,142 293,621 131,479 81.1
Boulder 131,889 189,625 57,736 43.8
Denver 514,678 492,365 -22,313 -4.3
Douglas 8,407 25,153 16,746 199.2
Gilpin 1,272 2,441.. 1,169 91.9
Jefferson T- 235,368 371,753 136,385 57.9
DENVER _ / ; ; .a .. ?*
METROPOLITAN - r
* r "
State of ' ' . %
Colorado - 2,209,596 2,889,964
- 4 lb - . v;' Â£ '
United Â£$& . ' . ' .; \ z.jg* Â£&:
States mo noi ooc cn* ooe oo ono oo
680,368 - . 30.8
- ; .
203,302.031 226.504.825 23.202.794
; >V .
Absolute % Change
245,944 257,500 11,556 4.7; n. ;
293,621 320,100 ' 26,479 9.0
189,625 200,200 * 10,575 % 5.6 .
492,365 487,200 -5,165 ;' -1.0
25,153 * 28,800 3,647 14.5
2,441 2,600 159 | 6.5
371,753 397,600 25,847 7.0
Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Census of Population
1970 and 1980; Sales and Marketing Management, Survey of Buying Power 1982, Advance Report.
Business Barometers, July/82
DENVER METROPOLITAN AREA
(Adams, Arapahoe, Boulder, Denver & Jefferson Counties)
Compiled by Ann Abernelhy, Research Assistant, Denver Chamber of Commerce
875 870 865 860 855 850 845 840 835 830 825 820
Aug. Sep. Od Nov. Dec Jan. FeP. Mar. Apr. May Jun. JuL
Total Employed by Place of Work.......
Trans. & Pub. Utilities.............
Finance, Insurance & Real Estate....
State & Local.....................
All Other Employed..................
Total Employed by Place of Residence
12 MONTH 12 MONTH PERCENT
MONTH MONTH AVERAGE AVERAGE CHANGE IN
OF OF ENDING ENDING 12 MONTH
JUL 82 JUN 82 JUL 82 JUL 81 AVERAGES
TOTAL LABOR FORCE 905.0 911.4 896.1 876.8 2.2
TOTAL EMPLOYED 86B.5 874.0 864.3 862.9 .2
TOTAL UNEMPLOYED 36.5 37.4 31.7 29.1 8.9
% Unemployed, Denver 4.0 (6.3) 4.1 (6.3)
% Unemployed. Colorado 4.6 (7.2) 4.7 (7.2)
% Unemployed. U.S (9.8) (9.8)
The numbers in parentheses reflect data reponed lor federal programs.
MONTH OF JUL 82 MONTH OF JUN 82 12 MONTH AVERAGE ENDING JUL 82 12 MONTH AVERAGE ENDING JUL 81 PERCENT CHANGE IN 12 MONTH AVERAGES
823.2 831.6 827.1 810.8 .2
28.0 28.1 27.3 23.4 16.6
46.3 46.2 44.0 43.4 1.4
125.9 126.4 128.0 126.2 1.4
56.5 56.1 52.6 56.1 2.7
57.8 57.8 57.9 56.8 1.9
138.3 138.2 138.0 136.5 1.1
59.1 58.8 57.7 55.5 4.0
184.8 184.7 181.0 174.8 3.5
126.5 135.6 136.0 137.8 -1.3
30.4 32.6 32.4 33.7 -.04
96.1 103.0 103.6 104.1 -.0
9.0 8.4 6.5 6.5 -0-
66.5 65.4 61.8 58.8 5.1
793.0 800.2 796.1 782.4 1.7
(Numbers in 1000s Denver Metro area, and Clear CreeK, Douglas and Gilpin counties)
Aug. Sag. Oct. Mov Dec. Jan. FeD. Mar. Apr May Jun. -------------- oc,npnf!al Nnn-Rpvinnntia)
Value of Building Permits (in 51000's)
Number of Building Permits Value of New Residential Permits (in $1000's)
Number of New Residential Permits
Value of New Non-Residential Building Permits (51000's) Number of New Non-Residenbal Building Permits
Denver County Value of Building Permits (in SIOOO s)
Number of Building Permits Value of New Residential Permits (in 51000's)
Number of New Residential Permits
Value of New Non-Residential Permits (in S1000 S)
Number of New Non-Residential Permits
MONTH OF JUL 82 MONTH OF JUN 82 12 MONTH AVERAGE ENDING JUL 82 12 MONTH AVERAGE ENDING JUL 81 PERCENT CHANGE IN 12 MONTH AVERAGES
150,159 7,936 183.859 8.773 181,429 8.539 157,921 9.278 14.9 -8.0
56.604 51.856 43.987 54.693 -19.6
1,059 872 682 931 -26.7
44,023 47.892 78.629 64.383 22.1
139 206 190 145 31.0
54.274 4,768 65.644 4,569 72.013 3.997 58.186 4,045 23.8 -1.2
4.906 9.274 13,254 8.171 62.2
55 112 60 - 123 -51.2
17.220 1.431 27.698 29.425 5.9
29 18 25 46 -45.6
/-----------------BANKING AND FINANCE
(in SMillions) month OF JUL 82 MONTH OF JUN 82 12 MONTH AVERAGE ENDING JUL 82 12 MONTH AVERAGE ENDING JUL 81 PERCENT CHANGE IN 12 MONTH AVERAGES
Commercial Bank Deposits1 . .. 8,506.8 8.568.0 8,260.0 7,532.6 9.6
Commercial Bank Loans1 ,... 7,911.9 7,844.6 7,271.1 5,720.3 27.1
Savings and Loan Deposits ,. 5,320.7 5,317.4 6,178.3 6,060.7 1.9
Savinas and Loan Loans .... 5,479.6 5,471.5 6,489.5 6,453.6 .6
MONTH MONTH 12 MONTH AVERAGE 12 MONTH AVERAGE PERCENT CHANGE IN
OF OF ENDING ENDING 12 MONTH
JUL 82 JUN 82 JUL 82 JUL 81 AVERAGES
Electric Customers ... 676.346 675,731 671,775 652,523 2.9
Gas Customers ... 534,660 534,116 530,321 514,206 3.1
Electricity Consumed (1000 KWH) ... 885,403 844,269 892,959 860,628 3.8
Gas Consumed (1000 MCF) 4,742 6,658 10.356 9,956 4.0
Total Telephone Numbers N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
(in Si 000 s)
----------------- RETAIL SALES
DENVER METRO RETAIL SALES
2.200.000 2,100.000 2.000.000
12 MONTH AVERAGE ENDING JUNE 82..
12 MONTH AVERAGE ENDING JUNE 81..
PERCENT CHANGE IN 12 MONTH AVERAGES
$1,799,747 $1,432,096 $1,583,800 $1,393,639 ....13.6%
July Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Fee. Mar. Apr. May June 12 MONTH 12 MONTH PERCENT
MONTH MONTH AVERAGE AVERAGE CHANGE IN
OF OF ENDING ENDING 12 MONTH
JUN 82 MAY 82 JUN 82 JUN 81 AVERAGES
Adams County .... 257.875 224.551 240.851 213.512 12.8
Arapahoe County .... 355,314 275,449 295,982 249.723 18.5
Boulder County .... 155.866 121,077 138.634 121.499 14.1
Denver County .... 719.544 557,527 649.950 574,737 13.1
Jefferson County .... 311,048 253.495 265.922 234.169 13.6
12 MONTH 12 MONTH PERCENT
MONTH MONTH AVERAGE AVERAGE CHANGE IN
OF OF ENDING ENDING 12 MONTH
JUL 82 JUN 82 JUL 82 JUL 81 AVERAGES
Air Freight In & Out (1000 lbs.) 26,853 27,164 26.648 23.697 12.4
Airline Passengers2 2,461,052 2,325.430 2,006.165 1,813,817 10.6
Railroad Freight Cars In & Out 14,198 14,119 15.943 16,768 -4.9
Denver Consumer Price Index3 JULY 82 MAY 82
ALL URBAN CONSUMERS 319.9 313.4 ANNUAL RATE OF INFLATION,
JULY 82 = 8.7%
URBAN WAGE EARNERS & CLERICAL WORKERS 326.3 319.5 ANNUAL RATE OF INFLATION,
JULY 82 = 8.8%
Footnotes: "Record High for Denver Metropolitan Economy
' Estimation based on five largest banks' volume.
7 Includes regular, supplemental, & charter passengers. ~ ~
3 All Urban Consumers CPI includes about 80% ol the total noninstitutional population Urban Wage Earners and Clerical Workers CPI covers about 40% of the total noninstitutional population and is included in the All Urban Consumers CPI: 1967 100.
Sources: Colorado Department of Labor and Employment: Building Inspection Department. City & County of Denver: Daily Journal: Colorado Department of Revenue; Public Service Company of Colorado Mountain Bell: Stapleton International Airport Business Office: Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City: Savings & Loan League of
ECONOMIC GROWTH AT A GLANCE, DENVER METROPOLITAN AREA* 1
1950 1960 1970 1975 1980 1981
Denver City and County 415.786 493.887 514.678 486.500 492.365 493.900
Denver Metro 612.128 929,383 1,239.545 1,418.300 1,620.902 1,640.500
TOTAL PERSONAL INCOME Coloraoo (000) S 1 .930.000 S 3.984,000 $ 8,537,000 S15.469.000 S29.029.0002 S32.919.0002
ASSESSED VALUATION (000)3 s 759,553 $ 1.855.261 $ 2,823,678 S 4,635,981 $ 7,121,019 $ 7,697.822
BUILDING PERMITS TOTAL VALUE
Denver Metro (000)4 s 113.670 S 246,613 S 500.312 S 642.312s $ 1,437.193 $ 2,170.376
Denver County (000) s 71,683 S 81,666 $ 190.594 S 207,596 $ 505,162 $ 875.650
Denver County Industrial and Commercial
(000) s 9.279 $ 12,612 $ 52.531 S 43,033 S 156.299 S 458,487
Cash Receipts, Farm Marketing (000) $ 501.833 $ 653.800 S -1.208.600 S 1,936.900 S 3,203,1002 S 2.970.0002
Value of Mineral Output (000) s 154,987 $ 376,300 S 371.900 $ 819,800 $ 2.158.7002 $ 2,331.4002
PETROLEUM PRODUCTION Colorado
(bbl)(000) 23,000 47,469 23.782 37,997 . 29,616 30.303
MANUFACTURING VALUE ADDED
Colorado (000) TOURIST TRADE Colorado s 340,795 $ 931.000 S 1,947,000 $ 3,426,500 S 6.500.0002 S 7.300.0002
Dollar Expenditure (000) s 105,796 S 359,625 $ 559.625 S 710,220 $ 1.657.2002 $ 1.876.0002
Number of Tourists (000) EMPLOYMENT7 1.958 4.568 7.862 8,890 11.8442 11.8442
Total Work Force N.A. 401.200 548,000 678,800 862,100 886.200
Total Employed N.A. 388,600 522,000 643,400 834,500 857,100
Contract Construction 10.115 22,800 28.000 32,700 46,200 42,500
Manufacturing 36,164 64,000 85,500 94,900 124,300 128,100
Retail Trade 35.972 55,300 83,600 108,100 136,600 136,900
Wholesale Trade 16.800 26,100 34.800 41,000 55,800 57,600
Government Federal, State and Local BANKING 30.000 57,900 90,800 117,900 138,200 137,400
Commercial Bank Deposits (000)* UTILITIES s 675,955* S 1,107,002* $ 2,181.225 S 4,598,860 $ 8,530.600 S 9.361,500
Electrical Consumption KWH (000) 742.964 2.368.946 5,579,814 7,996,310 10.260.659 10.416,369
Gas Consumption MCF (000) TRANSPORTATION 40.297 79,672 125,308 145,181 136,398 120,427
Stapleton International Airport
Passengers In and Out (000) 1,158 2.018 7,429 12.026 20.849 22.602
Freight In and Out Lbs. (000) 18,010 23,507 142,005 203,861 259.688 302,020
RETAIL SALES (000) s 633,230' $ 2,253,800 $ 4,863.060 S 8,335,315 $15,863,219 S18.124.301
1 Metropolitan area includes Adams, Arapahoe, Boulder, Denver, Douglas, Gilpin and Jefferson Counties. Figures for Metro Denver, unless otherwise stated.
2 Estimated by 16th Annual Business Economic Outlook Forum.
3 Residential. Commercial. Industrial. Agriculture. Natural Resources; Slate Assessed. Estimate tor 1981.
4 Figures for metro counties of Adams, Arapahoe, Boulder, Denver and Jefferson.
5 Revised to include Lafayette, Longmont, and Wheat Ridge, not previously available.
6 Preliminary year-end data.
7 Denver Boulder Labor Market Area: includes Clear Creek County.
8 Data are year end figures.
9 With City and County of Denver.
10 Data for 1948.
U.S. Department of Commerce. Bureau of the Census: Colorado Office of Planning and Budgeting; Business Week: Daily Journal: Building Inspection Department. City and County of Denver; Colorado Department of Agriculture: Colorado Bureau of Mines: Colorado Division of Commerce and Development: School of Business. University of I Colorado; Statistical Abstract ot the U.S.: Oil and Gas Conservation Commission of the State of Colorado: Colorado Department of Employment: Public Service Company of
I Colorado: Colorado Department of Revenue: Stapleton International Airport. Business Office; Denver Regional Council of Governments: Denver Post: Colorado Division of
Property Taxation: Rocky Mountain News.
CITYWIDE PLAN Planning for land use
- To rehabilitate and/or redevelop physically unsound shopping and employment areas.
- To guide new development, redevelopment and rehabilitation in a manner that will reflect identity, harmony, variety and quality in design.
- Importance of getting people out of their cars- by disincentives to auto travel and incentives to mass transit.
- Public facilities should be kept open on weekends. If hours must be cut, they should be daytime weekday hours.
- Access to public facilities for the- handicapped should be improved.
- Energy conservation was not stressed enough in the draft-comprehensive plan.
- The city should encourage all business areas to develop and maintain a pleasing environment. A pleasing shopping
-environment is desireable. New structures should be designed with an awareness of the impact that they will have on the larger visual environment of the area. Consideration should be given to proper landscaping; screening of lights, fumes, and noise from adjoining areas; control of internal autopedestrian circulation; access; protection of pedestrians; and provision of open space. Outdoor lighting end advertising signs should be designed to enhance the visual qualities of Denver.
- Major business area concentrations, especially new development, should be encouraged to utilize multiple energy sources, such as solar energy. In addition to technical and regulatory measures, energy considerations should be included in the process of determining the type, location and intensity of development.
- Denver's Downtown Development should build on the activity and strength of its commercial core area. Future development of this core area should contribute to its compactness, density and walkability as well as add to pedestrian interest by encouraging the formation of usable open space and a variety of ground level shops.
- For pedestrians, greater visual interest is created with fewer distractions or conflicts if continuous building frontage is not interrupted by driveways and constant encounters with vehicles
- To provide a transportation system that offers a variety of modes, including increased use of.public transportation as well as pedestrian and bicycle movement, to supplement the motor vehicle system.
- A summary of the transportation goals and objectives for Denver is: To provide for the safe, convenient, economical and environmentally compatible movement of people within financial constraints and in consideration of adjacent land uses.
- The City should select, locate, and design transportation facilities which minimize or reduce pollution of the physical environment and disruption of the human environment
- Clear and uniformly displayed travel information should be provided and transfer between various modes of travel should be facilitated
- Mobility of the disabled and the disadvantaged in both existing and future transportation facilities should be increased.
"Vital downtowns have certain unifying characteristics. The best downtown areas have a combination of urban qualities that people find satisfying. Good downtowns serve not only the business and commercial needs of the city, but also'as. an expression of urban living: the cultural hub and psychological center of the region. People are attracted to them as special areas of the city because of their mixture of stores, theatres, offices, restaurants, museums, and public buildings. Good downtowns are stimulating in their density and diversity of activities, and their variety and contrast of building ages, sizes, and styles. They are interesting places for people to be because of their unique combination of urban spaces, architecture, and intense human activity."
"People desire and expect downtown to be more unified in design and function. There is a need to find in downtown a sense of place, urbinity, diversity, and a certain quality of unity. Residents of Denver and the region would like to be able to take pride in downtown as the psychological center of their community. They would like to be able to find in
downtown Denver the stimulation of interesting streets and shops, dramatic new architecture, the richness of older buildings, and inviting urban spaces.
Denver's downtown has the potential for becoming a true city center a multi-function center for business, shopping, government, education, performing arts, museums, entertainment, and residence with interaction and activity encouraged and provided for by compactness, a high density central core, inviting walkways, and internal transit systems, all served by direct central transit service, and efficient auto traffic and parking systems.
Denver and the region are fortunate in having a vital and central downtown contributing its strength to the core city. Downtown has favorable trends, a good mix of activities and a compact arrangement. The realization of Denver's downtown potential will continue as each added component, whether private project or public facility, contributes to the advancement of these concepts for downtown land use, transportation and street design."
DESIGN AND STREETSCAPE
"Ease of pedestrian movement is critical to the vitality of downtown. Denver's downtown core area, specifically, has a definite need as well as a unique potential for becoming an appealing area for people on foot because of its numerous attractions all within a compact and walkable area.
_ The downtown core area, the Civic Center park and governmental district, and the Auraria Higher Education Center are the major areas of pedestrian movement.
The core area should be extensively "pedestrianized" to provide a streetscape comfortable for people walking. This includes improving the walkway surfacing, lighting, public signs, business signs, seating areas, trees and planting, and the coordination of all of these items of street furniture.
Downtown sidewalks, plazas, and thru-block walkways function as extensions of building lobbies and retail floors.
These public walkways should be better designed to serve this vital interconnecting role, with greater attention to detail, human scale, and interest for people."
MAJOR CHARACTERISTICS OF THE 16th STREET MALL A Design Guideline
MALL LAYOUT -"There are two designs for the layout of The Mall's street surface. The symmetrical layout will be used from Arapahoe to Tremont and will have the pedestrian zone in the center. Sidewalks will be widened to 19 feet in this design. Two 10-foot wide shuttle vehicle paths will run on opposite sides of the street, separated by the 22-foot central aisle.
The asymmetrical layout is used at the ends of The Mall, from Market to Arapahoe and from Broadway to Tremont. This pattern consists of a 35-foot sidewalk on the east side of the street and a 19-foot walk on the west side. The two transit paths will run along the western half of the street, separated by a six-foot aisle. This layout is necessary to accomodate a greater pedestrian flow near the transfer facilities and to preserve The Mall's views of the D & F Tower and the State Capitol."
GRANITE "Two of the most distinctive features of the Hall are its use of granite for the paving material and the granite pattern designed by I.M. Pei and Partners.
The pattern features red, light grey, and dark grey granite in a medallion design repeated throughout the length of the mile long transit/pedestrian mall on 16th Street.
The red granite is from Colorado's own quarries. The light grey is from massachusetts, while the darker shade is quarried in-Minnesota. All the granite was shipped to Minnesota to be shaped into blocks.
Its low maintenance needs, cost, appropriateness for Denver's climate, and ability to withstand intensive pedestrian and transit loads make granite the most suitable material for The Mall surface. In addition the abrasive, anti-slip surface also helps to ensure pedestrian safety."
LIGHTING "The design of The Mall's lighting is based on the need to combine several service features into one post.lantern; general illumination, security, and highlighting or decoration. The resulting design is a post lantern that is both efficient in functionand aesthetically pleasing for a pedestrian environment.
They will be placed on the Mall in staggered rows, alternating with honey locust or red oak trees. In the symmetrical blocks (pedestrian zone in center), they will be located in the 22-foot wide center aisle. In the asymmetrical sections (pedestrian zone on east side of street), the post lanterns will be in the six-foot divider between the shuttle path vehicles.
The lighting fixtures will be 11 feet tall. They are made of three steel supports which rise in tripod fashion from a flush plate set into the granite surface. At just above head height, a triangular box is fixed to each post.
This box contains the security floodlight, ballast, transformer, load sensor and transfer switch.
At the very top of the post is a plastic globe which contains the "sparkle lights" basically long-life incandescent bulbs arranged in a circular pattern around aluminum reflectors.
The reflectors around the lights will direct light into the pedestrian zones and trees, and will supplement store front lighting. After the businesses are closed, the security lights affixed to the legs of the post lanterns will illuminate automatically."
THE NORTHWEST TRANSFER FACILITY ""The northwest facility (lower downtown) features shuttle buses entering at the or ground level to serve passengers. Buses entering the facility will move below-grade to load and unload passengers at the 10 berths currently planned. Stairways, escalators, and elevators will be installed so passengers may move easily between the two levels.
An especially exciting design element in this scheme is a ground level park above the bus transfer area. The park will be attractively landscaped and extend from 16th to 17th Streets."
LAND USE AND DENSITY
i i l 2 I I S
I I i
(----) MAJOR DOWKTOWI
---- FUNCTIONAL AREA
eeee INTENSIVE PEDESTRIAN SYSTEM WITHIN FUNCTIONAL AREA
PEDESTRIAN LINKAGES BETWEE MAJOR FUNCTION AREAS
SECONDARY PEDESTRIAN LINKAGES BETWEI ACTIVITY CENTER
PEDESTRIAN GATEWAYS TO ADJACENT NEIGHBORHOODS
Civic Center Height Control Ordinance
This 1973 ordinance regulates heights of structures within the Civic Center District and affects a small portion of the northeast section of the Civic Center area.
CIVIC CENTER HEIGHT CONTROL and
MOUNTAIN VIEW PRESERVATION BOUNDARIES
r* = =
1 i i
- i L
The Civic Center area is bounded by heavy arterial streets Broadway on the east, West Colfax on the north, and Speer Boulevard on the southwest. Large volumes of 'through* traffic in the area occur on West 13th Avenue, West 8th Avenue and Bannock Street. All other streets within the neighborhood carry low volumes of traffic.
AVERAGE DAILY TRAFFIC VOLUME 1975
15 000 4 OVER 10 000-15 000 5 000 10000 3 000 5 000
There are a large number of surface parking lots in the area because of: a) closeness to major employment centers, tourist facilities and public buildings, and b) low parking rates attracting Central Business District users. These lots generate duch of the internal traffic of the area.
The 1976 off-street parking breakdown is approximately as follows:
public lot 2453 Spaces
public garage 66
private lot 3975
private garage 140
Total off-street parking 6634 Spaces
A. Applicable Regulations ,
Zoning Ordinance, Denver, Colorado
Civic Center Height Regulation, City and County
of Denver, Ordinance No. 71
B. Zoning District B5
.10-2(2). Volume of sound generated. Every use shall be so operated that the volume of sound inherently and recurrently generated does not exceed seventy decibels at any point of any boundary line.
.10-2(3). Vibration generated. Every use shall be so operated that the ground vibration inherently and recurrently generated is not perceptible, without instruments, at any point of any boundary line.
.10-2(4). Emission of heat, glare, radiation and fumes. Every use shall be so operated that it does not emit any obnoxious or dangerous degree of heat, glare, radiation, or fumes beyond any boundary line.
.10-2(5)(c). Outdoor storage and waste disposal. No materials or wastes shall be deposited upon a Zone Lot in such form or manner that they may be transferred off --- the Zone Lot by natural causes or forces.
.10-3(1). Uses by right.
(a). Sale at retail.
(pp). Eating place; need not be enclosed provided that any part of serving area located outside a completely enclosed structure shall comply with all of the specifications for maintenance for off-street parking space.. (1111). Parking and/or commercial storage of vehicles; need not be enclosed, provided that any part of such use conducted outside a completely enclosed structure shall comply with all specifications for maintenance hereinafter required for off-street parking space. (See Sec. 1(c), Ord. 423, Series 1958).
(kkkk). Terminal for intra-city or inter-city vehicles, including railroad passenger station, for movement of persons or freight; need not be enclosed.
Note: Normal small retail uses are also allowed
under the B5 zoning.
.10-4(1)(a). All structures. A ground area (Zone Lot) shall be designated, provided, and continuously maintained for all structures containing a Use by Right.
.10-4(3)(a). Basic Maximum Gross floor area.- The sum total of the gross floor area of all structures on a Zone Lot, excluding parking space within the structure and excluding any floor area where the ceiling thereover is less than 4 feet above grade at the nearest building line shall not be greater than ten times the area of the zone lot. Also excluded is any floor area devoted to mechanical equipment serving the building, provided that the floor area of such use constitutes not less than 15% of the floor area of the total story on which it is located.
.10-4(3)(b)(b-1). Premium for unenclosed plaza. 12 square feet of floor area for each square foot of unenclosed plaza area continuously open to the street.
.10-4(3)(b)(b-2). Premium for enclosed plaza. 12 square feet of floor area for each square foot of enclosed plaza if at least one entrance has a width of 40 feet. 5 square feet of floor area if at least one entrance has a width of less than 40 feet but not less than 20 feet, No premium if all entrances are less than 20 feet wide.
.10-4(3)(b)(b-3) Premium for unenclosed arcade. 5 square feet of floor area for each square foot of unenclosed arcade area continuously open to the street, provided that the following requirements are met:
(1) arcade has a depth of 12 feet or less, then average height is not dess than 12 feet;
(2) if arcade is deeper than 12 feet but not more than 20 feet, then the average height equals or exceeds the depth;
(3) if the arcade is deeper than 20 feet, then the average height is 20 feet or more.
Two and one-half square feet of floor area for each square foot of unenclosed arcade not meeting these requirements.
.10-4(3)(b)(b-4). Premium for enclosed arcade. 2ij square feet of floor area for each square foot of enclosed' arcade area, provided that all of the following requirements are met:
(1) it has at least 2 entrances opening directly to the street or to a plaza at two different locations;
(2) the minimum width of each of at least two entrances is 20 feet;
(3) the minimum width between all bounding walls is 20 feet.
(4) the average minimum height is 12 feet.
.10-4(4). Outside Area of window exposure. Every wind of a habitable room shall have not less than the folio* amount of outside exposure determined in the following manner: from a reference point located at the bottom
center of the window, extend outward at right angle to window plane a horizontal sector of 140 degrees, center on the window, with a radius of 25 feet. Within this sector the minimum required outside area of exposure sh be any open sector or combination of sectors totalling 70 degrees.
.10-6. Off-street parking requirements. Parking Class Five. A variance would be required to waive the requir ment for a parking area equal to one-fourth the gross floor area.
.10-7. Off-street loading requirements. Four berths required at least 10 feet wide, 35 feet long and 14 fee high.
C. Civic Center Height Regulation
The height regulation divides the block into 3 equal portions as follows: north 1/3 block elevations 5523; middle 1/3 block' elevation5451; south 1/3 block elevation 5391. These restrictions pose no restraints on the terminal.
BUILDING CODE REVIEW
A. Applicable Regulations
Building Code of the City and County of Denver, amended 1979.
B. Occupancy Classification
B-2 Terminal Concourse, Information Center B3 Restaurant
F-l,F-2 Retail, RTD Office, Communications Center,
Fire Control Center
G-3 Bus Garage and Storage, Automobile Parking Garage, Mechanical
C. Fire Zone 1.
Section 1602. Restrictions in Fire Zone 1.
(a) General. Buildings or structures erected, constructed or moved within or into Fire Zone 1 sha.ll be only Type I, II, III-H.T., III .one-hour, or IV one-hour construction, and shall otherwise meet the requirements of this Building Code.
D. Building Area 123700 sq. ft.
Construction Classification Type 1
E. Allowable Floor Areas (from Table No.5-C)
B-2 Unlimited B-3 Unlimited F-l,2. Unlimited G-3 Unlimited
F. Occupancy Separation (from Table No.5-B)
B-2/B-3 No separation required B-2/F-1 1 hr '
B-2/F-2 1 hr
B-2/G-3 1 hr
. Occpuancy Separation, continued
No separation required 1 hr 1 hr 1 hr 1 hr 1 hr
G. Type 1 Construction (from Table No.l7-A)
Exterior Bearing Walls 4 hr
Exterior Non-Bearing Walls 4 hr
Section 1803. Exterior Walls and Openings.
(a) Exterior Walls Exceptions:
1. Nonbearing walls fronting on streets or yards having a width of at least 40 feet may be of unprotected noncombustible construction.
2. In Groups F,G and H Occupancies, exterior bearing walls may be of 2 hour fire-resistive noncombustible construction where openings are permitted.
3. In other than Group E Occupancies, exterior nonbearing walls may be of one hour fire resistive noncombustible construction where unprotected openings are permitted and 2 hour fire-resistive noncombustible construction where fire protection of openings is required.
(b) Openings in Walls (from Table No.l7-C)_
Occupancy Fire Zone Type of Construction Set-Back i: B2 1,2,3 I,II,III 20
Section 1804. Floors 4 hr
Mezzanine Floors 1 hr
Section 1805. Stairs.
Stairs and landings shall be constructed of reinforced concrete or structural steel.
Section 1806. Roofs. 2 hr
Interior Bearing Walls .3 hr
Structural Frame 3 hr
Permanent Partitions 1 hr
Vertical Opening Enclosure 2 hr
H*. Live Loading
100 psf 65 100
125 light, 250 heavy
H. Live Loading, continued
Roof Snow Load
30 at less than 4" per foot
Railings Wind Pressure
25 at 4'-12' per ft.
20 less than 30 ft.
I. Roof Drainage
Overflow drains and scuppers. Overflow drains equal to roof drain size installed 2" above low point or overflow scuppers equal to 3 times roof drain size. *
J. Requirements for Group B Occupancies Section 703. Location.
lb) On Property. Buildings shall front directly upon or have access to a public street at least 20 feet in width.
The access to a public street shall be a 20 foot minimum right-of-way maintained soley as access to the public street. The mein entrance to the building shall be located on the public street or the access.
Section 705. Light, Ventilation, Toilet Room Facilities.
(a) Light. All portions of the building used by human occupants shall be provided with either natural or artificial light.
K. Requirements for Group F Occupancies Section 1103. Location.
(b) On Property. Buildings shall adjoin a yard, public space, or street on at least one side.
Section 1105. Light, Ventilation, Toilet Room Facilities.
(a) Light.. All portions of the building used by human occupants shall be provided with either natural or artificial light.
L. Requirements for Group G Occupancies
Section 1202. Construction, Height, Allowable Area.
(b) Special Provisions. Storage areas in excess of 1000 square feet in connection with offices incidental to these operations, shall be separated from the public areas by a one-hour fire-resistive occupancy separation.
Section 1203. Location.
(b) On Property. Buildings shall adjoin a yard, public space or street on at least one side.
L. Requirements fdr Group G Occupancies, continued
Section 1205. Light, Ventilation, Toilet Facilities.
(a) Light. All portions of building used by human occupants shall be provided with natural or artificial light.
Section 1209. Automobile Parking Garages.
2. May be open or closed construction.
3. Curbs for traffic control shall be provided.
6.Hand-type fire extinguishers shall be required by the Fire Dept, and shall be located as directed.
8. Vehicle exit ramps may be utilized for pedestrian exit requirements, provided the pedestrian walkway isclearly defined by a curb or raised walk; that the number of automobiles parked per tier is 100 or less; and that the number of tiers is three or less.
9. Where ramps are used for the transfer of automobiles
from one floor to another, these ramps shall be within 2 feet of the ground floor level at a point at least 20 feet from the exit from the building.
M. Determination of Occupant Load
Section 3301. (h) Mixed Occupancies. The maximum occupant load of a building containing mixed occupancies shall be determined by adding the number of occupants of each occupancy as specified in Table 33-A.
From Table 33-A:
Automobile parking 300 s.f./occ.
154 occ. at 46,182 s.f.
Mechanical 300 s.f./occ.
9 occ. at 2823 s.f.
Bus Garage and Storage 300 s.f./occ.
149 occ. at 44,710 s.f.
Concourse and Information Center 10 s.f./occ.
1693 occ. at 10,926 s.f.
RTD Offices, Fire Control Center, and Communications Center 100 s.f./occ.
11 occ. at 1136 stf.
Retail (design for maximum use, i.e. dining establishments) 15 s.f./occ. .
438 occ. at 6572 s.f.
Restaurant 215 occ. at 6140 s.f. See Summary of Space Requirements Total Occupants 2669
(e) Rooms in Group B Occupancy, and dining and drinking establishments in Group F with an occupant load greater than 50 shall post the capacity of the room in a conspicuous space.
Det. of Occupant Load, continued
(l) Changes in Elevation. Changes in elevation of less than 12 inches along an exit shall be made by means of a ramp.
(m) Exit Ramp Requirements. Every building housing Group A,. B-l, B-2, B-3, B-4, C-l, C-2, D-l, D-2, F-l, F-2, H-l or H-2 occupancies shall provide one means of exit from the first floor for the handicapped confined to wheel chairs, unless otherwise approved by the Department.
N. Section 3302. Exits Required.
(a) Determination of the Number of Exits Required. Building or floors, including basements, cellars, or occupied roofs
shall have not less than two exits where required by Table
No. 33-A.. In. all occupancies, floors above the first story
having an occupant than two exits. load of more than 10 shall have not less
(From Table No. 33 -A) 2 or more
Building Exits Req when
Component Use Occ Load Exceeds Exits
Auto Parking Garages (no repair) 30 2
Mechanical Mech. Eqpt. Rooms 30 1
Garage & Storage Garages (no repair) 30 2
Concourse/Info. Assembly (Medium
concentrated use) 50 4
RTD Ofc/Access. Office Bldgs & Offices 30 1
Retail Retail Sales 50 2
Restaurant Assembly (Low
concentrated use) 50 2
(f) Four Exits Required. Every story or portion thereof which provides for an occupant load of 1,000 or more shall have at least four exits. (Terminal Concourse)
(h) Final Exiting. The maximum number of exits required for any story shall be maintained until egress is provided from the building.
(j) Width. The total width of exits in feet shall be at least the total occupant load served divided by 50. The width of exits shall be divided approximately equally among the separate exits. The total exit width required from any story shall be determined by using the occupant load of that story, plus percentage of the occupant loads of floors which exit through the level under consideration as follows:
1. Fifty percent of the occupant load in the first adjacent story above, and the first adjacent story below when a
N. Exits Required, continued
story below exits through the level under consideration.
2. Twenty-five percent of the occupant load in the story immediately above and below the first adjacent story.
3. The maximum exit width required from any story of a building shall be maintained until egress is provided from the building.
Total Width of Exits
Auto Parking 154/50 = 3'10
Mechanical-Minimum Exit see 3303(d)
Garage and Storage 149/50 = 3'0"
Concourse/Information 1752/50 = 35'0M RTD Ofc/Access. Minimum Exit see 3303(d)
Retail 438/50 = 8'9''
Restaurant 267/50 = 5'4
(l) Distance of Exits.
Maximum Travel Distance: 150' or 200' if building is sprinkled throughout.
(m) Exit Through Adjoining or Accessory Areas. Exits from a room may open into an adjoining or intervening room or area, provided the adjoining room is accessory to the area served and provides a direct means of egress to an exit corridor, exit stairway, exterior exit, horizontal exit, exterior exit balcony, or exit passageway.
Exception: Exits shall not pass through kitchens, storerooms, restrooms, closets, heating or mechanical rooms, or spaces used for similar purposes.
Foyers, lobbies and reception rooms constructed as required for corridors shall not be construed as intervening rooms.
0. Section 3303. Exit Doors.
(b) Swing. All doors shall swing in the direction of exit travel when serving an occupant load of 30 or more. Doubleacting doors shall not be used as exits serving an occupant load of more than 100, used as a part of a fire assembly, nor equipped with panic hardware. A double-acting door shall be provided with a view panel of at least 200 square inches.
(d) Width and Height.
Minimum width 3'0"
Minimum height 6'8
Exit doors shall open 90 degrees; clear width of exitway shall be at least 34".
(e) Door Leaf Width. No leaf of an exit door shall exceed 4 feet in width.
0. Exit Doors, continued
(f) Special Doors. Revolving, sliding, overhead, or power-operated doors shall not be used as a required exit.
Exception: Sliding door fronts may be used only where glass store fronts are permitted and where a second means of exit is provided. The sliding store front shall be kept in the fully open position at all times during business hours.
(g) Egress from Door. Every exit door required by this Section shall give immediate access to an approved means of egress from the building.
(h) Change in Floor Level at Doors. Regardless of occupant load, there shall be a level floor or landing on each side of a door. When doors open over landings, the landing shall extend 2 feet beyond the edge of the door leaf when in an open position.
(j) Public Way. Doors shall not swing into the public way.
P. Section 3304. Corridors and Exit Balconies.
1. Foyers, lobbies and reception rooms may be considered as corridors.
(b) Width. Minimum corridor width 44?'.
(c) Height. Minimum corridor height 7'0".
1'. Trim and handrails shall not reduce the required width by more than a total of 7 inches.
2. Exit doors may swing into the corridor a maximum of 1 foot when the corridor exceeds 6 feet in width. The required width of the corridor shall not be decreased by the projection into the corridor.
3. Doors may swing into a corridor from rooms that are infrequently used, and provided with a lock; such as janitors, telephone, and electrical closets.
(e) Access to Exits. When more than one exit is required, exits shall be arranged so that it is possible to go in either direction from any point in a corridor to a separate exit, except for dead-end corridors permitted by this Section.
(f) Dead-End Corridors.
Maximum length 20', 50' if sprinkled.
Q. Section 3305. Stairways.
Minimum width 44" for occupant loads of 50 or more. Minimum width 35" for occupant loads of 50 or less.
Trim and handrails shall not reduce the required width by more than 3% inches on each side.
(c) Rise and Run.
Maximum rise 7^"
Minimum run 10"
(f) Spiral Stairways. May not be used for exit requirement.
(g) Landings. Every landing shall have a dimension measured in the direction of travel equal to the width of the stairway The dimension need not exceed 5 feet when the stair has a straight run. Landings, when provided, shall not be reduced in width by more than inches by a door when fully opened.
1. The vertical distance between landings shall not exceed 12 feet, 6 inches.
2. On all floors above the first floor, a space at least 25" by 42" shall be provided for one wheel chair in each stairway enclosure as an area of refuge for handicapped persons confined to wheelchairs where exits usable by the handicapped persons are not provided. This refuge area shall be required only in buildings with elevators to upper floors.
Mimimum height 30"
Maximum height 34"
(o) Escalators. Shall not be considered as a required exit.
R. Section 3306. Ramps Used As Exits.
(b) Width. See Q.
Minimum 1 per 5* of rise.
Minimum 5* measured in the direction of ramp run.
Doors in any position shall not reduce the landing dimension to less than 42" nor the required width by more than 3^".
(e) Handrails. At least one side, with minimum of 32" in heic
(g) Surface. Roughened or of non-slip materials.
(h) Vehicle Exit Facilities. Sec. 1222. Where ramps are provided for vehicles exiting from buildings, ramps shall be within 2 feet of ground level at least 20 feet inside property line of the building. S.
S. Section 3308. Exit Enclosures.
(a) General. Every interior stairway, ramp, or escalator
S. Exit Enclosures, cont.
shall be enclosed as specified in this Section.
T. Section 3313. Aisles.
(a) General. Every portion of a building in which fixed seats are installed shall be provided with aisles leading to an exit.
(b) Width. 3'0" if serving one side, 3'6" if two sides; increase width IV for each five feet from furthest point.
(c) Distance to Nearest Exit. 150 feet through aisles to exit door is maximum, plus 200 feet if sprinkled (approved).
(d) Aisle spacing. Maximum of six intervening seats between any one seat and aisle.
(e) Slope. Not to exceed one foot in eight.
U. Section 509. Toilet Facilities. (From Table 5-E-l, 5-E-2)
Transfer facility total occupants 1900 -
Water closets 3 male, 6 female Urinals 3 male
Lavatories 4 male, 4 female Drinking fountains 1 per floor
Dining area and lounge 206 occ.
Office and kitchen 9 occ.
____ Water closets 2 male, 5 female
Urinals 3 male
Lavatories 2 male, 3 female
1 water closet/sex; 1 lavatory/sex Retail
Restrooms will be required but will be under future tenant finish construction.
Provide one water closet and one lavatory for each sex employed. Other requirements
Floors and walls shall be constructed of hard, smooth, nonabsorbent surfaces.
Compartments shall be at least 30 inches wide and shall provide at least 24 inches clearance in front of water-closet. Lavatories shall be 18 inches minimum
U. Section 509. Toilet facilities continued
Access to any portion of building shall not be through a toilet room. Access to toilet rooms shall not be through food preparation areas except for toilet room facilities provided exclusively for employees in the food preparation area.
Location shall be convenient to areas being served and not more than 200 feet on the same level or more than one floor removed from area served.
V. Section 510. Requirements For Handicapped Persons.
(a) At least one water closet and one lavatory for each sex shall be provided.for use by handicapped persons.
(b) Toilet requirements
Compartments minimum width 36 inches with a door or access width of 32 inches minimum; minimum of 32 inches of space unobstructed by door swing in front of water closet; grab bars shall be at least 31 inches parallel to floor and 1\ inches clearance to wall.
Lavatories clear space underneath of 26 inches in width,
12 inches in depth, and 29 inches in height excluding the ._ projection of bowl and piping; maximum distance to rim of lavatory shall be 34 inches.
Mirrors and hand drying equipment at least one of each to be mounted not more than 40 inches above the floor to the v bottom of mirror or fixture.
Provisions in buildings equipped with elevators, facilities for handicapped persons shall be provided where toilet facilities are required; for buildings not equipped with elevators, :~on the ground floor.
"Access door to toilet rooms shall be at least 32 inches wide. Minimum clear floor space 4 feet by 4 feet.
(c) Ramp requirements
Access ramp for the handicapped to the first floor shall be provided; maximum slope 1:12.
(d) Stair landing requirements
On all floors above first floor, a space at least 25 inches by 42 inches shall be provided for one wheelchair in each stairway enclosure as an area of refuge for persons confined to wheelchairs where exits useable by the handicapped persons are not provided.
W. Fire Protection Systems
(a) Section 3803. Fire sprinkler systems shall be provided in "every story, cellar, and basement when floor area exceeds 1500 s.f. Exception: not required when at least 20 s.f. of window opening is provided in each 50 linear feet of exterior wall in each story, cellar, and basement. These windows shall be provided on at least 2 sides of the building, and the required window opening shall be a glazed surface at least 30 inches in smallest dimension.
Fire sprinkler systems shall also be provided:
When any portion of a basement is more than 50 feet from required openings.
When any portion of a story is more than 75 feet from required openings..
W. Fire Protection Systems continued
or height and are more than 10 feet in length.
For unenclosed vertical openings between floors, e.g. atriums. For dead-end corridors except as permitted in Chapter 33 (see P 3 f.)
(b) Fire Department connections at least one 2-way fire dept; connection^'arranged so that-use of any one connection will serve all fire sprinklers within the building.
(c) Fire detection systems shall be required in all new F-lf B-2, and B-3 occupancies which serve alcoholic beverages; shall incorporate smoke type detectors in routes of egress and storage rooms opening into routes of egress; in Group F-lf B-2, and B-3 occupancies which serve malt or alcoholic beverages, shall incorporate thermal rate of rise detectors in routes of egress and all other areas.
Each floor shall be zoned separately. If the floor area exceeds 20,000 s.f. additional zoning shall be provided. In no case shall the length of any zone exceed 200 feet in any direction.
(d) Fire Alarm systems shall be required in all new Group A, B,
C, D, and H and F-2 occupancies, with the exception of F-2 and H occupancies of 4 stories or less above grade.
Manual pull stations shall be located in each corridor of each story, basement, or cellar so that from each corridor door not more than 100 feet will be traversed in order to reach a manual pull station, and not more than 5 feet from each stair exit.
Power supply shall be provided from the building emergency system.
(e) Special extinguishing systems shall be required in range hoods, connecting duct systems, and special hazards such as deep fat fryers, ranges, griddles and broilers used in conjunction with frying and cooking operations in food preparation centers.
(f) Central stations. Required fire protection systems shall be connected to an approved central station system, except in F-2 occupancies of 4 stories or less above grade.
X. Heating, Cooling and Ventilating
1. Areas above ceilings may be used for supply or return air plenums in Groups A through H occupancies, provided no fuel-fired equipment or combustible material is located in this space.
2. The suspended ceiling material shall not be considered a component of a fire-rated assembly unless all penetrations provide the same fire-resistive rating.
4. Plumbing, drain, waste, vent, roof drain and temperature control lines, shall be permitted in a plenum when constructed of materials whose products of combustion are not toxic.
5. All duct work located in a plenum shall be constructed
Heating, etc. continued
of sheet metal or as otherwise approved by the Department.
Gas lines shall not be permitted in a plenum unless the pipe joints are welded, silver-soldered or the piping is encased in an air-tight sleeve through the plenum and open ended out of the plenum.
(e) Access. All appliances shall be readily accessible for inspection, repair, or replacement.
(f) Separation of Equipment. Fuel-fired heating equipment shall be separated from refrigeration and air-handling equipment by a fire separation wall of at least one-hour fire-resistive construction. Access to refrigeration and airhandling equipment shall not be through boiler room. Access to boiler room shall not be through refrigeration and airhandling room.
1. Combination heating and cooling equipment need not comply, provided the heating and cooling equipment is an approved single-package or tandem unit.
2. The equipment is approved for exterior installation.
(k) Central Heating. Where heating is installed, the heating system or systems shall be of the central typer unless otherwise approved.
Exception: Sealed combustion chamber type (through-the-wall heaters), when approved by the Department.
(m) Fire and Smoke Control of All Ventilation Systems in Excess of 2,000 CFM.
1. When the supply fan is located in the same smoke or fire zone that it serves, that fan shall be shut down automatically by a products of combustion detection device located in each of the return air systems and the supply air system, after any system filters.
2. When ventilation systems serve more than one smoke or fire zone, the system shall have a product of combustion detection device located in the return or exhaust air stream of each smoke or fire zone which will close a fire damper in the ducts supplying air to that zone.
3. The supply air fire control shall not eliminate the need -for required fire dampers.
(n) Heat Exchanger. When more than fifty percent of the air entering the heat exchanger is taken directly from the outside, at winter design temperature, the heat exchanger through which the air passes shall be constructed of an approved non-corrosive material.
4. Heating and cooling equipment, ductwork, or piping in elevator shafts, elevator pits, or elevator machine rooms.
6. Gas lines, water lines, sewer lines, or electric lines penetrating any supply, return, or exhaust duct systems.
Heating, etc. continued
10. Return air taken from any boiler room, furnace room, kitchen, bathroom, trash room, janitor storage room, toilet room, swimming pool, garage, storage room, or areas containing toxic, flammable, corrosive, radioactive, or pathogenic materials.
11. Fuel-fired unit heaters, suspended furnaces, and duct furnaces in Groups A,B,C,D and H occupancies.
Section 5203. Air Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Systems in Building Groups A Through H Occupancies.
1. Mechanical refrigeration, when used with air duct systems, shall conform with the requirements of this Chapter and Chapter 49.
1. Gas-fired heating equipment shall not be located downstream from a cooling unit unless the equipment is approved for
2. Heating equipment shall not be located upstream from a cooling unit unless the cooling unit is approved for that use. 3..All fuel-fired heating equipment located within Groups A through H occupancies shall be installed in a furnace or boiler room in accordance with the requirements of Chapter 17.
.(d) Construction of Ducts.
5. Ducts or plenums may be of independent construction, or, may be formed by parts of the building structure as approved by the Department.
6. Approved flexible duct connectors used between ducts and air devices in construction Type I shall be Class 1 in accordance with U.L. 181. The use of flexible ducts is prohibited for use as return air duct and, on gravity furnaces.
A. Duct connectors shall not pass through any rated wall, floor, or ceiling.
B. Flexible duct connectors shall be continuous, and shall not exceed 10 feet in length of 16 inches in diameter.
7. Vibration isolation connectors in duct systems shall be made of an approved flame-retardant fabric or approved material having a Class 1 rating.
(e) Installation of Ducts.
1. Ducts shall not impair the effectiveness of the fireproofing surrounding structural members.
2. Ducts which pass through walls, floors, or ceilings required to be of fire-resistive construction shall be enclosed as specified in Chapter 17. If fire-resistive enclosures are
not provided, approved fire dampers shall be installed at the point where the ducts penetrate the fire-resistive walls, floors, or ceilings.
3. Approved fire dampers shall be installed in required fire-
resistive walls, floors, or ceilings at the point of penetration. -
X. Heating, etc. continued
(f) Clearance from "Warm Air Ducts, Plenums, or Bonnets.
1. Warm air ducts, plenums, or bonnets shall be installed with clearance to combustible material as follows:
B. In Type I or II buildings, clearance shall not be required for bonnets, plenums or ducts.
(g) Outside Openings.
A. Outside air intake openings in exterior walls shall be located at least 10 feet, measured in any direction, from any plumbing vents, flues, vents, chimneys, and gas regulator vents, hazardous, or noxious sources.
2. Mounting Height.
A. Outside air intake and exhaust openings shall be located at least 12" above the outside grade or roof.
B. Where outside air intake and exhaust openings are located in an areaway below grade, the top of the areaway
i shall be at least 12" above the grade level.
3. Screens. Outside air intake and exhaust openings shall be protected by.$creens of.corrosion-resistant metal of minimum 1/2 inch mesh.
4. Outside air intake and exhaust openings shall be protected against weather and water with a weather-proof hood or louvers
(i) Negative Pressure from Ventilation Systems. Ventilation systems shall be designed, constructed, and arranged so that negative pressure from the ventilation system cannot affect the air supply for combustion, or draw products of combustion from appliances, vents, or fireplaces.
Section 5206. Recessed Heaters.
(a) General. Recessed heaters shall not be installed as a substitute for a central heating system.
SfcCtSec.5207. Space or Room Heaters.
(b) Through-the-Wall Heaters.
1. Through-the-wall heaters shall not be installed as central heating in Groups A through H occupancies.
Section 5211. Underground Duct Systems.
(a) Installation. Underground duct systems shall have duct joints securely fastened made air tight and conform to the following:
1. Non-metallic materials may be installed in accordance with the requirements of the approval obtained.
2. Underground duct systems installed in or below concrete floors or slabs shall be fully encased in at least 2 inches of concrete and shall be securely anchored to grade every
6 feet prior to encasement in the concrete.
Section 5215. Commercial Cooking Appliances.
1. All commercial cooking appliances shall be installed in an
Heating, etc. continued
accessible location with Clearances in accordance with their approval, and shall comply with Chapter 51.
Section 5216. Commercial Cooking Hoods and Fans.
(a) Required locations. Commercial cooking appliances, cooking and industrial appliances in Groups A H occupancies shall be provided with ventilating hoods and exhaust ducts.
(d) System Designs.
1. The hood or other portion of the system designed for primary collection of vapors and residues shall be constructed of steel or stainless steel with welded joints.
(e) Exhaust Ducts and Hoods.
2. Ducts from grease hoods shall constitute an independent system and shall lead as directly as possible to the outside.
4. Vertical risers shall be located outside the building, and shall be supported with noncombustible supports.
5. Termination of Ducts. Ducts shall extend above the building in which located and shall terminate as follows:
A. With at least 40" clearance from the outlet to the roof surface.
P.B. With a mimimum of 10 feet of clearance from the outlet to adjacent buildings, property lines, air intakes and adjoining grade levels.
C. With the direction of flow of exhaust air away from the furface of the roof.
(f) Exhaust Fans.
1. Exhaust fans shall be located outside the building.
(g) Ventilation for Commercial Cooking Equipment.
1. Duct systems shall be designed to create a conveying air velocity in the exhaust ducts of at least 1500 feet per minute.
2. Hoods shall be equipped with mechanical exhaust blowers which exhaust a mimimum of 75 CFM per square foot of hood area when the hood is attached to a wall. When the hood is located with all four sides exposed, a mimimum of 100 CFM of air per square foot of hood area shall be exhausted.
3. Low sidewall range hoods, when the intake is within 3 feet of the cooking'surface, shall have a mimimum volume of
300 CFM per lineal foot of cooking surface.
4. Makeup Air.
A. A positive means of introducing makeup air, equal to 90 percent of the quantity of air being exhausted by all exhaust systems, shall be provided for the space.
D. All systems shall be submitted for approval prior to installation.
Section 5218. Fire, Smoke, and Heat Shield Dampers.
(a) Requirements. Fire Dampers or heat shields shall be required in air passage openings, which penetrate walls, floors,
Heating, etc. continued
or ceilings having a required fire-resistive rating. Smoke dampers shall be required in air passage openings, which penetrate smoke barriers and smoke partitions, and in smoke removal systems.
(d) Damper Control. Fire dampers shall close automatically upon the operation of a fusible link at a temperature of
165 degrees F., or 50 degrees F. above the maximum temperature normally encountered in the system. Smoke dampers shall operate automatically and shall be opened or closed by a smoke detector sensing products of combustion.
Section 5222. Ventilation.
The following ventilation requirements shall apply. See Table 33-A for occupant loads.
1. Ventilating requirements shall apply to every room designed, erected, altered, or converted to a different use, regardless of building type.
2. The mimimum quantities of air to be supplied and exhausted by mechanical ventilating systems shall be as stated in
the mimimum required ventilation column of the ASHRAE Standard 62-73. Heating, ventilation and Air Conditioning Guide, 1975, 1976, 1977, 1978.
3. All rooms which house sources of odors, fumes, noxious gases, smoke, steam, dust, spray, or other contamination shall be ventilated to prevent spreading of the contaminates to other occupied portions of the tmilding.
4. Air exhausted from bath, toilet, locker or coat room, kitchen, boiler room, or rooms of similar use, shall not be recirculated and shall be an independent system unless otherwise approved .by the Department.
Exception: Where a building is provided with an exhaust system which operates 24 hours a day and when approved by the Department.
5. When a mechanical ventilation system is provided, supply and exhaust quantities of air shall be equalized.
6. The air removed by mechanical ventilating exhaust systems shall be discharged to the outside at a point where it will not create a niusance, and from which it cannot again be readily drawn in by a ventilating supply system, except for air to be reused as part of a recirculation system. The minimum separation of discharge and intake openings shall
be 10 feet.
1. All storage garages housing 6 or more vehicles driven by internal combustion engines shall be provided with a supply and exhaust ventilation system. A storage area is defined as any area within a building used for storage of fire trucks, tractors, automobiles, trucks, and other self-propelled vehicles. The outside air supply and exhaust ventilation shall be provided and maintained for all occupied areas during periods of occupancy.-
X. Heating, etc. continued
Section 5226. Solar Energy System.
(a) Solar Energy Collectors. Solar collection systems may be installed as free standing, roof, wall, or deck-supported structures or devices incorporated in or attached to a building construction. Solar collection systems shall conform to ERDA and NBS standards.
(b) Solar Thermal Components. Open, closed, or sealed vessels, containers, enclosures, spaces, and collectors shall comply with the requirements of this Building Code.
The information that follows, to be used as guidelines in the design of the Civic Center Transfer Facility, is from the Regional Transportation District's "Design Standards Manual," pages B45 through B52, and B60 through B62, May 1977.
Bus Envelope ~ 35 and 40 Foot Transit Bus
Models in Service: GMC Model 5105
GMC Model 4516
/ uulj-jk. cjzj nni
Bus Envelope 40 foot Transit Bus
Models in Service: AMG Model 10240
AMG Model 1024OB GMC Model 5303 GMC Model 5304 GMC Model 5305 GMC Model 5308
Flxible Model (40) 6VA Flxible Model D061
1 i v '
i 1 I 1 1
RO WB 1_ TO
y L W
H L W H WB TO RO Passenger
Overall Overall Overall Wheel Front Rear Capacity
Length Width Height Base Overhang Overhang (seated/
Bus Type (feet) (feet) (feet) (feet) (feet) (feet) standing)
20' Bus (Flxihle 21.3 7.5 9.2 11.4 3.0 6.9 23/
30* Medium Size 29.7 o 00 8.5 15.5 5.5 8.7 26*
Bus (FMC Transporter)
35 Transit 3us (Flxihle Model 35) 35.0 8.5 # 10.35 18.75 7.4 8.8
40' Transit Bus 40.0 8.5 10.35 23.8 7.1 9.1
(Flxihle Model 40)
40' Intercity Bus 40.0 8.0 10.83 23.7+ 5.9 6.4
(MCI Model MC-8) 4.0
40' Transit Bus 41.0 7.92 10.26 23.8 7.5 9.7
(AMG Model 10240B) l .
Articulated Bus (Falkenried) 55.77 8.2 8.93 18.37+ 19.68
Capacity reduced to 11 seats plus 4 wheel chair spaces when modified into Elderly and Handicapped Transporter.
Boxes indicate critical dimensions for the Design Vehicle.
' '.Jk J
Door Tvoe (feet)
20* Bus (Flxible Model Flxette) Two leaf, inward folding, air operated o fN 2.0
30' Medium Size 3us (FMC Transporter) Four-section, slide-glide, air controlled 4.0 none
35 Transit Bus (Flxible Model 35) Two section, slide-glide, air controlled 2.7 2.25
40' Transit Bus Two section,
(Flxible Model 40) slide-glide. 2.7 2.25
40' Intercity Bus (MCI Model MC-8) One section, outward swinging 2.5 none
40* Transit Bus AMG Model 10240) Two section, slide-glide, push type 2.5 2.5
Articulated Bus (Falkenried) Two section, inward folding 4.10 4.10
Boxes indicate critical dimensions for the Design Vehicle.
4) Critical step dimensions^
A 3 C
Vehicle Type Front Step Rear Step Height Height (inches) (inches) Floor to Ground (inches)
20' Bus (Flxihle Model Flxette) 14.0 14.0 30.0
30' Medium Size Bus (FMC Transporter) 6.5 wheel chair 19.5
35 Transit Bus (Flxihle Model 35) 15.0 13.0 33.8
40* Transit Bus (Flxihle Model 40) 15.5 17.5 35.0
40 Intercity Bus (MCI Model MC-8) 15.5 none 32.5
40' Transit Bus (AMG Model 10240) 15.5 14.5 35.0
Articulated Bus (Falkenried) 13.4 13.4 21.3
Boxes indicate critical dimensions for the Design Vehicle.
20' Bus (Flxible Model Flxette)
30' Medium Size Bus (FMC Transporter)
35' Transit Bus (Flxible Model 35)
40' Transit Bus (Flxible Model 4C)
40' Intercity Bus (MCI Model MC-B)
40' Transit Bus (AM General Model 10240) Articulated Bus (Falkenried)
Empty Weight (lb.) Gross Weight (lb.)
Boxes indicate critical dimensions for the Design Vehicle.
feet maximum ---
projection of mirror
Hori .zontal clearances of two buses ah 10.5' 11'} 10.5' reast
Mi W tMMM) W (M
n 1 II i
; 11.5' minimum
T T 23' minimum
Vertical clearances for overhead obstacles
H= 10.83 feet maximum
HE: Envelope/Dimensions chart
Basic minimum clearance requirement on RTD owned property.
V= 16.5 feet
Based on Federal Highway Administration standard for interstate highways and all other clearances over public roadways.
- 15.5 feet
Based on clearance requirements for traffic control signals and DURA standard for Denver Urban Renewal projects.
Pull-out clearances from a parked position
2. Operational Standards
The operational standards covered under this section will apply
primarily to buses under the assumption that automobiles and bicycles have no unusual problems that might otherwise require special design attention.
B. Visibility/site lines
The bus diagram below indicates basic site lines of a bus driver.
Site lines are very good to the front and left side of the bus,
as well as to the right-front. Visibility to the extreme back
and right rear of the bus is extremely poor. For this reason, the
backing of buses should be discouraged.
Site Lines from Bus Driver's Seat
Driver visibility is also affected by obstacles in the lines of sight. Landscaping or signage, for example, at street intersections or crosswalks can cause blind spots for the driver, thereby creating a hazardous situation that could affect pedestrian safety.
C. Turning preferences
Noise from the bus engine can be a problem for the waiting pedestrian. During acceleration in pulling away from the loading area, the noise level of the bus can exceed 90 d3A, a level that can have a startling effect on someone standing near the engine intake grille.
Interference in verbal communication can occur among bus patrons standing near the bus loading area since an idling bus can generate 60 dSA at a distance 25 feet away and in a line with the engine. Situations requiring pedestrians to raise their voices above normal in speaking or to assume an uncomfortably close distance relationship to each other should be corrected. Proper design and siting of bus passenger shelters, for example, could conceivably reduce the noise level by 20 to 25 d3A.
Generally, it is the intrusive type of noises (those which intermittently rise above the background noise level) which are most annoying to the individuals in the community. Consideration should be given to minimizing the adverse effects of bus noise on neighboring facilities as well as the Park-n-Ride users. Residential land use has the most stringent allowable noise level requirements.
In order to reduce the noise impact of Park-n-Ride facilities from both passenger automobiles and buses, consideration should be given to the use of barriers and buffer zones. It is however important to realize that in the case of buffer zones, am on-grade 200 foot wide strip of land densely planted with non-deciduous trees provides only about a 10 dBA reduction.
The problem exists of puddled water or melting snow accumulating gutters adjoining pedestrian waiting areas, causing spalshing by buses. This problem can be compounded by oil and gasoline leaks parked buses which would also collect in' the gutter.
Puddling can be alleviated through efficient gutter and drainage design. Raising the curb in exclusive bus lanes to the height of the first bus step would place the puddled water at a greater distance from the pedestrian and would also act am a better shield against splashing.
Bus riders will sometimes have visibility difficulties in stepping in and out of buses, particularly at night. The basic problem is in the ability to see steps and curbs well enough to avoid tripping or stepping into the gutter.
The condition can be corrected through the use of proper curb lighting or a reflective material along the curb line.
6. Exhaust fumes
Accumulation of exhaust fumes from buses either parked at or pulling away from loading areas can have an adverse effect on waiting pedestrians. New buses are now being equipped with vertical exhaust stacks that release the fumes upward into the air and away from the waiting bus patrons. Problems from the rear exhaust system now used must be designed for since not all buses will be equipped with new vehicle exhaust systems until 1984.
The location of bus loading areas with respect to prevailing breezes should be considered so that fumes are not blown in the direction of pedestrian waiting areas. Proper siting and shelter design will allow advantageous breezes to remove any fumes from the bus loading
Pedestrian/Bus Scale Relationship
Possible ways of overcoming the scale problem at Park-n-Rides might include 1) establishing a pedestrian waiting zone further back from the curb and away from the buses. This might be accomplished by texture or material changes in the loading area pavement at a given distance from the curb or actual physical barriers such as bollards to encourage cueing at certain locations; 2) raising the curb as much as possible to reduce the number of steps required to enter the bus and also to reduce the overall apparent height of the bus. This design detail is practical only-where exclusive bus lanes are provided; and 3) using the bus passenger shelter as a transition element between the scale of the pedestrian and that of the bus. Proper design of the shelter should help to give a feeling of protection from the bus.
Bus Step/Curb Relationship at Exclusive Bus Lanes
* O j
Saf ety/convenienc e
Bus lane curbing and entrance points should follow a turning radius that can be achieved without any major, tiring and unnecessary efforts on the part of the driver. Obstacles such as lamp posts, landscaping and street furniture should be set back from the curb at such a distance that the outermost turning radius of the bus is clear of the object.
Approaches to loading areas should be such that a bus can stop parallel to and up against the curb to allow for easier entering and exiting of passengers from both the front and rear of the bus. At loading areas buses should stop on level ground to prevent the possibility of the bus rolling and causing injury to pedestrians. Pedestrians should be discouraged from passing between tightly spaced buses. Clearly defined crosswalks (5 minimum width) shall be provided when pedestrian crossings are necessary.
Various conditions exist at the bus loading areas involving the interfac
of the pedestrian with the bus. These specifically involve 1) the
pedestrian's reaction to the approaching and leaving bus and 2) problems involved in boarding and exiting the bus. The individual interfacing problems which are inherent in the bus design (based on the present state of the art) are identified and discussed below.
The typical transit bus is generally a 40 foot long by 10 foot high vehicle that when approaching a bus stop tends to overpower the waiting pedestrians in scale. This large moving mass has an almost ominous appearance and in the case of elderly people for example, actually scares pedestrians. The parked bus takes on a wall-like character tending to act as a visual barrier.
Minicars/Vetter Type A coach, front engine, front wheel drive. The vehicle has a GM diesel enginer and automatic transmission.
U11 imate Vehi cle
It is assumed that the replacement vehicle (10 years +) will be propelled either by batteries or some form of compressed gas.
Space for storage of batteries or tanks is to be provided in the one of the Transfer Faci1ities.
Vehicles are assumed to operate continuously on Mall during peak hours with a 70 second headway (one bus every two blocks). Provision is to be made for a straight boarding section for loading/unloading of two buses at the Market Street Transfer Facility and a three-position configuration including a recovery position at the Civic Center Transfer Facility
Critical Dimensions Length 39-36 feet.
Width 8.2 feet.
Height 9-18 feet.
Floor Height 11.8 inches above roadway.
Clearances Approach Angle 3
Breakover Angle 2
Departure Angle 3
Shuttle Vehicle (continued)
Turn i ng Rad i i
Outside Fender A2.3k fee from rest, 50 feet
at 15 mph.
Inside Fender 3^*7^ feet from rest.
Outside Wheel Path 36.7^ feet from rest.
Three double passenger doors and one single driver compartment door on right side of veh i cle.
Full load 70 passengers, crush load 110 passengers.
We ight (To come)
Some provision for storage during non-peak daytime hours should be made (at one facility) possibly in Express Bus berths.
Provide pull-off for minor service (and return to overnight storage) at Market Street Facility. Possible pull-off for minor service, emergency driver stops at Civic Center.
Maximum conditions 3.570 passengers per hour per direction.
Shuttle Vehicle (continued)
Access i bi1i ty
Handicapped access is assumed to take place on the vehicle.
Plans at present are for 6 of the initial 19 buses in the fleet to be battery operated.
A battery pack approximately 1,000 lbs. in weight will be located over each of the four wheel recesses. This will require access for servicing by a forklift from all sides of the vehicle.
If in the future the fleet is changed to consist entirely of battery-powered vehicles, charging would be done in place In a berth where the shuttle bus could remain for several hours.
A. Design Criteria
The following material from the Regional Transportation District "Design Standards Manual," pages B5^-B57, May 1977, is included here as a reference for the design of the RTD Transfer Facilities.
The automobile operational geometry standards are based on full-size cars. Although there is presently a trend toward smaller automobiles, a major percentage of cars will continue to be full-sized.
The turning radii given for automobiles are minimum standards. Larger, more desirable radii should be provided wherever possible to allow for easier maneuvering and more efficient automobile circulation.
Tvrne of Automobile
Dimensions (feet) Full-size Compact
L overall length 19-0" 13'-3"
W overall width 6'-8" 5-l"
H overall height 5'-4" 4'-11"
WB wheel base 11*-0" 7-10"
Minimum practicable turning radii
Parallel parking clearances
L = overall length W = overall width H overall height l'-ll" 3'-4" 3-10h" l-6" 2'-6"
Dimension (feet) Maximum Minimum
L overall length W overall width H overall height 7*-10" 3' -3" 3' -9" 5* -9" l-ll"
3.7 Service Vehicles
A. Tow Vehicles
Access and egress is to be provided at both facilities for towing of both shuttle and express vehicles. Towing clearances and characteristics are illustrated below.
aaluaokad (cosch without brskss rolls jj> co boon) .
Service Vehicles (continued)
B. Utility Service Vehicles
Clearances for utility service vehicles are based on a standard van-type delivery truck l8'-V long, 7'-0" wide and 8'-6" high maximum and a 10'-7i" maximum wheelbase length.
These are the findings of a study conducted by Johnson Hopson & Partners;
TRANSFER FACILITIES DESIGN CRITERIA MANUAL
2.9 CIVIC CENTER TRANSFER FACILITY
Acoust i cs
A. Acoustical Criteria
The following acoustical criteria form the basis for all acoustical design recommendations for the RTD Civic Center Transfer Facility:
The reverberation time criteria set limits on the build-up of sound energy in the reverberant field in an enclosed space. The reververation time is the time it takes for a sound produced in an enclosed space to decay 60 decibels (dB) after the sound source is stopped. A criterion of two seconds for the mid-frequency reverberation time for both the concourse and garage (i.e., the bus driving lane) was established. The mid-frequency reverberation time is the average of the reverberation times at the octave bands centered at 500 and 1 ,000 hertz.
Noise Cr? teria
Noise Criteria (NC) curves are octave band contours that relate a series of sound pressure levels in a given room or enclosed space to the subjective acceptability of a sound spectra. The NC curves are used to evaluate only the level of background noise produced by the mechanical system without consideration of noise created by any other activities within the space. The NC values selected on the basis of usage for the various areas are as follows:
Area NC Range
Concourse as - 50
Ga rage 55 - 60
Reta i1 A0 - 50
Parking Garage A5 - 55
Communication Center 30 - A0
Res trooms A0 - 50
Johnson Hopson & Partners -f v; ^an^e's 2*30 East Bayajd A.e~_.e Denver Co'd'ado 802C9 303 399---41 (|)
TRANSFER FACILITIES DESIGN CRITERIA MANUAL
2.9 CIVIC CENTER TRANSFER FACILITY
Acoust i cs
Acoustical Criteria (continued)
Sound Transmission Class
A sound transmission class (STC) rating for a building component sets a minimum level of sound isolation for that component. The STC rating is a single number rating of a construction's airborne sound transmission losses as measured at a series of sixteen frequencies in the range of audible frequencies. The range of STC values for wall and floor/cei1ing constructions listed below were based on measure RTD bus pull-away noise 1evels.
Room-to-room Range or STC
Concourse to Garage 1+0 - hS
Concourse to Retail ^5 - 50
Garage to Retai1 60 - 65
Garage to Comm. Center 50 - 55
Garage to Lobby 55 - 60
Garage to Office (Vert ical) 60 - 65
Garage to Retail (Vertical) 60 - 65
Noise Ordinance Requirements
The City and County of Denver's community Noise Control Ordinance establishes maximum allowabel A-weighted sound levels measured at the property line for residentrial commercial, industrial and public premises. Maximum levels at applicable premises (commercial in this case) are 65 dBA between 7:00a.m. and 10:00 p.m. and 60 dBA between 10:00 p.m. and 7:00 a.m. The acoustical criterian for the RTD Civic Center Transfer Facility are, therefore, based on a maximum A-weighted sound level of 60.
3-2C East Bayaud A.Denver Co'o'sdo 8C2C9 303 3?9--~-'
Johnson Hopson & Partners
TRANSFER FACILITIES DESIGN CRITERIA MANUAL
Acous t i cs
Vibrat ion Cri teria
Limited information is available in the literature on bus induced vibration in elevated structures. Federal Highway Administration Report N. FHWA-RD-78-166, entitled Engineering Guidelines for the Analysis of Traffic-Induced Vibration, is concerned with building vibrations induced by vehicles on-grade. According to this report, regional and articulated buses on an average pavement surface and on-grade will induce maximum acceleration levels in the range of -65 to -55 dB (re: 1.Og or 9-807 meter/second^ rms) at a distance of 2 meters from the pavement edge. It is important to note that these levels of vibration apply to the case where the driving surface is on-grade. When not on-grade, as in the case of the Civic Center Facility bus driving lane, these vibration levels can be amplified by the structure itself, and we estimate that the levels at the Galbreath Building may be as high as -AO to -A5 dB in the 10 to 20 Hertz frequency range which is the typical bus induced vibration frequency range. The criteria established for the Civic Center Facility is -55 dB (re: 1.Og rms) or less.
The attached figure taken from the above referenced document illustrates this criterion level in comparison to maximum res acceleration levels of 6 bus pass-bys on a two lane street.
CIVIC CENTER TRANSFER FACILITY
Johnson Hopson & Partners
TRANSFER FACILITIES DESIGN CRITERIA MANUAL
CIVIC CENTER TRANSFER FACILITY Acous t i cs
Figure 2.9a Example of Criteria Evaluation of
at Footing and Floor.
Johnson Hopson 4 Partne
= an-e's 2-00 Ees' BayauO Aven-e Denver
Co'C'o-O 80209 I 303 299-44A*
DOWNTOWN AND THE REGION
. Englewood COUNTYL
'111' \ \ s
Littleton \ \
Downtown, the hub of the Denver area commercial, governmental, and cultural activity since the city's beginnings in the mid-1800's, is located near the center of an urbanized region of 1,500.000 population. Downtown provides a vital resource for the City and County of Denver and an urban focus for the region. Downtown continuesto-attract a significant share of regional growth and investment during a time of swift urban expansion away from the center and ever-increasing mobility for area residents. Downtown is a place of employment for over 80,000 people or 11.7% of the metropolitan area work force. An additional 82,000 people come to downtown daily for business, shopping, conventions, entertainment, education, and other purposes. Downtown provides about 12% of the taxable property valuation of the City and County of Denver on less than 1% of Denver's land area.
Survey May 22, 1979 Robinson Job No. 92481-00-90
The project area is the Kassler-Cheeseman Block located between Broadway and Lincoln Street on the west and east and 16th and Colfax Avenues on the north and south. lpt srz.e
The block is 265.96' by 501.10' or 133,273 square feet (3.06 acres). At the property line on Colfax Avenue an effective 9' easement is created by the City and County requirement for a fourteen foot wide sidewalk, due to the fact that the curb face is only five feet from the property line.
The standard hundred year flood would inundate Colfax Avenue between Speer Boulevard and Fox Street. A larger flood would affect the southern and western corners of the area.
The subsoils at the site are erratic and typically consist of a combination of man-made fill overlying granular subsoils which in turn overlie the Denver Blue Formation. Soils studies were conducted by Chen & Associates and are summarized here.
"Results of direct shear tests indicate moderate shear strength characteristics. These soils will generally be encountered at proposed excavation levels and will be of concern in design of foundation elements, shoring and basement walls.
"Medium stiff and stiff clay layers were also commonly encountered from relatively minor thickness to 10 to 15 feet. Satisfactory performance of shallow mat type foundation and the effects on adjacent structures will depend greatly on the potential for settlement.
"The lower overburden soils essentially consist of fairly clean sand and gravel deposits. These soils are also stratified and generally become more coarse with increase in depth. Some cobbles and possible small boulders are generally encountered immediately overlying bedrock. Clay layers encountered appear to be relatively minor.
"Typically Denver Formation lies at a depth of 70 to 80 feet. Top elevation is fairly consistent at approximately elevation 0 feet (Denver Datum). Bedrock consists of blue gray claystone with interbedded sandstone.
"Groundwater depth is erratic, 28 to 52 feet below existing ground surface. Stabilized water table at elevation 45 feet.
16th Street is preferred by.Public Service Company for the tap location.
Service is available at a manhole in 16th Avenue on the north side of the street near the alley between Broadway and Lincoln Street.
Present line located in 16th Street.
6" line under west side of Lincoln Street.
8" line under east side of Broadway.
30" line under east side of Broadway.
Underground at 16th Street and north half of block at Broadway, four manhole locations.
6. Sanitary Sewer
18" line at 16th Street and Broadway.
7. Storm Sewer
18" 21" lines at center of 16th Street. Lines at far side of Broadway and Colfax.
Elevation: 5280 ft.
Latitude: 39 45*
Longitude: 104 52*
Denver has a mild, sunny, semi-arid climate. Extreme temperatures are in periods of short duration. In spring, polar air meets moist air to produce the rainy season. Spring is the wettest, cloudiest, windiest season; summer produces scattered thunderstorms in the afternoon and evenings; autumn is the least cloudy season with mild weather and a high amount of sunshine; winter is character ized by snowfall, a high frequency of precipitation, medium cloudiness and relative humidity, and short severe periods of cold weather.
Winter (December 22) *
7:30 am 121 0* 0 O'
8:00 am 127 0* 5 30'
10:00 am 150 30' 20 30*
Noon 180 0 ,26 30'
2:00 pm 209 30* 20 30*
4:00 pm 233 0* 5 30*
4:30 pm 239 0* 0 O'
Fall and Spring
(September 23 -
6:00 am 90 O' 0 0*
8:00 am 110 30* 22 30'
10:00 am 138 O' 41 30' .
Noon 180 0* 50 O'
2:00 pm 222 O' 41 30*
4:00 pm 249 30* 22 20*
6:00 pm 270 O' 0 O'
Summer (June 22)
4:30 am 8:00 am 10:00 am Noon 1:00 pm 2:00 pm 4:00 pm 7:30 pm
Winter 8:00 AM 127-0'
HOURS OF SUNSHINE
59 O' 0 O
89 0 37 30'
114 0* 60 O'
180 O 73 30'
222 O 69 O
246 O' 60 O
271 O 37 30'
301 O 0 O'
A clear sky condition exists approximately 70% of the year, with nearly 249 days of clear skies or oniy partly cloudy, and only 116 days are wholly qvercast.
Wh6n the sun is highest, horizontal surfaces will absorb about 2,690 Btu's/day or about 350 Btu's/ hour while the sun is above the horizon. in December, the same surface will absorb aboyt 850'Btu1s/day or about 180 Btus in the highest hour.
East-oriented walls will receive about 75% of. the heat absorbed by the horizontal surfaces/day in winter-and 50 to 60% as much in summer. \
South-oriented walls will receive 200% as much he^rt as the horizontal surfaces in December and January, 150%as much in November and February, and about the same amount in March, September, and October.
Recommended architectural responses: the roof will receive the greatest amount of solar energy in summer, then the west and east walls, in that order. An overhang is recommended to shade the south wall during the summer and permit maximum sun penetration in winter. Also, heat absorptive walls on
the south will provide an added source of solar heat in winter WIND - .
For all months, the prevailing winds are from the south, with secondary winds from the north and northwest during winter months, from the north and east during spring and summer, and from the north during the fall.
The strongest wind for all months is from the northwest.
Origin: north and northwesterly winds from arctic air
from Canada and Alaska; south and southeasterly winds from warm moist air from the Gulf of Mexico; south and southwesterly winds from warm dry air from Mexico; and westerly winds from Pacific air modified by the Rockies.
Miscellaneous: Denver is located in the belt of the
prevailing westerlies. Winter westerlies, in their descent through'^the rockies becomie warmer than the average Denver temperatures and are experienced as moderating warm winds (chinooks).
Suggested architectural responses: roof and walls should be tight in winter to avoid draftsi The shape of the structure should not create turbulence causing snow drifts and draining heat from the building. '
32 days/year have afternoon temperatures above 90 F.
164 days/year have temperatures below 32 F., with not more than 10 days/year having temperatures below OF.
Suggested architectural responses: insulation, overhang on south side, materials not subjected to extreme heat stress but able to withstand cold to -29 F.(record)t materials able to withstand extreme freeze/thaw action over short periods of time. Also, east and west openings should be minimized and well shaded in summer, and foundations should be protected against freeze/thaw action by assuring proper drainage.
PRECIPITATION .. .
Annual average precipitation: 15.51'' (range from 7.6" to 23".
Snowfall expectancy: 59.6" (range from 19" to 116".
Suggested architectural responses: entrances should not face north, roof should permit rapid and complete runoff, and windows should be recessed from exterior wall surface to avoid washing effect from rain.
These are the findings of a study conducted by Johnson Hopson & Partners:
a. A.M. maximum hourly volume
b. A.M. maximum rate
c. P.M. maximum hourly volume
d. P.M. maximum rate
9,118. passengers 4.23 passengers/sec 9,828 passengers 2.73 passengers/sec
Design capacity can thus be seen to exceed predicted demand
2 Distribution of Passengers
Distribution of exiting passengers during the a.in. period is predicted to be as follows:
Transfer to local bus 5%
Transfer to shuttle vehicle 62.5%
Desired direction of exit:
According to current projections, as many as 200 buses will enter the facility during the a.m. period, with approach via Lincoln Street (traveling northbound).
During the p.m. period, approximately 190 buses will enter the terminal from two directions: westbound on 16th and northbound on Lincoln. All will depart southbound on Broadway.
In view of the very high existing traffic counts on Broadway, Lincoln, and Colfax, it is recommended that the entrance for the express buses be placed along 16th Avenue with a width adequate for one entering bus, approximately 85 feet from the curb along Broadway. Throughout the facility, the bus path should be wide enough to allow for one bus to pass while another is pulling into or out of a berth.
Buses should exit the facility at Broadway only at a point approximately 140 feet from the curb at Colfax.
The exit shall be wide enough to allow two buses to wait side by side for traffic to allow them to proceed.
The recommended shuttle turnaround is a loop designed to accomodate three vehicles simultaneously with positions for unloading and loading, as well as a middle position to provide a recovery point to compensate for schedule displacement. Nominal time through the facility is 140 seconds or a 2 signal cycle (Broadway). Shuttle vehicles will depart every 70 seconds.
The shuttle path crosses Broadway at a 45 angle as a direct extension of the Mall. It shall accomodate two vehicles at all loading points.
SHUTTLE BUS DIAGRAM
A.M. EXPRESS BUS DIAGRAM
SPECTRUM BLDG. PARKING
P.M. EXPRESS BUS DIAGRAM
LOCAL BUS DIAGRAM
PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS net areas
Bus garage and storage: 44,710 sf Concourse: 15,871 sf
Communications center: 500 sf Fire control ceriter: 128 sf Information center: 1055 sf Janitor closetr 48 sf Mechanical: 2823 sf
Public restrooms: 510 sf RTD office: 508 sf Staff toilet: 50 sf Parking: 46,182 sf..
Total: 66,203. sf (without parking)
Bar: 140 sf
Bar storage: 120 sf Dining area: 2450 sf Kitchen: 1500 sf
Linen and laundry storage: 100 sf Lounge: 630 sf
Office: 120 sf
-- Pantry: 160 sf
Refuse/delivery area; 140 sf Reception area: 200 sf Staff dining area: 150 sf Staff lockers (male)r 100 sf Waitress/waiter station: 80 sf Walk-in (cold storage): 250 sf Employee restrooms;- 100 sf Public restrooms: 488 sf
Total:: 6728 sf
Speculative Retail Space __
Total: 6572 sf
DETAILED PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS For Rtd Metro Transfer facility
Size Berths for standard express buses shall be 60 feet long by 10 feet wide. The traffic lanes providing access to the berths shall be not less than 10 feet wide. A 45 foot long bus loading curb and a 15rfoot curb return are required. Nine berths shall be required. Each berth is to be separated from the pedestrian concourse by manually operated swinging-doors with automatic closers. Passengers will board the bus from a curb 10 inches above the bus drive.
CONCOURSE (WAITING AREAS)
Size A space of 15,871 square feet
Function To provide adequate space for queing at each berth waiting area, as well as general circulation spai for travel between berths and shuttle bus plaza. Components Each berth is provided with a waiting area within the concourse, with a display board indicating bus departure and schedule information. An elevator i* required to provide access between levels
Size 500 square feet. The communications center is t< be comprised of two spaces: one for control of the express buses, the other for the mall shuttle vehicles. The larger of the two rooms is to be staffed by one pej at all times of operation of the terminal with space for one additional person to provide assistance during peak periods of service. This room will house all central console and video equipment for the radio control system for the express bus system. The room will also provide space for possible relocation of the main radio dispatch functions now located at the Alameda RT facility. The smaller space will serve as a control booth for the shuttle system. Staffed by one person, this room will be elevated above Broadway for visual surveillance of shuttle operations. The communication center will be a secure space with keyed access. Two accessory spaces a toilet and an electrical closet -will also be provided.
Express Bus Information Console for the control of the terminal information display system.
Mall Shuttle Radio Console for two-way communicati with shuttle system.
Express Bus Radio Desktop Consoles 3 to receiv signal from the express system and to communicate on the dispatcher frequency.
Vehicle Presence Display
Telephones 3 in express communication room anc in Mall communication room.
The center will offer, during all hours in which the transfer facility is open, information about the entire RTD route system, orientation to the Mall and central business district, schedule and operation of the shuttles and express vehicles at the transfer facility, the sale of tokens and monthly passes, and display of RTD models, graphics and other public relations materials. Total nsf 1055. Components
Information Service Counter and Display 200 nsf -counter space for up to two RTD personnel for the general dispensing of information regarding fares, schedules and Mall operations. A display rack will be provided next to the counter for timetables and maps.
Manager's Office 110 nsf an enclosed office for one desk for the manager of the information center.
Ticket Counter 180 nsf a teller's window and pass through for sales of tokens and monthly passes. The teller's space will be secure and provided with a day safe, sach tray* and general undercounter, storage.
Display Area 210 nsf window and wall display of models, maps, and other RTD graphics.
Staff Desk 120 nsf space for a desk with returns for staff operating information center.
Lost and Found 120 nsf adequate storage space for lost and found items.
Schedule Storage 115 nsf Additional backup storage for schedules and general printed information.
Size Two toilet rooms approximately 12 feet by 21 feet each. Function To be open during vehicle operation hours.-* Located to be accessible for periodic checking by RTD personnel. Components
Water closets 3 male, 6 female
Urinals 3 male
Lavatories 4 male, 3 female
Drinking fountains 1 required per floor.
Size 5 feet by 10 feet
Function A unisex toilet for use by shuttle and express operators as well as for RTD communications center personnel Components
One water closet, mirror, soap and towel dispensers.
Janitor closet A room approximately 6 feet by 8 feet with floor sink, map rack and shelf storage located adjacent to the two concourse toilet rooms
MECHANICAL/ELECTRICAL SPACE Components Total 2823 nsf
Exhaust Fan Room 17' X 92' containing the fan equipmen-for the exhaust of combustion gases from both the automobile parking and express bus garage areas.
Mechanical Equipment Room 14* X 20' adjacent to the exhaust fan room, containing all equipment for the conditioning and supply and return of air to the pedestrian concourse.
Condenser Room 14' X 20'
Transformer Vault 15' X 20'
Generator Room 16' X 20' for emergency generator.
Gas Meter Room 8' X 8'
FIRE CONTROL CENTER
An 8' X 16 room to house monitoring and communication equipment.
RTD OFFICE .
General office layout to provide space for 3 staff personni 508 nsf.
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