DESIGN GUIDELINES HOTCHKISS, COLORADO
Thesis Project Joanne M. Newton
This project was funded by the Division of Impact Assistance, State Department of Local Affairs under a contract with the Town of Hotchkiss.
Cooperating partners in the development and carrying out of the project include the Town of Hotchkiss, the Division of Impact Assistance, the Western Colorado Rural Conmunities Program, and the Center for Community Development and Design,
University of Colorado at Denver.
TABLE OF CONTENTS:
LETTER OF INTRODUCTION 2.
INTRODUCTION TO HOTCHKISS 6.
OPEN SPACE RECREATIONAL STUDY 7.
RECREATIONAL QUESTIONNAIRE 10.
MASTER PLAN PROPOSAL 30.
OPEN SPACE PLANNING 32.
WILLOW HEIGHTS PARK 37.
DESIGN GUIDELINES 50.
LANDSCAPE CONSIDERATIONS 72.
LETTER OF INTRODUCTION
As a student at the University of Colorado in Denver, I am presently completing my final semester in the graduate department of Landscape Architecture. Over the past two years, educational influences have initiated interest in open space recreational linkages. These recreational facilities, whether they are in the form of a small neighborhood park or a massive recreational system, have historically and physically become the structural core of many a growing city or county. Urbanization, with its crowded conditions and constantly developing artificiality, has created environmental modifications which threaten the vitality of a community. With proper planning, a community's inability to deal with this growth can be overcome, while preserving its original character.
Recently, professional attention has been directed towards the development of energy related mineral extractions along Colorado's western slopes, which will subject many small towns to considerable amounts of growth within the near future. Through the assistance of Mr. Jon Schler, a field representative for the Department of Local Affairs, I have been introduced to a small community in Delta County, Colorado, known as Hotchkiss. The citizens have expressed their concern of future exponential growth, and have requested assistance from the Department of Local Affairs, through a student intern program, to do a park design.
The desire for an open space recreational study has likewise been expressed in hopes of establishing a plan to accommodate future recreational needs as the community grows. Mr. Don Sandoval, the town's City Manager/Circuit Rider, has agreed to facilitate arrangements for this project.
With the above concerns in mind, I found this an ideal opportunity to further my educational interests, while professionally responding to the needs of the Hotchkiss community. Therefore, as a final practicum project for the graduate department of Landscape Architecture at the University of Colorado at Denver, I submit this proposal of an Open Space Recreational Study and Park Design for the City of Hotchkiss in Colorado.
I wish to thank all of those who have assisted in the efforts of this project, in particular the Center for Community Development and Design and Jon Schler, for their superb organizational assistance. A special thanks also to Don Sandoval for all of his patience, enthusiasm, and enduring cooperation. I have appreciated this rich opportunity working with the community, and encourage the time when the University of Colorado can be of assistance to the town of Hotchkiss in the future.
Joanne M. Newton
University of Colorado at Denver
In November of 1980, the town of Hotchkiss, through the Department of Local Affairs, contracted with the College of Environmental Design at the University of Colorado, Denver, to conduct a Park Design for the Willow Heights Park, and an Open Space Recreational Study.
The intent of this project was to enrich the recreational potential within the town of Hotchkiss, while enhancing the environmental quality of the surrounding valley.
The specific objectives for the materialization of these goals included the following:
to work closely with the citizens of Hotchkiss in order to clarify and define current and projected recreational needs.
to produce an appropriate design for the Willow Heights Park which sufficiently fulfills the needs of the surrounding nei ghborhood.
to initiate a recreational land use study, in order to investigate additional parcels of land appropriate for future recreational purposes.
to review all previous studies and existing data pertaining to the recreational resources within the valley.
t to generate a schematic recreational land use system, which may potentially function as a structural link throughout the new and historical Hotchkiss community.
Â§ to suggest methods to assure the preservation of key parcels of land through effective planning processes.
to present findings, objectives, recommendations and plans to the Hotchkiss citizens to the Department of Local Affairs and to the University of Colorado, Denver.
This report represents the conclusion of the work and contains recommendations, concepts, and proposals for future recreational development in Hotchkiss, Colorado.
The planning-and-design process leading to the proposed Willow Heights Site Plan and Schematic Recreational Open Space Plan was based on a series of overlapping steps. Of critical importance was participation in the process, which in this case included:
the Hotchkiss city manager/project coordinator
the Hotchkiss planning committee
the Department of Local Affairs' representative
the University of Colorado graduate faculty
The generalized sequence of the events in the process included the following:
PHASES ACTIVITIES^ 1. INVENTORY 2. GOALS
* - review all previous study material - develop short & long term goals
- site visits & field orientation - issue Recre -ational Questionnaire - develop pro jected recre ational needs
- community meeting #1
- develop prelimin ary design concepts
- community meeting *2
-define selected design concept
- begin Open Space Rec. Study
- presentation to University & Hotchkiss client
- revisions made
- final documentation
gunnison and north fork river basins
INTRODUCTION TO HOTCHKISS
Hotchkiss is situated in a small fruit-producing valley in Delta County, Colorado, approximately eighteen miles northeast of the city, Delta. Bordered by the Barrow and Hanson Mesas to the north and the North Fork of the Gunnison River to the south, this small mountain community has existed since the late 18th century. The Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad, which bypasses Hotchkiss to the north, has served as the town's major form of transportation of goods to and from the valley. Several small creeks and drainageways meander through this river valley which rests at an elevation of 5351 feet. Referred to as the Shrublands of the Saltbush, the natural vegetation characteristic of this locality consists of saltbush, rabbitbrush, gelleta, Indian rice and greasewood.
The town's existing population of approximately nine hundred is expected to increase one hundred percent by 1990, as the extraction of coal within the area progresses. The citizens of Hotchkiss are alarmed by these predictions and are concerned that the natural quality within the valley, as well as the character of the town, may be endangered. Thus, there is a need for a cohesive environmental link within the community which shall accommodate existing and proposed future development, while reinforcing the physical and economical community as a whole.
In response to the increase of energy related jobs within the valley, it is the designer's concern that the townspeople of Hotchkiss realize that they have a very active role to play as a controller of growth. This ever-expanding development can destroy ecosystems and remove large areas of valuable and treasured environmental, recreational, and historical resources if left unchecked. The outstanding geological features that exist as unique characteristics within the valley form physical barriers to expansion for the town of Hotchkiss. These apparent constraints shall encourage the utilization of the land to its greatest potential, whether it may be developmental or recreational in scope.
OPEN SMCE RECREATIONAL STUDY
OPEN SPACE RECREATIONAL STUDY
In contemporary thinking, appropriate planning is that which meets objective considerations particularly relevant for the individual recreational site under study. People are the benefactors of any park development and therefore the design focus must go beyond the limits of the park's boundaries. By purposeful design measure, a sharp planner or designer exploits the advantages of surroundings and overcomes the limitations posed by adjacent lands and their uses. Therefore, questions must be asked. In areas where land is abundant, yet awaiting development, how can growth be guided in such a way to exploit this abundance for the maximum. Hotchkiss is faced with mounting growth pressures and must plan for its jurisdictional open space and recreational needs.
In general, such planning procedures can be accomplished through an effective Master Plan. Presently, Hotchkiss lacks a master plan, but has recently granted the go-ahead to such a study. Therefore, the quantitative material and design recommendations developed in the Open Space Recreational Study shall act as a supplemental aid to the finalized Master Plan.
HOTCHKISS RECREATIONAL QUESTIONNAIRE
In order to properly advise a community with effective methods of growth control, it is important to gather base information in order to quantitatively evaluate the existing and predicted resources within the area.
In the initial stages of this study, a Recreational Questionnaire was issued. The purpose of this survey was to attain a general public opinion in order to establish a basis for development of the Willow Heights Park and other possible recreational facilities. Questionnaires were distributed within the Hotchkiss City hall, throughout several neighborhoods, and among the high school, where upper level students and instructors responded, making for an approximate 80% response.
Ninety-three percent felt that it was possible to link the new and old communities through the development of an adequate park/recreation system.
In general, the results supplied the following facts:
Sixty percent of community surveyed felt that the Hotchkiss area was lacking recreational facilities, and would require even more in the future.
t People were in support of additional facilities, such as a swimming pool, jogging/hiking paths, basketball and tennis courts, equestrian and hiker trails, and picnic areas.
Eighty percent were highly concerned with the proposed future growth, and felt that the historical character of Hotchkiss must be preserved.
People believed that the North Fork of the Gunnison River, the Old School Site, and the Leroux Creek possessed open space value and recreational potential.
Hotchkiss Recreation Questionnaire
The following is a short survey issued by a graduate student from the University of Colorado at Denver. Jody Newton is in the process of completing her masters in Landscape Architecture, and as a final design requirement has volunteered to aid the town of Hotchkiss with an illustrative park design for the proposed Willow Heights Park..
The purpose of this Survey is to attain a general public opinion in order to establish a basis for the development of the Willow Heights Park and other possible recreational facilities.
To complete this survey, please check the answer which best suits the question. Some questions may require more than one answer, or a written explanation.
Thank you for your time and consideration. Jody Newton, University of Colorado at Denver
1. What is the total number of persons living within your household? Please list ages and sex.
2. How long have you lived within
less than one year _____one to five years
3. How long do you expect to stay
3% less than one year 33'% one to five years
4. How much vacation time do you 20% none
_____less than one week
one to two weeks
_____five to ten years
3QQj more than ten years
within this area?
33% five to ten years 30% more than ten years
usually have each year?
_____two to three weeks
What part of spring 70% summer
the year do you usually take your vacation?
What part of your vacation time was spent in Delta County? ti<* none three-fourths
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Which of the proposed recreational elements do you feel are needed in the Willow Heights Park?
1 picnic tables with barbeque pits 2 playing field
5 tot lot/'playground 4 parking
3" jogging tricycTe' pattr 7 others:
Can you see any member of your household utilizing this park once it is completed? 93# yes ______no
What other types of recreational facilities in the Hotchkiss area do you feel are
needed in addition to Willow Heights Park?
15 picnic area 6 hiking paths*
3 basketball courts*
12 football fields
11 soccer fields 7__basebal1/softball fields
14 golf course 1 swimming pools* river rafting
additional rodeo grounds 9 outdoor amphitheaters
10 playgrounds 16 other
Is it desirable that the fairgrounds be developed to a greater extent as a recreational facility?
70# yes _______no
Are you concerned with possible population growth within the area (county) due to the extraction of coal or oil shale?
80# yes _______no
Is it important to you that the historical character of Hotchkiss be preserved?
70% yes _______no
Do you believe that the growing Hotchkiss community shall require additional recreational facilities?
93# yes _______no
Is it possible through the development of an adequate park/recreation system to cohesively link the new and old Hotchkiss communities?
93# yes _______no
Are there properties or natural features within the Hotchkiss area that you feel are worthy of preserving, and which should be in public ownership?
44# yes 56# no
If so, describe what parcels of land you feel deserve this merit.
The North Fork and Gunnison River Basin Hotchkiss Old School Site Wooded Areas
Is it felt that there is a need to acquire these lands and leave them natural for wildlife refuges, nature study, or scenic enjoyment? mj/es _________no
Do you feel that outdoor recreational facilities should be provided on acquired lands? 75% yes _______no
Are there any parcels of land that would be strictly ideal for additional park sites or linkages?
____yes 68# no
If so, please describe the site(s) to which you are referring.
The North Fork & Gunnison River The Old School Site
ASSESSMENT OF EXISTING & PROPOSED ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES
With the Recreational Questionnaire supplying a general consensus of the community desires, an assessment of existing and proposed environmental resources would only further define the lands possessing recreational potential.
The severity of sloping terrain is shown on this plan indicating the difficulty of development. Urban and residential construction is moderately difficult for slopes ranging from 10-20%, and very difficult for slopes that exceed 20%. The outstanding geologic features that exist as unique characteristics within the valley, such as the sloping mesa sides, which are characterized as moderate to non-developable lands, possess distinct visual qualities.
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OPEN SPACE RECREATIONAL STUDY
joarme m newton university of Colorado at denver landscape architecture 701 may, 1981
The geologic hazards indicated on this map consider all the factors which may affect development. Such things as expansive soils, unstable rock, Mancos shale, or even Mesa Verde Formation, which is quite shallow, are all considered geologic hazards. In general, the geology of the canyon is composed of predominantly Mancos shale, sandstone, and alluvial deposits. The Mancos shale is quite susceptible to rock and land slides, especially when it is excavated. Based on the United States Geological Survey of 1972, this plan is shaded to indicate the severity of hazards in different areas.
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OPEN SPACE RECREATIONAL STUDY
joanne m. newton university of Colorado at denver landscape architecture 701 may, 1981
The main drainage channel of the North Fork of the Gunnison River flows from east to west, and is classified as a semi-navigable stream. In addition to the maze of drainage channels, there are numerous irrigation canals in the corridor carrying water to productive farm land and orchards. The hydro-geology of the corridor is shown on this map along with the approximate 100 year flood plain.
No thorough flood plain study of the corridor has been undertaken and the actual 50 and 100 year flood plains have not been defined. The shaded area on these maps is a geographic approximation of the area that would be affected by a 100 year flood. This area was estimated by using a combination of field estimates and map contours. It should be noted that this flood plain area is very conservative.
100 year flood plain
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SPACE RECREATIONAL STUDY
joanne m newton university of Colorado at denver landscape architecture 701 may, 19o1
The native vegetation of the valley along the North Fork of the Gunnison River is dominated by oakbrush, Douglas Fir, juniper, and a very depleted Gardner Saltbush type. A large part of the area has been used for orchards, other farm lands, pasture, and urban and industrial development.
The south exposures of the canyon are dominated by oakbrush at the upper end and by juniper at the lower end. There is an extremely wide ecotone where the two types blend together making it impossible to determine an exact line of demarcation between the two types.
THE LAND WHERE
A SECTION OF DELTfc COUNTY EXHIBIT, STATE FAIR 1907
ALL KINDS OF LAND
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OPEN SPACE RECREATIONAL STUDY
joanne m newton university of Colorado at denver landscape architecture 701 may, 1981
The valley of the North Fork of the Gunnison River provides a substantial amount of native wildlife habitat. Fishing is considered excellent at higher elevations, as well as such tributaries as Leroux Creek. Considered navigable during certain seasons of the year, the river has additional recreational value since rafts can be used. However, the river flows through private land and very little public access is available. The river has been polluted by agricultural activities and the bed has been excavated for gravel, thus reducing the quality of fishing. This section does provide excellent habitat for reptiles, furbearers, waterfowl, and many other bird species.
A. Wildlife Habitat
fish habitat & runs
significant water fowl area
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OPEN SPACE RECREATIONAL STUDY
joanne m newton university of Colorado at denver landscape architecture 701 may, 1981
The scenic resources in the valley are unusual in that they combine the diverse visual values of agriculture and undisturbed native vegetation. Portions have a visually pleasant panorama of well-groomed orchards and meadows, in a sweeping valley. Native vegetation abounds, primarily in a juniper-type cover on the south slopes and an oakbrush cover on the northern slopes. The autumn coloration is extremely scenic, but not unique in Colorado.
A distinct asset is a view, at various locations, of the ragged Elk Mountain Range to the east.
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OPEN SPACE RECREATIONAL STUDY
joame m newton university of Colorado at denver landscape architecture 701 may, 1981
EXISTING LAND USE
The agricultural land in the Hotchkiss valley consists of 30% of the total existing land use, with undeveloped lands at 64%. Urban areas, encompassing 6% of the total land use, include lands used for recreational purposes. These consist of the 2.6 acre Willow Heights Park in the upper left, the High School Site to the center right, and the newly annexed County Fair Grounds in the lower right.
Quality Cattle On Summer Range
PRODUCE The fertile fields and mountain pastures cause agricultural produce and livestock to be the primary products of the Hotchkiss community. Principal produce is famous mountain fruit grown on the mesas surrounding Hotchkiss. From late spring strawberries through the harvest of cherries, apricots, pears, plums, peaches, grapes, and apples the packing sheds are the scene of much activity. In addition the surrounding land produces high yields of wheat, oats, barley, sugar beets, and alfalfa. Over 16,000 acres of irrigated lands are within the trade territory. Near-by Hotchkiss are large ranches which ship great numbers of fine cattle and sheep. No place in the world can be found better quality.
Ranches Raise Many Fine Sheep and Horses
Existing Land Use
800 Tii m, *- BOO1 80' CONTOUR MTtfflM.
OPEN SPACE RECREATIONAL STUDY
joame m newton university of Colorado at derwar landscape architecture 701 may, 1901
PROPOSED FUTURE DEVELOPMENT
At present, neither Delta County nor Hotchkiss has any zoning ordinances or master plans in effect to control the growth within the valley. Therefore, future land use will be as needs and economic factors dictate. Plans are presently being developed and implemented to control future land uses. With the increase of mining operations within the area, the existing urban community shall grow to accommodate this influx of population.
An alternative route to State Highway 92 has been recommended by the State Highway Department to bypass Hotchkiss along its northern mesas, consequently encouraging additional urban sprawl.
B recommended road alignment
potential urban expansion
SPACE RECREATIONAL STUDY
joanne m newton university of Colorado at denver landscape architecture 701 may, 1981
Taking into account the quantitative information derived from the resource maps, a preliminary plan was developed for the Proposed Recreational Expansion within the Hotchkiss valley. This plan encompasses four phases.
PHASE I: THE REVITALIZATION OF THE OLD SCHOOL SITE AND THE COUNTY FAIR GROUNDS
At present, the town of Hotchkiss does possess adequate public grounds having sufficient numbers and types of active recreational facilities to support a town having a population of its size. However, many of these facilities suffer from old age and lack of maintenance, and consequently public use levels have decreased. By establishing an active maintenance/ site improvements program these facilities may be upgraded and maintained to encourage an increase of use. Additional facilities may also be added to enhance the recreational experience at the community park site.
PHASE II: THE ACQUISITION OF OPEN SPACE LANDS
Within Phase II, the citizens of Hotchkiss are encouraged to acquire the flood lands of the North Fork of the Gunnison River and the Leroux Creek Valley as open space lands usable for fishing, nature trails, vegetation and wildlife refuges, and picnic areas. This plan not only encourages the preservation of these resources, but it also shall establish southern and western expandable boundaries of the community. The logistics of Phase II will be discussed later in the section on Open Space Planning.
PHASE III: NEIGHBORHOOD PARK SITES
At present, the Willow Heights Park is the only existing neighborhood park within the Hotchkiss community. With the influx of families moving to the valley due to energy related development, the town shall inherit similar neighborhood developments. By establishing an ordinance requiring developers to a set number of donatable acres of neighborhood park land per one hundred residential dwellings, the community can be assured that the recreational needs of the community are met as the town continues to grow.
PHASE IV: CIRCULATION SYSTEM
As recreational facilities develop throughout the expanding community, it is important to establish a circulation system making all facilities accessible by foot, bicycle, and/or vehicle. If properly designed, this system shall function as a cohesive link within the new and old community.
existing recreation facility
! J existing ^ j town limits
proposed open space
pon recreational circulation
OPEN SPACE RECREATIONAL STUDY
joanne m newton university of Colorado at denver landscape architecture 701 may, 1981
OPEN SPACE PLANNING
In the next twenty years the citizens of Hotchkiss are going to see their valley pushed to its breaking point, and it is going to take the diligence, integrity, and ambition of all of the citizens to gather the facts and muster the force to walk the line between necessary progress and unnecessary imperilment of the quality of life. Therefore, the purpose of this study has been to provide a starting point from which the citizens of Hotchkiss can initiate open space planning.
The term "open space" is defined in many ways. Simply speaking, open spaces are areas which are not built up and are usually intended for recreational, agricultural, or scenic uses. According to the Denver Regional Council of Governments, the purposes and functions of open space are fourfold:
1) for urban shaping and buffering open space can preserve the geographical integrity and distinctiveness of cities and towns, separate various land uses, concentrate growth within prescribed geological areas, and control or discourage sprawl.
2) for recreational, cultural, and historic uses and values open space can provide for urban regional parks, preserves, special use areas, and trail networks.
3) for conservation of natural resources -soils, water, vegetation, wildlife, and forest areas.
4) for regulation of environmental hazards -such as flood plains, steep slopes, and faults.
Development should occur generally where it will do as little damage as possible to the natural environment and ecological system.
Open Space may be categorized into three classifications: first, those lands or water areas most critical to the system which should be kept as open space in a natural state; secondly, areas which can stand limited development without major impact on natural processes; and lastly, those critical areas whose development would not appear to significantly affect natural processes.
ACQUIRING OPEN SPACE
The quantity of land available for all uses is fixed, and competition for this land is keen, especially in urbanizing areas. To acquire open space for the public good has often meant that the land acquired is often the "leftovers" from other land needs. Generally speaking, there are four kinds of open space lands available: agriculture land, managed forest, pasture and rangeland, and natural or wild lands such as mountains, wetlands, and dunes. A community must determine for Itself not only how much of these lands are needed, but to what degree of usability and quality there is to be. At one time recreation was considered the prime reason for acquiring lands; now the conservation of natural resources or buffer-zones between communities can be of equal importance.
There is a myriad of means which can be used by local governments to acquire open space or to foster open space by private landowners.
These range from outright purchase of land in fee simple, to requiring developers to dedicate land to the municipality through subdivision regulation requirements, to encouraging donating easements for public use on private lands. Four major classifications of land acquisition can be used:
1) Acquisition of Open Space by Government Jurisdiction or Eminent Domain.
2) Land Use Controls to provide or protect Open Space, more commonly known as Zoning.
3) Tax Incentives for Open Space Preservation.
4) Outright Gifts of Land as a means of Tax Deduction.
A. ACQUISITION OF OPEN SPACE BY GOVERNMENT JURISDICTIONS:
Purchase Direct, In Fee Simple Eminent Domain
Partial Purchase With Options Lease or Sale Arrangements Acquisition of Rights Conservation Easements Installment Purchase Land Banking Right of Pre-emption
B. LAND USE CONTROLS TO PROVIDE OR PROTECT OPEN SPACE:
Zoning: Agricultural, Floodplain, Natural Resource, Large-Lot
Transferable Development Rights
C. TAX INCENTIVES TO PRESERVE OPEN SPACE:
D. GIFTS OF LAND
Donations Bargain Sales
OPEN SPACE PLANNING IN HOTCHKISS
Many counties and towns of Colorado have included open space policies in their master plans. Few of these places have instituted active programs where there are definite means of and actions for acquiring open space for their jurisdictions. However, in many rural counties, primarily along the Western Slope, new economic factors are causing increased growth which might last for quite some time and permanently impact many land areas which should be preserved and protected. As in the case of Delta County, open space planning will become important, both to maintain the desired rural lifestyle for present and future residents, and to conserve increasingly valuable natural resources.
In order for open space programs in rural communities to be effective, they must be firmly supported by the residents of that county. The public must initiate and carry through with the program. Citizen participation is a necessity. If public goals are drawn up by the community then the open space program must complement these goals. If an acquisition policy for open space does not violate local customs and is financially feasible, then each acquisition method should be explored to determine its acceptability for use. If the method is not acceptable or if the need to acquire open space just is not there, then there is no reason to pursue a program. But if a need is found to be present, then the community should begin to lay the groundwork for open space planning through comprehensive goals and policies which can be built upon later.
The rural environment is increasingly appreciated for its contribution to mental health, for its aesthetic values, and as a locale for recreation and refreshment apart from the noise, pollution, and constructed environment of cities. It seems of supreme importance to preserve and enhance areas where the rural amenities can be enjoyed in the context of a delightful, natural setting.
Willow Heights Park
WILLOW HEIGHTS PARK
Hotchkiss has received funds totaling $75,659, earmarked for the development of a 2.3 acre site known as Willow Heights Park. The anticipated development of this site includes: picnic facilities, jogging-bike path, benches, a playground area for young children, lawn seeding, sprinkler system, barbeque grills, off-street parking and fencing of the entire site.
The Project funds include a grant of $33,659 and a no-interest loan of $40,000 to be repaid to the Department of Local Affairs within one year of the termination of the project. The awarding of the Impact Assistance grant and the loan is expressly contingent upon the approval of a $40,000 Outdoor Recreation Grant to the Contractor, to be used to repay the loan portion of the project. Located in a growing residential area to the north of town upon the Barrow Mesa, the Willow Heights Park has the potential of serving as a local neighborhood focal point, which, in addition, has the capability of acting as an integral member of the proposed recreational system. In order to design for the needs of the Hotchkiss population one must make assumptions about who the users of the park shall be; describe that population in terms of age; seek information to determine their most critical needs in terms of activities; and translate these findings into an appropriate design program.
In order to attain a general public opinion a recreational questionnaire was distributed throughout the Willow Heights neighborhood to establish a basis for the development of the park site. The results led to the following conclusions:
1) The composition of age within the Willow Heights neighborhood ranged between newborn and retired.
2) The majority of the residents within the neighborhood were new to the Hotchkiss community and estimated their stay between five and ten years.
3) Two-thirds of the people were aware of the Willow Heights Park and felt that it was capable of serving the needs of the surrounding neighborhood.
4) The residents were in favor of the proposed facilities and expressed their preference as follows in descending order: picnic area, active play area, jogging-bicycle path, off-street parking, playground for young children, and a park shelter.
An initial site analysis of Willow Heights Park was conducted to determine the strengths and weaknesses of the site. The purpose of this design phase is to attain an initial feeling for the site without preconceived design ideas, and therefore eliminating the prejudgment of the site design. The following design considerations evolved from this process:
At present, the site is sparsely covered with native grasses and a few deciduous trees. The soil appears to be very dry, and established grasses are easily trampled. There is also a visible trace of soluble salts accumulated in the upper 6 inch layer of top soil, thus limiting growth of vegetative material.
The existing topography within the Willow Heights Park ranges between slopes of 2% in the northern portion of the site, to slopes exceeding 20% in the southerly allotment.
A natural drainage swale bisects the park longitudinally, creating a rhythmic sense of movement throughout the site.
Due to evidence from the existing site use, there are three points of entry into the park. The main entry is taht which is accessible by Maple Drive, with secondary entries off of County Road and the neighboring cul-de-sac.
Natural circulation patterns are evident in the park site from repeated usage as dirt bike and bicycle trails. It should be noted that these circulation patterns do follow the path of least resistance and reinforce the site entries.
Due to open property boundaries between the park site and neighboring home owners, conflicting usage of land is beginning to develop. With heavy vehicular usage of County Road, there exists the potential of possible vehicular/ human conflict if park edges are not defined.
Majestic vistas of the neighboring Elk Mountain Range exist at the southwestern portion of the Willow Heights Park site.
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joanne m newton university of Colorado at denver
landscape architecture 701 . .
incorporated may, 1981 CONTOUR INTERVAL 1
In the design concept phase, the designer begins to organize the quantitative and qualitative analytical information that has been gathered into a set of parameters which shall be utilized in the design development stage.
The following parameters were generated for the Willow Heights Park:
1) Emphasize the existing drainage swale as a focal design element within the park to physically attract users throughout the site.
2) Utilize natural materials indigenous to the Western Slope to emphasize the character of the Hotchkiss Valley.
3) Utilize plant materials and structures requiring minimal maintenance.
4) Maintain ease of access to all portions of the site, both physically and visually, to assure security of park users.
5) Provide a protective barrier along Country Road to assure safe usage of the park.
6) Define park boundaries without creating a restrictive visual barrier.
With the design development parameters in mind, the designer begins to apply these concepts into a schematic site usage plan, in which activity areas are defined. Due to the topographic variation within the Willow Heights Park, activity is restricted to four types: active play area, semi-active play area, passive area, and circulation systems.
A preliminary site design was then drawn up, reviewed before the town's planning committee, and corrections were made leading to the finalized site plan.
DEFINED PKOrEKTY UHE
paKKinq n pldqinq fields
t=> ba%Cefkall, \jdleqbtfll, kaadmirton *=> main entKq, paejt >tqn
c=l qfM.t tatKire)
= meditation, nappnq = Reading
t= SdoondaRq entianoa
OOMOEPT Willow Heights Park
joanne m. newton university of Colorado at denver
landscape architecture 701 SCALE 1 2000-
incorporated may, ^981 CONTOUR INTERVAL
FINALIZED SITE DESIGN
The overall concept for the Willow Heights Park is to establish an image for the Willow Heights Neighborhood, as well as the Hotchkiss community. It is to be a park usable by all ages, during all seasons of the year, and by all citizens of Hotchkiss. Through the usage of natural vegetation and materials indigenous to this area, the park has the capability of representing the community's native culture.
The ACTIVE AREA is located at the main entrance of the park. A hard fifteen space parking lot is designed to double as a legal-sized basketball court. A center court net can also be set up so that tennis or volleyball games can also take place. An attractively landscaped park entry containing a seating wall, events kiosk, and drinking fountain invites visitors to venture throughout the park. An open field may be used for pickup games.
The SEMI-ACTIVE AREA is composed of a creative play structure, a picnic area, and a park shelter. The drainage swale shall be landscaped as a dry creek bed characteristic of the area, functioning as a "focal link" throughout the park. A small retaining wall will function as a protective barrier surrounding the play structure, minimizing the grade change in the picnic area, and becoming usable as a seating wal 1.
The PASSIVE AREA in the southern allotment of the park shall remain relatively open with the dry creek bed continuing throughout. This area will be used for talking, reading, napping in the sun, or simply meditation.
The entire park site will be enclosed by a rustic split-rail fence which shall define the park's boundaries. An eight foot wide circulation path shall meander through the site, crossing over the dry creek bed at two points by means of a wooden foot bridge. Three formal entries will be established by characteristic ornamental landscaping, inviting the passer-by to come inside and enjoy the park.
j County Road
Willow Heights Park
joanne m. newton university of Colorado at denver landscape architecture 701
incorporated may 1981 CONTOUR INTERVAL
Depending upon the availability of funds, materials, and contractors, the development of the Willow Heights Park shall be conducted in a series of phases. The following is a suggested outline for development:
A. Engineering, design and construction
C. Site Layout and Construction
asphalt parking lot 15 cars
asphalt bicycle/jogging path 6 to 8'
wooden retaining wall
parking curbs and drop inlets
large climbing rocks
E. Irrigation System
3.5' split rail fencing 6' privacy fence
G. Site Furniture
wooden benches 3
picnic tables 5
barbeque grills 2
basketball hoops 2
bicycle rack (15-20 bicycles)
trash receptacles 2
foot bridge 1
entry sign 1
drinking fountain 1
information kiosk 1
H. Play Sculpture
wooden poles, materials, etc. si ide
turning bars ropes
I. Park Shelter 20 x 25'
concrete footing slab
stone walls and wooden members
stone fire pit
Design guidelines were then developed to assist the town's people with the development of the Willow Heights Park as well as future neighborhood or community developments. These guidelines are not meant to dictate the type of site development, but merely meant to function as suggestions toward the successful layout of a park.
Unlike other forms of art, landscape architecture must be used as well as experienced. The beauty of its art form is irrelevant if its function fails. In order for a design to be functionally efficient it must first have a purpose. One such purpose is to establish appropriate relationships between various parts of the park complex.
These parts include: natural elements land, water, plants, and wildlife; use areas game courts, ball diamonds, parking lots, circulation paths, maintenance access; structures park shelters, play structures, fences, benches, picnic tables, bridges, drinking fountains, signs; and people of all ages. While each of these parts will present its singular demands, no part can function efficiently in isolation from another. Therefore, it is imperative that all site elements reinforce the original design intent.
When selecting site elements for a recreational facility, one must first consider the safety of the user, the element's appropropriate-ness of application, the product's durability and ease of maintenance. Minimal standards of quantity, structure, and performance must also be met if the product is to be usable in the least.
The following chapter shall introduce one with the typical types of site elements, methods in which they can be incorporated, and design considerations to be taken into account
SITE ENTRY & ACCESSIBILITY
[ACTIVITIES BCAKP| PROVIDE INfORFATION HOP. HEDULED PAbKETEALL GAMES, VOLLEYBALL TOURNAMENTS, ECT.
[SITE ENTRANCE) K? EASILY IDENTIFMED BY CHANCE IH PAVEMENT 4- REPEATED ORNAMENTAL PLANTS.
WALKWAY | SHOULD PROVIDE CLEAR PIRKEOT ROUTES THRoUSH THE SITE; SURFACES SHOULD EE FIRM i LEVEL, CURB CUTS RAMPS WHERE NECESSARY.
SEATING WX[ AT ENTRY PLAZA FUNCTIONS AS A REST AREA/WAITINC? AREA.
PARKIN C? SPACES LOCATED ADJACENT TO TAKK ENTRY AND EQU1P-
ED WITH A NOH'SUP RAMP HAVING A MAXIMUM SRApE.
ENTRY SEATING WALL
izr MIH ie>*' MAX.
I6-J22.m SEAT HEIOHT IS MOST COMFORTABLE..
typical -r overhand PROVIDES SPACE FOR HEELS; MAKES SITTIHC? MOPE COM-FOPTAftLE: AMD FACES RISING OUT OP SEATED? POSITION.
SEATING SURFACE SHOULD? BE PITCHED V/lZ" TO ALLOW SLIPPAGE WATER.
TO PPA1N INTO PLANTE R-
Z.O dec? SPACE should be PROVIDED so that seated
PEDESTRIANS WILL NOT BLOCK. ADO AGE 1ST WALKWAY.
In addition to their common functions of separating site elements and retaining earth, walls can be designed for various purposes such as seating surfaces and spatial delineation.
When designing a seating wall to 4
act as an entrance site element as in the case of Willow Heights Park, one should keep the following considerations in mind. 5 1 2 3
1. A seating height of 18-22" is most comfortable when accompanied by a minimum 12" seat width.
2. The sitting surface should be pitched toward the back to assure surface water drainage.
3. Dull and lightly colored materials are generally cooler to sit on when located in direct sun.
Through the use of interesting paving patterns, one can add dimension and texture to the entry area.
Vegetation near seating areas should not conflict with people seated in the area or passing through it. Species that are invasive, injurious, or drop excessive amounts of debris should be avoided or used with discretion.
Select vegetation having ornamental characteristics to attract the user's eye, i.e. colorful flowers, unusual leaf shape, or interesting branching pattern.
WALKS & INTERSECTIONS
REST AREAS. SET ASIDE OF MAJOR PEDESTRIAN MOVEMENT, ALLOW ELDERLY HANDICAPPED PERSONS TD MOVE MORE EASILY THROUGH A PARK SITE.
PROVIDE TRASH RECEPTACLES AT POINTS OF CATHER1NO.
LIGHTING? ALONG? WALKWAY^ i INTERSECTIONS SHOULD PE PROVIDED FOR SAFETY PUK-
adequate pavement WIDTH
ONE WAY TRAFFIC -TO'1 TWO WAY TRAFFIC/ =
PEP. AND BCYCLE = g> O"
PROVIDE A Z LATERAL SETBACK FOR TREE-6, LIGHT HOSTS, SION6? TO AVOID PEDESTRIAN CONFLICT.
PROVIDE A NOH-SL1P RAMP AT PARK ENTRANCES AND INTERSECTION CORNERS.
CROSSWALKS SHOULD EE DRAIN ORATES MUST BE accented TO BE EASILY SET ASIDE OF CROSSWALK. SEEN DY MOTORISTS. POPULAR METHODS ARE PAINT STRIPPING? OR A CHANCE OF PAVEMENT MATERIAL.
Walks should be designed to allow the greatest diversity of people to move safely, independently, and un- -
hindered through the exterior environment.
Items to consider in the design or modification of walk systems are:
The surface of walks should c
possess stability and firmness,
be relatively smooth in texture,
and have a non-slip surface. The
use of expansion and contraction
joints should be minimized, and
the size should not exceed V in
2. Rest Areas
Occasional rest areas off the traveled path are enjoyable and helpful, especially for the elderly and handicapped persons who have a difficult time walking long distances.
3. Gradients 7
In general, gradients up to 3% are preferable where their use is practical. Walks with grades exceeding 5% are generally referred to as ramps, and are not recommended unless mandatory.
On walks with steep grades it is advisable to allow additional trail width to accommodate slower and faster moving persons.
Lighting along walkways should vary from % to 5 foot candles, depending on the intensity of pedestrian use, hazards present, and relative need for personal safety.
Proper maintenance of walkways is imperative. Where deterioration occurs, repairs should be made to eliminate any possibility of injury.
To facilitate wheeled movement over low barriers, a curb ramp should be provided. Surface should be made of a non-slip material, but not corrugated as the grooves may fill with water, freeze, and cause slipping.
Walkway widths vary according to the amount and type of traffic using them. Walks should be a minimum of 4'0" wide, with 56" (C'O" preferred) being the minimum for moderate 2-way traffic. For paths to be utilized for both bicycle and pedestrian uses, a minimum of 8'0" wide is required.
HARD VARIABLE SOFT
CRUSHED rcok EARTH
LAWN GRASS KIVER ROGK
GOIL GEMEHT TANEARK.
BR1GK IN SAND
WOOD p&CK IN SAND
TILE/BRICK IH CONCRETE
SOFT SURFACE CHARACTERISTICS
IRREGULAR AMP SOfT SURFACES MAKE WALKING ErTREEMLY DIFFICULT FOR PEOPLE WITH MOBILITY HANDICAPS.
SURFACE WILL WITHSTAND ONLY LIGHT TRAFFIC. SUBJECT TO ERROSION.
HIGH MAINTENANCE, LOW INSTALLATION GOST.
SNOW AND ICE. REMOVAL IMPOSSIBLE.
VARIABLE SURFACE CHARACTERISTICS
IRREGULAR SURFACES AND WIDE. JOINTS MAKE WALKING DIFFICULT FOR PEOPLE WITH MOBILITY HANDICAPS.
WHEELED VEHIOLES (BICYCLES t WHEELCHAIRS) HAVE DIFFICULTY MOVINO ALONG PATH.
DIFFICULT TO REMOVE lOE OR SNOW.
MODERATE MAINTENANCE REQUIRED, MODERATE TO HIGH INSTALLATION GOST .
HARD SURFACE CHARACTERISTICS
FIRM AHD REGULAR SURFACE ARE IDEAL FOR WALKING AND WHEELED VEHICLES.
SHOW AND IGE REMOVAL IS POSSIBLE.
HIGH INSTALLATION, LOWEST MAINTENAGE COST
tier MINIMUM FOOT ERjpOE WIPTH TO ALLOW
W MAINTENANCE VEHICLE.
fROVlPE eiDE KAILE? WHERE. CLEARANCE EYOEED ^'O-
ue?t MATERIALS eUOH Ab WEATHER TREATED WCOP AND KJVER. GO&t&LE TO CREATE A NATURAL PARK ^ETTINC?.
VE6ETATVON ANP RIVER-OODPLE Apt? INTEREST CHARACTER TO PKAINAOE **aALE.
I. ACCEPTABLE. IE SHADOW LINE 1C KEPT TO A MINIMUM.
7L. ACCEPTABLE IF HOC INC? Kb
PROVIDED WITH BEVEL BELOW SHADOW LINE.
A TYPICAL ACCEPTABLE- PETAIL.
-I NOT ACCEPTABLE CIHCC KECE^C MAY CATCH TOE OF 4?HOE.
OPEN TREAD NOT ACCEPTABLE IH ANY PUBLIC ^ITUATlOITb.
A. 2 RJCERS* I TREAD E>. MAX. RICEIK HEICHT C. MIH. TREAD DEPTH
Outdoor stairs should be designed for ease of use, being wide enough to accommodate a person passing another. Stairs must also be of safe design and be equipped with sufficient hand apparatus to ensure safe usage.
1. The minimum clear width for any stairway is 3'0". Stair widths should be increased to accommodate heavier usage.
2. All steps in a series should have a uniform tread width and riser height. Stair treads should be wide enough to place one's entire foot on it, preferably between 11" to 14%" in width. Risers for exterior stairs should be between 4" and 6%" in height with 5 3/4" being preferred.
3. 4'0" is the maximum rise for unprotected outdoor stairs, while 6'0" is acceptable where some type of protective cheek wall
4. Avoid using stair where there are only a few in a series.
These are generally unnecessary and dangerous.
5. Stairs should have an average maintained light level to ensure safe use in the dark. It is important that the light casts down towards the risers so that the treads will not be overshadowed.
CREATIVE PLAY STRUCTURES
FENCING & SIGNAGE
When using fencing, the designer 5
should be aware of the following
1. Unless specifically designed
for security purposes, fencing g
should not present any unnecessary dangerous situations for children or others who may attempt to climb over.
2. Posts should be sunk into the ground adequately to prevent collapsing during high winds or under the weight of a climber.
3. Fasten fence fabric securely to
all posts for safety reasons. 8 4
4. Fencing should be free of any projections or appendages which may be dangerous.
When selecting a fence type, one should keep in mind that the fence should compliment the character of the park facility and its immediate surroundings.
When determining where the fence fence line shall be placed, be sure to allow for sufficient entry and exit openings.
Chain-link fencing is ideal when enclosing an active play area such as a basketball court or softball diamond, but acts as an impenetrable barrier when enclosing an entire park site.
As in the case of Willow Heights, a fence is needed-merely to define the park's boundary. Therefore a wooden split rail fence is recommended, thus complimenting the natural site elements.
FENCE TYPES & ESTIMATE COSTS
TYPE DESCRIPTION AND COMMENTS COST PER LIN. FT.
WOOD FENCES Typical frame: 4X4 posts set in concrete, max. 8' on center, 2 X 4" top and bottom stringers. Allow 50<Â£ per lin. ft. for extra 2X4" stringer or cap.
GRAPE STAKES Textural, weathers well, add a cap for a more sophisticated effect, solid privacy fence. $3.00-$8.00
WOVEN PALINGS Solid fence, natural appearing and sturdy. $9.00-$ll.50
BOARDS 3"-12" wide. 5/8"-l" thick. Can be used in many patterns and combinations. Rough sawn preferred. Staining usually required. $5.00-$9.50
PICKET Very fragile. Requires painting (3 height). $4.00-$5.00
RAIL Good for rustic setting and where solid barrier not needed. Very attractive. (3" height) $4.00-$5.00
CUSTOM Materials may not cost much more, but labor can be costly, unless built by owner. $14.00 and up
CHAIN-LINK FENCE Typical frame: 1%" steel tubing posts set in concrete. Max. 10 on center. Heavy gauge wire top and bottom, or pipe top rail. Sturdy but often unattractive.
STANDARD MESH Best for background or covered by plantings. $5.00-$8.00
COLORED MESH Less obtrusive than standard type. Black vinyl coating blends well with background. $7.00-$9.00
WOOD INSERTS Gives some degree of privacy and kills metal appearance $7.50-$l1.00
WROUGHT- IRON FENCE Typical construction: hollow steel tubing. 1" square posts set 4-6" on center in concrete or bolted to paving. Uprights are normally h" square tubing.
PLAIN Allows for view and air circulation. Excellent for swimming pool safety fence with uprights 4" apart. $9.00-$l2.00
PRE-FABRICATED Eliminates need for welding. Can be owner installed. (3 height) $8.00 and up.
NOTE: Cost range is for six foot height, minimum 100 lineal feet, normal soil and access, all labor and materials by contractor. Figure roughly one-half for material only. Paint and stain extra. Rule of thumb for gates is five to ten times lineal foot cost. Distance from material source and manufacturer affects price considerably.
GENERALLY UbEP TO GONFIRM A PIRKBOT RDUTB, USUALLY PELINEATEt? WITH AH ARROW.
UbFP Ab A MEAH4? OF CENEIKAL-OReAHlZAHPH Of A 4Â£Rieb OF EiEMENTb., SOPH Ab A TOWN LAYOUT, REGREATIOHAL FAOlUTIEb, e TRAIL bYbTEMb.
LABELS e IDEHTlFIBb bFEOIFlG
NAMEb OF FARKb, BUlLPiNOb, bfTREETb, fiCT
GIVEb OrFRATlOHAL KEOUlREf'PNTS, REGTRIGTIPNb.OR WARNINOb. MOoT GOMMON-i_Y UbED FOR. TRAFFlG PELIHEATOH OK CONTROL.
Signs should essentailly perform three functions:
a) Identify a place and indicate whether or not it is accessible to everyone.
b) Indicate warnings where necessary.
c) Give routing information.
The information given on a sign should always be clear and precise, and sign locations should never present unnecessary hazards for pedestrians or vehicular traffic.
Picnicking is a recreational pastime that is enjoyed by all types and ages of people. The following factors should be considered in the design of picnic facilities.
Good access to the site over a hard surface is imperative. Picnic areas should be within 100' of parking facilities and a water source.
Raised fire places near to picnic tables.
riC/NlG TAC>LEÂ£ ULD BE LOCATED OH A LE.V/ED,
WELL DRAIHED CAHD OK OONGRETE TAD
TRASH KECETTACLee TO Be LOCATED AT A CONVENIENT DISTANCE rrOM EATIHO AKEA.
pike place should e>t located down WIND EKOM vegetation # noNio T^eLee, SITUATED UPON A SAND ORAVED EASE.
Provide a picnic shelter area to be used for large groups or inclement weather.
Areas should be sufficiently lit to ensure safe use in evenings.
CONCRETE. P0RNI WITH REMOVALLE CRILLS FOR CO0R-IMO OVER CHARCOAL.
RAISED FIRE PIT, lf>-^' OfF GROUND, IS EASIER TO l*SE FROIM A SEATED POSITION.
CLEARANCE FROM TOP OF5 UNIT TO GROUND SHOULD MOT EXCEED 50".
GRILLS SHOULD HAVE WINGS UPOH WHICH TO SET UTENSILS.
FIRE FITS TO &E LOCATED DOWN WIND OF TARLES PARR SHELTER, AND VESETATIOti.
OR4LLS SHOULD BE PLACED CLOSE TO HARD SURFACE ACCESS SUCH AS A VEHICULAR ROAD OR S' WIPE PATH, TO ASSURE. FIRE PROTECTION.
taele width @ ler/rtKeoH
TABLE, HE.IOHT Â£ AVE.
OLEAR LED Ifc" UHDEK
KEEP TOI^ SMOOTH WITH NO KZO&^bE'c? THAT MIOHT HOLD WATER OP FOOD FARTlOLE
round err ok cvvsmfek all Exroeep corner ok 4^harp edobc?.
MAXIMUM W HEIGHT FROM OROUND TO KEOEFTAOLE 0PEMIHO TO EINOOUFAOE DHIUDREN TO Pfe-PObE Op TRAbH.
A HINGED TOP OR ^IDE ALLOWS FOR EA^b-Y AOG&&& TO INTERNAL TKA^H LINER OR BARREL.
PEOE-PTAOLEe Nll>bT BE. -PEPPED TKOUOHOUT FMRK. -blTE TO INGOUKAoE. C*OOD pTbRO^AL PIRAOTlO&e.
60N/EPED KEOEFTAOLE RREVENTb FILLIHO WITH WATER.
yo** MAX. TO OTEN-1NO.
BICYCLE PATH REQUIREMENTS
MANEUVER NO ALLIANCE:----
2. WAV PEDB^WAH/E>1CYÂ£UE LANE----
ALL WEATHER rEieNANENT euRFACe -
A MIHIMUn 6LEARAHCB
SHOULD BE HSO/lDED> TO ALLOW I^COH HOK WHEeLOHAl^b AHP 4TFOLLE^<=*
1. Seating benches should be provided adjacent to paved areas, along walks, near tops and bottoms of ramps and stairs, and areas where people may gather for waiting purposes.
2. Seats in a given area should be at a uniform height of 18-20" from the ground.
3. Seats should be provided with back supports and arm rests to insure comfort and east of use.
4. Benches should be designed to support a minimum of 250 lbs for each person.
5. A minimum space of 5'0" should be allowed from the front of the seat and the nearest obstacle to ensure adequate movement space. A pad 36" wide on either side of the bench allows sufficient room for a stroller or wheelchair.
0 Includes bollards and flood-1ights
# Finite patterns, low wattage
0 Low maintenance high vandalism
0 Incandescent, fluorescent
0 Human scale decorative 1ights
0 Accents pedestrian circulation
0 40-60' spacing
0 Incandescent, mercury vapor
0 Susceptible to vandalism
0 Recreational, commercial, residential and industrial uses
0 Metal halide, mercury vapor
0 Satisfies architectural and engineering
0 Use for large recreational, commercial, industrial and roadways.
0 Large area parking, recreational, highway interchanges
0 Mercury vapor, high pressure sodium
Lighting is required in areas receiving heavy pedestrian and vehicular usage and in areas such as staircases and ramps, which may be dangerous if unlit. Similarly, areas having high crime rates should be well lit to assure those who must pass through the space at night personal security.
When considering the installation or renovation of lighting systems, one should be aware of the following considerations:
1. Overhead lamps have the advantage over low level fixtures of providing better light distribution at an economical rate.
2. Fixtures should be placed so that light patterns overlap at a height of 7'0", which is sufficiently high to vertically illuminate a person's body.
3. Additional lights should be placed at hazardous locations where there is a change of grade.
4. Light posts placed in pedestrian and vehicular thoroughfares must not interfere with movement.
5. The usage of shatterproof coverings on low level lighting standards wherever possible will reduce breakage from vandalism or mishaps from people playing football, basketball;, frisbee, etc.
Many soils, particularly in the lower elevations common to the Hotchkiss area, are characteristically high in soluble salts and sodium. Such conditions severely limit plant growth unless the soil can be improved through corrective drainage and leaching of these accumulated minerals. This process is often extremely costly and is generally unfeasible in a park situation. A recommended alternative is to select native plants which are capable of tolerating the existing soil conditions.
Before selecting any types of plant materials, it is wise to have a professional soil test done, particularly if high salts or high sodium levels are suspected. (See Colorado State University Cooperative Extension Service.) It is important that the soil samples be taken from the root zone area, 12-18 inches below the surface, to assure effective results. If the soil test shows a soluble salt reading above 2.0 mmhas/cm. sensitive plants such as roses, most maples, pines, fraebel spirea, viburnums and others will develop poor foliage color and marginal browning due to salt injury. Soils indicating salt levels between 4.0 and 8.0 mmhas/cm. will result in salt injury to nearly all landscape plants.
The following trees and shrubs are recommended for areas where there are high salt levels which cannot be feasibly reduced by leaching and drainage methods.
The most important aspect of care for landscape plantings is to provide sufficient amounts of water throughout the year. In most cases, sod areas require frequent light sprinklings, while tree and shrub types require
periodic deep waterings. By clustering tree and shrub plantings having similar moisture requirements, an efficient sprinkler system may be designed to sufficiently meet landscape planting requirements.
Deep watering is important to consistently keep cumulative salt levels to a minimum, which tend to concentrate in the root zone during long dry periods. Where white salts can be seen on the surface, one can guess that there is a high water table or drainage problem. If so, select plant species that can tolerate the consistent wetness and low soil oxygen.
INSECT & DISEASE
When selecting a plant species, one must consider its susceptibility to insects and diseases. An injured tree not only means additional costs due to death and replacement, but also a boost in maintenance costs. It is important to select healthy specimens, while recognizing characteristics pertaining to the plant variety. Such considerations are:
Willows, poplars, and cottonwoods commonly have problems with insects.
Tendon, catalpa, hackberry, sycamore, and locust trees are fairly resistant to disease or insect but are hard to transplant.
Ash are susceptible to aphids, borers and scale.
Mites and borers are a problem on most evergreens.
Flowering crab are not recommended due to codling moth.
Keep trees sprayed to help prevent excess drought damage after insect injury.
RUSSIAN OLIVE ELAEAGNUS ANGUSTIFOLIA WAFER ASH PTELEA TRIFOLIATA
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DECIDUOUS EVERGREEN SHADE TREE ORNAMENTAL WINDBREAK
SUSCEPTIBLE TO PESTS LOW MAINTANCE HIGH MAINTENANCE DROUGHT TOLERANT WATER LOVING FLOWERING FRUIT BEARING WILDLIFE ATTRACTION
JUNIPER JUNIPERUS SCOPULORUM EASTERN RED CEDAR JUNIPERUS VERGINIANA OSAGE ORANGE MACLURA POMIFERA SERVICEBERRY AMELANCHIER CANADENSIS ARBOR VITAE PTELEA TRIFOLIA FOUR WINGED SALTBUSH ATRIPHEX CANESCENS PEASHRUB CARAGANA ARBORESCENS SCOTCH BROOM CYTISUS SCOPARIUS SILVERBERRY ELAEAGNUS CONIMUTATA SEA BUCKTHORN HIPPOPHAE RHAMNOIDES PFITZER JUNIPER > JUNIPERUS CHENSIS PFITZER TATARIAN HONEYSUCKLE LONICERA TATARICA COMMON BUCKTHORN RHAMNUS CATHARDICA GLOSSY BUCKTHORN RHAMNUS FRANGULA BUFFALOBERRY SHEPHERDIA CANDENSIS VANHOUTTE SPIREA SPIREA VANHOUTTEI TAMARISK TAMARIX GALLICA
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Barrier Free Design: The American Society of Landscape Architects Foundation and the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development.
Hestler Jr., Randolph T.; Community Development Series: Neighborhood Space; Halsted Press, 1975.
1981 Colorado State Comprehensive Outdoor
Recreation Plan; Colorado Division of Parks and Outdoor Recreation; May 1981.
Wurman, Richard S.; the Nature of Recreation; M.I.T. Press; Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1972.
Peterson, James A., and Richard J. Schroth; Guidelines for Evaluating Public Parks and Recreation; Indiana and Purdue Universities; Cooperative Extension Service, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana.
Cooperative Extension Service, Tri River Area.
Land Use Regulations for Delta County, Colorado, Karen Kamp-Oldham; Denver, Colorado; 1981.
Edmiston, Tom; Notes on Participatory Design Techniques; University of Colorado at Denver; Landscape Architecture; 1980.
Rody, Martin J. and Herbert H. Smith; Zoning Primer; Chandler-Davis Publishing Co.; 1960.
Meshenberg, Michael J.; The Language of Zoning, Planning Advisory Service, Report No. 1322.
Colorado State Highway Department; Environmental Impact Statement for a Proposed Alternate Route to State Highway 92; 1978.