Citation
Chinooks [Restaurant & Gallery]

Material Information

Title:
Chinooks [Restaurant & Gallery]
Creator:
Mueller, Henry
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
97 unnumbered leaves : illustrations (some color), charts, color maps, plans ; 30 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Restaurants -- Designs and plans -- Colorado -- Boulder ( lcsh )
Art galleries, Commercial -- Designs and plans -- Colorado -- Boulder ( lcsh )
Art galleries, Commercial ( fast )
Restaurants ( fast )
Colorado -- Boulder ( fast )
Genre:
Designs and plans. ( fast )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Designs and plans ( fast )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for a Master's degree in Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
Henry Mueller.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
08677630 ( OCLC )
ocm08677630
Classification:
LD1190.A72 1981 .M84 ( lcc )

Full Text
CHINOOKS RESTAURANT & GALLERY
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CHINOOKS
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ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN AURARIA LIBRARY
CONTENTS
THE BUILDING AND THE SITE
ZONING AND CODE
PROGRAM
ENERGY ANALYSIS
SAMPLE COMPUTER OUTPUT
THE FINISHED BUILDING
CLIMATE DATA
APPENDIX




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RESTAURANT & GALLERY
Concept
To create an exciting environment for elegant dining in the panoramic beauty in the foothills of South Boulder.
To provide a gallery for the display of local arts and crafts attracting tourists as well as local people at all hours of the day.


CHINOOKS
RESTAURANT & GALLERY
The Location
Four miles south of Boulder on the Foothills Highway (route #93) are the stone ruins of an old restaurant that has been destroyed by fire at least twice in the last 20 years. The site is located on the edge of a grassy mesa which features an incredible panoramic view of the Flatirons nestled next to the Continental Divide which towers over the Boulder Valley below. The highway is traveled by commuters between Boulder, Broomfield, Coal Creek Canyon, and Golden, Colorado. In summer it is a scenic drive for tourists and in the winter a common return route from many of the region's many ski areas.
The Proposed Building
There is no doubt that this location has been utilized by restaurant owners in the past because of its scenic value. The Matterhorn Restaurant was built in the early 60's by two European entrepreneurs. The majestic beauty has its price however--a harsh exposure to the elements. The site is situated in an area which is dominated by a strong airflow coming across the Continental Divide. As these westerly winds blow across the Rocky Mountains and descend down the eastern slope of the Front Range, they are warmed adiabatically resulting in lowered humidity and strong gusting Chinooks. During times of high activity such winds can often attain hurricane force and often cause severe damage. Though it can't be proven, it is suspected that the Matterhorn burned down because of improper venting of kitchen smoke and gases. In areas such as this, strong winds can cause conventional stacking to inhibit exhausting, and an open flame can quickly ignite into a devastating fire.
In the early 70's a new restaurant, the Hornbrook, was built on the ashes of the Matterhorn and its existence also ended in fire. Because of the wind/fire danger at the site, the proposed restaurant would be constructed of fire resisant material (pre-cast concrete); particular attention would be paid to proper exhaust venting in relation to destructive wind forces.
Since the location is rather remote from central Boulder, it is felt that just a restaurant lounge is not enough of an economic draw to support a commercial building on the site. The addition of a gallery displaying local arts and crafts could attract tourist business as well as local gift shoppers. Similar restaurants in the area are primarily evening dining spots. This restaurant gallery combination would draw both lunch and dinner business, offering both a palatable as well as visual delight. The building is named Chinooks after the winds.
Energy Efficient Design
Restaurants operate on rather a narrow profit margin, typically between 6% and 10% of their gross income. To stay in business, such operations must pay strict attention to overhead costs--if they are the slightest bit out of control, they can quickly eat up profits. Since Since restaurants consume energy at a rate second only to hospitals,


CHINOOKS
RESTAURANT & GALLERY
their overhead energy costs compared to other commercial buildings are rather high (2%-3% of gross income).
In recent years restaurant owners have become increasingly concerned about energy use in their buildings. Rising energy costs cut directly into their profit margins, and they cant easily be recovered by passing the extra expenses along to customers.
Gallery and other gift shop owners are also concerned about the amount of electric energy required for the high quality lighting needed to maintain a marketable display.
Due to these concerns the design of Chinooks Restaurant & Gallery will pay particular attention towards minimum energy consumption.
Site Characteristics
The General Climate
The regional climate has a semi-arid,continental character with cold, windy winters and warm, dry summers. This area features abundant sunshine, light rainfall, low humidity and variable wind activity ^hich results in large swings in diurnal temperature (as much s 40F). Winter days can be cold and stormy or clear and warm. Mean temperatures for January (coldest month) are around 32F and mean temperatures for July (warmest month) are around 72F. The average annual temperature is around 52F. Rainfall is around 18 inches/yr. and annual snowfall is about 80 inches/yr. The frost free season can exceed 150 days/yr. As discussed earlier, the predominate wind is from the west gusting as high as 100 mph at least twice a year. These gusts are most likely to occur early evening or early morning in January. The site has around 50% clear days, 32% semi-cloudy days, and 18% overcast days.
Vegetation, Soil & Topography
The site is dominated by a mixture of blue grama and buffalo grass with a few shrubs and some bright flowered forbs. A few Ponderosa Pine grow on the adjacent north slope.
The ground is piedmont expansive soil (Allvium & Colluvium).
The site slighly slopes to the northeast at about a 4% grade. Since the location is at the crest of a mesa, it drops rather dramatically just off-site to the northwest at a 20% grade.




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CHINOOKS
RESTAURANT & GALLERY
ZONING & CODE RESTRICTIONS
Project: Chinooks Restaurant & Gallery
Location: 4 miles south of Boulder on the Foothills Highway (Rt #93)
Site: 2 acres (241' x 361') adjacent to the road on the crest of a
hill overlooking Boulder Valley.
Applicable Zoning Ordinance: Boulder County Zoning Resolution as of
October 8, 1981.
Applicable Zoning Code: Uniform Building Code 1979
Zoning Classification: T Transitional District (currently); however,
zoning officials will consider a B Business District classification based on historical use.
Building Square Foot Limits: 35,000 ft?
Building Height Limits: 50 ft.
Minimum Lot Size: 35 acres
Minimum Lot Width 120 ft.
Building Set Back and Yard Requirements
minimum lot frontage 40 ft.
minimum front yard - 60 ft. (from center line of street)
minimum side yard - 0 or 12 ft. or 1/2 the distance between
detached buildings on the same lot.
minimum rear yard 20 ft.
Parking Required: 1 ft.^ for every 2 ft.^ of building = 5000 ft.^
Fire Zone Designation: Fire zone 3
Occupancy Classification: A-3 for restaurant
B-2 for gallery
Occupancy Separation Requirements: None Construction Type: II-FR
Exterior Wall Fire Ratings: B-2 = 1 hr. less than 20 ft.
A-3 = 2 hr. less than 5 ft.
1 hr. elsewhere
Exterior Wall Opening Limitations:
not permitted less than 5 ft. protected less than 10 ft.


CHINOOKS
RESTAURANT & GALLERY
Floors Fire Rating: 2 hr.
Roofs Fire Rating: 1 hr.
Partitions Fire Rating: 1 hr. (for permeate Structural Fire Rating: 2 hr.
Maximum Floor Area:
Maximum Height:
29,900 ft.p unsprinkled 89,700 ft. sprinkled
4 stories unsprinkled
5 stories sprinkled
Number of Exits Required:
Dining Room & Bar - 2
Kitchen - 1
Interior Court - 2
Gallery - 1
Number of Stairs Required: 2
Door Exit Requirements:
width at least 36 in. opening with 32 in. clearance
height at least 6 ft.-8 in.
swing in direction of exit at least 90 out
Stair Requirements:
width at least 44 in.
landings no more than 12 ft. vertically between landings
head room at least 6 ft.-6 in.
rail requirements
- can't project more than 3% in. into stair
- between 30 in. and 34 in. off the ground and continuous on both sides.
riser limit not less than 4 in. or greater than 7% in.
tread limit not less than 10 in.
Ramp Requirements:
exits slope no greater than 1 in 12
elsewhere slope no greater than 1 in 8
landings every 5 ft. of rise not less than 5 ft. in length


CHINOOKS
RESTAURANT & GALLERY
Corridor Requirements
width at least 44 in. most areas
- at least 36 in. for kitchen
height at least 7 ft.
travel distance limit 150 ft. unsprinkled
- 200 ft. sprinkled
dead end limit - 20 ft.
Exit Lighting Requirements
sign lighted by 2 electric lamps at least 15 watts
emergency illumination 1 f.c. at floor level
- circuit should be on separate source of power
Ceiling Height Requirements:
corridors 7 ft.
parking area 7 ft.
elsewhere 7 ft-6 in.
Ventilation Requirements:
fresh air/occupant 5 CFM
total circulated 15 CFM
if velocity of register exceeds 10 ft./sec. register must be 8 ft. off ground
natural ventilation requires openings at least 1/20 of floor area Day Lighting Requirements:
Where there is no artificial light, exterior glazed openings must be 1/10 floor area
skylights if slope is less than 45 from horizontal, then they
need to be 4" above roof plane on curb (see page 526 of UBC for material restrictions)
Furnace or Boiler Room Restrictions:
2
if room exceeds 500 ft. or equipment rating exceeds 400 MBtuh, then 2 means of egress are needed
Penthouse Requirements:
height can't exceed 12 ft. (36 ft. for elevator)
area can't exceed 1/3 roof area
Toilet Room Fixture Requirements:
1 lav. for 2 W.C.
Water closet must be in clear space at least 30 in. wide and 24 in. in front (42 in. x 48 in. for the handicapped)


CHINOOKS
RESTAURANT & GALLERY
2
Design Wind Pressure: 50 lb./ft.
Design Snow Load: 30 lb./ft.^
Chimney Requirements:
hood at least No. 19 gauge copper or galvanized steel or equiv.
- sloped at 45 from vertical
- extend horizontally 6 in. beyond fire box
- height at least 18 in. above flame
- sprinkler system required in restaurants
walls 8 in. concrete
- 12 in. stone
lining 5/8 fire clay tile or 2 in. fire brick
height above roof 3 ft.
- 2 ft. above any building
part within 10 ft.
clearance to combustible construction
- 2 in. internal
- 2 in. external
minimum cross section 135 sq.in.


CHINOOKS
RESTAURANT & GALLERY
FOOD VOLUME
Average Minimum Average Average Maximum
Time per meal
Lunch Meal 30 Min. 45 Min. 60 Min.
Dinner Meal 45 Min. 90 Min. 120 Min.
Seating Capacities 60 People 100 People 140 People
Lunch meals/hour 120 M/hr. 200 M/hr. 280 M/hr.
Dinner meals/hour 80 M/hr. 100 M/hr. 200 M/hr.
Hours Minimum Average Maximum
Lunch
Shift Duration 11:00 AM 2:00 PM 100 M 200 M 480 M
Peak Hours 11:30 AM 12:00 PM 50 M 100 M 280 M
Dinner
Shift Duration 6:00 PM 11:00 AM 100 M 300 M 500 M
Peak Hours 7:30 PM 9:30 AM 60 M 160 M 200 M
Expected Daily
Totals 11:00 AM 11:00 PM 200 M 500 M 1000 M
M = Meals
Dry food storage (6 days)
2
Capacity needed for this volume 200 Ft
Cold storage (4 days)
Capacity need for this volume 60 Ft^ @ 45 50F
40 Tt @ 30 32F Total refrigeration required 100 Ft^


CHINOOKS
RESTAURANT & GALLERY
SOME NOTES ON SIZING
Kitchen
Restaurants of this type with maximum food volume between 200 to 280 meals/hr. require between 5 Ft^ to 7 Ft^/meal/hr. This results in an estimated kitchen size of:
5 Ft^ x 280 meals/hr. = 1,400 Ft^ or 7 Ft^ x 200 meals/hr. = 1,400 Ft
Wait-Service
One small station (4' x 4.5') is needed for every 12 tables and one large central station (8' x 12') is needed for the entire dining area.
2
- 4 Substations x 4 x 4.5' = 72 Ft2
- 1 Central station x 8* x 12' = 128 Ft
TOTAL 200 Ft2
Dining Area
For total dining area seating 140 people 15 Ft^/person is needed in good dining establishments.
2 2 15 Ft /per x 140 people = 2100 Ft
Rest Rooms
Mens = 2 Ur., 2 W.C., 2 Lav. = 200 Ft^
Woman = 3 W. C. , 2 Lav._____= 180 Ft
TOTAL 380 Ft2
Other Areas
- Other areas where sized based on similar restaurants.


CHINOOKS
RESTAURANT & GALLERY
PROGRAM
Restaurant & Lounge
Dining
- Seating
- Wait-Service
- Total
Bar
- Seating
- Service
- Cooler
- Total
Kitchen
- Cook area
- Dish wash
- Walk in refrigerator
- Dry storage
- Total
Office & Storage
- Manager Office
- Canned goods
- Chemical stove
- Wine room
- Miscellaneous storage
- Total
Restrooms
TOTAL
Semi-Conditioned Space
Entry
Planters
Patio
Total
Gallery Craft Shop
Display area
Office & Storage
- Office
- Storage
- Restroom
Total
Subspace2 Space ^
Area (Ft ) Area (Ft )
1900
200
2100
1610
445
80
2125
900
200
100
200
1400
120
100
100
70
80
470
380
6485
350
200
1450
2000
640
100
200
60
1000
Total Complex (Gross area)
9485


CHINOOKS
RESTAURANT & GALLERY
Energy Use in Restaurants
As shown in the AIA/RC study pie chart, energy use in a typical restaurant is dominated by hot water in terms of Btu consumption and by cooling in terms of cost (R.U.F. = Resource Utility Factor, which weights energy consumption according to different fuel costs).
Restaurants generally use a high volume of hot water for dishwashing and tend to generate a lot of internal heat. To keep the interior environment comfortable, restaurants require a significant amount of ventilated fresh air which must be constantly conditioned to offset the internal loads, therefore, cooling is a major energy consumer. Since hot water is most likely to be heated with natural gas and since the chillers would most likely use electricity (the more expensive fuel), cooling is major energy consumer by end use cost as well.
2
The average restaurant size is around 6000 ft. and in this heatingcooling degree day region uses 178,000 Btu1s/ft.2/yr.
The following table represents the percentage breakdown fo energy use in a restaurant in energy/ft.2
System Watts/ft.^ Btuh/ft
DHW 3.6 12.3
HVAC 1.6 5.4
Lighting 2.1 7.2
Cooling 2.2 7.5
Heating 2.6 8.7
Total 12 watts/ft.^ 41 Btuh/ft.^
Hot water demand is using determined by maximum meals/hr. or day.
- maximum hr.
I. 5 gal/max. meals/hr. x 280 max. meals/hr. = 420 gallons
- maximum day
II. 0 gal/max. meals/hr. x 280 max. jeals/hr.= 3,080 gallons
- average day
2.4 gal/avg. meals/day x 500 avg. meals/day = 1,200 gallons


RESTAURANT & GALLERY
RESTAURANTS: 5,782 mean square feet
18.4% With RUFs
End Use Btus


CHINOOKS
RESTAURANT & GALLERY
Energy Analysis During Pre-design
Historically architects have not considered energy use in their buildings until rather late in the design sequence. The approach taken here, however, is to consider energy prior to the schematic design of the building. The pre-des.ign energy analysis presented here was adapted from Energy Graphics a manual tool.developed by Booz-Allen & Hamilton, to allow the designer to graphically see how the building uses energy.
This information is used as a design directive to help in the schematic design phase.
In a previous study done by the author in conjunction with Don Woolard of UCD (see appendix) Energy Graphics was used in the analysis of a small commercial retrofit in northeast Denver. It was found that the analysis didn't consider building mass affects and was found difficult to apply in passive solar design. To overcome these difficulties, the author has developed a new analytical tool termed "Modified Energy Graphics.
The Modified Energy Graphics tool has been computerized on an Apple Computer because of the additional calculations involved and to free designer from as much number crunching as possible. To understand how the tool evolved and the analysis methodology, see the appendix.
To understand the subsequent data, a brief description is given of how-the tool is used in pre-design.
1. Organize the Information
Using the building program, the necessary information is
derived to evaluate the energy performance of the building.
Even though this information is approximate, it is enough
to generate the rough numbers necessary for a pre-design
energy analysis.
Determine program areas and establish comfort requirements and energy needs for them.
This includes:
- Temperature variations allowed within the space (maximum and minimum temperatures allowed during the day and night)
- Ventilation requirements allowed within the space both by code and by what is recommended for comfort.
- Illumination requirements for the space and the square foot wattages required to attain them.
- Equipment use within the space and the heat generated as a result of use.


CHINOOKS
RESTAURANT & GALLERY
- Number of people in the space and the heat generation as result of their particular actiyity level
Determine Energy Use Groups
- The building program areas are combined into groups with similar comfort and energy profiles. These are distinguished by:
similar schedules of use
similar ventilation and illumination requirements
similar internal heat generation
- Profiling the building this way allows energy analysis by areas of use and subsequent testing of various groupings for minimum energy consumption as well as program use requirements.
Determine the exterior climate.
- Since we are dealing with a dry climate and to keep energy calculations at a minimum, we will initially only consider:
site insolation
temperature
- Later on in the design sequence, wind and humidity will be considered for natural ventilation and evaporative cooling respectively.
- Hourly climate data is needed for this analysis. Looking at energy use on an hourly basis allows matching energy needs with energy availability at the site (a common problem when determining different passive design strategies). This data is derived by taking data from the nearest weather station that collects hourly data and then extrapolating it to the site. This is done using average daily difference factors from the nearest local station.
- Hourly data is generated for six design days selected for different design conditions. The derivation of these days is discussed in detail in the appendix section ( CZU ) and will not be discussed here.
2. Compute and Graph Building Energy Performance
This portion of the analysis establishes a base design configuration for the energy use groups. Each configuration is evaluated separately to derive its unique energy problems in relation to the external climate.


CHINOOKS
RESTAURANT & GALLERY
The Base Structure
A simple structural form is selected for each energy use group and is analyzed as if it were not attached to any other group. This reveals how a simple isolated form would react to the external climate. Modification is achieved by identifying the exterior surfaces most vulnerable to the environment and altering them for improved energy performance.
For pre-design of the restaurant the following assumptions will be initially used:
- the shape will be a square in plan with each side computed by taking the square root of the program area
- the elevations will have 50% glazing and the flat roof 10% glazing (single pane)
- the height will vary with each group
- we will assume the opaque vertical surfaces to be 8 inches of reinforced concrete and the horizontal surfaces to be
4 inches of reinforced concrete.
- surface properties will be normal for the given material.
Initial Calculations
- An energy analysis is done for the above configurations, for different hours of the day, for each of the 6 selected design days (see appendix l | ). From this, critical times of day and year will be determined to establish when energy problems are most likely to occur. The information will be presented in a graphic format for quick visual analysis.
3. Modify the Design Assumptions to Improve Energy Performance
Initial Modification
- Each energy use group base structure can be modified by manipulating any one of the following variables:
eliminate surfaces to external exposure geometric shape percentage of glazing envelope thermal properties
- Until further programming considerations are taken into account, only suggestions can be made on how to eliminate potential energy problems.
Combine Energy Use Groups into a Composite Building
- At this point the programming relationships of the building spaces are studied to determine a possible configuration of the entire structure in relation to the external environment.


CHINOOKS
RESTAURANT & GALLERY
- A bubble diagram of the space functions is studied and a building configuration is deriyed considering the use of spaces in conjunction with the goal of minimized energy consumption.
- A composite energy performance is summed for the entire building. This information is used as a design directive for subsequent phases.
- As programming criteria change or as further design strategies are considered, additional analysis can be done to determine effectiveness.


CHINOOKS
RESTAURANT & GALLERY
Modified Energy Graphics
This analysis method involves the following steps:
1. Organize the Information
-establish the internal program needs and the external climate conditions.
2. Compute and Graph, the Building Energy Performance
-evaluate the energy use groups within building and calculate the impact of the external climate on them.
3. Modify the Design Assumptions to Improve Energy Performance -establish a configuration for the building and document design directives for minimum energy consumption.


CHINOOKS
RESTAURANT & GALLERY
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CHINOOKS
RESTAURANT & GALLERY
VENTILATION: FRESH AIR REQUIREMENTS
Cubic feet/minute/person Air charges/hour
Space Mi nimum Reconmended Minimum Recommended
Restaurant Kitchen 200 400 25 40
Dining Area 12 15 10 15
Cocktail Bar 25 40 12 20
Retail Shop 7.5 10 6 10


CHINOOKS
RESTAURANT & GALLERY
Heat Gain From People
Restaurants
- sedentary work (eating) 550 Btuh
- moderate work (cooking) 750 Btuh
(wait person) 1000 Btuh
Retail Store
- light work (shopping) 450 Btuh
Lighting Levels
Circulation 30 fc.
Cashier 30 fc.
Dining
leisure 15-30 fc.
intimate 3-10 fc.
Cleaning 20 fc.
Entrance Lobby 30 fc.
Office
normal 50 fc.
accounting 150 fc.
Kitchen
inspecting 70 fc.
other 30 fc.
Storerooms 10 f c.
Restrooms 30 fc.
Art Gallery
paintings 30 fc.
sculpture 100 fc.
Retail Store
service 100 fc.
showcase 200 fc.
feature 500 fc.


CHINOOKS
RESTAURANT & GALLERY
HEAT GAIN TO SPACE FROM COMMERCIAL KITCHEN APPLIANCES (w/ HOOD)
BTUH BTUH BTUH
Appliance < Gcis Elec. MNF Input Rating Probable Max. Hrly Input Avg. Rate of Heat Gain
Cooking Kitchen
Water Heater Burner X 11,000 5,000 1,100
Steam Tables (10 ft2) X 25,000 12,500 2,500
Broiler X 70,000 35,000 7,000
Oven (roasting) X 80,000 40,000 8,000
Range X 35,000 17,500 3,500
Coffee Brewer (automatic) X 17,000 8,500 1,700
Deep Fat Fryer X 18,750 9,400 3,000
Roll Warmer X 6,650 2,800 900
Toaster X 8,350 4,200 1,800
TOTAL 54,200 33,000
Prep Choppers X 1,200 600 192
Mixer (1 hp) X A, 800 2,400 768
Slicer X 1,200 600 192
TOTAL 3,600 1,200
GRAND TOTAL 58,000 34,200


CHINOOKS
RESTAURANT & GALLERY
ENERGY USE GROUPS
AREA SUB-SPACES FT2
Gallery & Display area 640
Gift Shop Office/Storage 360
TOTAL 1000
Semi-Cond. Court TOTAL 2000
Bar & Dining Bar Seating 1610
Area Bar Service 525
Rest. Dining 2100
Rest Rooms 380
TOTAL 4655
Kitchen & Kitchen 1400
Storage Office 120
Storage 350
TOTAL 1870


CHINOOKS
RESTAURANT & GALLERY
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gKluse ^UP EVALUATION
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McaN . 4- 13G MhrUH
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.... V-----------------------------------------------------------
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Mar ^opusidhT
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Q^DITWEP AS BU1=TCSCj

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i MtfiDIFIFP
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PAV_________________________________
^>^ar ueiYT ilATmy ~t# *f T^pi^


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gNUSe EVALUATION
4*=- ________ st^ttusjkodifcii.
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- MEA.K1 UJOjE^NS, IQgU- HEAT LOSS BA^aVC&S f^FAT 641M

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OVER UEA-TUJ^ fa> £? PM A -+ 7tf M ATUH
11 u (p llWoo^H-661 MRrUH-
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gK)E.^^r use EVALUATION
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CHINOOKS
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use EVALUATION
e>U\L.plM6y STATUS
PRE--'Dg3\4h4 1?0)MVANDAn^
WINTER SEAE^Nl
- MEA.K1 Wf /ass @ 4^uvi ^ MftTUH_________________
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-0^y> _ M^AT +4fl7&TUff
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- MEAN SAKe AS ABoUB BUT
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CHINOOKS
RESTAURANT & GALLERY
IF YOUR AVERAGE DAILY ENERGY PERFORMANCE LOOKS LIKE THIS......
\ i
' \ i \
v-
7
THEN THIS-IS HOW TO IMPROVE PERFORMANCE
1 ALL LOSS 0 0 0 0
2 SOME LOSS E 0 0 0
ALLOWABLE GAINS 0
3 SOME LOSS 0 0 0 0
SOME ALLOWABLE GAINS 0 0
EXCESS GAINS TO TO > THI 0 0 0 0 0
4 ALL ALLOWABLE GAINS
5 ALLOWABLE GAINS 0
EXCESS GAINS TO < THI 0 0 [ 3 0
TO > THI 0 0 0 0
37 ALL EXCESS GAINS TO TO > THI 0 0 0 0
COLD


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CHINOOKS
RESTAURANT & GALLERY
1 REM aassssaaasrrssssssaassrsss
2 RE H -------------------------
3 PRINT 11 ********************** ************************ 11
PRINT
PRINT "MODIFIED ENERGY GRAPHICS''
6 PRINT
7 PRINT "********* * *
************************ "
S PRINT
9 PRINT A PROGRAM BY HENRY MUELLER 9/1/81 "
11 PRINT
12 PRINT "**********************
****************************
**"
14 REM THIS PROGRAM IS A DESIGN AID TO BE USED TO DETERMINE THE ENERGY PROBLEMS A BUILDI NG WILL HAUE PRIOR TO ACTUAL DESIGN.IT IS MODELED AFTER ENERGY GRAPHICS A TOOL CREATED BY BOOZ-ALLEN & HAMILTON r WASHINGTON D.C..
16 PRINT i PRINT
17 REM
18 REM aaaaraaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa
19 REM = = ====== = = = = = = = = = = = =: = = = = =


3RUN
*********4^*********************t**t**t**t***lK
MODIFIED ENERGY GRAPHICS
A PROGRAM Dr HENRY MUELLER 9/1/81
U^U'UiU^lU'fMd >M ,: i.ii************** ******'***
IF YOU WAN I IF YOU WANT FOR BCIJLDlR TEa^ 1 j-2 TEX( 2 >*3 TEX< 3 > = 2 TEav 4 v-i TEX( 5 >-=-2 TEXi £> )-- 1 IF YOU WAN!
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ENVELoFC PARAMETEI '< F
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HEAT GAIN/LOSS --435.rtbTUH WINTER nEAN PjPM
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HEAT GAIN/LQSS*-1*970 .MD ITJH WINTER 1h% 4AM
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HEAT CAIN/LGGS*-J.6?.MBTUH WINTER 1 i% 12 N
HEAT GAIN/LGSS-'*£9SY MBTUH WINTER 14% 4FH
HEAT GAIN/ LOSS* -730.MDTIJH WINTER L4% PI PM
JJEA'I GAIN/LOSS*- G9J .MBTUH SWING 86% MID
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HEAT GAIN/LOSS*/.MDTIJH SWING a*,:; GhM
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HEAT GAIN/LOSS* 303.MBTUH SUMMER 36% MID
HEAT GAIN/L0SS-50.MBIUH SUMMER &o% mAM
HEAT GAIN/LOSS*19.MBTUH SUMMER 36% GAM
HEAT CAIN/LQSS*2f>5.MBTUH SUMMER 33% I2N
HEAP GAIN/L0SS-f47i.nl TUH SUMMER 36% -iTM
HEAT GAIN/L0SS HEAT CAIN/LQSS-94.MBTUH SUMMER MEAN MID
HEAT GAIN/ LOSSES ML* TUH SUMMER MEAN hAM
HEAT GAIN/LOSS*i.?. nBTUH SUMMER MEAN CAM
HEAT GAIN/LQSS=1OS.MBTUH SUMMER MEAN 17N
HEAT GAIN/LQSS*291.nBTUH SUMMER MEAN -tfri
ALLOW. HEAT GAIN* 1-74. MBTUH
ALLOW. HEAT GAIN*44.MBTUH
ALLOW. HEAT i GATN-64.MBTUH
ALLOW. HEAT GAIN-1 74.MBTUH
ALLOW. HEAT GAIN*174.MBTUH
ALLOW. HEAT GAIN=17h.MBTUH
ALLOW. HEAT GAIN* L74.MBTUH
ALLOW. HEAT GAIN=m4.MBTUH
ALLOW. HEAT GAIN-64.MBTUH
ALLOW. HEAT GAIN-174.MBTUH
ALLOW. HEAT GAIN*174.MBTUH
ALLOW. HEAT GAIN-174.MBTUH
ALLOW. HEAT GAIN*168.MBTUH
ALLOW. HEAT GAIN-36.MBTUH ALLOW. HEAT GAIN=49.MBTUH ALLOW, lit.AT GAIN-48.H&TMH ALLOW. HEAT GAIN-33.MBTUH ALLOW. HEAT GAIN-UP.MBTUH ALLOW. HEAT GAIN*174.MBTUH ALLOW. HEAT GATN-44 .HBTIIH ALLOW. HEAT GAIN =64.MBTUH ALLOW. HEAT GAIN*17*.MBTUH ALLOW. HEAT GAIN*174.MBTUH ALLOW. HEAT GAIN*174.MBTUH ALLOW. HEAT GAIN*131.MBTUH ALLOW. HEAT GAIN=26.MBTUH ALLOW. HEAT GAIN-27.MBTUH ALLOW. HEhf GAIN*IJ.MBTUH ALLOW. HEAT GAIN*11.MBTUH ALLOW. HEAT GAIN-41.MBTUH ALLOW. HEAT GAIN-165.MBTUH ALLOW. HEAT CAIN-30.MBTUH ALLOW. HEAT GAIN-35.MBTUH ALLOW. HEAT GAIN-60.MBTUH ALLOW. HEAT GAIN* 105.MBTUH ALLOW. HEAT CAIN*l20.MBTUH
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Local uimaioiogicai Data
Annual Summary With Comparative Data ,
1978
DENVER, COLORADO '
Narrative Climatological Summary
Denver enjoys the mild, sunny, semi-arid climate that prevails over much of the central Rocky Mountain region, without the extremely cold mornings of the high elevations and restricted mountain valleys during the cold part of the year, or the hot afternoons of summer at lower altitudes. Extremely warm or cold weather is usually of short duration.
Air masses from at lqast four different sources influence Denver's weather: arctic air from Canada and Alaska; warm moist air from the Gulf of Mexico; warm dry air from Mexico and the southwest; and Pacific air modified by its passage over coastal ranges and other mountains to the west.
The good climate results largely from Denver's location at the foot of the east slope of the Rocky Mountains in the belt of the prevailing westerlies. During most summer afternoons cumuliform clouds so shade the City that temperatures of 90 or over are reached on an average of only thirty-two days of the year, and in only one year in five does the mercury very briefly reach the 100 mark.
In the cold season the high altitude and the location of the mountains to the west combine to moderate temperatures. Invasions of cold air from the north, intensified by the high altitude, can be abrupt and severe. On the other hand, many of the cold air masses that spread southward out of Canada over the plains never reach Denver's altitude and move off over the lower plains to the east. Surges of cold air from the west are usually moderated in their descent down the east face of the mountains, and Chinooks resulting from some of these westerly flows often raise the temperature far above that normally to be expected at this latitude in the cold season. These conditions result in a tempering of winter cold to an average temperature above that of other cities situated at the same latitude.
In spring when outbreaks of polar air are waning, they are often met by moist currents from the Gulf of Mexico. The juxtaposition of these two currents produces the rainy season in Denver, which reaches its peak in May.
Situated a long distance from any moisture source, and separated from the Pacific source by several high mountain barriers, Denver enjoys a low relative humidity, low average precipitation, and considerable sunshine.
Spring is the wettest, cloudiest, and windiest season. Much of the 37 percent of the annual total precipitation that occurs in spring falls as snow during the colder, earlier period of that season. Stormy periods are often interspersed by stretches of mild sunny weather that remove previous snow cover.
Summer precipitation (about 32 percent of the annual total), particularly in July and August, usually falls mainly from scattered local thundershowers during the afternoon and evening. Mornings are usually clear and sunny. Clouds often form during early afternoon and cut off the sunshine at what would otherwise be the hottest part of the day. Many afternoons have a cooling shower.
Autumn is the most pleasant season. Local summer thunderstorms are mostly over and invasions of cold air and severe weather are infrequent, so that there is less cloudiness and a greater percent of possible sunsVine than at any other time of the year. Periods of unpleasant weather are generally brief. Precipitation amounts to about 20 percent of the annual total.
Winter has least precipitation accumulation, only about 11 percent of the annual total, and almost all of it snow. Precipitation frequency, however,' is higher than in autumn. There is also more cloudiness and the relative humidity averages higher than in the autumn. Weather can be quite severe, but as a general rule the severity doesn't last long.
i +itU£L\( 0A-TV -PltoH I T7c>-) nnnn NATIONAL OCEANIC AND / ENVIRONMENTAL DATA AND / NATIONAL CLIMATIC CENTER
IV-/C101 ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION / INFORMATION SERVICE / ASHEVILLE, N.C.


Meteorological Data For The Current Year
Station DENVER* CHLORADO STAPLETON INTERNATIONAL AP Standard time used: MOUNTAIN Latituda: *9 *5' N Longitude: 10* 52 U Elavation (ground) : *283 feet Year: 197#
_________i 230*2_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Month Temperature F Degree day* Bate 65 *F Precipitation In inche* Relative humidity, pet. Wind 2 1 ii i § |i !i Number of days Averaga station pr assure mb
Averages Extreme* Water equivalent Snow, Ice pellets 1 05 i 11 Loca I 17 time 1 23 Resultant i If Fastest mile Sunrise to sunset A 1 II if II It Temperature F
Maximum Minimum
f'l E 2 I l X s o I I ? 1 ? 1 1 h- j| I 1 H £ Jl I s S Q 1! I! J 1 Q I f! I (b> u ll ll II Elev. 5332 feet m.a.1.
JAN 37.5 1*.I 25.8 55 6 0 1 1206 0 0.27 0,13 15-16 5.5 2.3 23-2* 69 53 5* 66 0* 1.0 5.9 29 NW 25 69 6.9 6 9 16 6 3 0 2 0 9 31 1 83*.7
FfB *2.2 20.6 31.* 23 7 17 936 0 0.27 0.13 11-12 6.2 3.1 15-16 76 5* 5* 73 0* 1.8 7.2 38 NE 20 73 6.6 * 11 13 6 2 0 8 0 7 28 0 033.*
MAR 57.0 29.6 *3.3 77 31 -3 * 665 0 1.07 0.67 22-23 8.6 *.5 2-3 60 39 33 S3 3* 0.6 8.1 27 W 16 * 6.* 9 8 1* 8 * 2 1 0 1 15 2 83*.*
APR 63.6 36.* 50.3 2 7 27 10 35 0 1.82 0.86 9 *.6 *.2 9 6* 38 35 51 29 1.7 10.3 *1 H 17 78 6.* 5 1* 11 6 l 3 2 0 0 6 0 831.7
MAY 67.1 *1.7 5*.* 87 15 23 7 335 12 3.*6 1.12 30-1 13.5 8.9 5-6 69 *3 *0 61 l? 1.7 9.1 5* s? 16 65 6.1 9 8 1* 12 3 5 1 0 0 2 0 833.*
JUN 80.6 53.1 66.9 95 2* *1 1 87 152 i.ll 0.*5 *-5 0.0 0.0 65 39 3* 5* 16 2.0 7.8 38 N 7 67 5.7 10 9 11 7 0 7 0 ll 0 0 0 8J7.5
JUL 90,* 59.e 7*.7 ?5 50 23 0 308 0.5* 0.21 29 0.0 0.0 62 30 26 3 16 1.* 8.3 3* NW 16 73 .3 12 1* 5 5 0 11 1 22 0 0 0 838.1
AUG 85.5 53.7 69.6 9* 17 ** 15 20 171 0.26 0.11 2-3 0.0 0.0 63 31 30 52 1* 1.3 8.2 *2 N 1 73 *.7 10 1* 7 7 0 6 0 12 0 0 0 838.8
SPP 81.2 *8.7 65.0 9* 6 32 21 96 103 0.07 0.07 19-20 T T 20 51 25 20 *0 17 2.* 8.1 30 S 7 83 2.5 21 7 2 0 1 0 7 0 1 0 837.1
OfT 68.2 37.9 53.1 86 1 28 23 366 2 l.*5 1.2* 21-22 2.7 1.7 22 5* 31 28 *9 16 0.9 7.2 26 NE * 7* .0 19 5 7 3 2 0 0 0 0 8 0 839.5
NPV *9.1 25.7 37.8 7 8 8 27 811 0 0.50 0.35 25-26 6.9 *. 8 25-26 66 *5 *6 63 0* 0.3 7.2 26 NW 28 56 6.0 11 6 13 5 2 0 * 0 5 2* 0 833.8
DFC 36.9 12.3 2*.6 57 * -10 8 12*3 0 0.82 0.38 5-6 1* 2 7.3 5-6 65 50 56 62 1 0.9 8.* 35 NE 5 72 5.3 10 10 11 7 * 0 1 0 9 31 * 32.*
JUL DEC OCT MAY MAY
YFAR 63.3 36.1 *9.7 V 98 * 25 -10 8 6202 7*8 11.70 1.2* 21-22 62.2 8.9 5-6 6* *0 38 56 16 0.6 8.0 SE 16 72 5.* 126 115 12* 7* 21 35 20 52 31 1*6 7 835.6
Normals, Means, And Extremes

| Month * Tempers turet F Normal Degree days Base 65 *F Precipitation in inches Relative humidity pet Wind | i 1 'S £ e h n t! ii Mean number of days Average
- Norntal % Extra met Water equivalent Snow, Ice pellets 1 05 (l 1 11 ocef 1 17 timi i 23 i) if II Fastest mile Sunrise to sunset J 1 §1 £ 9 i[ ll | £ 1. $ ga ii Tempera Max. turea *F Min. presaure mb.
ll ll I! t > If i > I ? I I If ii i > 1 6 if J !| n 1 E k if ii 1 H l > 1! Q 1 3 > -o ll 1 (b) ll U fel Ii Ii Elev. a?* m.a.L
(a) ** ** 6* 6* ** ** 16 16 18 16 30 19 29 29 29 >0 6* 66 ** 66 66 36 16 16 1 1*
V *3.5 16.2 29.9 72 1936 -25 1963 1086 0 0.61 i.** 19* 1932 1.0< 23.7 19*6 12.* 1962 63 *5 * 63 9.1 S 13 N 1976 72 3.5 10 9 12 6 2 1 0 6 30 * .i
F *6.2 19.* 32.1 76 1963 30 1936 902 0 0.67 1.66 I960 0,01 1970 1.01 1953 16.3 1960 9.5 1955 66 *3 2 6* 9.3 S 69 NW 1951 71 3,9 8 9 11 6 2 2 0 * 27 1 696.5
M 50.i 23.8 37.0 8* 1971 11 19*3 666 0 1.21 2.89 19** 0.13 19*5 1**6 1959 29.2 1961 16.3 1932 67 1 40 63 10.0 s 13 NW 1932 70 *.i 6 10 13 6 6 1 0 4 26 l n.o
A 6i.g *3.9 *7.5 83 L960 -2 197J 523 0 1.91 .17 19*2 0.03 1963 3.25 1967 26.3 1935 17.3 1957 66 36 35 59 10.4 s 66 NW 1960 67 7 10 13 9 1 1 0 * 12 92.9
M 70.3 *3.6 57.0 96 19*2 22 195* 29 0 2.6* 7.31 195 V 0.06 197* 3.59 1973 13.6 1950 10,7 1950 70 36 36 60 9.6 s 64 II 1976 63 4.1 6 12 11 10 1 e 0 t 0 l*.0
J 80.* 51.9 66.0 10* 1936 30 1951 o 110 .* .69 196 V 0.10 i960 1.16 1T0 0.1 1951 0.3 1951 71 36 36 60 9.1 s 67 s 1936 71 si 9 13 6 9 0 10 6 0 0 0 16.1
4 87.* 58.6 73.0 10* 1938 *3 197 2 0 2*6 1.76 6.*1 1963 0,17 2 *2 1963 0.0 0.0 70 36 35 57 6.3 s 66 IH 1963 71 4,9 9 16 6 9 0 11 19 0 0 0 99.0
A 85,f 57.* 71.6 101 1938 *1 196* 0 206 1.29 *.7 1951 3.*3 1951 0.0 0.0 69 36 35 56 6.2 s 42 N 1976 72 4,9 10 l* 7 6 0 l 10 0 0 0 >6sl
S 77.7 *7.1 62.8 97 i960 20 1971 1 20 9* 1 s 13 .67 1961 T 19** 2.** 1936 21.3 1936 19.* 19|6 69 36 13 60 6.2 s 67 NW 1955 73 43 13 10 7 6 l I 0 1 0 96.7
0 66.4 37.2 HiO 88 19*7 3 1969 *06 9 1.13 .17 196V 0.09 1962 1.71 19*7 31.2 1969 12.* 1*69 6* 35 35 68 6.2 s 65 NW i* 76 4,6 14 9 6 9 1 1 0 t 0 636.1
N 53.4 25.* 19.* 79 1**1 .8 1930 76| 0 0.76 2.97 19*6 0.01 1**9 1.2* 1975 39.1 19*6 15.5 1*66 *6 ** 9 66 6.7 s * w 1962 63 6.4 ll 9 10 9 t 1 0 2 29 615.6
0 *6,2 18.9 32.6 T. l* 1 1972 100* 0 0.*1 2.6* 1974 0.03 1977 1.36 1973 10.6 1974 11.6 l*T 65 * >0 6 % 9.0 s Pi Nl 1933 66 .l 11 10 10 3 2 1 0 f 30 9 6*1.9
JUL CEB YA 6*. U 36.2 §0.1 10* 1929 r*o [1936 6016 625 15.91 7.11 fl9J/ T |19*6 1.59 1TJ 19.1 19*6 19.* 1916 67 *0 0 . 9.0 9 16 SH 19*3 70 Itl 116 131 lit 6 ! 61 10 33 21 9 31.6
Means and extremes above are from existing and comparable exposures. Annual extremes have been exceeded at other sites in the locality as follovsi Highest temperature 105 in August 1878j maximum monthly precipitation 8.57 in May 1876j minimum monthly precipitation 0.00 in December 1881; maximum precipitation in 24 hours 6.53 in May 1876i maximum monthly snowfall 57.4 in December 1913i maximum snowfall in 24 hours 23.0 in April 1885) fastest mile of wind 65 from West in May 1933.
(*) Length of record, years, through the current year unless otherwise noted, based on January data.
(b) 70 and above at Alaskan stations.
* Less than one half.
T Trace.
NORMALS Based on record for the 1941-1970 period.
DATE OF AN EXTREME The most recent In cases of multiple
occurrence.
PREVAILING WIN0 DIRECTION Record through 1963.
HIND DIRECTION Numerals Indicate tens of degrees clockwise from true north. 00 Indicates calm.
FASTEST MILE HIND Speed 1s fastest observed l-m1nute value when the direction 1s 1n tens of degrees.
V


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CLIMOGRAPHS
Station elev. ^+950'
Mean annual temp. 48.3
Mean annual prec ip. 12.03 Mean annual snowfall 3^*2" Highest rec. temp.103 Lowest rec. temp.-38
Station elev. 5385'
Mean annual temp. 52.3
Mean annual precip.18.5? Mean annual snowfall 80.5" Highest rec. temp. 104 Lowest rec. temp. -33
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PASSIVE SOLAR APPLICATION EVALUATION FOR RENOVATION OF A SMALL COMMERCIAL BUILDING
Don Woolard Ph.D Henry W. Mueller B.A.
Collage of Environmental Design UCD Denver, Colorado


Introduction
There are four million commercial buildings in the U.S.A. of which
p
two million are less than 5000 ft in gross area. Host of these buildings are small retail stores, personal service outlets, or small offices built between 1921 and I960. If 80% of the buildings we will work in by the year 2,000 are standing today, then an emphasis must be placed on renovating these buildings so that small businesses can minimize their energy consumption. This project deals with the renovation of one such building in
2
Denver, Colorado. It is a typical brick store front just under 5,000 ft .
The Department of Energy had awarded the owners a grant to renovate the building with a tromb wall, a green house, and a hot water collector as part of a community demonstration project Fig. ( 1 ).
Depending on the type of commercial building and the use patterns within it, it is not a simple matter just to tack on passive solar strategies and have them help solve the energy problems of the building. This is particularly true with tromb walls which usually work well on residential buildings because they absorb energy through the day and radiate into the space at night when it is needed. Since commercial buildings only operate during the day and tend to generate a lot of internal loads, a tromb wall could easily overheat the building at the wrong time. In fact, tromb walls are useless in large buildings where internal loads require constant cooling.
If older buildings are going to be renovated for energy efficient use, then design tools must be available to determine if specific passive solar strategies will work successfully. Since most designers doing such renovations do not have the access to.or the budget for,sophisticated computer tools, then simple manual tools are needed to analyze the energy use


-2-
and utilization in renovation schematic designs. Tools such as LA3Ls
SLR technique are not useful because they often overestimate heating needs
needs
and underestimate coolingAin commercial buildings.
Energy Graphics which is currently being developed by 3ooz, Allen
and Hamilton, Inc. is a design tool created to evaluate the energy use
and utilization in buildings at a predesign stage. It is a visual tool
energy
which allows the designer to see what is happening to the^use in the building. The aims of this project werei
To determine if Energy Graphics (EG) can be applied as an energy analysis tool to the schematic design of a small commercial building renovation.
To evaluate the appropriate passive solar application of a tromb
wall to the Greater Park Hill Community, Inc. Office and Thrift Shoppe in N.E. Denver, Colorado.
The Process
The EG method involves two steps. First the information is organized and then building energy performance is computed and graphed.
I. Organizing Information A. The Building Program
1. The building is defined into functional spaces.
a. thrift shop = 1790 ft"
b. GPHC Office = 1670 ft2
c. please office = 900 ft2
Total net space = kjSO ft2
2. The client was interviewed and the use patterns of the building
were established


-3-
a. thrift shopi 10 am - 4 pm (2 to 12 people)
b. GPHC offices 9 am - 2 pm (^ to 5 people)
c. lease offices 8 am - 5 to 6 people)
3. EG method divides the functional spaces into energy use groups.
To simplify the calculations, the entire building was considered a single energy use group.
b. EG does not set the required internal temperature at one value, but allows it to vary between two extremes. = lower temperature and
T, ^ = higher temperature. and vary depending on whether the
building is occupied. After determining the owner's requirements, the allowable temperature range was defined ass 68 to ?8F from 9 am to b pm 50 to 90E from b pm to 9 am
B. Site information. Since we are using a manual method of energy analysis, it is essential that we simplify the site climate information as much as possible in order to keep the subsequent calculations to a minimum.
EG reduces the site climate to the two most significant environmental determinants: Temperature and Insolation. Further simplification is achieved by condensing hourly data for a complete year into four typical days, one representing each season. No systematic method for selecting these days is given, however, and it is left to the judgement of the designer. Fig. (2.) shows a graph of mean monthly temperatures creating a complete yearly cycle. Representative months were taken at the minima (January) and maxima (July) of this cycle. The months where the cycle crosses the axis (the yearly mean temperature) are defined as the swing months (April and October). Since the mean temperature of these months is the same, only one is needed to represent the swing period of the


year. October was selected, thus reducing the calculations and simplifying the design tool to three representative months, or three design days.
For representative hourly temperature values, EG suggests that typical days be selected from each month, but, again, offers no systematic method for selecting either the average day, month, or year. The authors selected the typical months by reviewing monthly summaries over a period of ten years and selecting months where the mean temperature given for that month varied less than .5F from the fifty year mean.
This is not a statistically valid prodedure, but was systematic and thought to be better than selecting an arbitrary year.
With the representative months selected, the next step involved constructing a design day representing that month. EG suggests condensing the day to seven representative hours (taken at four hour intervals), the hours being midnight, 4 am, 3 am, noon, 4 pm, 8 pm, and mignight again. To select the temperature value for these hours, the first consideration was to use Olgay's method of taking mean monthly values for each hour given in the NOAA summaries. However, Brealey(l) points out that the use of temperature averages can be misleading due to the fact that a given temperature at a given hour of the day is subject to a high degree of variability. The mean statistic is often not representative of the temperature distribution at a given hour over a monthly period.
Tb test this observation, the author plotted the frequency distri-butiorsc-of the temperature variation during the selected design months.
Fig. ( 3-a) represents the distribution of temperatures occuring at


-5-
5 pm during January. One can see that the temperatures vary widely.
Fig. (3-b) shows the same distribution for October. The distribution is
clustered on either side of the mean, rarely hitting it. Fig. (3-c)
shows the distribution for July. Here the temperatures do not vary as
widely, but still are clumped to one side of the mean. The figures
demonstrate clearly how misleading the mean can be..
To account for this variability around the mean, Brealey suggests
that the designer use representative temperatures towards the extremes
of the distribution. Based on work done in Australia, the authors chose
the temperature which was equalled or exceeded on lk% of the occasions
at a given time of day during the cold month (January) and chose the
temperature which was equal to or below 86% of the occasions at a given
time during the hot month (July). For the swing month, both the lk%
and 86% temperatures were used since the temperatures clustered around
either side of the mean. A design that meets conditions six out of seven
days is tr ->ught to be most practical and is widely used in Australia.
Figure ( T ) shows the diurnal cycles of the constructed design days.
Jinter is represented by the mean and 14% temperature', the swing
season is represented by the 14% and 86% temperatures, and the summer is mean $the
represented by theA36% temperature.
Insolation
FG calls for hourly insolation measured as a rate of heat flux
2
(Btuh/ft") incident on horizontal, south, east, west, and north surfaces. Although average daily values of insolation for horizontal and south surfaces are readily available for at least 250 weather stations in the U.S.A., average hourly values for different compass points are not.


-6-
The authors compared, many sources of climate information and found discrepancies of as much as between insolation values stated for a given location. The authors found it rather disturbing that insolation date varied so much, and further that the values were usually based on data extrapolated from just a few measurement stations. When climate information is published, data that is actually measured should be distinguished from data that is extrapolated (including the assumptions made in derivation). This was often found not to be the case. The National Bureau of Standards report N33 33S 96 was found to be the most useful source of hourly insolation. Of the 80 stations listed, Grand Junction, Colorado, was found to be the closest and its average daily horizontal values were within 6% of those given in the SERI Insolation Manual for Denver.


-7-
II.
Compute and Graph the Building Performance
To evaluate the effect of the tromb wall, the building renovation design was first analyzed without it. This would show what the energy needs
of the building were exactlyjand when they occurred. The hourly contribution of the wall would then be added to determine its effect. EG breaks down the performance of the building into several components which are summed to get total performance. These component assumptions were made as follows:
Internal heat gain
- loads based on building use patterns were determined using the following assumptions
lights 5*5 Btuh/ft^ office 20.0 Btuh/ft^ store display area equipment 1.7 Btuh/ft^ general people ^50 Btuh/ft^ general Solar heat gain
- EG assumes opaque surfaces, allow 10/o transmission of insolation from exterior to interior
- EG assumes glazed surfaces, similarly allow 80% transmission
Envelope heat gain and loss = AT X exposed area X transmission.
(To) ^
- the difference between outside temperature^ana inside temperature (T^)
is computed relative to max/min allowable temperatures when
T > T then AT = T T.. When T < T. then AT = T. T 0 hi o hi 0 lo lo o
Otherwise, AT = 0.
- Transmission
- .033 roof U = ,2b walls
U = 1.13 glass


-8-
Allowable heat gain (AT^)
A is also calculated to allow interior temperatures to rise to Thi before building needs cooling. Therefore, AT^ = Thi - .
Ventilation heat gain = ventilation rate (CFM X AT X 1.08)
Ventilation heat gain and loss = ventilation rate X AT X constant
- minimum ventilation rate is assumed to be at least 5CFI'l/person or 5 air changes/Kr if greater.
- maximum ventilation rate is assumed not to exceed 10 air changes/Hr.
- humidity was not considered a problem in this dry climate.
- allowable heat gain from ventilation is calculated as above using Af^ for AT
Using the assumptions and methods stated above, the composite heat gain and loss for the entire building was computed. Fig (5 -A) shows the composite graph plotted from the previous calculations. The graph shows a heating problem on winter nights, especially during the lk% days, but it also shows that, even during winter, the building seems to overheat during the day. In fact, cooling the building seems to be the overwhelming problem.
Since the renovation design did little to the envelope of the building (except adding some shade), the authors investigated the existing utility bills to see if these results made sense. They did not. The existing building did not have air conditioning, and winter gas bills showed heating to be a problem. The existing occupants said that, even though the building did overheat in the summer, the heater was in operation throughout most winter days.


-9-
This inconsistancy prompted the authors to re-evaluate their calculation methods. The apparent overheating seemed to be dominated by solar heat gain. SG assumed that incident radiation was directly transmitted through the opaque surfaces. Although this simplifies considerably the heat gain calculation, it does not account for the lag factor in the mass of the exterior walls and roof. For a cavity brick wall in a building such as this, the inciderv^radiation can take as much as 10 hours to reach the interior space. Indeed, the indigenous use of brick in this climate probably resulted from the external climate tempering effects of cavity walls.
Since SG is really a predesign tool created to evaluate new and larger buildings where external mass does not impact the building so much, then it becomes obvious that it has to be modified to be useful in smaller renovation designs such as this. The composite heat gain and loss needed to be calculated taking envelope mass into account. This was done using a sol-air calculation to account for the insolation gain,and a lag and decrement calculation to account for the mass effect of the brick. These more involved calculation methods are described by Markus and Morris (1980) pg. J10 326. Data for decrement and lag were calculated assuming: roof 4 lag = Jhr decrement = .04 wall 4 lag 10 hr decrement = .073
This method complicated the calculations considerably, but was thought to be necessary for proper evaluation. The recomputed results are shown in Fig.( '-3). This graph clearly demonstrates the tempering effect of the brick cayity wall on the external environment. These results seemed more realistic and coincided with the utility bills. The building clearly has a heating problem during the winter and a cooling problem during the summer. It is interesting to note that, during the swing seasons, the


-10-
building overheats on an 86/5 day and needs heating during a lb% night. This demonstrates the importance of using representative days that incorporate the variability of the climate data, especially on small commercial buildings of this type that can either have heating or cooling problems.
The next step in the evaluation was to try to determine the effect the tromb wall would have on the heat gain or loss of the building. The authors could not find simple methods to determine the heat flow from the tromb wall into the building (short of a computer model)? however, performance date were located for a similar wall in a retrofit situation (Sandia Lab, 1980). It was determined that, for a tromb wall of this type, around 60% af incident radiation reached the interior space on a winter day. When you have a ten hour lag in a wall, the diurnal cycle of insolation is almost completely leveled by the time it reaches the interior space. Therefore, the tromb wall gives a constant heat flow into the space. It was assumed that, over a 24hr period, the tromb wall gave 60/5 of the daily insolation or a constant 32MBtuh. In Fig, (5-3) the impact of the tromb wall is summed over a mean winter day where it reduces heating requirements significantly. If not shaded or ventilated properly, the wall could seriously overheat the building during warm days in the swing season or any day in the summer. The dotted line on the summer graph indicates the impact of the tromb for a hot 86;5 day with proper shading and ventilation the impact is minimal. A determination was next done to see if the same amount of energy could be saved by using night insulation in the east windows. It was found that, even though this could significantly reduce heat los^' the net gain of the windows was minimal. The significant contribution of the tromb wall results from a constant positive gain for the space. The possibility of putting skylights in, both to collect heat and


-11-
to daylight the space, was considered, but the initial cost compared to that of the tromb,turned out to be prohibitive.
The Final Solutions
Because of its low initial cost in this renovation design, the tromb wall is a cost effective solution. However, caution must be taken to shade and ventilate the wall properly during overheating periods. The authors devised a simple system for doing this shown in Fig. ( (o ). The internal shade screen is placed in the wall to prevent direct radiation from hitting the bricks during late spring, summer, and early fall. During overheating conditions, the incident radiation strikes the surface of the screen,re-radiates, and heats up the air cavity. This hot space is used as a heat engine to draw cool air from the basement into the interior space through the bottom of the tromb and out the top vent. The hotter the day, the hotter the cavity, the faster the heat engine moves the air. The basement air is replenished by air from the cooler back side of the building.
Conclusions
A manual tool, EG, designed to analyze a building's energy problems at a predesign stage was evaluated to see if it was applicable to the schematic design for the renovation of a small commercial building. Because the tool did not account for effects of envelope mass, it was found to give incorrect information. Modification which required an increased amount of calculation was found to give a better picture of building's energy problems and needs. The authors believe this modified EG is too cumberso-ss >to be used manually and could possibly be useful programmed for small computers. Adequate climate information is also needed for these tools. Some suggestions would bei


-12-
monthly summaries of diurnal temperature swing,showing variability with V% and 86fo day values.
hourly insolation averages correlated with lk% and 86?2 temperature values.
Better methods are needed to properly evaluate passive solar strategies on an hourly basis rather than yearly averages.


REFERENCES
1) Brealey, T.B. (1972) Presentation of the Temperature
Data for Building Designers Build. Sci.(Grt.Brt.)
Vol.7. 'pp.'101-1 OS--------
2) Markus, T.A. & Morris, E.N. Building Climate and Energy
(1980) Pitman Pub. Lim.,Louden PP.310-326
3) Sandia Laboratories (1979) Passive Solar Buildings
SAND 79-0624, Alb.,N.M.
pp171-182
DESIGN TOOL
Hart, Kurtz, Whiddon ENERGY GRAPHICS Booz-Allen & Hamilton Inc. Energy & Environment Division Washington D.C.




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