ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN AURARIA LIBRARY
BAIR & [RBSITAQJ02AWTI
UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT DENVER GRADUATE SCHOOL OF DESIGN AND PLANNING .
DESIGN THESIS PROGRAM MASTER OF ARCHITECTURE SPRING SEMESTER 19B3 .
[BAER A mCSTTAQJRAWU
AT THE GENESEE BUSINESS CENTER .
KENNETH A. BERG LANDSCAPE ARCHITECT
DONALD E. CASPER ACTING CLIENT
PAUL S. HEATH PROF. & ARCHITECT
DAVIS C. HOLDER PROF. & ENGINEER
CHALMERS G. LONG PROF. & ARCHITECT
JOSEPH J. PD LI ARCHITECT
JACK SHANAHAN INTERIOR DESIGNER
THANK YOU TO FRANK R. OOMS
LANDSCAPE CONSULTATION PROGRAMMING DESIGN CONSULTATION STRUCTURAL CONSULTATION DESIGN & MECHANICAL
DESIGN CONSULTATION INTERIOR DESIGN
Space Allocations Spatial Relationship
GENESEE BUSINESS CENTER ARCHITECTURAL STANDARDS
Zoning Code Building Code Fire Code
Colorado Department of Health Code ADDITIONAL DESIGN REFERENCES
The project selected for thesis is a quality restaurant/bar/lounge for use by the area's day population, and the residential community during evenings and weekends. At noon hours, both bar and lounge will also be used for moderately priced lunches, while the formal dining area will serve more exquisite menus for lunch and dinner. Besides indoor seating, the facility will provide a patio for dining and lounging vhen the veather is condusive to outside use. An indoor dance floor will be integrated with the lounge and must be designed for adaptive use as a banquet room requiring appropriate screening from the lounge when necessary.
lb promote the building's visibility from the highway, while also providing a panoramic view from within, the restaurant will compliment its steep site. Comprised of several potential terraced levels along the hill, the complex will have a total building area of approximately 10,000 square feet. Interiors, an important aspect of restaurant design, will receive special emphasis and allow integration of my previous degree in interior design with that of my newly acquired architectural knowledge.
V. 1 T
THE CONCEPT C C renter's approved plan calls fo ;.f. of combined office building r 300,00< space oi
Genesee Business Center is a planned development approved by Jefferson County. It is the office-commercial portion of Genesee, the national award-winning community of 2,500 acres. The Business
over 100 acres of land, including 28 acres of open space. There will also be 60,000 s.f.of retail shops in uptown Genesee, the retail center, including at least one first class restaurant.
Located approximately 24 miles West of Central Denver, the restaurant site is contained within the Genesee Commercial Office Park. Rolling hills, lush vegetation, and a mountainous backdrop provide an attractive setting and a challenge in designing an appropriate architectural response. Rapid growth of the Genesee residential and office communities is increasing the area's populous and in turn the project's marketability.
Genesee Business Center is easily reached by taking 1-70 West to Exit 254. Major traffic arterials such as West 6th Avenue, West Colfax Avenue, and planned Highway C-470 are only 5 minutes away. Approximate driving time to Downtown Denver is 25 minutes, and 30 minutes to Stapleton Airport.
Over a quarter of a million people live within a fifteen minute drive of the Genesee Business Center. Possessing a wide range of skills, these people comprise an abundant work force for companies that locate within the Genesee Business Center.
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Genesee Business Center is served by the Genesee Water and Sanitation District, a municipal-type facility. Water, sewer, electrical, natural gas and telephone are located proximate to each site. All utility lines have been installed underground to preserve the natural views.
I. Site Conditions
The proposed Building Site is presently vacant. The topography of the property is rolling hills sloping moderately to steeply down towards the north. The maximum difference in elevation across the property is on the order of 4 0 feet. The ground surface is covered with grasses, weeds, bushes and small to large evergreen trees.
II. Subsoil Conditions
Five test holes had been drilled to
determine the general subsurface
conditions. Test hole 1, 2 and 4 consist
of 6 inches to 1 foot of topsoil overlying hard to very hard weathered granite gneiss bedrock to depth explored, 26 feet. A thin layer of road base gravel fill was found overlying weathered bedrock in test hole 3, and 1 foot of topsoil overlying sandy to very sandy clay in test hole 5. Free vrater was not encountered in any test holes.
III. Foundation Recommendations
Considering the proposed construction and subsoil conditions, spread footing foundation is recommended. Settlements should be within tolerable limits; 1 inch total and a maximun differential across the building of approximately 3/4 inch, if the
following design and construction details
1. All footings should be placed on the weathered granite gneiss bedrock below the topsoil and fill.
2. Footings should be designed for a maximun soil bearing pressure of 5,000 psf.
3. Continuous foundation walls should be well reinforced top and bottom to span an unsupported length of at least 10 feet.
4. Any excessively loose pockets or highly fractured rock found beneath the footing excavations should be removed and the footings extended to the lower firm material.
5. All footings should be placed below frost depth.
6. At the northwest portion of the site where the ground surface is low, it is anticipated some deep fill will be placed. It is possible to place the footings in this area on controlled, compacted structural fill. Footings placed on such fill should be designed for a maximun soil pressure of 4,000 psf.
IV. Floor Slabs
The on-site weathered granite gneiss bedrock, exclusive of topsoil, is suitable for support of lightly loaded floor slabs. To minimize damage due to slight
differential slab movement, floor slabs should be separated from bearing walls with an expansion joint. Floor slabs should be provided with control joints and adequately reinforced. A minimum 4-inch free-draining gravel layer should be provided beneath the floor slabs.
V. Underdrain System
Considering the high bedrock condition, we recommend any uphill portion of the lower level of the building be protected by an underdrain system. It should consist of drain tile installed in a gravel filled trench around the perimeter of the building at least 12 inches below the lower floor level with a positive slope leading to a sump v^ere water can be removed by pumping or to suitable gravity outflows. The gravel beneath the floor slab should connect to the underdrain system.
TOTAL BULDING AREA
Dining Area 200 People @
Bar & Lounge 125 People @
SERVICE AREA 30% of
Kitchen & Support Areas
25% Peak Occupant Load
Customers 1 car 0 2 1/2
IB sf. 3,600 sf.
15 sf. 1,875 sf.
10,000 sf. 3,300 sf.
+ 85 People
20 160 Stalls .
A transition space from outdoor environment to the restaurant, the entry should provide a strong direction to where the customers choose to go next: the bar/lounge or the waiting room then the dining area. coat room, public restrooms, phone booths and manager's office should be located adjacent to the foyer and clearly indicated to prevent confusion.
For a short waiting period, customers can sit comfortably in the waiting room. Adjacent to the dining area, people will be able to have a glimpse at the culinary activities that they are looking forward to experience. There will also be a direct access to the bar/lounge for customers who prefer to drink and wait.
The largest and the most dominant feature of the restaurant, the dining room should provide a sense of intimacy and elegance. During the day, customers will be able to see the external vistas while enjoying lunch. At night, the interior itself will
become the essential background of the dining experience.
Loose seat arrangements and booths are planned to be used for variety and flexibility. Ease of circulation for both customers and employees will be a determining factor in the design process.
Kitchen and its support facilities to prepare and to serve meals will be located adjacent to the dining room. Exterior patio, bar and lounge will also have a direct relation to the dining room for the customers' convenience.
Bar and Lounge
Lounge area has a dual functions as a moderately priced lunch room during the day and as a socializing place at night. A section of the space can be converted into either a dance floor or a small private banquet facility with appropriate screenings as needed.
Because of its dual functions, the lounge needs to be placed within close proximity to the kitchen and food preparation area. Location of the liquor storage will be directly adjacent to the bar for time and labor savings purpose. Outdoor patio placement will be directly related to the lounge.
K i tchen
Functionality, efficiency, and easy maintenance are some of the most important aspects to be considered in designing and locating the kitchen. The support facilities such as food pick up and preparation, storage and dishwashing area should have direct acess to ease the meal production and customer service.
Manager's office should be accessible for both customers and staff becuase of his or her responsibility on the restaurant operation.
Employee lounge will have a couple chairs and tables for the staff to enjoy the meal, lockers, changing rooms, restrooms and showers.
MISCELLANEOUS Mechanical Room
As required, mechanical room should be centrally located and buffered visually and
accoustically from the public. Hie size of the space will depend on the mechanical system selected to be used.
Loading Delivery Area
For time and labor savings, delivery area should be placed in close proximity to all storage areas and kitchen. Visually, it is desirable to screen loading area from the public view.
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r u HI > Q u. COAT ROOM WAITING ROOM RESTROOMS BAR LIQUOR STORAGE LOUNGE 4 111 a < 0 2 2 5 < UJ a 4 2 P 4 a. 4 a UJ a a PICK UP FOOD AREA KITCHEN DISHWASHING A. GENERAL FOOD STO COLO FOOO STO. GENERAL STORAGE STAFF LOUNGE manager's office employee's restr. DELIVERY AREA GARBAGE DISPOSAL PRIMA SECOINJ RY DARY 1RY JACENCY
WAITING ROOM E
BAR O o A A TERTIS NO AC
LOUNGE o o A A E
DINING AREA o o 4 o
PICK UP FOOD AREA o O
KITCHEN A 2
DISHWASHING AREA o O O o
GENERAL FOOO STO. O o )
COLO FOOO STORAGE )
GENERAL STORAGE y < y
STAFF LOUNGE A A o
manager's OFFICE 4 o o o A A
employee's RESTRMS- d) o yi;
DELIVERY AREA ; < A
GARBAGE DISPOSAL \ ) /I x
restrooms ] 4___p [ToyerJ 4______ |Thone booth
managers office )
BAR EL LOUNGEl
[ LIQUOR STORAGE j
OIIMIIMG AREA 4------------- STAFF LOUNGE
[ PREP. AREA] ' OISHWASH. [ STAFF RESTROOMS ]
foEIMERAL STORAGE ) [fOOO PICK UP ]
[cold food storage]------fkitchen)
BAR B AGE DISPOSAL
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II. Standards and Requirements
A. Site Utilization
1. Site Evaluation
3. Access and Circulation
4. Parking and Service Areas
B. Architectural Appearance
1. Height and Scale
2. Exterior Colors and yiaterials
3. Roof Penetrations
5. Service Areas
E. Exterior Lighting
The Architectural Review Committee of the Genesee Business Foundation has adopted these Architectural Standards for the purpose of establishing the desired level of quality and consistency in the development of the Genesee Business Center. By establishing these Architectural Standards, the Conrmittee is not attempting to limit creativity of development, but rather to set minimum requirements necessary to achieve an attractive and consistent framework for development within the Center.
Specific objectives of this program include the following:
-To insure compatibility in design, exterior colors and exterior materials within the Center.
-lb establish the relationship of proposed buildings and improvements with the natural topography and features of the land.
-lb analyze the operations and uses of a proposed building or
improvement as it affects
-To insure compliance with the
purpose and intent
Compliance with the Architectural Standards and approval by the Committee does not constitute compliance with any applicable building codes or regulations.
II. STANDARDS AND REQUIREMENTS
For effective understanding and interaction between the Committee and the individual applicants, the following criteria for concept development and design expression are discussed in detail.
A. Site Utilization
1. Site Evaluation
Because of the desire for a "park like" atmosphere, applicants are encouraged to consider existing vegetation and landscape features on Building Sites as potential assets.
Careful evaluation of the natural setting as a background or integrated format can be economically advantageous and provide an image of mature stable activity. The costs involved in effectively preserving existing features may be compared favorably with the expenses of professionally installed landscaping.
Planning for overall drainage must recognize the importance of respecting established patterns of flow critical to the health of retained landscape materials and controlling runoff vtiich cannot be allowed to burden neighboring parcels. Each Building Site Owner shall be required to provide adequate on-site drainage improvement.
3. Access and Circulation
Access to each lot (which may consist of one or more Building Sites) will normally be allowed at only one point along the public roads. Hie location and width of access allowed will be evaluated in view of the building site constraints, adjacent existing or proposed building sites, and other
activities planned. Ttie access should contain a 15' radius of pavement on the corners at the intersection with the public roads.
4. Parking and Service Areas
The appearance of parking and service areas is particularly critical to the aesthetic experience of the Center. Wherever possible, large unbroken expanses of hard surface should be avoided. Accordingly, parking areas containing 20 or more automobile spaces should incorporate landscape islands, bay dividers, and screening.
All parking and service areas shall be screened and visually broken as much as possible from roads, right-of-way and adjacent Building Sites by earth berms and plantings to assure that the visual effect of paved areas and standing automobiles is minimized and that the effect of natural landscape dominates.
Minimun parking shall be provided in the ratios set forth in the Declaration. Depending on the proposed Building use, the Committee may require additional parking.
All parking lots, access drives and services access shall be paved and properly graded to assure drainage. Pavement materials shall be bituminuous asphalt or concrete pavement unless otherwise approved. The pavement depth shall be designed by a licensed soils engineer. Concrete curb shall be required on the perimeter of the parking areas. All parking and service areas shall have adequate lighting for safety and security purposes.
All improvements (including parking) shall be set back a minimum 30' from the property lines of the Building Site. Hus setback may be increased by the committee to prevent any detrimental effect on adjoining building sites. With respect to the perimeter boundary of the Property, a minimum setback of 50' must be observed in accordance with the Official Development Plan.
Wherever possible, a distance of 20' between a parking area and Building should also be maintained. Exceptions to this rule can exist, and the committee will accept reasonable
variations according to the demonstrated needs.
Driveway and parking grades shall be no greater than 7%.
1. Height and Scale
All buildings shall be under strict architectural control to assure that their scale and appearance are appropriate for the wooded, rolling building sites and that they are of superior design and construction as to not be offensive to surrounding areas and to traffic along Interstate 70.
All buildings and all appurtenances thereto, such as vents, shall be less than 35' in height with prevailing heights lower than 35'. Measurement shall be taken from the highest point of the natural grade adjacent to the building foundation. The intent will be to preserve the skyline of the natural tree cover and to minimize the impact to surrounding areas and to traffic along Interstate 70.
2. Exterior Colors and Materials
Control of the color and appearance of exterior materials will be the principal means of achieving an overall sense of unity within the Center. Use of natural colors v^iich tend to be in the earth color range, muted and of low reflection will be considered desirable. Flexibility in exterior materials will be allowed by the committee, depending upon the location within the Center. Building Sites which are substantially screened from traffic along 1-70 will have more flexibility, while Building Sites which are not adequately screened will be required to use natural materials. Other colors and materials may be acceptable to the Committee depending upon the design treatment and compatibility with the Center.
3. Roof Penetrations
Unsightly devices and equipment penetrating the roof plane should be screened or architecturally integrated with the roof design in a manner acceptable to the Committee.
No fences or walls may be continuously erected around the boundary line of any Building Site. Where they are required for screening, directional purposes, special effects, or limited storage, they should be an integral part of the architectural design of the building. No outside storage of any commodity shall be permitted.
5. Service Areas
All exterior service, loading, storage and utility areas (including transformers, meters, cooling towers, etc.) will be located at the side or rear of the building and will be screened or sheltered so as not to be visible from the street, right-of-way, or from adjacent parcels. Trash enclosures or receptacles must be screened by permanent structures or landscape plantings depending on the situation and design.
For the most part, the Center is comprised of gently rolling hills which have a tremendous potential for integrating the natural amenities of trees, rock outcrops, and vegetation as part of the Building Sites. Owners
are encouraged to take full advantage of these natural amenities in their selection of the best Building location, entry drive location, parking areas and any other improvements. Planning should be done in a manner which respects and preserves the existing natural amenities. Significant advantages in finished appearance and economic outlay can be achieved through this conservation approach.
Many factors will affect the ability to retain existing plant materials, including existing and proposed grading condition, age, condition and species of the plant material, location of improvements, and the required utility connections through the Building Site. By preserving existing plant materials, the supplemental planting can obviously be reduced. Where supplemental planting is necessary, the planting intent is to have natural informal groupings of native or adapted materials.
Effective signage is necessary in any business environment. The unsurpassed scenery and natural landscaping vfriich
the Center offers creates a truly unique business environment. Therefore, a signage program which will respond to this environment as well as the needs of the business community is required.
Each Owner is responsible for the layout and installation of adequate and attractive exterior lighting on his Building Site. Care must be exercised that such illumination not constitute a hazard or nuisance to any adjacent Building Site or to Interstate 70 traffic.
Special effect or highlight lighting of landscaped areas is acceptable in moderation. In all cases the light fixture must be shielded by plantings and concealed in daytime. The use of colored lights is not allowed. General floodlighting of buildings will not be permitted in any case.
The elimate data was taken from N.O.A.A. (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) environmental data service for Denver, Colorado, 1938 1977. Because Genesee is located approximately 2,500 feet above Denver, 10w - 20 F cooler
temperature will be incorporated in the design process.
39 45' N 105 W 1,700 feet above sea level
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC
SUNSHINE 10 8 8 7 6 9 9 10 13 13 11 11 Hours
72 76 84 85 96 104 101 97 97 88 79 74 Extreme Max.
43.5 46.2 50.1 61.0 70.3 80.1 87.4 85.8 77.7 66.8 53.3 46.2 Mean Max.
TEMP. F' 29.9- 32.8 37.0 47.5 57.0 66.0 73.0 71.6 62.8 52.0 39.4 32.6 Mean
16.2 19.4 23.8 33.9 43.6 51.9 58.6 57.4 47.8 37.2 25.4 18.9 Mean Min.
-25 -30 -11 -2 22 30 43 41 20 3 -8 -18 Extreme Min.
HUMIDITY 63 66 68 69 70 71 70 69 70 64 69 68 Max (5 a.m.)
% 47 42 40 35 36 36 36 35 36 35 49 50 Min (6 p.m.)
N NW NW NW SW S SW SW NW NW W NE Direction
M.P.H. S S S S s S S S S S S S Direction
9.2 9.4 10.1 10.4 9.6 9.2 8.5 8.2 8.2 8.2 8.7 9.0 Mean Speed
1.44 1.66 2.89 4.17 7.31 4.69 6.41 4.47 4.67 4.17 2.97 2.34 Rain Max./Mo.
PRECIP. 0.61 0.67 1.21 1.93 2.64 1.93 1.78 1.29 1.13 1.13 0.76 0.43 Rain Normal/Mo.
INCH 0.01 0.01 0.13 0.03 0.06 0.10 0.17 0.06 T 0.04 0.01 0.03 Rain Min./Mo.
23.7 18.3 29.2 28.3 13.6 0.3 0 0 21.3 31.2 39.1 30.8 Snow Max./Mo.
H 840 1127 1530 1879 2136 2351 2273 2044 1727 1300 883 732 Daily Average
SOLAR V 1440 1551 1572 1344 1147 1114 1130 1277 1534 1616 1424 1327 btu / sf
RADIATION 1086 902 868 525 253 80 0 0 120 408 768 1004 Heating Days
0 0 0 0 0 110 248 208 54 5 0 0 Cooling Days
P-D PLANNED-DEVELOPMENT DISTRICT
A. Intent of Classification
The Planned-Development District is intended to provide a means of developing tracts of land into building and use complexes with a continuity of design and development, fulfilling the intent of this Resolution, but making provision for development concepts not otherwise provided for within the Zoning Resolution or Land Development Regulations for Jefferson County.
B. Use Regulation
Planned-Development of any nature (residential, commercial, conservation, mining, industrial, public or quasi-public), either as a single use or in combination, may be permitted.
C. Area, Height and Setback Regulation
Minimum parking, height, setback and area regulations shall be considered for the overall site with regard to those limitations established on similar uses in other Jefferson County Zone Districts and with regard to compatibility with surrounding development. Varied
regulations for parking, height, setback or area may be established.
TABLE NO. 5-A WALL AND OPENING PROTECTION OF OCCUPANCIES BASED ON LOCATION ON PROPERTY
TYPES II ONE-HOUR, II -N AND V CONSTRUCTION
GROUP DESCRIPTION OF OCCUPANCY FIRE RESISTANCE OF EXTERIOR WALLS OPENINGS IN EXTERIOR WALLS
A 2.1 Any building or portion of a building having an assembly room with an occupant load of 300 or more without a stage, including such buildings used for educational purposes and not classed as a Group E or Group B, Division 2 Occupancy 2 hours less than 10 feet, 1 hour elsewhere Not permitted less than 5 feet Protected less than 10 feet
TABLE NO. 5-C - BASIC ALLOWABLE FLOOR AREA FOR BUILDINGS ONE STORY IN HEIGHT
(In Square Feet)
TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION
I II III IV V
OCCUPANCY F.R. F.R. ONE-HOUR N ONE HOUR N H.T. ONE HOUR N
A)2-2.1 Unlimited 29,900 13,500 Not Permitted Not 13,500 Permitted 13,500 Not 10,500 Permitted
N No requirement for fire resistance F.R. Fire Resistive H.T. Heavy Timber
TABLE NO. 5-D MAXIMUM HEIGHT OF BUILDINGS
TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION
I II III TV V OCCUPANCY
F.R. F.R. ONE-HOUR N ONE-HOUR N H.T. ONE-HOUR N
A) 2-2.1 Unlimited 4 2 Not Permitted Not 2 Permitted 2 Not 2 Permitted
REQUIREMENTS FOR GROUP A OCCUPANCIES
Division 2.1 Any Building or portion of a building having an assembly room with an occupant load of 300 or more without a stage, including such buildings used for educational purposes and not classed as a Group E or Group B, Division 2 Occupancy.
A fire-resistive ceiling shall not be required in one-story buildings of Type II One-hour, III One-hour, IV or V One-hour construction having an open frame roof.
Light, Ventilation and Sanitation
Sec 605. All enclosed portions of Group A Occupancies customarily used by human beings and all dressing rooms shall be provided with natural light by means of exterior glazed openings with an area not less than one-tenth of the total floor area, and natural ventilation by means of openable exterior openings with an area of not less than one-twentieth of the total floor area or shall be provided with artificial light and a mechanically operated ventilating system. The
mechanically operated ventilating system shall supply a miniman of 5 cubic feet per minute of outside air with a total circulated of not less than 15 cubic feet
per minute per occupant in all portions of the building and such system shall be kept continuously in operation during such time as the building is occupied. If the velocity of the air at the register exceeds 10 feet per second, the register shall be placed more than 8 feet above the floor directly beneath.
All lights in corridors, exit courts and exit passageways shall be protected by a wire cage.
There shall be provided in an approved location at least one lavatory for each two water closets for each sex, and at least one drinking fountain for each floor level.
Chimneys and heating apparatus shall conform to the requirements of. Chapter 37 of this code and the Mechanical Code.
REQUIREMENTS BASED ON TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION V
Sec. 1702. The structural frame shall be considered to be the columns and the girders, beams trusses and spandrels having direct connections to the columns and all other members vhich are essential to the stability of the building as a whole. The members of floor or roof panels which have no connection to the columns shall be considered secondary members and not a part
of the structural frame.
Sec. 1705. Regardless of the
fire-resistive requirements for permanent partitions, partitions dividing portions of stores, offices or similar places occupied by one tenant only, and which do not establish a corridor serving an occupant load of 30 or more, may be constructed of:
1. Noncombustible materials.
2. Fire-retardant treated wnod.
3. One-hour fire-resistive construction.
4. Wood panels or similar light
construction up to three-fourths the height of the room in Wiich placed; when more than three-fourths the height of the room, such partitions shall have not less than the upper one-fourth of the partition constructed of glass.
Folding, Portable or Movable Partitions.
Approved folding, portable or movable partitions need not have a fire-resistive rating, provided:
1. They do not block required exits (without providing alternate conforming exits) and they do not establish an exit corridor.
2. Their location is restricted by means of permanent tracks, guides or other approved methods.
3. Flammability shall be limited to materials having a flame-spread classification as set forth in Table No. 42-B for rooms or areas.
Walls Fronting on Streets of Yards. Regardless of fire-resistive requirements for exterior walls, certain elements of the walls fronting on streets or yards having a width of 40 feet may be constructed as follows:
1. Bulkheads below show windows, show-window frames, aprons and showcases may be of combustible materials, provided the height of such construction does not exceed 15 feet above grade.
2. Wbod veneer of boards not less than 1-inch nominal thickness or exterior type panels not less than 3/8-inch nominal thickness may be applied to walls provided the veneer does not exceed 15 feet above grade, and further provided such veneer shall be placed either directly against noncombustible surfaces or furred out from such surfaces not to exceed 1 5/8 inches with all concealed spaces fire-stopped as provided in Section 2517 (f). Where boards, panels and furring as described above comply with Section 407 as fire-retardant treated wood suitable for exterior exposure, the height above grade may be increased to 35 feet.
Trim. Trim picture molds, chair rails, baseboards, handrails and show-window backing may be of wood. Foam plastic trim covering not more than 10 percent of the wall or ceiling area may be used provided such trim (1) has a density of no less than
20 pounds per cubic foot, (2) has a maximum thickness of 1/2 inch and a maximum width of 4 inches and (3) has a flame-spread rating no greater than 75. Unprotected wood doors and windows may be used except where openings are required to be fire protected.
Loading Platforms. Exterior loading platforms may be on noncombustible construction or heavy timber constructon with wood floors not less than 2-inch nominal thickness. Such wood construction shall not be carried through the exterior walls.
Insulating Boards. Combustible insulating boards may be used under finished flooring.
In Type V buildings, chutes and dumbwaiter shafts with a cross-sectional area of not more than 9 square feet may be unenclosed if lined on the inside with lath and plaster or gypsum wallboard, with such lining covered with not less than No. 26 galvanized sheet metal gauge with all joints in such sheet metal locklapped. All openings into any such enclosure shall be protected by metal or metal-clad doors with either metal or metal-clad jambs, casings or frames.
Gas vents and noncombustible piping
installed in walls oE buildings passing through three floors or less (four if equipped with automatic sprinkler system) need not comply with Table No. 17-A. Such shafts shall be effectively draft stopped at each floor or ceiling.
Protection of Openings. Every opening into a shaft enclosure snail be protected by a self-closing fire assembly conforming to Section 4306 and having a fire-protection rating of one hour for openings through one-hour vails and one and one-half hours for openings through two-hour walls.
Termination of Rubbish and Linen Chutes. Tn other than Group Division 3
Occupancies, rubbish and linen chutes shall terminate in rooms separated from the remainder of the building by a one-hour fire-resistive occupancy. Openings into the chutes shall not be located in exit corridors or stairways.
Sec. 1707. Weather-resistive Barriers. All weather-exposed surfaces shall have a weather-restrictive barrier to protect the interior wall covering. Such barrier shall be equal to that provided for in U.B.C. Standard No. 17-1 for kraft waterproof building paper or U.B.C. Standard No 32-1
for asphalt-saturated rag felt. Building paper and felt shall be free from holes and breaks other than those created by fasteners and construction system due to attaching of the building paper, and shall be applied over studs or sheathing of all exterior walls. Such felt or paper shall be applied weather-board fashion, lapped not less than 2 inches at horizontal joints and not less than 6 inches at vertical joints.
Weather-protective barrier may be omitted in the following cases:
1. When exterior covering is of approved weatherproof panels.
2. In back-plastered construction.
3. When there is no hunan occupancy.
4. Over water-repellent panel sheathing.
5. Under approved paperbacked metal or wire fabric lath.
6. Behind lath and Portland cement plaster applied to the underside of roof and eave projections.
Flashing and Counterflashing. Exterior openings exposed to the weather shall be
flashed in such a manner as to make them weatherproof.
All parapets shall be provided with coping of approved materials. All flashing, counter flashing and coping when of metal shall be of not less than No. 26 U.S. gauge corrosion-resistant metal.
Waterproofing Weather-exposed Areas. Balconies, landings, exterior stairways and similar surfaces exposed to the weather and sealed underneath shall be waterproofed.
Members Carrying Masonry or Concrete
Sec. 1708. All members carrying masonry or concrete walls in buildings over one story in height shall be fire protected with not less than one-hour fire protection.
Exception: Fire protection may be omitted from the bottom flange of lintels spanning not over 6 feet, shelf angles, or plates that are not a part of the structural frame.
(a) General. Parapets shall be provided on all exterior walls of buildings.
1. Walls which are not required to be of fire-resistive construction.
2. Walls which terminate at roofs of not less than two-hour fire-resistive construction or roofs constructed entirely of noncombustible materials.
3. Walls where, due to location on property, unprotected openings are permitted.
4. Walls on all buildings having a floor area of not more than 1000 square feet per floor.
(b) Construction. Parapets shall have the same degree of fire resistance required for the wall upon which they are erected. The height of the parapet shall be not less than 30 inches above the point where the roof surface and the wall intersect. Miere the roof slopes toward a parapet at slopes greater than 2:12 the parapet shall extend to the same height as any portion of the roof that is within the distance where protection of wall openings would be required, but in no case shall the height be less than 30 inches.
Sec. 1710. Cornices, architectural appendages, eave overhangs, exterior private balconies and similar projections extending beyond the floor area as defined in Section 407 shall conform to the requirements of this section.
Projections from walls of Type III, IV or V construction may be of noncombustible or combustible materials.
Combustible projections located where protection of openings is required shall be one-hour fire-resistive.
Projections shall not extend more than 12 inches into the areas where openings are prohibited.
Water Closet Compartments and Showers
Sec. 1711 (a) Floors and Walls. In other
than dwelling units, toilet room floors
shall have a smooth, hard, nonabsorbent surface such as Portland cement, concrete, ceramic tile or other approved material which extends upward onto the walls at least 5 inches. Walls within water closet compartments and walls within 2 feet of the
front and sides of urinals shall be similarly finished to a height of 4 feet and, except for structural elements, the materials used in such walls shall be of a type which is not adversely affected by moisture.
(b) Toilet Facilities. Each water closet stool shall be located in a clear space not less than 30 inches in width and have a clear space in front of the water closet stool of not less than 24 inches.
Where toilet facilities are provided on any floor where access by the physically handicapped is required by Table No. 33-A, at least one such facility for each sex shall comply with the requirement of this section. Except in dwelling units and guest rooms, such facilities must be available to all occupants. All doorways leading to such toilet roans shall have a clear and unobstructed width of not less than 30 inches. Each such toilet room shall have the following:
1. A clear space of not less than 44 inches on each side of doors providing access to toilet rooms. This distance shall be measured at right angles to the face of the door when in the closed position. Not more than one door may encroach into the 44-inch space.
2. Except in dwelling units and guest rooms, a clear space within the toilet room of sufficient size to inscribe a circle with a diameter not less than 60 inches. Doors in any position may encroach into this space by not more than 12 inches.
3. A clear space not less than 42 inches wide and 48 inches long in front of at least one water closet stool for the use of the handicapped. When such water closet stool is within a compartment, entry to the compartment shall have a clear width of 30 inches when located at the end and a clear width of 34 inches v*hen located at the side. A door, if provided, shall not encroach into the required space in front of the water closet. Except for door swing, a clear unobstructued access not less than 44 inches in width shall be provided to toilet compartments designed for use by the hand icapped.
4. Grab bars near each side or one side and the back of the toilet stool securely attached 32 inches to 34 inches above and parallel to the floor. Grab bars at the side shall be 42 inches long with the front end
positioned 24 inches in front of the water closet stool. Grab bars at the back shall be not less than 30 inches long. Grab bars shall have an outside diameter of not less than 1 1/4 inches nor more than 1 1/2 inches and shall provide a clearance of 1 1/2 inches
between the grab bar and adjacent surface.
5. When it can be established that the facilities are usable by a person in a wheelchair, dimensions other than those above shall be acceptable.
(C) Toilet Room Facilities.
1. Except for the projection of bowls
and waste piping, a clear
unobstructed space 26 inches in width, 27 inches in height and 12 inches in depth shall be provided
under at least one labatory.
2. Where mirrors are provided, at least
one shall be installed so that the bottom of the mirror is within 40 inches of the floor.
3. Where towel and disposal fixtures
are provided, they shall be
accessible to the physically
handicapped and at least one shall be within 40 inches of the floor.
(g) Plastics. Plastics used in doors
and panels of shower and bathtub enclosures shall be of a shatter-resistant type.
Sec. 1712. Where water fountains are provided, at least one shall have a spout within 33 inches of the floor and shall have up-front, hand-operated controls. Mien fountains are located in an alcove, the alcove shall be not less than 32 inches in width.
Sec. 1713. Where public telephones are provided, at least one shall be installed so that the handset, dial and coin receiver are within 54 inches of the floor. Unobstructed access within 12 inches of the telephone shall be prdvided. Such access shall be not less than 30 inches in width.
Clearances for Electric Ranges and Hot Plates
Sec. 1714. Gas and electric ranges or hot plates shall have clearances from combustible material, and ventilation in accordance with the Mechanical Code.
Sec. 1716. All unenclosed floor and roof openings, open and glazed sides of landings and ramps, balconies or porches vhich are more than 30 inches above grade or floor below, and roofs used for other than service of the building shall be protected by a guardrail. Guardrails shall be not less than 42 inches in height. Open guardrail and stair railings shall have intermediate rails or an ornamental pattern such that a sphere 9 inches in diameter cannot pass through. Hie height of stair railings on open sides may be as specified in Section 3305 (j) in lieu of providing a guardrail. Ramps shall, in addition, have handrails when required by Section 3306.
1. Guardrails need not be provided on the loading site of loading docks.
2. Hie open space between the intermediate rails or ornamental pattern of guardrails in areas of commercial and industrial type occupancies which are not accessible to the public may be increased such that a 12-inch-diameter sphere cannot pass through.
TABLE NO. 17-A TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION FIRE-RESISTIVE REOUIREMENTS
TYPE I TYPE II TYPE III TYPE IV TYI E V
BUILDING ELEMENT FIRE- RESISTIVE FIRE- RESISTIVE 1-HR. N 1-HR. N H.T. 1-HR. N
Exterior Bearing Wblls 4 Sec. 1803 (a) 4 1903 (a) 1 N 4 2003 (a) 4 2003 (a) 4 2103 (a) 1 N
Interior Bearing Walls 3 2 1 N 1 N 1 i 1 N
Exterior Nonbearing Walls 4 Sec. 1803 (a) 4 1903 (a) 1 N 4 2003 (a) 4 2003 (a) 4 2103 (a) 1 N
Structural Frame * 3 2 1 N 1 N 1 1 or H.T. 1 N
Partitions Permanent l2 !2 l2 N 1 N 1 1 or H.T. i ! N
Shaft Enclosures 2 2 1 1 1 1 i 1706 1 1706
Floors 2 2 1 N 1 N 1 H.T. 1 1 N
Roofs 2 Sec. 1806 1 1906 1 1906 N 1 N H.T. 1 N
Exterior Doors and Windows Sec. 1803 (b) 1903 (b) 1903 (b) 1903(b) 2003 (b) 1 It*:.* .'i ;; 1 | j 2003 (b) ; j 2103 (b) 22 m 2203
N No general requirements for fire resistance H.T. - Heavy Timber
TYPE V BUILDINGS
Sec. 2201. Type V buildings may be of any materials allowed by this code.
Type V One-hour buildings shall be of one-hour fire-resistive construction throughout.
Materials of construction and fire-resistive requirements shall be as specified in Chapter 17.
For requirements due to occupancy, see Chapters 6 to 12 inclusive.
Sec. 2202. Structural framework shall be of steel or iron as specified in Chapter 27, concrete as in Chapter 26, masonry as in Chapter 24, or wood as in Chapter 25 and this chapter.
Exterior Walls and Openings
Sec. 2203. For fire protection of extrrior walls and openings as determined by location on property, see Section 504 and Table No. 5-A.
Exception: Exterior walls of a Type V
nonrated building fronting on streets or yards having a width of at least 40 feet may be of unprotected construction.
Sec. 2204. Stair construction may be of any type permitted in this code and shall conform to the requirements of Chapter 33.
Benches, Pews, Booths
Where benches or pews are used, the nunber of seats shall be based on one person for each 18 inches of length of the pews or benches. Where booths are used in dining areas, the nunber of seats will be based on one person for each 24 inches or major portion thereof of length of booth.
No obstructions shall be placed in the required width of an exit except projections permitted by this chapter.
Posting of Room Capacity
Any room having an occupant load of more than 50 where fixed seats are not installed, and vtiich is used for classroom,
assembly, or similar purpose, shall have the capacity of the room posted in a conspicuous place near the main exit from the room. Approved signs shall be maintained in a legible manner by the owner or his authorized agent and shall indicate the number of occupants permitted for each room use.
Changes in Elevation
Within a building, changes in elevation of less than 12 inches along any exit serving a tributary occupant load of 10 or more shall be by ramps.
In all occupancies, floors above the first story having an occupant load of more than 10 shall have not less than two exits.
Each mezzanine used for other than storage purposes, if greater in area than 2000 square feet or if more than 60 feet in any dimension, shall have not less than two stairways to an adjacent floor.
Hie nunber of exits required from any story of a building shall be determined by using the occupant load of that story plus the percentages of the occupant loads of floors which exit through the level under consideration, as follows:
1. Fifty percent of the occupant load in the first adjacent story above (and the first adjacent story below, when a story below exits through the level under consideration).
2. Twenty-five percent of the occupant load in the story immediately beyond the first adjacent story.
Basements are used exclusively for the service of the building.
The total width of exits in feet shall be not less than the total occupant load served divided by 50. Such width of exits shall be divided approximately equally among the separate exits. Hie total exit width required from any story of a building shall be determined by using the occupant load of that story plus the percentages of the occupant loads of floors vdiich exit through the level under consideration, as follows:
1. Fifty percent of the occupant load in the first adjacent story above (and the first adjacent story below, when a story below exits through the level under consideration).
2. Twenty-five percent of the occupant load in the story immediately beyond the first adjacent story.
Hie maximum exit width required from any story of a building shall be maintained.
If only twa exits are required they shall be placed a distance apart equal to not less than one-half of the length of the maximum overall diagonal dimension of the building or area to be served measured in a straight line between exits.
When three or more exits are required, they shall be arranged a reasonable distance apart so that if one becomes blocked the others will be available.
The maximum distance of travel from any point to an exterior exit door, horizontal exit, exit passageway or an enclosed stairway in a building not equipped with an automatic sprinkler system throughout shall not exceed 150 feet or 200 feet in a building equipped with an automatic sprinkler system throughout.
Foyers, lobbies and reception rooms constructed as required for corridors shall not be construed as intervening rooms.
Main exits from buildings requiring access by the physically handicapped, as listed in Table No. 33-A, shall be usable by individuals in vdieelchairs and be on a level that would make the elevators accessible vfaere provided.
Swing. Exit doors shall swing in the direction of exit travel when serving any hazardous area or vdien serving an occupant load of 50 or more.
Double-acting doors shall not be used as exits serving a tributary occupant load of more than 100 nor shall they be used as a part of a fire assembly nor equipped with panic hardware. A double-acting door shall be provided with a view panel of not less than 200 square inches.
Width and Height. Every required exit doorway shall be of a size as to permit the installation of a door not less than 3 feet in width and not less than 6 feet 8 inches in height. When installed in exit doorways, exit doors shall be capable of opening at least 90 degrees and shall be so mounted that the clear width of the exit way is not less than 32 inches. In computing the exit width required by Section 3302 (b), the net dimension of the exitway shall be used.
Door Leaf Width. No leaf of an exit door shall exceed 4 feet in width.
Special Doors. Revolving, sliding and overhead doors shall not be used as required exits. Power operated doors complying with U.B.C. Standard No. 33-1 may be used for exit purposes.
Egress from Door. Every exit door required by this section shall give immediate access to an approved means of egress from the building.
Change in Floor Level at Doors. Regardless of tHe occupant load, there shall be a floor or landing on each side of a door. The floor or landing shall be not more than 1 inch lower than the threshold of the doorway. Where doors open over landings, the landing shall have a length of not less than 5 feet.
Exceptions: Where the door opens into a stair of a smokeproof enclosure, the landing need not have a length of 5 feet.
Corridors and Exterior Exit Balconies
Exit corridors shall be continuous until egress is provided from the building and shall not be interrupted by intervening rooms.
Exception: Foyers, lobbies or reception roans constructed as required for corridors shall not be construed as intervening rooms.
Width. Every corridor serving an occupant load of 10 or more shall be not less in width than 44 inches.
Height. Corridors and exterior exit balconies shall have a clear height of not less than 7 feet measured to the lowest projection from the ceiling.
Access to Exits. When more than one exit is required, they shall be so arranged that it is possible to go in either direction from any point in a corridor to a separate exit, except for dead ends not exceeding 20 feet in length.
Changes in Elevation. Mien a corridor or exterior exit balcony is accessible to an elevator, changes in elevation of the floor shall be made by means of a ramp.
Construction. Walls of corridors serving an occupant load of 30 or more shall be of not less than one-hour fire-resistive construction and the ceilings shall be not less than that required for a one-hour fire-resistive floor or roof system.
1. Corridors more than 30 feet in width
where occupancies served by such corridors have at least one exit independent from the corridor.
2. Exterior sides of exterior exit balconies.
When the ceiling of the entire story is an element of a one-hour fire-resistive floor or roof system, the corridor wall may terminate at the ceiling. When the room side fire-resistive membrane of the corridor wall is carried through to the underside of a fire-resistive floor or roof above, the corridor side of the ceiling may be protected by the use of ceiling materials as required for one-hour floor or roof system construction or the corridor ceiling may be of the same construction as the corridor vails.
Ceilings of noncombustible construction may be suspended below the fire-resistive ceiling.
Openings. Where corridor walls are required to be of one-hour fire-resistive construction by Subsection (g) above, every door opening shall be protected by a tight-fitting anoke and draft control door
assembly having a fire-protection rating of not less than 20 minutes vhen tested in accordance with U.B.C. Standard No 43-2 without the hose stream test.
Width. Stairways serving an occupant load of more than 50 shall be not less in width than 44 inches.
Handrails may project into the required width a distance of 3 1/2 inches from each side of a stairway. Other nonstructural projections such as trim and similar decorative features may project into required width 1 1/2 inches on each side.
The rise of every step in a stairway shall be not less than 4 inches nor greater than 7 1/2 inches. The run shall be not less than 10 inches as measured horizontally between the vertical planes of the furthermost projection of adjacent treads. The largest tread run within any flight of stairs shall not exceed the smallest by more than 3/8 inch. The greatest riser height within any flight of stairs shall not exceed the smallest by more than 3/8 inch.
Exception: Where the bottom riser adjoins a sloping public way, walk or driveway having an established grade and serving as a landing, a variation in height of the
bottom riser of not more than 3 inches in
every 3 feet permitted. of stairway width is
Circular Stairways. Circular stairs may be used as an exit, provided the mininum width of run is not less than 10 inches and the smaller radius is not less than twice the width of the stairway. The largest tread width or riser height within any flight of stiars shall not exceed the smallest by more than 3/8 inch.
Landings. Every landing shall have a dimension measured in the direction of travel equal to the width of the stairway. Such dimension need not exceed 4 feet when the stair has a straight run. A door swinging over a landing shall not reduce the width of the landing to less than one-half its required width at any position in its swing nor by more than 7 inches vdien fully open.
Distance Between Landings. There shall be not more than 12 feet vertically between landings.
Handrails. Stairways shall have handrails on each side, and every stairway required to be more than 88 inches in width shall be provided with not less than one intermediate handrail for each 88 inches of required width. Intermediate handrails shall be spaced approximately equal within the entire width of the stairway.
Handrails shall be placed not less than 30 inches nor more than 34 inches above the nosing of treads. They shall be continuous the full length of the stairs and except for private stairways at least one handrail shall extend not less than 6 inches beyond the top and bottom risers. Ends shall be returned or shall terminate in newel posts or safety terminals.
Handrails projecting from a wall shall have a space of not less than 1 1/2 inches
between the veil and the handrail. The handgrip portion of handrails shall be not less than 1 1/4 inches nor more than 2 inches in cross-sectional dimension and shall have a smooth surface with no sharp corners.
Exterior Stairway Protection. All openings Tn the exterior wall below or within 10 feet, measured horizontally, of an exterior exit stairway serving a building over two stories in height shall be protected by a
self-closing fire assembly having a three-fourths-hour fire-resistive rating.
Exception: Openings may be unprotected
when two separated exterior stairways serve an exterior exit balcony.
All required interior stairways which extend to the top floor in any building four or more stories in height shall have provided at the highest point of the stair shaft an approved hatch openable to the exterior not less than 16 square feet in area with a minimun dimension of 2 feet.
Exterior stairways shall be of noncombustible material and on Type V buildings, they may be of wood not less than 2 inches in nominal thickness.
Exterior stairways shall not project into yards where protection of openings is required.
Where there is enclosed usable space under stairs, the walls and soffits of the enclosed space shall be protected on the enclosed side as required for one-hour fire-resistive construction.
Headroom. Every required stairway shall have a headroom clearance of not less than 6 feet 6 inches. Such clearances shall be
established by measuring vertically from a plane parallel and tangent to the stairway tread nosing to the soffit above at all po ints.
Stairway Numbering System. An approved sign shall be located at each floor level landing in all enclosed stairways of buildings four or more stories in height. The sign shall indicate the floor level, the terminus of the top and bottom of the stairway and the identification of the stairway. The sign shall be located approximately 5 feet above the floor landing in a position which is readily visible vdien the door is in the open or closed position. Signs shall comply with the requirements of U.B.C. Standard No. 33-2.
Width. The width of ramps shall be as required for stairways.
Slope. Ramps required by Table No. 33-A shall not exceed a slope of one vertical to 12 horizontal. The slope of other ramps shall not exceed one vertical to 9 horizontal.
When provided with fixed seating, the main floor of the assembly room of a Group A, Division 1, Division 2, 2.1 or 3 Occupancy may have a slope not to exceed one vertical to five horizontal.
Landings. Ramps having slopes greater than one vertical to 15 horizontal shall have landings at the top and bottom, and at least one intermediate landing shall be provided for each 5 feet of rise. Top
landings and intermediate landings shall have a dimension measured in the direction of ramp run of not less than 5 feet. Landings at the bottom of ramps shall have a dimension in the direction of ramp run of not less than 6 feet.
Doors in any position shall not reduce the minimum dimension of the landing to less than 42 inches and shall not reduce the required width by more than 3 1/2 inches when fully open.
Handrails. Ramps having slopes exceeding one vertical to 15 horizontal shall have handrails as required for stairways, except that intermediate handrails shall not be required.
Construction. Ramps shall be constructed as required for stairways.
Surface. The surface of ramps shall be
roughened or shall be of nonslip materials.
Sec. 3307. (a) Used as a Required Exit. If conforming to the provisions of this chapter, a horizontal exit may be considered as a required exit.
Openings. All openings in the two-hour fire-resistive wall which provides a horizontal exit shall be protected by a fire assembly having a fire-resistance rating of not less than one and one-half hours. Such fire assembly shall be
automatic closing as provided in Section 4306 (b) upon actuation of a smoke
Discharge Areas. A horizontal exit shall lead into a floor area having capacity for an occupant load not less than the occupant load served by such exit. Ttie capacity shall be determined by allowing 3 square feet of net clear floor area per ambulatory occupant and 30 square feet per
nonambulatory occupant. The area into which the horizontal exit leads shall be provided with exits other than additional horizontal exits as required by Section 3302.
Enclosure Construction, Enclosure wall's shall be of not less than two-hour fire-resistive construction in buildings more than four stories in height and shall be of not less than one-hour fire-resistive construction elsewhere.
Openings into Enclosures. There shall be no openings into exit enclosures except exit doorways and openings in exterior walls. All exit doors in an exit enclosure shall be protected by a fire assembly having a fire-protection rating of not less than one hour where one-hour shaft construction is permitted and one and one-half hours where two-hour shaft construction is required. Doors shall be maintained self-closing or shall be automatic closing by actuation of a smoke detector.
Extent of Enclosure. Stairway and ramp enclosures shall include landings and parts of floors connecting stairway flights and shall also include a corridor on the ground floor leading from the stairway to the exterior of the building. Enclosed corridors or passageways are not required from unenclosed stairways.
Use of Space Under Stair. There shall be no enclosed usable space under stairways in an exit enclosure, nor shall the open space under such stairways be used for any purpose.
The door from the vestibule to the stairway shall be a tight-fitting smoke and draft control door having a 20-minute fire-resistive rating. Wired glass, if provided, shall not exceed 100 square inches in area and shall be set in a steel frame. The door shall be provided with a drop sill or other provision to minimize air leakage.
Vestibule Size. The vestibule shall have a minimun dimension of 44 inches in width and 72 inches in direction of exit travel.
Vestibule Ventilation. The vestibule shall Bi provided with not less than one air change per minute supply and exhaust at a rate sufficient to maintain an underpressure relative to the atmosphere of
0.05 inch of water column and 0.10 inch of water column relative to the stair shaft. Supply air shall enter and exhaust air shall discharge from the vestibule through separate, tightly constructed ducts used only for that purpose. Supply air shall enter the vestibule within 6 inches c* the floor level. The top of the exhaust register shall be located at the top of the smoke trap but no more than 6 inches down from the top of the trap and shall be entirely within the smoke trap area. Doors, vdien in the open position, shall not obstruct duct openings. Duct openings may
be provided with controlling dampers, if needed, to meet the design requirements but are not otherwise required.
Smoke Trap. The vestibule ceiling shall be at least 20 inches higher than the door opening into the vestibule to serve as a smoke and heat trap and to provide an upward-moving air column.
Stair Shaft Air Movement System. The stair shaft shall be provided with a dampered relief opening at the top and supplied mechanically with sufficient air to discharge a minimum of 2500 cubic feet per minute throi^h the relief opening while maintaining a minimun positive pressure of 0.05 inch of water column in the shaft relative to atmosphere with all doors closed.
Sec. 3310. (a) General. Every exit court shall discharge into a public way or exit passageway. The minimum exit court width shall be not less than 44 inches.
Where the width is reduced from any cause the reduction shall be effected gradually by a guardrail at least 3 feet in height and making an angle of not more than 30 degrees with the axis of the exit court.
Where an exit court serving a building or portion thereof having an occupant load of more than 10 is less than 10 feet in width, the exit court walls shall be a minimun of one-hour fire-resistive construction for a distance of 10 feet above the floor of the court and all openings therein shall be protected by fire assemblies having a fire-protection rating of not less than three-fourths hour.
Sec. 3311. (a) Discharge. The walls of exit passageways shall be without openings other than required exits and shall have walls, floors and ceilings of the same period of fire resistance as required for the walls, floors and ceilings of the building served with a minimum of one-hour fire-resistive construction. Exit openings throughout the enclosing walls of exit passageways shall be protected by fire assemblies having a three-fourths-hour fire-protection rating.
Exit Signs and Illumination
Sec, 3312. (a) Exit Illumination. Exits shall Be illuminated at any time the building is occupied with light having an intensity of not less than one footcandle at floor level.
Exit Signs. At every required exit doorway and wherever otherwise required to clearly indicate the direction of egress, an exit sign with letters having principal stroke not less than 3/4 inch wide and at least 6 inches high shall be provided from all areas serving the occupant load specified in this subsection. In interior stairways the floor level leading direct to the exterior shall be clearly indicated. Exit signs shall be installed in Group A, Division 1 Occupancies and Groups A, Division 2, 2.1, 3 and 4, I and R Division 1 Occupancies with an occupant load of more than 50.
Exception: Main exterior exit doors Which obviously and clearly are identifiable as exits need not be sign posted when approved by the building official.
Sec. 3313 (a) General. Every portion of every building Tn which are installed seats, tables, merchandise, equipment or similar materials shall be provided with aisles leading to an exit.
Width. Every aisle shall be not less than 3 feet wide if serving only one side, and not less than 3 feet 6 inches wide if serving both sides. Such minimum width
shall be measured at the point farthest
from an exit, cross aisle or foyer and
shall be increased by 1 1/2 inches for each
5 feet in length toward the exit, cross aisle or foyer.
Distances to Nearest Exit. In areas occupied by seats and in Group A Occupancies without seats, the line of travel to an exit door by an aisle shall be not more than 150 feet. Such travel distance may be increased to 200 feet if the building is provided with an approved automatic sprinkler system.
Slope. The slope portion of aisles shall not exceed 1 foot fall in 8 feet, except as permitted in Section 3306 (c).
Steps. Steps shall not be used in an aisle when the change in elevation can be achieved by a slope conforming to Section 3313 (g). No single step or riser shall be used in any aisle. Where steps are used in an aisle such steps shall extend across the full width of the aisle and shall be illuminated.
Exits: Group A, Division 2.1
Sec. 3316. 9a) Group A, Divisions 2, 2.1 and 3. Group A, Divisions 2 and 2.1 Occupancies shall have exits as required by
Section 3315. In Group A, Division 3 Occupancies having an occupant load of more than 50, exit doors shall not be provided with a latch or lock unless it is panic hardware.
Exception: Group A, Divisions 2.1 and 3
Occupancies, such as restaurants, bars, bowling alleys, auditoriums and similar commercial uses, and in churches, panic hardware may be omitted from the main exit when the main exit consists of a single door or one pair of doors. A key locking device may be used in place of the panic hardware, provided there is a readily visible metallic sign adjacent to the doorway stating "THIS DOOR MUST REMAIN UNLOCKED DURING BUSINESS HOURS." Hie sign shall be in letters not less than 1 inch high on a contrasting background. When unlocked, a single door and each leaf of a pair of doors must be free to swing without operation of any latching device. The locking device on a pair of doors must be arranged so that vtoen one leaf is unlocked the other is free to swing. Flush, edge or surface bolts or any other type of device that may be used to close or restrain the doors other than by operation of the locking device are prohibited. The use of this exception may be revoked by the building official for due cause.
Sec. 33210 (a) Boiler, Furnace and
Incinerator Rooms. Except in Group R, Division 3 Occupancies, any room containing a boiler, furnace, incinerator or other fuel-fired equipment must be provided with two means of egress when both of the following conditions exist:
1. The area of the room exceeds 500 square feet, and
2. The largest piece of fuel-fired equipment exceeds 400,000 Btu per hour input capacity.
If tvk> means of egress must be provided, one may be a fixed ladder. The means of egress must be separated by a horizontal distance not less than half the greatest horizontal dimension of the room. Where oil-fired boilers are used, a 6-inch noncombustible sill (dike) shall be provided. There shall be no interior openings between a Group H Occupancy and an incinerator room.
TABLE NO. 33-A MINIMUM EGRESS AND ACCESS REQUIREMENTS
USE1 MINIMUM OF WO EXITS OTHER THAN ELEVATORS ARE REQUIRED WHERE NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS IS OVER SQUARE FEET PER OCCUg PANt ACCESS BY MEANS OF A RAMP OR AN ELEVATOR MUST BE PROVIDED FOR THE PHYSICALLY HANDICAPPED-AS INDICATED^
1. Dining Rooms 50 15 Yes
2. Drinking Establishments 50 15 Yes
3. Lounges 50 15 Yes
4. Kitchen Commercial 30 200 No
5. All others 50 100
P [M][1^[L'tT'[}=lI It
RULES AND REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE SANITATION OF FOOD SERVICE ESTABLISHMENTS IN THE STATE OF COLORADO
ADOPTED BY THE
COLORADO STATE BOARD OF HEALTH
6-401 TOILET INSTALLATION.
(a) Toilet facilities shall be installed
according to law, shall be the number required by law, shall be conveniently located, and shall be accessible to employees and patrons, unless provided for in 6-401 (d) of these rules and
regulations, during all times the establishment is in operation.
(b) Separate toilet facilities shall be required for each sex in establishments with seating capacity in excess of 15 patrons or more than 15 employees. In all new or extensively remodeled establishments, these facilities shall be installed to comply with tables 1 and 2 of these rules and regulations. The number of facilities required for each sex shall be determined by dividing the total seating capacity by two, assuming an equal population of males and females.
(MALES - Minimum Fixtures Required)
Seating Capacity Water Closets Lavatories Urinals Additional Urinals Where Alcoholic Beverages Are Served
101-250 2 2 1 3
TABL1 E 2
(FEMALES Minimum Fixtures Required)
Seating Capacity Water Closets Lavatories Additional Water Closets Where Alcoholic Beverages Are Served
76-200 2 1 2
201-400 3 2 3
(c) Employees and patrons may use the same toilet facility provided that patrons may utilize them without entering the food preparation, food storage, or dishwashing or utensil storage areas of the establishment.
6- 602 STORAGE.
Garbage or refuse storage rooms, if used, shall be constructed of easily cleanable, non-absorbent, washable materials, shall be kept clean, shall be insect-proof and rodent-proof and shall be large enough to store the garbage and refuse containers that accumulate.
Outside storage areas or enclosures shall be large enough to store the garbage and refuse containers that accumulate and shall be kept clean. Garbage and refuse containers, dumpsters and compactor systems located outside shall be stored on or above a smooth surface of non-absorbent material, such as concrete or machine-laid asphalt, that is kept clean and maintained in good repair.
7- 101 Floor construction. Floors and floor coverings of all food preparation,
food storage, and utensil-washing areas, and the floors of all walk-in refrigerating units, dressing rooms, locker rooms, and toilet rooms shall be constructed of smooth, durable non-absorbent material such as sealed concrete, terrazzo, ceramic tile, quarry tile, oxychloride cement, vinyl tile, epoxy, grease-resistant tile, metal, durable grades of linoleum or plastic, or tight wood impregnated with plastic, or any other materials approved by the Department, and shall be maintained in good repair. Areas subject to spilling or dripping of grease or fatty substances shall be of grease-resistant material, and provided further, that floors of non-refrigerated dry food storage areas need not be non-absorbent. Nothing in this section shall prohibit the use of anti-slip floor covering in areas where necessary for safety reasons. Cardboard, newspapers, and other similar absorbent materials shall not be used as floor coverings in food preparation areas.
7-102 Floor Carpeting. Carpeting, if used as a floor covering, shall be of closely woven construction, properly installed, easily cleanable, and maintained in good repair. Carpeting is prohibited in food preparation, equipnent-washing, utensilwashing areas, in food storage areas, and toilet room areas where urinals or toilet fixtures are located.
7-103 Prohibited Floor Covering. Hie use of sawdust, wood shavings, peanut hulls, or similar material as a floor covering is prohibited within a food service establishment.
7-104 Floor Drains. Properly installed, trapped floor drains shall be provided in floors that are water flushed for cleaning or that receive discharges of water or other fluid waste from equipment, or in areas where pressure spray methods for cleaning equipment are used. Such floors shall be constructed only of sealed concrete, terrazzo, ceramic tile or similar materials, and shall be graded to drain.
7-106 Floor Junctures. All floors, hereafter installed In food preparation, food storage and utensil washing rooms, and in walk-in refrigerators, dressing or locker rooms, and toilet rooms, shall provide a coved juncture between the floor and wall. In all cases, the juncture between the floor and wall shall be closed and sealed.
7-202 Construction. Hie walls, including non-supporting partitions, wall coverings, and ceilings of walk-in refrigerating units, food preparation areas, equipmentwashing and utensil-washing areas, toilet rooms and vestibules shall be light-colored, smooth, non-absorbent, and easily
cleanable. Cbncrete or pun ice blocks used for interior wall construction in these locations shall be finished and sealed to provide an easily cleanable surface. Accoustical materials free of porous perforations, smooth and durable enough to be washed with a cloth or sponge may be used, provided ventilation is adequate to minimize soiling.
7-203 Exposed Construction. Studs, joists, and rafters shall not be exposed in those areas listed in 7-202 of these rules and regulations. If exposed in other rooms or areas, they shall be finished to provide an easily cleanable surface.
7-302 Utility Facility. In new or extensively remodeled establishments at least one utility sink or curbed cleaning facility with a floor drain shall be provided and used for the cleaning of mops or similar wet floor cleaning tools and for the disposal of mopwater or similar liquid wastes. The use of lavatories, utensilwashing, or food preparation sinks for this purpose is prohibited.
7-501 General. All rooms shall have sufficient ventilation to keep them free of excessive heat, steam, condensation,
vapors, obnoxious odors, smoke, and fumes. Ventilation systems shall comply with applicable building department and fire prevention bureau requirements and, when vented to the outside, shall not create an unsightly, harmful or unlawful discharge.
Note; The food preparation area or areas of non-mobile permanent food service establishments should be of lower air pressure than the dining areas in order to make air flow from the dining areas to the food preparation area or areas to keep grease and odors out of the dining areas. Air pressure in the food preparation area or areas should be higher when compared to the outside to prevent entrance of dust, insects or other contaminants.
DRESSIN G ROOMS AND LOCKER AREAS
7-601 employe the est Dressing Rooms and Areas. If
es routinely change ;abl i shnent, rooms or clothes within areas shall be
designated and used for that purpose. These designated rooms or areas shall not be used for food preparation, storage or service, or for utensil-washing or storage.
7-602 Locker Areas. Enough lockers or other suitable facilities shall be provided and used for the orderly storage of employee clothing and other belongings.
Lockers or other suitable facilities may only be located in the designated dressing rooms or in food storage rooms or areas containing only completely packaged food or packaged single-service articles.
7-801 General. Hie walking and driving surfaces o? all exterior areas of food service establishments shall be surfaced with concrete, asphalt or with gravel or similar material effectively treated to facilitate maintenance and to minimize dust. These surfaces shall be graded to prevent pooling and kept free of litter.
7-805 Cleaning Equipment Storage.
Maintenance and cleaning tools such as brooms, mops, vacuum cleaners and similar equipment shall be maintained and stored in a way that does not contaminate food, utensils, equipment, or linens and shall be stored in an orderly manner to facilitate the cleaning of that storage location.
GENESEE FIRE PROTECTION DISTRICT
ARTICLE 25 PLACES i GENERAL OF Â£ lSSEMBLY
Sec. 25.103 (a) All drapes, hangings,
curtains, drops, and all other decorative material, including Christmas trees, that would tend to increase the fire and panic hazard shall be made from material vMch is not flammable material or shall be treated and maintained in a flame-retardant condition by means of flame-retardant solution or a process approved by the chief. Exit doors, exit lights, fire alarm sending stations, wet standpipe hose cabinets and fire extinguisher locations shall not be concealed or obstructed by any decorative material.
Sec. 25.109. Where smoking is permitted, there shall be provided on each table and at other convenient places approved noncombustible ashtrays or match receivers.
Sec. 25.114. Nr person shall cause or permit any open flame to be used in place of public assemblage, or drinking or eating establishment, except when used in conjunction with approved heating or
cooking appliances or under written permit of the chief.
Detailed Requirements for Use of Candles
Sec. 25.117. The following detailed requirements will be used for guidance in the issuance of permits for candles.
Candle Holders Basic Requirements;
1. The diameter of the base must be at least one-half the height of the candle or candle holder.
2. The base must support the light or lamp on the entire perimeter. Ttie use of legs is not permitted unless the lamp is stable.
3. The flame must be completely enclosed. Any opening for air supply must not be more than 3/8 of an inch in diameter.
4. Any shade must be securely attached to the lamp.
5. Any shade must be of fire-resistant materials.
6. The candle holder must be securely attached to the base.
7. The candle must be secured in the
holder so that it will not easily separate from the holder if dropped.
8. The candle must be located in the
holder so that there is a minimun of 2 inches between the top of the flame and any combustible material that might be placed on top of the holder.
9. All materials, except the candle
itself, shall be noncombustible.
10. A model must be submitted to the chief and approved by make and model number prior to use.
"Standard automatic fire extinguishing systems" shall be installed and maintained in an operable condition as specified in
the National Fire Protection Association Pamphlet No. 13 and Pamphlet No. 13a, 1975, 1976 edition, amended as follows: "Supervision of all water supply valves and flow alarms shall be provided and monitored. Monitoring by the Genesee Fire Protection District is required at the property owner or lessee's expense. All monitoring lines shall be tied into a central station as prescribed by the Genesee Fire Protection District." Said
"Standard Automatic Fire Extinguising Systems" shall be installed and maintained in an operable condition in accordance with N.F.P.A. Pamphlet No. 13 and 13a, 1975
edition, in the following locations:
Throughout all restaurants over 3,500 square feet in area.
NEW RESTAURANTS, By Gunther Kuhne ARCHITECTURAL BOOK PUBLISHING CO., INC. 1973.
"Architecture Begins with the Menu". As soon as the menu card and the type of service are determined, the number of staff and the space requirements behind the scene can be estimated. 'Depending on the type and patronage of the restaurant. The kitchen turn-over can be warked out.' (p. 10.)
Among the basic design data to be taken into account by the Architect are not only the correct insulation and cooling of the boxes of food concerned, but also the provision of suitable containers and air conditioning equipment, (p. 12.)
That the preparation of dishes in the cold and hot kitchens calls for a max. of hygiene and fresh air should require no emphasis. From the design point of view, the following features are particularly important in this contex: Built in
installations vfaich can, however, easily be made accessible at any time through removable covers; equipment without ledges that can collect dust; vermin proof joints in walls and plinths; accessories made of
stainless steel; fully automatic
dishwashing plants; washable ventilation
ceilings; an air conditioning plant for the hot kitchen are designed for 50 air changes per hour. (p. 12.)
What is known as the "atmosphere" of a restaurant is composed of the visual climate, the olefactory climate, the acoustic and the temperature climate, (p. 14.)
The visual climate is determined not only by design components such as light and color, furniture and layout, but also by the atmosphere which the customer himself introduces into the premises with his consumption habits and style of life. Only a minority of visitors appreciate privacy. Most people feel at their best where there is life, vfriere something is going on and where they are in close touch with neighbors, (p. 14, 16.)
The olefactory climate in the public premises depends on the quality of the air. Here, a carefully balanced ventilation and air conditioning system must ensure that the customer is discreetly stimulated by the aroma of food without regarding the slight impact on his olefactory senses as a nuisance, (p. 16.)
In contrast to popular opinion, investigations into the acoustic climate have shown that every customer needs a certain noise background in order to remain in the best culinary mood. (p. 16.)
A SOURCE BOOK OF DESIGN REFERENCE STANDARDS BY JULIUS PANERO, AIA, ASID AND MARTIN ZELNIK, AIA.ASID.
P. 215 230 .
It has been estimated that somewhere in the vicinity of 45 million people in the U.S. eat out daily, with a median per capita expenditure of more than $3.50. As leisure time increases and the emerging so-called leisure ethic becomes more firmly entrenched as a way of life, as the number of single men and women continues to increase, as more vomen return to the labor market, and as family incomes increase, the amount of time and money spent eating outside the home will become even greater.
The eating and drinking establishment is a necessity for some, a luxury for others, and to many, perhaps, a brief escape from boredom or loneliness. However, despite its raison d'etre or the contrasts in ambiance that may exist among the neighborhood tavern, the singles bar, and the elegant gourmet restaurant, the anthropometric requirements of the user remain the one constant in the design equation. The quality of the interface between the customer and the various elements of the interior space determine the level of user comfort and, in many cases, the eventual success or failure of the establishment.
The diagrams and text on the following pages deal with those hunan dimensions that relate to the design of bars, food
counters, dining areas, and other elements that constitute typical eating and drinking spaces. The anthropometric requirements of those v
The drawings on the following pages illustrate in plan and section the considerations that should make the design of bars more sensitive to human body size. Clearances and other dimensional data for use in making preliminary design assumptions are also indicated. The anthropometric measurements of major concern are indicated in the matrix above.
In earlier sections of the book, it was stated that anthropometry can serve as an extremely helpful tool in the design process if used within the larger perspective of all the other human factors that impact on that process, such as the many psychological, sociological, and cultural factors that the designer must also take into account. It seems particularly appropriate \4iile dealing with the subject of bar design to reiterate the concept that in fitting the designed environment to the body, clearances and space also have more sophisticated and subtle implications. The clearances allowed for seating at the bar, for example, could in many instances ensure an ideal body fit between patron and bar and at the same time negate the very reason for the particular drinking place or tavern. The greater the seating density and the
TABLE | SERVICE 9NIXNIH0 | z o t- 5 D U CL O ACTIVITIES 5.1 BARS I ,
1A.2B 9 1 STATURE
1B.3C 9 EVE HEIGHT
1L.2H 12 THIGH CLEARANCE
1M.2I 13 KNEE HEIGHT
1N.2J 9 14 POPLITEAL HEIGHT
1P.2L 16 BUTTOCK-KNEE LENGTH
1V.4D o 22 THUMB TIP REACH
1W.6B 23 MAXIMUM BODY DEPTH
1X.6A if. 24 MAXIMUM BODY BREADTH
closer the seats, the greater the degree of social interaction. A singles bar, for example, whose seating arrangement was overly conservative and tended to insulate patrons from each other wauld obviously not be very successful. However, there are many situations where intense social interaction between patrons is, as a matter of policy or personal preference, not a desirable objective, nor wuld the patrons frequenting such places necessarily feel at ease under such conditions.
The distance between bar and back-bar should allow adequate workspace. A minimum of 36 in. or 90 cm. should provide space for one bartender to serve and another to curculate behind him. Maximun body depth and maximun body breadth are the primary anthropometric considerations in establishing clearance. A one-bartender operation would require a 30-in., or 75-cm. clearance.
In regard to bar stools, clearance between the stool seats is more critical than center line spacing, and it should allow patrons of larger body size a comfortable side approach and departure from the stool without body contact with the next person.
A 23-in. or 30-cm. wide stool on 24-in. or 61-cm. centers, which is quite common will allow only less than 5 percent of male users access to the stool without disturbing the next patron, while a 30-in. or 75-cm. spacing will accommodate 95 percent of the users. The tradeoff, however, wauld be the loss of two seats for every 120 in., or 300 cm., of bar length. = A spacing of 12-in. stools on 28-in., or 70 W cm., centers is suggested as a compromise. Â£. Hie ultimate decision is an individual one gr and must reconcile human factors with L economic viability. ^
10- 24 45.7-61.0
30 76 2
6- 7 15.2-17.8
7- 9________17.8-22 9
__6-9_________15 2-22 9
_22z26_________55 9-66 0
36-42_______91.4- 106 7
BAR AND BACK-BAR
BAR / SECTION
To ensure proper ciruclation and interface, adequate clearances in front of the bar are <Â§ A
illustrated in the top drawing. A customer C ^ c
activity zone of 18 to 24 in., or 45.7 to 51.PI cm., should be provided to allow for seating, standing, and access, in addition to a general circulation zone of at least 30 in., or 76.2 cm. If a supplementary drinking surface or shelf is provided, a smaller activity zone of 18 in. is suggested in front of the shelf. The shelf can be 10 to 12 in., or 25.4 to 30.5 cm., deep. Hie bottom drawing shows suggested clearances for 18 to 24 in. cocktail tables.
BAR/CLEARANCES PUBLIC SIDE
COCKTAIL TABLES/SEATING FOR TWO
-0 n o 76 193 0
0 H 54-56 137.2-142.2
1 6-9 15.2-22 9
J 7-9 17.8-22.9
K 42-45 106.7-114.3
L 24 61 0
M 29-33 73.7-83.8
N 32 36 81 3-91.4
Bar seating is a classic exanple vhere hidden dimensions, as well as anthropometric factors, must be considered in determining seating spacing. Cultural differences, for example, may dictate proximity between patrons. In one instance closeness may cause discomfort for patrons, and in another case it may be desirable. Hie density of people and the spacing of seats also impact on social interaction; the greater the density, the greater the probability of such interaction. The drawings, however, deal essentially with the anthropometries involved and the possible density models. The top drawing illustrates a low-density situation, based on one seated or standing patron per 30 in., or 76.2 cm., of bar length. Such a density model wauld preclude body contact, allow comfortable changes in body position, and ensure relative privacy.
Hie center drawing illustrates a medium density model, based on 24-in. or 61-cm., 'spacing; takes occasional pairing into account as shown by the dotted figure; and allows for occasional body contact and territorial intrusion. Hie bottom drawing illustrates a high-density model, with patrons standing two to three deep and a density factor of over 1.5 patrons per 12 in., or 30 cm., of bar length.
1. BAR DENSITY PLAN/0.4 PER 12 IN (30.S CM) OF BAR LENGTH ONE DEEP AT BAR
ONE DEEP AT BAR
18-30________45 7-76 2
3. BAR DENSITY PLAN/1.5 TO 2.0 PER 12 IN (30.5 CM) OF BAR LENGTH TWO TO THREE DEEP AT BAR
BAR DENSITY PLANS
The basic approach to ensuring a proper interface between customer and food counter is similar to that used for a bar. Maximum body breadth and depth should be taken into account in establishing clearances for workspace behind the counter. The height of the shelves and depth of the counters should accommodate the human reach limitations of those of smaller body size, for such clearances will also accommodate those of larger body size.
With respect to the public side of the counter, the relationship between seat height and top of the counter should also accommodate the human body properly. One common error is in the relationship of seat height to footrest in relation to a high counter. In many instances, the footrest is too low to accommodate the feet. The result is that the customer's feet simply dangle above the footrest without coming into contact with its surface. This lack of contact does not provide the body with the stability it requires, so muscular forces must take over in order to maintain equilibrium, causing general discomfort, aches, and pains. As if this were not bad enough, the weight of the dangling foot causes pressure on the underside of the thigh just behind the knee resulting not
TABLE | SERVICE o z h- < LU z o h- 5 Z> o cc o ACTIVITIES r- o FOOD Zj-dL. COUNTERS^^
L ANTHROPOMETRIC DATA
1L.2H II 112 THIGH CLEARANCE
1M.2I 13 KNEE HEIGHT
1N.2J II h 14 POPLITEAL HEIGHT
1P.2L 16 BUTTOCK-KNEE LENGTH
1U,4E O 21 SIDE ARM REACH
1W.6B 23 MAXIMUM BODY DEPTH
1X.6A 1 1 24 MAXIMUM BODY BREADTH
only in irritation to the skin but obstruction of the circulation of blood.
These conditions are included among the drawings on the following pages, and suggested clearances and other dimensional data for use in making preliminary design assumptions are indicated. The basic anthropometric body measurements most frequently considered in the design of food counters are indicated in the matrix above.
The top drawing shows some of the basic clearances required for a typical counter: 36 in., or 91.4 cm., for workspace behind the counter; 18- to 24-in., or 45.7 to 61 cm., for the counter top; and 60 to 66 in., or 152.4 to 167.6 cm., between the front face of the counter and the nearest obstruction. The bottom drawing shows a section through the counter and back counter, or 106.7
Most counters are about 42 in.,
cm., in height, from the top of the seat to the underside of the counter top and the depth of the counter top overhang are extremely important. Buttock-knee length and thigh clearance are the key anthropometric measurements to consider for proper body fit. Footrest heights should take into consideration popliteal height. In most cases this is ignored, and 42-in. counters are provided with 7(5 in., or 17.80 cm., footrests that are 23 in. or 58.4 cm., below the seat surface, which cannot work. The popliteal height of the larger user, based on 99th percentile data, is only about 20 in., or 50.8 cm. Therefore, the feet dangle unsupported several inches above the footrest and the body is deprived of any stability. The footrest
portion of the seated users and is intended Â£
The most c
primarily for standing patrons, logical solution is a separate footrest, integral with the stool.
A 60-66 152.4-167 6
B 18-24 45.7-61.0
C 36 91.4
D 24 61 0
E 12-18 30.5-45.7
F 35-36 88 9-91.4
G 42 106 7
H 30-31 76.2-78.7
1 11-12 27.9-30.5
J 10 25.4
K 12-13 30.5-33.0
The top drawing illustrates in section clearances required between counters vAien arranged parallel to each other. Ibis is a rather common situation, with counter layouts in a repetitive U configuration. The overall clearance measured from the front edge of one counter to the other is 6(1 to 72 in., or 152.4 to 182.9 cm. Hie clearance between counters allows an activity zone for the seated patron at each counter in addition to a public circulation zone between stools of 36 in., or 91.4 cm. Maximim body breadth is the anthropometric measurement used in establishing the clearance for circulation. Refer to the drawings on the preceding page for additional information regarding the relationship and body fit of the user to the stool, counter and footrest, and the anthropometric measurements involved. The drawing at the bottom of the page shows in section the clearances required between a counter and a row of tables another frequently used arrangement. A minimum clearance of 48 in., or 121.9 cm., between the outside edge of the counter stool and the edge of the table allows for a combined circulation and service zone.
k A i
LUNCH COUNTERS/CLEARANCE BETWEEN STOOLS
LUNCH COUNTER ITABLE CLEARANCES
B 18-24 45.7-61.0
C 60-72 152.4-182.9
D 12-18 30 5-45.7
E 36 min. 91.4 min.
F 10 25.4
G 60-66 152.4-167.6
H 48 min. 121.9 min.
1 42 106.7
J 12-13 30.5-33 0
K 30-31 76.2-78 7
L 11-12 27.9-30.5
M 16-17 40.6-43.2
N 29-30 73.7-76.2
EATING AND DRINKING SPACES
The top drawing shows a section through a typical soda fountain and indicates some of the basic dimensions and clearances involved. A critical consideration in terms of anthropometries is reach. The counter here, as for a bar, is essentially a partial enclosure, or "skin," for the fountain equipment. It is the depth of this equipment that establishes the location of the counterperson relative to the customer and the counter surface. The depth of the equipment varies with type and manufacture, but is usually about 30 to 32 in., or 76.2 to 81.3 cm. The counter top itself is normally about 18 in., or 45.9 cm., deep. Limiting the overall dimension from the face of the equipment to the customer's side of the counter-top, as shown, will keep the counter-top surface within reach of the counterparson. If the counter top is located further away than suggested in the drawing, the designer should verify that reach is not impaired. The bottom drawing shows clearances necessary to make self-service food counters accessible to the vdreelchair user. The service lane must be a minimun of 34 in., or 86.4 cm., to accommodate the wheelchair and the food within a 20-in., or 50.8-cm., maximum reach.
FOOD SERVICE COUNTERS/WHEELCHAIR ACCESS
B 30-36 76.2-91.4
C 10 25.4
D 42 106.7
E 31-32 70.7-81.3
F 12-13 30.5-33.0
G 9 22.9
H 20 max. 50.8 max.
1 34 min. 86.4 min.
J 34 max. 86.4 max.
Proper clearances for circulation and service aisles, adequate knee and thigh space between the top of the seat and the underside of the table, accessibility for the vdieelchair-bound person, and adequate clearance around the perimeter of the table are the basic factors to take into account to ensure the proper relationship between human dimension and dining space. These considerations, all fairly straightforward, can be accommodated fairly simply. The proper allowance per individual seated diner along the table perimeter and, by extension, the table size do require additional thought and in some instances individual research.
All too often, however, the standard table size is simply accepted without question as being adequate to accommodate the designated number of seated diners. The design problem is then viewed exclusively in terms of the number of such tables that can be located within the given space. The fact is that most standard tables used in public dining spaces are not adequate to comfortably accommodate the user. In most instances the only factor taken into account in selecting the size of the table is vhether its length can accommodate the width of the chair placed in front of it.
TABLE | SERVICE | DINING | CIRCULATION ACTIVITIES DINING SPACES -U|n :TtT-
1D.2C SITTING HEIGHT ERECT
1F.3G a 6 EVE HEIGHT SITTING
1L.2H 9 12 THIGH CLEARANCE
1M.2I 9 13 KNEE HEIGHT
1N.2J 9 14 POPLITEAL HEIGHT
10.2K 9 15 BUTTOCK-POPLITEAL LENGTH
1P.2L 9 16 BUTTOCK-KNEE LENGTH
1V.4D O 22 THUMB TIP REACH
1W.6B 9 9 23 MAXIMUM BODY DEPTH
1X.6A 9 9 24 MAXIMUM BODY BREADTH
The space necessary to accommodate the individual diner should take into account several factors: (1) the width of the
chair, (2) the maximum body breadth of a diner of larger body size, plus an allowance for the extension of the elbows away from the body, and (3) the size of the place setting.
Among other considerations examined in the drawings on the following pages is the development of an incremental unit to be used in allocating the proper space per diner. Various table sizes are then established, based on optimal and minimal variations of this individual place-setting zone.
The place setting is made up of a studied arrangement of dinnerware and related accessories. During the dining process, it is transformed into a state of disarray, covering a larger zone of the table than at the beginning. This expanded zone occupies a minimum area of 14 by 24 in., or 35.6 by 61 cm. The first group of drawings figuratively labeled shows these zones in relation to tables of varying depth, but of constant minimal width of 24 in., or 61 cm. The center strips represent the surface available for serving dishes. flowers, etc. If we allow for the intrusion of these elements into contiguous zones, a depth of only 40 in., or 101.6 cm., is adequate for their comfortable placement.
In the lower group of drawings these same zones are applied to a 30-in., or 76.2-cm., width. This is related to the maximum body movement involved in the dining activity. Etiquette aside, a 24-in. width will allow the arms of the larger user to project beyond the table into circulation lanes. Une authors contend that a 30 by 40 in., or 76.2 by 101.6 cm., table is the optimum size to comfortably accommodate twa people. Hie 30-in. dimension corresponds to human body breadth. The 40-in. dimension allows sufficient room for place setting and accommodates horizontal reach.
A 66-78 167.6-198.1
B 18-24 45.7-61.0
C 30 76.2
D 14 356
E 2 5.1
F 24 61.0
G 72-84 182 9-213.4
H 36 91.4
1 16 406
J 4 102
K 76-88 193 0-223.5
L 40 101.6
M 8 20.3
TABLE SIZES/MINIMUM TABLE WIDTH WITH MINIMUM, PREFERRED MINIMUM, AND OPTIMUM TABLE DEPTHS
TABLE SIZES/OPTIMUM TABLE WIDTH WITH MINIMUM, PREFERRED MINIMUM, AND OPTIMUM TABLE DEPTHS
Both drawings deal with the height and clearance of dining tables. The top drawing relates to the plans on the preceding page and illustrates a 30- and a 40-in., or a 76.20 and a 101.6-cm., table. The portions of the drawing shown in dotted line reflect the 40-in table. Hie bottom drawing deals with vheelchair access to a dining table. Clearance from the floor to the underside of the table is critical if the wheelchair-bound diner is to be accommodated. Unfortunately, conflicting requirements, depending on the source consulted, show this dimension to be 29 or 30 in., or 72.5 or 75 cm. The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) indicates the required height of the armrest from the floor to be 29 in., or 72.5 cm. Some state legislation requires 30 in. or 75 cm., to the underside of the table. Unfortunately, a 30-in. dimension would place the top of the table surface at about 31 in., or 78.7 cm. Such a height would not comfortably accommodate able-bodied diners of smaller size. To raise the seat height would cause the feet of the gnaller user to dangle unsupported, and footrests would be somewhat impractical in a public space. Since armrest heights of many wheelchairs do not, in fact, exceed 29 in., or 72.5 cm., and since most models have removable or adjustable arms, the authors recommend a 29-in. clearance, instead of 30 in. Such a dimension will accommodate both handicapped and able-bodied users.
TABLES/MINIMUM AND OPTIMUM DEPTHS/ <7
A 76-88 193 0-223.5
B 66-78 167.6-198.1
C 40 101.6
D 30 76.2
E 16-17 40.6-43.2
F 29-30 73.7-76.2
G 18-24 457-61.0
H 31 78.7
| 30 min. 76.2 min.
J 29 min. 73.7 min.
The top drawing shows minimal clearance for a combined service and circulation aisle in a low-volune operation. It should be noted that the width indicated will not accommodate two lanes. Either the waiter or customer would have to step aside to avoid body contact. In a high-volume operation, with long aisle lengths, such a clearance would be inadequate. The bottom drawing illustrates a situation where chairs abut a service aisle. The drawing is not intended to serve as a standard for aisle clearance, but merely to indicate all factors involved in establishing that clearance, including intrusions of the chairs into the aisle space. The chair may be relocated as many as four times during the course of the meal. At the beginning, it is much closer to the table. Near the end of the meal in an attempt to relax, one may move the chair away from the table about 24 in., or 61 cm. During intimate conversation it may be brought even closer to the table. Finally, in rising from the chair at the conclusion of the meal, its final location may be as much as 36 in., or 91.4 cm., away. If all intrusions are considered, the clearance between tables could total as much as 108 in., or 274.3 ~ cm., which may prove uneconomical. Yet, to ^ ignore the intrusions w?uld be unrealistic. eT The authors suggest that, as a reasonable compromise, a clearance between tables of E 84 in., or 213.4 cm., be used for ^ preliminary design assumptions. h
Liny ol Nearest
TABLES/CLEARANCE FOR WAITER SERVICE AND CIRCULATION
SERVICE AISLE/CLEARANCE BETWEEN CHAIRS
In certain table arrangements, chairs of two adjacent tables may be located back to back and some clearance between them must be provided. Ibis clearance would not be for purposes of public circulation or service, but simply to allow access to the chair. A minimum clearance of 18 in., or 45 cm., from chair to chair, as indicated in the top drawing, or a minimum clearance of 54 in., or 137.2 cm., between tables would be adequate. A 66-in., or 167.7-cm. clearance between tables is preferred. Hie minimum recommended clearance for a service lane is 36 in., or 91.4 cm., as illustrated in the drawings at the center and bottom. Should the diagonal arrangement in the bottom drawing involve smaller tables, the chairs may project beyond the corners of the table. However, the integrity of the 36-in. clearance should be maintained. If the chairs do project, the clearance should be measured between the chairs and not the table corners.
Minimum Nonoifculatio Clearance
SERVICE AISLE/CLEARANCE BETWEEN TABLES
SERVICE AISLE/CLEARANCE BETWEEN TABLE
TABLES/MINIMUM CLEARANCE AND NONCIRCULATION ZONES
In planning for wheelchair access, the portion of the chair projecting beyond the table will be between 24 and 30 in., or 61 and 76.2 cm. It is suggested that the larger figure be used for preliminary design assumptions. What is not indicated on the drawing are the clearances required for wheelchair maneuvering to and from the table. Turning radii and other information relating to the maneuverability of the wheelchair are provided elsewhere in this book. The drawing at the bottom of the page indicates the clearances required for chair movement in connection with a round table. It should also be noted that the lane width needed to accommodate a wheelchair should be a minimum of 36 in., or 91.4 cm.
48- 54 121.9-137T
^Combined Circulation/ Activity Zone
Line of Wall Or Obstruction
Booths, particularly in situations v^iere both the seating and the table are fixed, provide no margin for individual adjustment. Hus lack of flexibility makes it essential that the anthropometric aspects of the design be considered closely. Hie height of the compressed seat should reflect popliteal height data; the depth of the seat, buttock-popliteal length data; the distance from the top of the seat to the underside of the table, thigh clearance data; the height of the booth or that of a hanging light fixture above the table top, eye-height sitting data; and the width of the seat, maximum body breadth data.
Equally important is the relation of human dimensions to the aisle for clearance of public and service circulation. Hie two drawings illustrate in both plan and section some of the basic anthropometric considerations involved.
BOOTH SEATING AND CIRCULATION CLEARANCES
Both drawings illustrate the clearances involved for banquette dining arrangements. One of the more critical considerations is access to the banquette seat. The top drawing indicates a minimum clearance between tables. Ttie maximun body depth of the larger person, based on the 99th percentile data, is 13 in., or 33 cm. Allowing for clothing and body movement in addition to the basic body dimension, it becomes apparent that access to the banquette seat for the larger person may require moving the table. The bottom drawing suggests a 24-in., or 61-cm., clearance between tables vrtiich will permit access without disturbing the table location. That spacing will also provide more privacy for the patrons.
BANQUETTE SEATING / MINIMUM CLEARANCES
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BANQUETTE SEATING / RECOMMENDED CLEARANCES FOR ACOUSTIC AND VISUAL PRIVACY
Aloi, Giampiero Ristoranti
Ulrico Hoepli Bditore, Milano, Italy, 1972.
.American Institute of Architect, Architectural Graphic Standards, John Wiley & Sons, New York, N.Y., 1981.
De Chiara, Joseph and Callender, John Hancock, Time Saver Standards for Building Types, McGraw Hill, New York, N.Y., 1980.
Kuhne, Gunther New Restaurant
Architectural Book Publishing Co., New York, N.Y., 1973.
Panero, Julius and Zelnik, Martin Human Dimension and Interior Space, Whitney Library of Design, New York, N.Y. 1979.