3 1 ST 00265 8707
A DESIGN SERVICES BUILDING
GROUP PRACTICE IN ARCHITECTURE
AN ARCHITECTURE THESIS PRESENTED TO THE COLLEGE OF DESIGN AND PLANNING UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT DENVER
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE MASTER OF ARCHITECTURE
BY ROBERT C. MCHUGH
BRIEF DESCRIPTION ........................... 1
GROUP PRACTICE............................... 3
PROPOSED SITE............................... 19
SPATIAL FUNCTIONS .......................... 27
FORM OF THE BUILDING AND SITE ... . 41
ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS .................... 85
PAST, PRESENT, FUTURE....................... 99
THE DESIGN CHALLENGE....................... 107
THESIS SCHEDULE ........................... 113
ADVISORY BOARD ............................ 117
A 15,000 square foot () office and service building which provides space for design professionals to practice and leaseable areas for ancillary businesses to operate.
The building is to be located at the south west comer of the intersection of U.S. Highway
40 and Pine Grove Road, one mile south of Steamboat Springs, Colorado.
GROUP PRACTICE IN ARCHITECTURE To do creative work, one must be free.
Good design takes time. One must study the ramifications of a problem, investigate possibilities, and test concepts. The ideas which emerge are absorbed in the designer's mind, and go through an incubation process. At some pointwhich varies with each individuala design will emerge. If the concept is to succeed, the designer must follow through by tending to all the details which are necessary to bring ideas into reality.
Practicing Architecture Solo Style
Young architects learn methods which lead to a refinement of the process described above. When they feel ready, they set out into the construction industry to apply developed talents in the design of the built environment. In their
eyes, they are the artists with the encompassing insight to come up with brilliant ways to provide for the needs of our society.
In reality, architectural practice seldom meets this ideal. As they begin their careers, interns must adapt techniques learned in school and apply them to morass of detail necessary for transforming design ideas into buildable concepts. Finding little recognition for this tedious work, they yearn for the day when a licence will allow them to practice on their own. Entering this phase they discover, along with the glory and recognition, a web of administrative entanglements, and management problems. As they grow and succeed, time for involvement in much of what they had hoped for fades away. Little space is left for involved relationships with clients and meaningful communication with design staff.
Keeping abreast of advancing developments in their fields and learning new things through continuing education also becomes difficult.
The scenario which I have described need not prevail. The solution to the problem of over involvement in the details of professional practice lies in the organization of activities and responsibilities.
A management concept which allows design professionals to work independently, while sharing the time and cost of administrative burdens, and a building designed to support this management concept is considered in the thesis which follows.
Group Practice Defined
A group practice is an organization of professionals with related talents, who work independently in a collaborative environment,
within a common facility, bound by an organizational agreement, which allows them to share a building, staff, equipment and administrative responsibility.
Advantages of Group Practice
Designers who succeed in group practice will find numerous benefits. A primary advantage is the opportunity to maintain design involvement and personal contact with their clients throughout their careers. Closer relationships with design staff and support personnel is also obtainable.
High cost of capital goods and equipment may be shared by all in group practice. A place to work is usually the first major expenditure of beginning an office, either as rent or as mortgage payments. When more than one party
shares the cost, a higher quality space and a more advantageous location may be retained.
Equipment expenditures are also extremely high. The information revolution has introduced the use of computers into our professional practices as well as our personal lives. Within a very short time competition will dictate the utilization of computers in architectural offices for analysis, drafting, and administrative tasks. Many improvements have also been made in reproduction methods in the last ten years. Accompanying the new techniques are machines which make these possible. Sophisticated equipment is highly expensive and is difficult to utilize 100% of the time. If purchased as a group, the cost per professional user is reduced and the productivity of the equipment is increased. A group practice can easily become
more proficient and more competitive than private practitioners in this area (16).
Architecture is a profession that, by its very nature, is beset with the "feast or famine" syndrome. Either an office is over loaded with work and is real tight on deadlines, or it has too little work to justify its expenses. The more proficient practitioners are able to level out this swing by sound management techniques. Seldom, however, is an architect able to make efficient use of a steady number of employees from week to week, and month to month. If organized in group practice, members are able to draw upon a common cadre in numbers which are appropriate to individual work loads at any given time. Maintaining staff as a group minimizes the need for layoffs and holds a trained team together for reasonable periods
Approximately one-quarter to one-third of a private practitioner's time can be spent on administrative matters. Seldom do designers receive training in business affairs. Group practice allows this burden to be assumed by an administrator, who has developed business skills and experience. Designers may then apply their time to tasks for which they are trained and in which they are productive (16).
Group practice also allows more personal freedom for members of the organization. If one party desires leave, others in the group may take responsibility (16). When projects enter a construction phase, much contact is usually needed between the contractor and the architect. If a mutual agreement has been made, one member may cover for another during this period of
Professionals can no longer rely solely upon the bank of knowledge retained while in school. Education must continue throughout their careers (16). An organized group practice can more easily allow time for each participant to attend educational experiences as they see fit.
A broader range of services may be offered through group practice. Each participant could have a unique background and offer a specialty. Opportunities for intellectual and professional stimulation through collaboration with professional peers is also possible (16).
Increases in productivity may be achieved by optimizing the work environment. Effective intern training programs are also possible within the group. The larger size group and the breadth of experience of the principles brings a greater depth of knowledge to the organization.
Finally, group practice offers the opportunity for young professionals to join an established practice, to become immediately productive and to enjoy a predictable income (16).
Perhaps the three most important motivators which lead a designer into private practice are meaningful influence in design, recognition for accomplishments, and financial remuneration for services rendered. Meaningful influence in design would entail personal contact with clients and a high level of rapport with technical employees. If a group practice in architecture is to succeed, its organizational philosophy needs to support these concepts.
Participants must also be willing to accept a certain amount of responsibility to each other.
Each professional should be accountable to the group for financial and liability matters which affect the organization. If the organization were loosely amalgamated as several small firms, working together sharing a common staff, legal and insurance problems become complicated and costly (47) Each entity then needs a separate liability insurance policy. Additional riders are required if more than one party participates in the same project. Tying the organization together with a corporate structure greatly simplifies the issue, allowing one policy to cover all of the participating architects. Consultants must also be insured, but are covered with their own policies.
A corporate structure diminishes the potential for individual recognition on projects, but it need not. Project architects might be
identified by name as a postscript or subscript to a corporate logo.
A mutual respect needs to exist between the group participants and their respective clients. The organization must be set up so that clients deal with one professional who arranges for any necessary specialized services from others in the organization. Clients will appreciate this approach as it prevents them from being "ping-ponged" from specialist to specialist. Respect for each others turf regarding expertise offered, and relationships with clients is to be honored at all times (41).
Business administration is an important discipline in a group practice. One individual should be available to tie together financial matters, staffing ancillary personnel, management and maintenance of facilities and equipment,
relationships with banks, public and other businesses, and general coordination of matters affecting the group. Responsibility for these tasks can be divided between group members, each taking on an area in which they have experience or some interest. As a practice grows, however, a salaried administrator who has a strong business background and a demonstrated ability to deal with public relations is desirable (41)
With these points in mind, an organizational concept is proposed which will allow professionals participating in the group to provide personal service to their clients, to receive individual recognition for their accomplishments, to be accountable to the group on financial and liability problems, to be compensated with respect to their productivity, to have the support of an adequate staff and equipment, to
be relieved from administrative duties, to work in a collaborative environment, to have opportunities for continuing education and to enjoy personal freedom.
The organization chart shown on page 9 conceptually describes the management structure which has been chosen. Five architects share ownership in the firm, the equipment, office amenities and the building. A design and production staff is available for service as needed individually. Principal architects are free to deal with clients personally. The group is organized as a corporate entity.
Leadership is an essential ingredient if the concept is to succeed.
Every enterprise is affected by the quality and strength of leadership within it. Observation of existing groups suggests that those having strong individual leadership grow more rapidly and progress towards well-defined goals more successfully than those in which authority is diverse. (16)
Leadership is derived from ownership by the five
members of the group practice. Formed as a
Board of Directors, the group will select officers to govern itself as well as the entity. The traditional officers, president, vice president, secretary and treasurer are anticipated. These officers will discharge their duties through a managing officer, also selected from the Board of Directors.
The principal channel of communication between the governing body and the key employees production manager and administratoris through the managing officer. A major difference between a traditional practice and the proposed structure is that production and administrative details are the responsibility of salaried employees who are specifically trained in these areas. The principal architects are then free to deal directly with clients, become intimately involved in design, and work closely with
professional employees. A close involvement with training, public relations and marketing in cooperation with managing staff, is also possible.
Design and production are at the heart of a successful architectural practice. A cadre of skilled technical staff members is needed. Traditionally, personnel to fill these positions come from the ranks of interns who are apprenticing to become architects. A sound training program is needed to assist these young designers in the adaptation of skills learned from academic programs to the realities of the construction industry. Guidance towards acceptance of professional responsibilities is also desirable.
A production manager is shown on the organization chart. Responsibility for managing technical staff and assigning individuals to work for specific principal architects is the primary
responsibility of this position. Computer management and assisting principals with training programs and production procedures are secondary tasks. The production manager is also responsible for the functional areas of the building used by design personnel.
Efficient business administration is vital to the success of any thriving enterprise.
Tasks related to business affairs are tedious, somewhat complex and time consuming. A trained administrator is assigned the role of managing these details for the proposed organization.
Financial matters and clerical services are primary responsibilities in this area. Providing assistance to principal architects with public relations and marketing is also expected. Maintaining physical plant and coordinating exhibits and displays are other duties which
fall under this jurisdiction. Finally, the administrator is the party who manages facilities used by the group practice and portions of the facility which may be leased to ancillary services and consulting firms.
During the last ten years major advances have been made in reproduction methods and equipment. Along with these innovations has come a new genre of printing businesses.
Knowledge of reproduction techniques as they apply to architectural drawing development can save a great deal of time, money and effort. To take advantage of the new methods, two things are necessary, the "know how" and close proximity to the equipment. A good facility will have a number of high cost machines which
are capable of doing a variety of tasks such as reducing, screening, color copying, and flat bed printing. These allow the architect to save a great deal of time by doing overlays, photo reproductions, composite drafting and such.
Since the latest equipment is desirable, and its capital cost very high, it is proposed that the reproduction shop be managed separately, and that its services be made available to the public. Income from the shop would be used to amortize equipment loans, to cover operating costs and to compensate the managers of the facility.
Availability of highly qualified specialists with a variety of disciplines is necessary to the continued success of a group practice in architecture. Traditionally, specialists
provide services to several architects, operating as consultants under the auspices of separate firms.
The types of consultants, their educational backgrounds and degree of involvement in architectural projects will vary considerably. Structural and mechanical engineers are intrinsically involved in a building design from concept development through preparation of construction documents. Electrical engineers also have a high level of involvement during these phases. Interior designers, landscape architects, graphic artists, and other related disciplines provide varying levels of input during different phases of a project.
If a firm is large enough, and has a relatively consistent workload, it might be feasible to consider inclusion of the various
consultants as part of the group practice. However, because of tradition, differences in philosophy, variations in management style and freedom to market services beyond the group's sphere, most consultants would prefer to operate autonomously.
Proximity of consultants to the architectural group is advantageous to both parties. Availability to communicate about detailed problems related to projects is heipful to all.
In spite of the obvious advantages some consultants may not wish to locate their premises too close to an architectural group.
If an allusion of affiliation is created, marketing efforts to outside firms might be hampered (38).
Nevertheless, it is proposed that the architectural group make provision for
consulting services by creating space within its premises for these separate entities to lease. Attention to the problem of defining consultants as separate services is a challenge to be addressed in the building program.
It would be unusual to expect a group of the size and nature proposed to be created and to begin operating smoothly in a short period of time. Initial costs of organizing the venture and providing its facilities will be high. It is expected that these costs be amoritized from the cash flow generated by the group practice, its ancillary services, and leased spaces.
A key element of success will be the communication and teamwork generated between clients, architects and production staff.
Equally important is the establishment and
success of marketing procedures, which depends upon clear communication between clients, architects and administration.
Effective communication and teamwork do not come about instantaneously. People who are motivated by common interests must work together, resolving differences and making adjustments until their program begins to work. Establishment of teamwork has to be matched with appropriate income generation achieved in part by marketing efforts.
A refinement of the coordination between marketing and production will take time. Its complications may be greatly simplified if the organization begins at a smaller scale, and is phased to grow into its proposed size. The development of the organization and the facility it will occupy should be planned to grow at a
A site, and a facility designed to support architects in group practice, organized in the manner described above will be described and programmed in the sections which follow.
Steamboat Springs is a city of about 5,000 persons, located in the north west part of Colorado, at 6,700 feet above sea level, 176 miles from Denver. It is the seat for Routt County and houses the headquarters for the Routt National Forest. Two airports serve Steamboat Springs and the surrounding area, one just north of the city which supports Rocky Mountain Airways, the other 25 miles west, in Hayden, where Frontier Airlines provides daily passenger service.
Soda Creek meets the Yampa River at the approximate location of the "Steamboat Spring." Although now just a trickle, trappers in the mid-1800s claim that it made loud chugging sounds like river boats on the Mississippi (50). Since then the area has been known as Steamboat Springs. A town, and more recently a city, it has grown
around this confluence and a number of other natural hot springs which residents and.visitors enjoy to this day.
U.S. Highway 40 crosses the Continental Divide at Rabbit Ears Pass about 25 miles to the south east, providing a dramatic entry into the Yampa Valley. Soon after travelers from Denver reach the bottom, they arrive in Steamboat.
Three major industries thrive in the Yampa Valleymining, agriculture and tourism. Ten coal mines produced 18 million tons during 1980 38% of Colorado's production. About 725,000 acres of land are devoted to agriculture, supporting 60,000 cattle and a fine hay crop (28) Two ski areas operate within the city, Howelson Hill and the Steamboat Ski Area.
Howelson is the site of a world famous ski jump where many national and international
competitions have been held throughout the years. The Steamboat Ski Area lies at the east edge of the city about two miles south east of the original town. It is not unusual for 15,000 skiers to visit this 3,000 foot mountain for skiing and family fun at Christmas.
During summer months, visitors come again to the valley to play golf, swim, hike and prepare prepare themselves for expeditions on the Yampa, Green and Colorado Rivers.
Steamboat school districts educates approximately 1,400 young residents. Colorado Mountain College provides additional educational opportunities in the vocational technical areas. Other institutions include the Whiteman School a college preparatory institution with 55 live-in and 15 day students, and Stephens College/ Mansfielda summer program in the theatrical arts (28).
The site for the design services building lies approximately 1 mile south of the old town of Steamboat, and 1 mile west of the ski area village. Here Pine Grove Road intersects U.S. Highway 40a major traffic intersection. The lot selected for the complex is at the south west comer of this junction.
The land lies about five feet below the level of the highway and is relatively flat. No trees exist on the site. Vegetation is sparse because the site was filled during the last ten years. The west edge of the development is bounded by the trackage of the Denver and Rio Grande Railway.
A 3,200 square foot office building has existed at the north west comer of the inter-
section for about thirteen years.
CITY OF STEAMBOAT SPRINGS
A design services building had the purpose of providing functional spaces for a group architecture practice to conduct its business. Areas within the complex are allocated for use by the group as well as for rental to design consultants of various disciplines. A reproduction facility capable of supporting all the functions is also scheduled for leasable space.
Spaces and circulation areas are to be planned for efficiency. However, efficiency should not be used as the basis for diminishing the spatial quality of the building.
The layout of the complex is to be a paradigm which shows prospective clients the standard of design work which the group supports
and is capable of producing. Adequate public and circulation space will be maintained to give the building an elegant character.
Opportunity for encounters are to be created between the architects and all staff members. Although functions and responsibilities have been separated in the organizational structure, all persons within the group should feel that they are members of a team. The layout of the architects' space needs to be such that a unity of purpose between participants is fostered.
All persons working in the complex will appreciate a setting which encourages social interaction between each other. Individual work areas must be private, but areas of common use can be oriented so that people can meet each other from time to time. No individual who works in the building should feel restricted
from contact with others because of the way spaces are arranged.
Public areas do need to be separate. Interaction between visitors and those who work there has to be controlled by a receptionist.
Some leasable space may be set up to allow direct entrance and contact with the public. Nevertheless, the layout of these areas should be such that control by reception is an option.
When visitors enter the building they are to be welcomed by a warm inviting space. Seating is required in this area for times when a wait is necessary. It is appropriate that extra room be allocated for exhibits which catch the visitors attention and provide interest for those who do not care to sit.
Offices of the architectural group are to be in the forefront. The building's presence will
be an invitation for prospective clients to come in and discuss projects. Clients and potential clients should be welcomed into the most attractive portion of the building.
The exhibit space will precede the professional offices, but only as an enhancement of the transitional experience from outdoors to the functional areas.
Spaces which are leased to professional consultants should be equal to the architectural group's. A distinction between architectural spaces and consultant spaces needs to be clear so that the public does not perceive a relationship between firms which are independent of each other (38).
The reproduction shop is a special case in that it must be accessible to the public as well as to all professional tenants in the complex.
It must be visible to the public so that it will attract customers, but be segregated so it does not detract from the experience within the design areas.
Functional areas which need not command prime space, but which must be pleasing environments for human activity are production, secretarial, conference, library and employee lounge rooms. The least desirable portions of the building may be allocated to carpentry, computer, dark room and storage functions.
Security is another objective which varies from function to function. Professional offices, both leased and group spaces, must be controlled solely by their users. Administrative offices must also be controllable by the person who works in the space. Tight security is necessary around the computer and its software. Program discs and
tapes with computer application need to be under separate locka small vault may be justified, computer security will be one person's responsibility.
A lower grade security is justified around the production room, exhibit space, reception, conference, and employee areas. Employees who use the building when business hours have ended should be able to move freely through these spaces. The library, shop, dark room must have lockable capability. These rooms could be opened by special arrangement during the off business hours. Storage must also be controlled and be one person's responsibility.
Very high security is needed around the reproduction shop and any function which is not controlled by the architectural group. A portion of the print shop could be separately
opened for making prints and copies by building tenants during periods when that facility is closed.
Facts Relating to Building Function
Information which relates to the functional layout of the building has been derived from experiences working in similar environments, written material relating to the subject and interviews with persons who are knowledgeable in the operation of design firms.
As a rule of thumb, the sum of marketing and management time in a healthy design firm will be about 10% of personnel time, and at least one half that management time must be top management time, not just delegated effort by a controller, personnel manager or other subordinate. This means that a full time equivalent of one principal/manager/ marketer is required for every twenty persons on the staff. (5)
a Number of drafts persons per principal:
No Months Utilized Weighted Average Principals Draft Persons Total
3 5 15 5 15 20
2 4 8 5 10 15
1 2 2 5 5 10
0 1 0 5 0 5
i o o c
Average - 2.08 5 10 15
Average No. Drafts Persons 5 x 2 = 10.
Maximum No. Drafts Persons 5 x 3 = 15. a.
The above chart is extrapolated from personal experience working in Steamboat Springs. Adjustments to the data must be made for experience levels of employees and work loads in areas
where construction is not seasonal.
Number of clerical persons per architect:
1 principal can generate about 16 work hours per week for a secretary.
5 ARCH x 16 WH/WK/ARCH t 40 WH/WK = 2 SECR b.
Two secretaries should be able to deal with the work generated by five architects. The information presented is based on personal experience. Firms with different types of projects, and more sophisticated equipment may experience results which do not agree.
Assume the need for space for at least two secretaries with an additional overload space.
Number of bookkeepers per facility:
One bookkeeper can handle 6-8 accounts.
5 architects 1 production department
1 building account______
7 total group accounts
Additional work may be generated through cost accounting procedures and handling business accounts of some tenants.
Space for at least one bookkeeper is necessary. Room for two more should be allocated.
Accounting personnel will need a separate
computer terminal (48)
Maximum size of communication groups:
A sixteen member group with one general leader has evolved as a unit in the production room at K.K.B.N.A. The purpose of this division is so that staff members have a channel of communication through one responsible party to firm management. Employees may use this means to talk about their personal relationships with the firm. Project related communications may be via project managers (38). The sixteen person group seems to work well for one firm but does not necessarily guarantee success with another. Nevertheless, the size of the production department need not exceed the space required for sixteen people. "Principals and staff should be located close to each other. Staff should know that principals are interested in their work." (38)
Number of persons working in the complex:
Architects 5 - 5
Production Manager 1 - 1
Administrator 1 - 1
Drafts Persons 10 - 15
Secretarial 2 - 3
Bookkeeping 1 - 3
Maintenance 1 _ 1
Total 21 - 29
Engineers 6 - 8
Landscape 1 - 3
Interior 1 - 3
Graphics 1 - 1
Total 9 - 15
Reproduction 2 - 6
Building Total 32 - 50 Ave = 41
Note: Occupant load for code and zoning purposes
may not agree with functional numbers. See code review for requirements.
A small architectural office may effectively use desk top and personal type computers. As a firm grows in size, a main frame with terminals to users is more realistic because administrative detail is simplified. Data base may be centrally controlled and software consistently maintained. Maintenance of hardware is also simpler if a main frame is utilized (48).
One terminal is usually sufficient for ten users. However, accounting people do need a separate terminal. The computer should be located close to the center of the building to shorten average length of cable runs from terminals to the central processing unit. A computer room generally gets a lot of traffic because users need to pick up printouts and other material (48). Computer aided drafting
terminals also require a cable connection to the central processing unit. A central location is desired (44).
Surges in power cause equipment problems with computers. Electrical specifications should require a steady source of power (48).
Interaction and privacy requirements:
Receptionist control Visual barrierpublic Visual contactproduction Production
Receptionist control Visual barrierpublic Visual contactarchitects Consultants
Visual barrierpublic Visual contactnot required *separate control is desired (38).
Receptionistoptional Visual barrieroptional Visual contactmay be desired Interior Design
Receptionistoptional Visual barrieroptional Visual contactmay be desired*
*may desire high visibility and a separate entry to the exterior.
Receptionistnot desired Visual barrierinterior spaces Visual contactexterior*
*high visibility and a separate entry
from exterior is necessary.
Square footage requirements 15,000 S.F.
Parkingsee zoning review Architectural Group 50 spaces
5 architects @ 300 S.F. 1,500 S.F.
Production Manager 250
Conference 1 @ 200 200
Dark Room 100
Carpentry Shop 1,600
Building Efficiency 85%
Structural Engineer 400
Mechanical Engineer 400
Electrical Engineer 400
Landscape Architect 400
Interior Designer 600
Graphic Artist 600
Common Spaces 2,800
Employee Lounge 400
Rest Rooms 400
Conference 1 @ 200 200
Presentation 1 @ 400 400
Total Square Footage
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ARCHITECTS h o o X o o < "9 9 9 9 O 9 9 9 O
PRODUCTION o o o o o o o 9 O O o O 9 9 9
PROD. MGR. 0 o o o 9 o 9 O 9 9 O 9 9 9
CONFERENCE * o o o o O 9 9
VISITORS o o 9 9 9 o 9 9
ENGINEERS o o 9 O O 9 9 9
COMPUTER b o o o 9 O 9 9
o o o o o O
INTERIOR o o o 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 O
LANDSCAPE o o o o o o o 9 9 9 O 9 9 9 9 O
GRAPHICS o o o o o o O 9 9 9 o
CONFERENCE \ o 9
REPRO-SHOP o o o 9 O
REPRO-MGR | b o o o o o 9 o 9 O
DARKROOM V 0 o o 9
LIBRARY 9 9
PRESENTATION o o 9 O o 9 9
RECEPTION . o O 9
ADMINISTRATOR o o o o o o o o O 9
SECRETARIAL o o o o 9 9 9 9 9 O 9 9
BOOKKEEPING o o a 9 9 9 9 9 9
EXHIBITION o Q 9 9 O 9 9 o
REST ROOM 9 9 9 9
LOUNGE o o
CARPENTRY o o o o O 9 9
FORM OF THE BUILDING AND SITE
FORM OF THE BUILDING AND SITE
One of the first buildings that a visitor will see when driving into Steamboat Springs from the south and east, is the proposed design services building. Its location allows it to become a part of the gateway to this growing community. In a sense, the building will become somewhat of a landmark because of its prime location and high visibility from the road.
A responsibility to the community is implied when one places a structure in such a key position. The development will not only be a welcoming message to those driving in, but a statement which suggests the caliber of citizen's values as well. By virtue of its prime position, the design of this building and its site development must be of the highest quality.
Its impact should be favorable. A warm inviting impression is desired.
Community goals have been stated in the recently published land use plan. A variety and interest in site developments is desired, along with landscaping to reduce the general massing and commercial appearance of projects viewed from the public right of way. Screening to1 reduce the impact of parking is also requested (35). Here community goals coincide with commercial objectives. An attractive development draws in people and raises values as well.
The city of Steamboat Springs intends for a fifty foot landscaped setback to be maintained along the right of way of U.S. 40, which is to be planned to tie in with adjacent developments. Effective use of landscaped open space is also desired within the development (33).
The land as it exists has not been approved for a specific use. Some work has been done to
plan the site and gain approval. The effort was suspended in 1981, presumably because of uncertainties about economic conditions. When efforts are resumed, the development is to continue according to the guide lines set forth for Low Intensity Commercial in Steamboat's land use plan (33). Utilities do not exist at this time but will be provided when development occurs.
Siting for the design services building should be such that its entry will focus on the center of the development because the land use plan calls for all other buildings to orient towards the middle (33). When doing so, the entry should be studied and designed in such a way that it is identifiable from the center of U.S. Highway 40 and Pine Grove Road. When visitors turn the comer, they should know where
to go and how to get into the buildingby visual perceptionwhen they glance at the site.
It is most likely that when planning approvals are given they will be for a complete development of all the land in the two parcels located at the corner. The north end of the total development will have Fish Creek as its north boundary. A high stand of spruce and cottonwood trees exists along the creek, which provide a beautiful backdrop for the buildings when approached from the south. High mountains set the stage for the project when viewed from the sites on the opposite side of U.S. 40. An open valley and the highway are visible when looking to the south.
During late spring and summer months the environment is a mixture of green colors, emerald, forest, and sage. As summer progresses,
these colors begin to tarnish when the grasses turn to a dusty beige. Autumn brings on its beautiful aspen gold, which lasts but a short time except for images existing in people's memories. Then winter arrives with a pure white blanket. That lasts a full six months, broken in color only by lines of blue spruce and pine along the creek bed, and at the edges of the glades in the mountains. It is desirable that the form and color of the design services building relate to this beautiful setting in a harmonious way. When one is inside the complex, the sense of being in a beautiful valley should remain intact. Views to the mountains east and west are to be maintained, as well as the vista to the open valley to the south.
Environmental impact is to be considered when siting the structure and developing its
VIEW OF SITE FROM U.S. 40
BIG COUNTRY BUILDING
form. The building should express some individuality, but not to the detriment of a harmonious relationship with other buildings within the development and on adjacent sites.
An existing 3,200 square foot office building is sited at the north west comer of the highway intersection. Known as the big country building since its construction thirteen years ago, it has become a guide post for many tourists because of its isolation at a prominent intersection. It has crisp lines and is light and airy, but does not fit into a documented architectural style. Nevertheless, its well established presence, uniqueness and usefulness will call for it to remain. The new building should be sensitive to the existing one's presence and appearance, and be designed
to create a harmonious balance.
Consideration should also be given to the appearance of buildings in the developments across U.S. 40, and to the spread and massing of the proposed building on the contiguous sites.
The purpose of the design services building is to house architectural offices and related design consultants. Their objectives will be to provide assistance to prospective clients in the development of similar projects by offering a full range of design services.
"The form of this building should reflect the creative activity occurring within." (46)
Its image should reflect the caliber of design which these architects expect to provide for their clients. Sited at this prominent location, the building should be an advertisement in itself. It should express the caliber of services rendered. It should say to passersby,
VIEW FROM SITE TO NORTH
SHOPPING CENTER SUNDANCE PLAZA EAST SIDE OF U.S. HIGHWAY 40
"I am an example of what those who work here can create."
The form of the building should be elegant, but not opulent or extravagant. Both the quality of design and construction should stand ready to pass the test of time.
High emphasis should be placed on the reasonably gracious public spaces within the building. Functional areas need to be roomy but not overdone.
The introduction of detailing which is intended to respond to fashion or fad is to be avoided. A richness should permeate the building through use of quality material for functional elements which building users come into repeated contact, especially those items which people touch. Stairs, railings, doors, seating and windows fall into this category.
Floor coverings must be durable, but also have this quality of richness.
Materials are not to be used out of context with their most reasonable construction application. Any material is acceptable as long as it is durable, is applied in accordance with sound construction practices, and will integrate with accompanying materials to compose an effective aesthetic impact.
Facts Relating to Building Form Building Code Summary (8):
The building may be either:
Type III 1 hr. no sprinkler Type IV H.T. no sprinkler, or Type V 1 hr. with sprinkler Ramps are required to all spaces.
Two story maximum for both options.
Occupant load Is 273.
See Appendix for a complete code review. Zoning Review Summary (33):
Zone low intensity commercial Square feet 15,000 planned Acres 1.43 acres required Parking 50 cars Setback 50' highway 20' sides Open space 15% required Snow storage is also required See Appendix for a complete zoning review. Soils Data:
Soil conditions across the site are erratic. Up to ten feet of uncontrolled fill, unsuitable for foundations, was encountered in some test holes.
The structures may be founded on conventional spread footings on the natural sand or
gravel which exists below the uncontrolled back fill, or on a controlled structural land fill.
Maximum soil bearing pressure for either option is 3,000 P.S.F. The bottom of footings should be a minimum of 48" below grade for frost protection.
Floor slabs may be founded on the natural sands and gravels. If uncontrolled backfill is encountered, it must be removed and recompacted to 90% proctor density.
A drainage system will be necessary for any construction below 5 feet in depth.
Heavy traffic 10" 3
Parking 8" 3
Base to be compacted to 95% proctor density. Construction inspection by a qualified soils
engineer is recommended.
Steamboat Springs is in a cold, dry climate. Winters are cold with lots of snow. Heating degree days average about 9,500 DD-Base 65 F. Snow usually covers the ground for six to eight months, a depth of four feet is not unusual. Winter days are either clear and very coldI- 10 to -20 F. or cloudy and moderately coldI- 20 to +30 F. When the weather warms up, it snows, when it gets clear, temperatures drop.
There is no spring in Steamboat Springs.
The period between March and mid-June is "mud season." Warming daytime temperatures melt snows for weeks on end, and generate MUD.
Weather during this period ranges from sunny, to rain, snow and sleet.
Summers and fall are warm and generally dry. Days are always comfortable if sunny; cool
to uncomfortable if cloudy or raining. It has snowed in Steamboat Springs on July 4th, Labor Day and Thanksgiving. Sometimes it does not snow until January, but one must always be prepared for snow.
Winds generally prevail from the south west, but can come from any direction. No records of wind speed have been located, however personal experience indicates that strong winds occasionally come from the east, during winter months. These are unusual, once or twice per winter lasting two to three days. They bring no snow. Milder winds come from the north. Seldom on heavy snow years, a lot of light snow years; they bring small amounts of snow. Warm southwest winds (+ 30 to + 35/F.) during winter and spring months bring lots of snow known as "big dumps," 8 to 12 inches; These sometimes last for days on end, slacking off late in the
COLORADO CLIMATE CENTER, FORT COLLINS
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afternoon and beginning early the next morning.
There are two sure signs of snow in Steamboat, heavy rains in California and a warm south west (+ 30 35/F.) wind.
Frosts can occur year roundduring any month. Clear nights just after a storm are an indicator of a cold snap to come. During winter this means below zero temperaturesduring summer a potential for a frost. Usually the coldest temperature for a day occurs just before dawn as the sun hits the tops of the mountains on the east sides of the valley and drives cold air down the west face.
Inversions are not unusual on cold winter days. Clear days with below zero temperatures are often a warm 32 F. at the tops of the
Roof structure must be designed for 90 #/SF. snow load. Sloped roofs should have a cold roof, either an attic or a surface system made up of 2x2 verticals and 1x3 horizontals. Cross circulation, rake and ridge vents are necessary. Heavy insulation is mandatory.
R 38 Roofs R 19 Walls
Valleys in roofs are not recommended, they have a high potential for leaks.
Glass roofs, sloped glass and sky lights
create sticky problems with snow and ice and are not advised.
Flat roofs should slope at least l/2"/ft. and have adequate warm interior roof drainage. Sloped solar collectors create ice buildup problems at the lower edge.
JAN FEB MAR
APR MAY JUN
BIOCLIMATIC CHART AND SUMMARY
OCT NOV DEC
180.0 225-0 270.0
Ho Allowance For System Efficiency Has Been Taken
SOLAR IRRADIATION ON C0L1ECT0R BTU/FT'2/HR AT 21st DAT OF M0N1H HOURLTCLEAR SKIES
STEAMBOAT SPRINGS COLORADO
LATITUDE 40.5 TILT ANGLE 90.0
D. S. Voolard
I SO LAP FL/X
Sloped roofs over entries, balconies, and decks cause snow removal problems and are not recommended.
Site drainage must be planned for heavy spring "run off" caused by melting snows. At least six weeks of "run off" will occur.
Roads, driveways and packing areas need a snow storage area. About 50% of the volume of snow which lands on a level surface.
Night insulation is recommended for all glazingespecially north glazing.
Interior mass is effective in stabilizing a diurnal temperature swing during summer
The building site is about five feet below the level of the highway. It is desirable that the main floor be above the road bed so that the building be highly visible, even when the snow is deep.
Parking lots and roads should be layed out in such a manner that snow removal and storage is efficient. Long sweeps through the site are desirable.
Winds frequently originate from the south west. A natural wind break south of the building and parking would be beneficial, as long as it does not block solar access.
A community bike path ends at the comer in front of the proposed building. Its south-most origin is at Whistler meadows about two miles away. A number of blanks occur in the
path between Whistler and its destination in town. One such blank is between this site and Anglers Drive, approximately 300 yards to the north. When siting the proposed building, consideration should be given to possible routes which may evolve in the completion of the bike path, and how that may affect the position of the building, walkways and parking.
A railroad track which is heavily used, hauling coal from mines beyond Steamboat Springs to Denver, lies at the west edge of the develop-
ment site. The track bed is slightly higher than the grade at the same boundary. An industrial area lies just beyond the trackage.
It is unlikely that these features can be completely screened. However a pleasing effect may be achieved if low thick vegetation with spaced trees is encouraged on the near side of
the tracks, to break up the visual impact of
the tracks and train without completely shielding its danger.
Orientation of the building should be based on environmental concerns such as solar access and wind; visual concerns such as views and concerns such as pedestrian and vehicular access.
The reproduction shop will be a commercial enterprise and requires visibility. The public needs to know where it is located. Consideration to this need is to be made during the formal development of the building.
Entrances to the consultant office areas should have a separate definition from entry to the architectural group offices.
Spatial needs of the various functional
areas are layed out in the pages which follow.
Typical Architects Office 300 sq. ft. Desk 2 chairs Drafting table Sideboard File cabinet Shelving Tackboard Blackboard
Production Managers Office 250 sq. ft.
Desk 2 chairs Drafting table Sideboard Files Tackboard Computer terminal Blackboard
Administrative Office 300 sq. ft.
Desk 3 chairs Side table Credenza
Production Room 1,600 sq. ft.
15 drafting stations*
15 personal shelving Catalog shelving Tackboards Flat files Paste-up table Work sink Supply storage Coat and boot storage Central paper storage 2 computer terminals *drafting stations to be convertible to computer drafting stations.
3 Secretary Stations 200 sq. ft. each
3 typewriter tables 3 typewriters 1 word processer terminal 1 adding machine 3 chairs
3 credenzas with paper storage
6 file cabinets
2 Bookkeeping Stations 150 sq. ft. each 2 desks
1 computer terminal
2 adding machines 2 chairs
2 Small Conference Rooms 200 sq. ft. each 1 table each room 6 chairs each room 1 blackboard
64 sq. ft. tackboard
Library 400 sq. ft.
1 table 6 chairs Shelving Bulletin board
Computer Room 300 sq. ft. Central processing unit Tape and disc storage 3 plotters*
*separate space if feasible
Dark Room_____________________________100 sq. ft.
200 sq. ft.
Carpentry Shop 1,600 sq. ft. Work bench Model table Table saw Radial arm Drill press Band saw Mitre box Jointer Belt sander Storage tools Storage materials Work sink
Building maintenance desk
Typical Engineering Office - 400 sq. ft.
Desk 2 chairs
1 or 2 drafting stations*
1 or 2 side tables
2 file cabinets Shelving
Flat files Storage Tackboards Computer terminal Blackboard
Convertible to computer drafting
Landscape Architect 400 sq. ft.
Desk 2 chairs
1 or 2 drafting stations*
1 or 2 side tables
2 file cabinets Shelving
Flat files Storage Tackboards Computer terminal Blackboard
Convertible to computer drafting
Interior Designer 600 sq. ft.
Desk 3 chairs Drafting table Large work table Flat files Shelving File cabinets Sample storage Tackboard Computer terminal
Graphic Artist 600 sq. ft.
Desk 2 chairs Drafting table 2 file cabinets Large work table Flat files Shelving Tackboard Photographic equipment
Employee Lounge 400 sq. ft. Refrigerator Sink Cabinets Counter tops Large table 8 table chairs 2-5' sofas 2 chairs 1 coffee table 18 3 ft. lockers
Bathroom with shower
Exhiblt/Reception 400 sq. ft. Desk Chair Credenza Typing table File cabinets 3-5 ft. seats 1 coffee table 1 coat rack
128 sq. ft. tackboard
Rest Rooms, Public____________________Mens/Ladies
Toilets 2 Urinals 2 Lavs. 4
Toilets 4 Lavs. 4
*may be split into two rooms each
Presentation Room 400 sq. ft.
Small table 12 loose chairs Blackboard Movie screen
256 sq. ft. tackboard
Reproduction Facility 2,450 sq. ft.
Flat bed printer Flat files Xerox 2080 Xerox 9500 Xerox color printer Small copy machine Paper cutter 3 large work tables Binding equipment 1 counter 1 cash register Storage paper Storage general
Reproduction Office 200 sq. ft.
Desk 2 chairs 2 file cabinets Credenza
It is wise to reexamine the purpose of the project before setting goals with respect to economics. The group practice concept itself, is based in part on economic considerations sharing of costs and efficient utilization of time. To emphasize these objectives in the creation of a management concept, and ignore them in the development of a building to support the concept, would be counterproductive.
Nevertheless, there is a distinction between this building and a purely speculative project. Its purpose is to support a group which intends to be together for a long period. Although idealism may distort the expected length of time, practicality leads to setting goals in the ten to fifteen year range.
If a group of this nature is to build its own facility, it must have a strong reason for doing so. Use of the building as an advertisement and a display of what the group can produce is a powerful incentive. Unavailability of suitable space which may be rented from other sources is another. When both possibilities exist a comparison of the economics between ownership and renting is in order.
Considerations of location, terms of lease, tenant improvement costs and many other factors must figure into this comparison. If it is more economical to rent space, which is suitable to support the management concept proposed, over a ten to fifteen year period, the desire to build is diminished.
The question of economics has to be addressed from two perspectives, that of income
and that of cost. With respect to income the group must consider if the proposed building, because of its character and location will improve its bookings to the extent that the costs are justified. Projected billings must be evaluated with judgement, however. A design firm of a set size can only produce a limited amount of work, no matter how high the demand or how efficiently it is done.
Other income which is to be considered is the potential rent from the leasible space programmed into the building. In order for these revenues to be realized, rents must be competitive with that for equivalent space in the immediate area.
Increases in real estate values is another source of income which is both unseen and untaxed as long as the building ownership
When considering the cost side of the picture, rents and lease hold expenses are compared to ownership costs such as interest, property taxes, operating and maintenance costs.
Interest and property taxes will probably be the highest expenses. Energy use will be the next major cost of operating the building.
It is expected that electric and gas rates will continue to rise. High priority must be given to energy saving techniques which will optimize and balance its use. A goal of 50,000 BTU/SF/ year of total energy use is set for this project.
Maintenance costs are high and are also expected to rise. Utilization of sound construction practices coupled with proven durable materials is to be considered as a means of minimizing maintenance problems and outlays.
When analyzing operating and maintenance costs, it should be observed that certain expenses can be reduced by incorporating higher quality materials, or programming certain operating strategies into the building. Generally it takes a higher capital investment to introduce these means. Life cycle cost analysis techniques are to be used to compare initial capital outlays with anticipated savings resulting from the investments.
Some consideration must also be given to tax reduction opportunities when a comparison of alternatives is made. Certain deductions are available to those who rentj while others are available to those who own. The ramifications of income tax deductions are broad, and depend on specific parameters which may not apply to the general case. Nevertheless, some
consideration needs to be paid to tax problems when alternatives are analyzed.
The initial capital outlay for the development will be very high. It is realistic to assume that a substantial portion of this cost must be borrowed by the group to implement the project. Cash flow from rent equivalents paid by the group plus actual rents paid by those leasing, must be structured to cover the debt service requirement for the loan.
Economically goals of the group with respect to the building should be to locate it and design it in such a way that incremental income from the practice combined with rents and tax advantages, less operating costs, plus increases in value over the period of ownership, justify the investment they will have to make.
Steamboat Springs, Colorado 1982 Office Leases
Rental Rates Operating and Maintenance Costs $ (3) 12.00 1.03/SF/YR 0.04
Taxes Water/Sewer $
Gas heat 0.46
Snow removals 0.16
*per sq. ft. of building.
Development Costs (24)
Land $3.50/SF undeveloped land. $7.00/SF assumed developed.
$300,000/Acre x 1.43 t 15,000 SF = $28.60/SF*1
Soils testing 0.07
Design fees 5.00
Finance costs 7.59
Utilities tap fees only 0.28
Site development 4.35
Legal expenses 0.17
Total development costs Construction costs (26) $47.10/SF*1
SOURCE: Hensel Phelps Construction
Gas Electricity SOURCE: Local Utility Companies Interest Rate $ 0.41/CCF 0.83/KW
Points SOURCE: Assumed Escalation Rates Assumed 4%
Construction 11% (26)
SOURCE: Local Utility Companies
1. Per sq. ft. or proposed building. General Data relating to this study only, reevaluate For final feasibility study.
2. Does not include planning commission costs.
COLORADO BUILDING CONSTRUCTION COST INCREASE AVERAGES
(MON-RESIDENTIAL COST 1007 THROUGH 1081 PROJECTED TO 1060)
AVER S/F COST
$150 00 S/F |U7 00^TF~
135 60 S/F ~
132 00 5/F~
' $129 00i7p-~| $126 00 S/F $l2306~S/f~
$120 00 S/F $117 00 57F $114 00'5/F~
__$108 00 S/F
_ $105 00 S/F $K)2 00^7F~
S 99.00 S/F
__$96 00 S/F
j 93 00 S/F $ 90 00 S/F
$ 75 00 S/F j 7200 Â§/F f 69 00 S/F $ 66 00 S/F $6300 S/F J, $ 6000 S/F m $ 57 00 S/F $ 54.00 S/F
$ 5 100 S/F $ 4800 S /F
___A 45 00 S/F
__ $ 42 00 S/F
__A 39 00 S/F
$ 36.Op S/F
CURRENT AVERAGE RATE OF 0ICREASE DUE TO:
1 FEW MATERIAL SHORTAGES
2 HIGH EMPLOYMENT LEVELS IN MOUNT APIS
3 CONTINUED NON-RESIDENTIAL CONSTRUCTION
5. COLORADO ENERGY CODE REQUIREMENTS
6. FUEL COST INCREASES
7 ENVIRONMENTAL STANDARDS 04PACTS
8 EEO/MBE REGULATIONS (STATE $ FEDERAL)
Community ProfileWestern Colorado- -1980 1981
Community Ref. Vail & Unin Aspen/Sm. Steamboat Dillon/Summit Glenwood G. Jet Metro
Population 1980 (9) 8,989 10,338 5,098 8,848 4,037 81,530
10 year increase (9) 100 67 118 23 13 50
Housing units (9) 8,849 8,501 3,481 10,261 2,160 32,573
10 year increase (9) 288 209 318 367 37 72
Households/groups (9) 100%/O 99% 1% 98% 2% 100% 0 98% 2% 98% 2%
Percent vacant (9) 80 47 42 65 11 9
Per cap income '77 (19) 14,038 8,021 7,478 7,274 6,274 5,240
% employed '81 (24) 65% 67% 89% 164% 52% 47%
Sales Tax '81 (29) 4,607 4,609 2,898 3,158 4,463 16,383
Res taurants/1000 (4) 3.56 4.25 3.20 3.29 2.25 0.245
Book stores/1000 0.33 0.48 0.196 0.220 0.375 0.024
Planning Commission Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Museums (4) Yes Yes Yes Yes Two
Library (4) Yes Yes Yes Yes
Colleges (4) CMC CMC CMC CMC MESA
Cultural Activity (4) Vail Inst Aspen Inst Stephens MESA
Visual Arts (4) CMC 7 Gallery 2 Gallery Art Center
Music (4) Summer Music Fest Limited Limited
Theatre (4) Yes Active
Tax base (13) 98,505,170 100,533,050 58,754,510 57,913,950 23 ,894,510 128,649,130
Mil levy (13) 10.30 6.29 -0- 9.61 8.00 12.00
Total levy (13) 1,014,605 632,923 -0- 556,558 191,156 1,543,790
Local sales tax (13) 5 4 4 4 , 2.5 4
Tax base/capita 10,958 9,725 11,525 6,545 5,918 1,578
No architects/1000 2.92 2.66 2.16 1.24 1.4 0.24
The community profile which precedes the preliminary feasibility analysis shows that Steamboat Springs has some of the economic and cultural factors which support architectural practices in other communities. Although these are not proven parameters they do give some indication that this resort community can support the group. Suffice it to say that architecture cannot be practiced in an economic or cultural vacuum. Steamboat's profile indicates that it is growing in positive directions, and that good possibilities exist for this service.
The preliminary feasibility study which estimates the cost of providing the building where the group practice will operate is not as positive. High land, development, interest, and
construction costs show that pursuit of the entire project at this time would be difficult.
The loan value of the project, about $55.00/SF is less than half the total project cost. Equity participation on the part of the group needs to be around $77.00/SF if a quality building is constructed. Justification for this investment must be based on anticipated return from tax advantages and incresess in real estate values.
It would be unusual for a group of this nature to be able to make such a high equity investment. Thus, it is necessary that the facility be designed so that construction can be phased in two or three steps.
Preliminary Feasibility Analysis Building
Rent X Efficiency Loan $12.00/SF X 0.86
C.R.F. X 1.15 Value 0.1628 X 1.15
Cost X Cost Project $85.00/SF + 47.00 =
= $ 77.00/SF
1st year increase in y/* total project cost
1st year increase in _ ^
total project cost
1st year increase in equity if invested
1st year increase in ^ eauitv if invested
t equity = return i 77.00 =9%
*yearly increase in value of the property per sq. ft. of building.
**yearly increase in value of equity if invested elsewhere.
PAST, PRESENT FUTURE
PAST, PRESENT, FUTURE Architecture in north west Colorado, and in the valley which surrounds Steamboat Springs, does not follow the same historical trend that influenced many other Colorado communities. One sees very little of the Victorian opulence that characterizes the cities of the mining belt, where riches flowed during the booms around the turn of the century.
Steamboat has its roots in agriculture. Although mining is a part of its heritage, it was the cattle industry that shaped the image we see today. Steamboat is a part of the west. It is where "the old west stayed young," to say it the way John Rolfe Burroughs does in his
book of the same title.
Ranching is not a career, it never has been, and never will be. Ranching is a way of life.
It is typified by long days of hard work and encounters with nature. Yet, in spite of the many overdoses of sun, and rain, bumps and bruises, most days end with a smile.
These influences permeate life in the valley. The people, the way they have lived, and the way they think have expressed themselves over the years in the architecture of the region which is exemplified in the many ranch headquarters still in use today. The home, the barns, the sheds and pens with their cottonwood umbrellas and muddy drives project a vision of this life.
It is an architecture of practicality and usefulness. It is characterized by warmth and simplicity. Painted barns, weathered wood
and metal roofs are its elements. Crisp, stark proportions are its form. It has evolved as a means by which the rigorous deal with a harsh environment, and provide quality and comfort to their lives.
In recent years a city has been growing within the valley. Tourism, sports and recreation are its basis. It is a haven for those who live and vacation with gusto. The skiers, golfers, hunters, river boaters, and backpackers have all moved in. With them has come a different strain of architecture, partially influenced by that of the Alpine region of Europe, and part by the growing portions of the midwest, the west and the California coast.
The proposed design services building is to be sited at the end of a valley filled with references to the old west, and at the entrance
to a growing city being influenced by those who wish to reestablish America's suburban scene in the mountains.
The goal with respect to time is in effect a challenge. The challenge is to create a building which relates to the city today, with reference to the past, using contemporary methods to effect a lasting quality that will hold forth for many years to come.
It should be recognized that a high rate of growth and change has occurred in Steamboat in the past few years. The decade of the 1970s brought a 90% increase in population, a trend which still continues. Development pressures increased along with the population expanses. A great deal of land
was subdivided upon which homes, condominiums and apartment buildings were built.
In the immediate area to the proposed site, along the east side of U.S. 40, land has been subdivided into commercial shopping centers. Development has occurred to the north of Pine Grove Road and further to the north along Fish Creek. A Safeway store, gasoline outlet, liquor stores, three restaurants and numerous other retail shops are existing. The area north of the creek is known as "Sundance Plaza," to the south as"Safeway."
Pine Grove Center has been platted and partially developed to the south of Pine Grove Road. A well established restaurant operates within a large rehabilitated barn at the south east corner of the development. Water and sewer are established as well as paved parking and
roads. A retail mall and a secondary outlet
are planned for two sites. The comer lot was purchased by a savings and loan association which plans to relocate this year.
Firm plans for the land, west of U.S. 40, which surrounds the proposed building site have not been set. Some design has been done which indicates that the nature of the development will be commercial. Planning commission approvals are not yet complete, one 3,200 square foot office building, mentioned earlier in the report, is expected to remain.
During the next ten years, it is very likely that the area which surrounds the proposed design services building will be experiencing continuous
In the introductory discussion about the group architectural practice, and again in the section on economics, suggestions are made relating to the growth of both concepts. It will take a few years for the practice to grow into the building of its ultimate size. The economics of building in today's financial climate seems to suggest starting small and expanding to the optimum size. Computers, and computer aided drafting stations are beyond reach financially today, but are rapidly advancing in technology and capability. It is expected that cost reductions and increased productivity of these machines will make them feasible for small architectural firms in three to five
When one studies today's economic situation with a potential for growth, it appears that the building concept should begin small and be programmed to grow. It should be flexible, expandable and adaptable, both in form and in detailing. Electrical and mechanical systems should be phased for change and growth to allow installation of computer capability in future years.
As the design for the building is developed, flexibility should be considered with each step. The final design should be an ultimate concept, which will support the group practice as proposed. However, the building needs to be detailed in such a way that phased growth and
construction may occur.
THE DESIGN CHALLENGE
THE DESIGN CHALLENGE A group practice in architecture is an organization of design professionals who work individually for separate clients, but share common facilities, staff and administrative functions. A design services building is the place for these professionals to conduct their activities.
The building is to be both a promotional tool and a functional space. Visitors should see an example of how thought and training by architects and engineers can be transformed into pleasing useful areas. The arrangement of the plan must also be functional, so that the people who work together in the complex may do
The form of the building has to be elegant. Consideration to the heritage of the community and the impact of its growth, now and in the future, is highly important. Use of such a prominent site at the gateway to the city implies responsibility to the citizens. Design and development should be of high caliber.
Economics of our times presents a difficult challenge. Needs are pressing but costs are high. Availability of financing is also difficult. To design a building which is functional, economical and a credit to both its occupants and neighbors is a primary objective.
Responsible development in a growing community, for a group practice with expanding needs is the design challenge set forth.