Santa Fe' [sic] Drive redevelopment, Denver, Colorado

Material Information

Santa Fe' [sic] Drive redevelopment, Denver, Colorado
Pisoni, Alvaro
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
approximately 170 leaves : illustrations, charts, maps, plans (some color) ; 28 cm


Subjects / Keywords:
Urban renewal -- Colorado -- Denver ( lcsh )
City planning -- Colorado -- Denver ( lcsh )
City planning -- Colorado ( lcsh )
City planning ( fast )
Urban renewal ( fast )
Colorado ( fast )
Colorado -- Denver ( fast )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )


Includes bibliographical references.
General Note:
On cover: 1984.
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Architecture in Urban Design, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Alvaro Pisoni.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
10809758 ( OCLC )
LD1190.A73 1983 .P57 ( lcc )

Full Text
Santa Fe' Drive
(Mix-Use Redevelopment Project)
Thesis of Architecture in Urban Design.
Denver, Co. 8/12/83

Introduction pag* 2
History " H
Materials of the Analysis: " 31
a) Climate . " 32
b) Demography " 33
c) Building situation " 35
d) Surrounding forces " 43
e) Industry & Commerce areas " 47
f) Comunication & Trasportation " 51
g) Land use & zoning " 56
h) Ovmership characteristic " 61
i) Economic situation " 63
A political/cultural/critical synthesis: Who I am, where I
come from and the philosophy of this project. " 64
Notes " 75
Bibliography " 76
Schedule for thesis semester " 77
Appendix t " 78
a) Thesis Proposal
b) W.H.Me.Nichols, Jr.:s letter for Westside city Plan.
c) Planning Board's letter
d) Local Climatological Data, 1978 Denver.
e) Zoning

Santa Fe' Drive area is an enigma. What is it? What is its character and its role in the urban texture of a city like Denver which has developed in 100 years? Does Santa Fe' Drive exist only as an axis or as an identity unto itself? What does it mean for its inhabitants, for the residents of Denver or for those who pass by? ...Is it possible to translate all this into something which another time becomes competitive? These are questions and many others could be asked about this street and its physical and social context.
There exists a problem: Santa Fe' Drive! Many people have worked on it and have proposed many solutions. Something has been approached politically, but nothing courageous or decisive. Santa Fe' Drive has remained and still remains an emblematic street, and
its image reflects the state of decadence to which it has arrived: broken glass, doors and windows which are barred, garbage along the sidewalks...and near there old shops with dusty things, an old mexican restaurant and few passers-by. But it is not like this everywhere: there are also some restored buildings!
One thing seemed strange to me while walking down this street: it always gives me a different impression. Sometimes old, another time dirty and still another time not completely decadent... but one thing is certain: it seems to change with the intensity of the light and it almost always assumes the sleepy, dusty and sunshine look of the southern places, where the fences/walls are built of stones and the white paint of the houses peels off and the plants climb along tortuous streets which open into tiny piazzas.

The life is in the interior of the houses. The facade exists but it doesn't. The community looks for common spaces to talk, tell stories and observe the long shadows of the evening which call the people around one guitar or a well...
But this is a dream! An image that appeared to me more than one time while passing along Santa Fe' Drive and wondering what happens or could happen behind those facades which repeat themselves without many signs of life.
But it is not always summer in Denver and the winter is quite rigorous and there is snow... Therefore, what is the real meaning of the image described above in a wintry and nordic ambiance?
For me Santa Fe' Drive means a contradictory image or better something that appears and disappears, that changes and is static, that renews itself and is decadent, that express something and is silent.
How is it possible to "touch" Santa Fe' Drive? Is it dying or it always has been so? What to do when it appears decadent and what when we pass along it without observing it because it does not want to be observed?
I am talking about one street, not one person! But it is a street that it is possible to love or to be indifferent, so as with a person. All this happens because there is humanity in its physical image even if there are not enough spaces to stop the time and to understand it better.

But, as an European architect who is looking for the expression, the meanings and the critical-artistic lunguage, how can I propose a solution for a so enchanting and emblematic area, in one American city where the spaces for cars are perhaps more important than the spaces for the people? Where the time seems to run faster and the life shorter? And where the spaces for pause, pleasure and rest seem economically and commercially not competitive?
The two philosophies
At this point, two philosophies enter culturally and politically in conflict:
a) Is it better that the American city environment be homogeneous, in other words, permit the integration of the new people, mingling them with all the other cultures, and therefore assimilating them in the large and unique American image?
b) Or to give a value to the single cultures and expressions and creating a mosaique of strongly and traditionally expressive areas where an interest could develop and the cultures of the world could survive?
What is the "American Image"?
Instead, I think that both the philosophies are valid where and when they could have been expressed with spontaneity. The first one reflects more the "planet America", the "salvation boat", the break with the past, the research, the frustration, the solitude, but the will to go on. The second one express more the migratory movement of the people of the earth, their pause, their traditions, the community, the reciprocal help and the homesick, perhaps the ties with the old world left behind.

In Santa Fe' Drive we find more the environment expressed by the second point even if it is not so determinant and clearly readable. The socio-environmental character of hispanic-mexican influence is reflected by the image of the particulars more than the global one. However it is a non-clearly defined image. There is the "flavour", but not clearly recognized.
Once again the contradiction!
Which philosophy do I enforce? It is difficult to answer as it is difficult to find a solution for Santa Fe' Drive. The second philosophy prevails, but -I think- it could be a mistake to force it with a project proposal of hispanic-mexican character solution in one environment that could react in a different way.
I think that in this case it is necessary to find a courageous proposal in order that Santa Fe' Drive could attract not only passers-by, but which contribute to its renewal. Furthermore I believe that such a proposal, in the critically expressive language of such a contradictory environment, could become something that is, first of all, image, spectacle and focal point.

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To understand the historical development of one American city of the West as Denver, it is necessary to interpret the mentality of who came to this place looking for fortune. In other words, with the spirit of who does business without deep traditional and cultural ties with the place. So it happened that the location and/or the bonds of an area, have determined its birth or its death. So the value of a street or an area was determined almost totally by the economic factor. Or better, by the future development that such an area could have on its economic projections, not for deep sentimental ties, nor symbolic images.
So I can read from "History of Denver" of 1901, chapter XXI: "It is to be considered that the ancient cities of Europe, and even the American cities of the Atlantic coast, have traditions that have grown venerable in the laps of years. In those of the older countries moss and ivy still cling to walls and roofs which man of many centuries before had seen. Husbands, wifes, children, sweet-hearts, councilors, soldiers, who have been dust and ashes hundreds of years, looked from those ancient windows, trod the floors of those halls and dwellings, and passed in and out through the aged portals. They loved in the still standing gardens; fought in the same highways; drunk from the same still existing cups. Streets, by-ways, corners, monuments, statues, are saturated with history, which the intelligent visitor can read almost as familiarly and easily as he can read the printed page. Abbeys, cathedrals, churces, obelisks, columns, sometimes would seem in their dotage to be as ancient as the hills and valleys that lie around them, and to be part of Nature's handiwark rather than of man's.

But, in this country, and particularly in this western empire, there are no such historic landmarks. Traces of ancient semicivilization there are, it is true, but they are of a time so far away, that they may be likened to the faint murmur of voices one hears in sleep. The difference between the rise and growth of other cities of the world, and the rise and growth of such a city as Denver, is almost as great as that between the many-ringed oak of the forest, that outlives generations of men, and the shooting up of a shade-tree that was a sapling yesterday, and in a few years will have all the proportions, beauty and usefulness of the forest's patriarch. The explorers and pioneers, and those who followed them on hastening feet into this land of the west, made their history as swiftly as they built their city; and the annals of the world are searched in vain for anything to compare with either the one or the other. Here a great city has been built within the period of active life of men not yet grown old."
For me a European, it is quite difficult to interpret the character of a place and its deep meaning in this city of Denver. Everything seems volatilizing: rising with enthusiasm, living without sentimental ties but only economic ones and dying in the course of few years. It is true that there are sensitive people who are ready to help keep alive what is dying. It is true that now they are planned spaces for the people. It is also true that all this has been created for a new image solely because it is different and more competitive. Where are the sentimental ties?
I have travelled a lot across this country and I have deeply loved it. But I have to say one thing: I have felt the purest and nicest sentiments away from the big cities, on the road, so as the pioneers felt them going westward and following the sun path. So as one feels deep sentiments crossing spectacular,

fantastic and wild sceneries and loving the solitude or the friendship of fellow-travellers. This, the travelling America of day and night, is the America of the love, country music, rural life, railroad, trucks and the most beautiful stories.
In this country, when the city is born it has also lost the purest and most genuine feelings. There are famous stories of the American city, but they are stories about rich businessmen, or broken love stories, about poverty and misery or crime, about immense solitudes or about dreams and hopes.
Now it is the Denver moment after New York and Chicago.
Denver is a little bit all this: a "flower" that has grown and still is growing with the enthusiasm of the efficiency of its image and the freshness of its short life...But for how long again? New York is old and decadent, perhaps it looks older than the European cities. Chicago is already getting old, and both look petrified. Denver has not arrived at this point. And all this happen because they are not born for the spontaneous and long story of the folk, but on the initiative of few big businessmen to whom America owes much thanks. The folk had rushed here for opportunity, not for the love of one place or symbolic or religious sentimental ties.
And they created a large "campground" that is the American city.
In their anticipation and hope while travelling to their destination, they had felt the purest and nicest sentiments!
"When the ground on the west side of Cherry creek was made a camping place by the party of immigrants which came here October 10, 1858, that side was occupied as much because it just happened so, as by design (...)."(History of Denver)
"The double log cabin, or "shack" built by "the Russel Boys" and Trader John Smith was then nearing completion; and so the first caravan that put in here in that month naturally made camp near them. Those arriving later pitched their tents where the others

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Denver t_1859f Lithograph by Collier and Clcavcland, 1891
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were (...)" (History of Denver)
"The possibility of a town at the mouth of Cherry Creek had been talked about (...) and Smith never mentioned an association he had already formed with others (...). But the first Cherry Creek Town Company was not organized to lay out a town on that tongue of land. The primary purpose of all hands who were here in that autumn was to find gold, or to get it in some way after it had been found (...)." They found it! "So they formed the "Lawrence party" which founded the "City of Montana" (...).
'Most of the members of that Lawrence Company would seem to have generally been more exalted by the spirit of Real Estate Speculation than by that of gold digging." (...) "The second article of their agreement said: "It is further agreed by the aforesaid parties to locate the town on the East side of Cherry Creek, and to commence at a point about 160 Rods from its mouth, more or less and running due East 320 Rods thence North 360 Rods, thence due West 320 Rods, thence South 32O Rods to the poimt of starting."
So Denver was born as a close Corporation. (...)"The point of starting this survey is in the present block bounded by Larimer, Fourteenth, Lawrence and Fifteenth streets (...)" and the town was called "St. Charles Town Company". Later Auraria and Denver City Companies were organized, all close corporations which gave no bubblicity to their transactions.
"So there were ^ separate, independent town organizations at the mouth of Cherry Creek in 1858/59 three of which were later united as the City of Denver. In order they were "St. Charles, Auraria city, Denver city and Highlands." (...) "William Hartley was a surveyor and had a chain, and pocket compass with him. So they commenced on the east side of Cherry Creek and surveyed around 610 acres and also surveyed several streets and blocks." They said: "As we went down about 75 mi.leaving the place of our city, along the Platte river, we met people with wagons coming from the Missouri to the Montains. Mr. Cobb suggested to the other members that we

Outline' of St. Cltttrlo Ton site with reference to proem 'irect

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Nichols' Unfinished Cabin.
Map showing locations of Aurarla Citys Pioneer Cabins. (l.Jack O'NelH's: 2. Russell* and Trader Smiths: 3. McGaas: 4. John Hooker s; 5. Judson II. Dudleys; 6. lilake and Williams'; 7. A. 11. barkers; 8. Willoughby and Avery's; 9, Henry Allen's; 10. Dr. L. .1. Russell's: 11. Hlood. Drown, et al.; 12. Hutchins and Kasters; 13. Klnna and Nye; 14. Wooton s building; 15. Sagendorf and Lehow's; 1G. .1. 1). Damage's. Numbers ,<10 not Indicate order of erection.)
F.. P. Stout's Cabin. (From a drawing by Mr. Stout.)
(eneral Larimer's Cabin.

.1 nelson II. Dudley's CabHi (From his drawing.)

ought to send some one back to look after our interests and to induce people to locate and build in our town." (...)"Several parties came in and amped on the West side of the creek".
"Denver city was in fact a little frontier business enterprise in real estate, where the foot-hills, gulches and montain sloped around it were thickly overgrown by the native forests. The trees were pine, spruce, and balsam fir, with some aspens scattered among them. They were not of a size to be called monarchs of the forests, but were of fair proportions. The South Platte river and its tributaries were fringed with cottonwoods and willows, and altogether the local landscapes were most phasing to the eye.
Then the wood were used to built cabin and leaving the country around Denver in its present comparatively deforested condition."
"Christmas 1858 was a notable time in Auraria City. Richems L. Wooton, with a couple of wagons, laden with frontier merchandise, a large portion of which was contained in barrels, arrived in Auraria early in the morning of that day. He had come hither from Fort Union, New Mexico. He carried several barrels of whiskeys. When he left Fort Union with his train-load of goods his purpose was to make one more trading trip among the indians, with the expectations of afterward going back to his old home in Kentacky.
And that he came, on the old Santa Fe' Trail, in the direction of the mouth of Cherry Creek. When he arrived he saw his opportunity, and was readily persuaded to go no further, but to unload and begin business. Then arrived a priest, Rev, G. W. Fisher, a minister of the Methodist Church. There were already 5 wemen.
That night the Mr. Wooton's whiskey helped to join the people of Auraria and Denver. The flowing contents of that barrels submerged for the day the last vestige of rivalry and animosity between the "cities" of Auraria and Denver, separated by the Cherry Creek. It is needless to say that the whole camp got hilarious. Most than one Denver pioneer lost his balance and bearings under the impetuous influence of "Wallipete" (History of Denver)

If one followed the South Platte River, northward on its right side, so as Mr Wooton did, one would have arrived in Auraria. The same trail later became Santa Fe' Drive.
But its life and destiny were not very successful in the urban world. The building of the railroad enclosed the northern and more urban part of Santa Fe' Drive.
In 1915 Santa Fe' Drive Commercial Association was founded for relaunching and making this street more competitive. They discovered its historical character; they spent thousend of dollars to improve its decadent appearance and it was called the "Southern Gateway of Denver".
It was born as a trail in the wild world of the American West. It couldn't survive as a street in the urban world of the American City. The railroad has decided its fate. Broadway, in the rational and rigid plan of the grid system, has taken its place because it was larger and it could run straight southward.
Since then they have tried thousend of ways to make Santa Fe' Drive more commercially competitive. They found slogans such as "New Era" or "Reclamation of old Santa Fe' Avenue" or "Southern Gateway"....and many other initiatives and proposals had succeded during the years up untill today: hopes and illusions of culturally sensitive people... But the problem is easier and more primary. Santa Fe' Drive could not be commercially competitive as seen through the eyes of the real-estaters and important businessmen, because its image and location (surrounded by railroad and heavy industry) did not allow for its convenience and qualitative development.


So it is the fate of one city born as a "Corporation" or "Company Town". It is a contradiction to observe that such an area be so close to downtown and, at the same time, so not related, extraneous. As for the respect for its history, image and meaning, had blocked it out and had not opened it to other functions that maybe could had saved it economically. The will to relaunch it, with the help of sensitive persons, found only indifference from the powerful.
Many years have passed. Today we can read on the Denver Post, DeC 13, 1978: "Santa Fe' Drive disgraceful Santa Fe' Drive is a dirty shame. Even with fresh snow falling along the highway leading south out of Denver thursday morning, the blight was plainly visible along the seven mile strip (...)".
Its context, the Westside Neighborhood, is struggling for survival. It is one of the oldest neighborhoods in Denver. Originally it was a Congressional Grant under the Territorial Session Laws of 187^ and then it was the home of trolley line and railway works. Most of the area was developed by 19oo, with the average year of construction for residential units being 1893-Twenty structures within the neighborhood are listed in the Denver inventory as having architectural or historical significance.
The Westside over the last ninety has seen the influx of the new immigrants: English, Italian, German and now Hispanic.
So the area developed along one street which was famous only historically, no longer, as we have seen, for its economic competitivity. It is possible to talk for a long time about history and meanings, but the biggest contradiction is to believe that one street, born to cross wild territories and to join

different places, could survive -with the same historical character- in a urban environment that has swallowed it up and where the economic meaning and character is preponderant.
This does not mean that Santa Fe' Drive could not exist. Exalting its contradictions, perhaps could be its only one solution.

All the collected materials which follow have been extrapolated from the exhaustive studies since here prepared and put in order of subject.
-Santa Fe' Drive, 1980 (Market analysis and Pubblic Investment
-Westside Concepts E nuevo pueblo de Santa Fe, 1975 -Santa Fe' Drive; Process towards revitalization, 1982 -Westside: neighborhood plan, 1981/82.

Denvex' has semi-arid climate but excremely warm or cold wheather is usually of short duration. Air masses from at least four different sources influence Denver's weathers arctic air from Canada and Alaska, warm moist air from the Gulf of Mexico, warm dry air from Mexico and the South West, and Pacific air modified by its passage over coastal ranges and the other montains to the west.
Situated a long distance from any source, and separated from the Pacific source by several high montain barriers,
Denver enjoys a low relative umidity, low average precipitation and considerable sunshine. (For more information see the "Denver Climatological Data" in appendix with other statistical reports)
Sun Path Denver 40 N Latitude.
June 22 Altitude- Azimuth
A.M. 5 P.M. 7 5.15 117.16
6 6 15-44 I07.87
7 5 26.28 98.78
8 4 37.38 89-19
9 3 ^9.13 82.47
10 2 6o. 58 69.O6
11 1 70.61 45.67
12 December 22 8 4 75.^5 4.28 52.82
9 3 12.46 41.63
10 2 18.91 29-ol
11 1 23.09 14.96
12 24.55

Denver "Westside" is comprised of two neighborhoods, La Alma/ Lincoln Park and Baker. La Alma/Lincoln Park is that area bounded by West Colfax Avenue, Speer Boulevard, West Sixth Avenue and the South Platte River. Immidiately south is the Baker neighborhood. The part of Santa Fe' Drive that I study is northern of Sixth Ave. in La Alma/Lincoln Park.
In this area, what the neighborhood were several years ago is quite different from what the neighborhoods are today or are becoming. It is important to keep in mind that certain counter trends are taking place in the neighborhood, the identification or significance of which cannot be completely determined at this time.
There appears to be a major trend toward young singles and couples moving into the Westside, purchasing and fixing up what once were somewhat neglected and deterioreating homes.
Westside has esperienced population losses since i960.
6.000 -
9.000 -
7.000 -
1960 1970 1980
1960 1970
Sources: U S Census of Population and Housing. 1960. 1970. and 1980.

In addition to the smaller household sizes (person per household) which often cause population losses, there also has been a substantial housing unit loss resulting from non-residential expansion. The total number of housing dropped 21.6% from 5-913 to 4.636, between 1970 and I98I, while the persons per-household figure dropped from 2.7 to 2.59-
The major non residential expansion included both the demolition of over 300 housing units for the construction of the Auraria Higher Educational Center, during 1960-70, as well as heavy commercial development adjacent to Santa Fe' Drive and throughout the eastern portion of the neighborhood.
Today La Alma/Lincoln Park is a community of about 6000 residents. Racially, this neighborhood has mantained a composition of about 75% Chicano since 1970. A small black population of 5% and 20% Anglo and'other'category round our ethnic breakdown.
La Alma/Lincoln Park has in the recent past been discovered by Auraria students. Most of these new-comer are Anglo, while those either selling voluntarily or being displaced involuntarily are often Chicano. In 1970, LaAlma/Lincoln Park had a high percentage of young people 0-17 yearsold.

Along Santa Fe Drive it is a mixture of retail shops, commercial services, warehouses and some residential homes.
There is a wide variety of building types. No one architectural style is prevalent. Instead, there are Victorian buildings, southwestern styled facades and modern warehouses side by side. Building are generally one or two stories. Structural integrity differs as well. While some building are in top shape, others are in need of rehabilitation. The six hundred block contains an old branch library, built in the Spanish style, on the northeast corner.
Houses are mostly rental properties. Abandoned row houses and a commercial building occur along 6th Ave., as well as a fast food restaurant.
A design guidelines for new or rehabilitated co nstruction have been adopted by the Santa Fe' Drive Redevelopment Corporation to attempt to unify the physical character of the Santa Fe' Strip. The guidelines specify a southwestern character to portray the Hispanic/Chicano culture of the Westside neighborhood. The guidelines refer to the Spanish Pueblo and Territorial styles.
The neighborhood La Alma/Lincoln Park's 1977 units are divided among 3 major classification: single family (753) multi-family (475)i and pubblic (736). The community has recently experienced new residential construction.
In general, the housing stock is very old. The average year of residential construction is 1893- The old homes often have interesting architectural details.

Now, however, the neighborhoods has been discovered by young, often first-time, home owners as well as speculators and full-time landlords. The Westside is now in a state of transition. Attractive, rehabilitated homes stand adjacent to deteriorated, sometimes vacant structures.
Prices are climbing at a rate which has long time residents both happy and alarmed. While property owners see their building value increasing dramatically, they also see the complexion of the neighborhood changing and the possibility of younger family and friends being totally eliminated from the local housing market.

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Sources U. S Census ol Population and Housing I960 aand 19Bt Housing Detail Report. Denver Planning Office
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In the recent years, the Westside community has been affected by a variety of pressures. The creation of arterials carrying heavy auto and trucks traffic has divided the neighborhood. The north half of the community has experienced the greatest development pressures due to its prossimity to the central business district, the Denver government complex to the east, and the rail-road/industrial area to the west, Auraria Higher Educational complex to the North.
Santa Fe' Drive lies near the heart of many growing and established centers of activity.
-West high school (1850 students-Grades 9-12): these students could be a potential market and are likely to frequent entertainment and recreational facilities along Santa Fe' Drive, especially in the fall, winter and spring. The student are pedestran oriented and/or rely on mass transportation. 10th Ave. serves as the primary linkage between the school and Santa Fe' Drive. If this Avenue were enhanced as a pedestrian corridor, this viable market could be readly captured.
-Denver General Hospital (l8oo Full-time employees-13000 Admissions in 1981-27500 out patients visits in 1981): this hospital, one of the city's largest, attracts many people. Workers, visitors and outpatients are mostly here throughout the day and in to the early evening. Thus, this is a potential market for restaurants, florists, pharmacies and gift shops, particularly towards the south end of the strip. With 8th Ave. serving as the primary corridor between the hospital and the strip, efforts may be made to increase its pedestrain orientation to best serve both the hospital patrons and the businesses on Santa Fe'.
-Civic Center (Government offices-cultural centers-tourist attractions):This area, lying within a half mile of the Santa Fe'

strip, is the base for many state and local government functions. With parks, the State Capital, museums and the Federal Mint, it is one of Denver's primary tourist attractions. The proposed mercado on Santa Fe' may serfve as a tourist facility, tapping this nearby market. The northern end of the strip may also be developed to serve either tourists or office functions.
-Auraria Campus (Metro State College-Community College of Denver-University of Colorado at Denver -serves 30000 students)s The Auraria Campus id the largest commuter campus in the state.
Because many students attend evening classes, the college represent both a potential and day time and evening market. As a commuter campus, theschools lack a community base. The Santa Fe' strip could serve this need with bookstores, office supply stores, restaurants and bars.(...)
Therefore we can find the Central Business District, the new UDAG (1050 housing units under construction-56000 sq.Ft. grocery store-9 story office tower), the industrial area/railyards and the traffic pattern as potential factors of development for Santa Fe' Drive.
The Westside has also numerous community facilities scattered throughout the neighborhood. Existing schools-one of which is bi-lingual and was designed by community people. A junior school serves one of the city's largest old senior high school. Park and recreation facilities occupy a good deal of space but show little imaginative effort.

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They are located especially on the west side of Kalamath and southern than 6th Avenue. This create not few problems for the image of the neighborhood.
The nonresidential areas of the westside suffer many of the same problems described in the introduction. Litter is an obvious problem, generated by not only the uses themself, but also by passing pedestrians and motorists. Commercial structures need to improve their image in the community. The small gracery stores need to provide trash receptacles. Industrial uses need to provide more landscaping, fancing and screening, particularly when they abut residential zones. Another negative environmental condition is the air and noise pollution from auto, truck, and train traffic.



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Due to its proximity to the CBD, the Westside arterial street system carriers on exceptionally high volume of traffic including heavy local and regional truck movement. Wide, fast moving, oneway streets include 6th, 8th, 13th, l^th, Santa fe' Drive and Kalamath street.
Vehicular traffic takes precedence over pedestrian and people-oriented street activities. This can be witnesses by the narrowness of th e sidewalks along Santa Fe' drive.
The traditional vehicular system of arterials, collectors and local streets does not work in the Westside because many of the collectors and local streets have become arterials, regional routes, and district distributors highways. This circulation system has been ineffective, disruptive and a major factor contributing to the further segmentation of the neighborhood.
Provisions for the safety and convenience of pedestrians and bicyclists are poor throughout the Westside area, particularly as related to arterial streets. No grade-level separation of vehicular and pedestrian circulation has been developed to protect the pedestrian-bicyclist from the heavy through traffic in the neighborhood. There is no doubt that the circulation system in the Westside is oriented almost exclusively to serving movement through, rather than within, the neighborhood.
The Westside has 6th and 8th Ave., Santa fe' Drive and Kalamath streets, Colfax Ave. and Speer Blvd. as major arterials with greatest, heavily concentration of traffic during the commuter

rush hours. The heaviest area is located at 6th and Kalamath.
Future projections show that the traffic will increase about 30% by the year 2ooo. Santa Fe' drive will be impacted by this growth. Currently, this 3 lane street is at capacity and will be substandard by the turn of the century. Denver's traffic engineers would like to see the street expanded into 5 lanes in order to meet this project demand.
Alleys: provide service and emergency traffic other than private block by block traffic.
Local streets: provide direct access to adjacent properties and
carry low volumes of traffic within the neighborhood. (Daily volumes: less than 2000 vehicles)
Collector streets: collect and distribute traffic between arterial
and local streets within the community and link major land use elements such as residential areas and shopping facilities.
(Daily volumes: 5000-12000 vehicles)
Arterial streets: permit rapid and relatively unimpeded traffic
movement throughout the city and serve as primary links between communities and major land use elements.
(Daily volumes: 17500-35000 vehicles)
Freeways: permit traffic to flow rapidly and unimpeded through and around the metropolitan area.
La Alma/Lincoln Park and Baker residents list better RTD service as one of their prime concerns. Neighborhood organizations have worked long and hard to achieve better service both in terms of scheduling and routing. In 1970, only 18% of all Denver house holds were without an automobile while the figures for the West-side were more than twice as high. About 47% of Lincoln Park households were without an automobile.

Pedestrian traffic is particularly important in the Westside because of the community's proximity to downtown, high number of city wide pubblic facilities such as Denver general hospital and the food stamp office, and the high percentage of autoless households. The Broadway and Santa Fe' commercial areas generate pedestrian activity which most likely will increase as improvements to these areas continue. Pedestrian amenities such as landscaping, wide and level sidewalks, and less threatening crosswalks should be provided in conjunction with the business revitalization efforts currently underway. In the residential community, sidewalks are often the original flagstone walks which were laid in the early part of the century. Despite their charm, they are subject to buckling and once unlevel, can present a danger to pedestrians, especially the elderly.
Glass 4s Theater, restaurant/bar, market, commercial/retail (1 space per 200 sq.ft.)
" 6s Warehouses 1/10 of gross floor area must be designated
for parking.
(1000 sq.ft, will be require about 6 parking spaces)
" 9s Office (1 space per 5oo sq. ft.)
Residence: 2 spaces Service: 3 spaces
Loading: Less than 15000 sq.ft.-No requirement.
15000 50000 " - 1 space
50000 200000 " - 2
200000 350000 " - 3

Vl340ll 12,400 .(-MV.)
14700 13,900 <*S.8 50
Division ol Highways, Stoic of Colorado Traffic Volume Maps, 1971 and 1979



The Santa Fe' commercial strip from 6th Ave to 11th Ave is zoned B-4. This zoning allows for a wide variety of uses including warehousing and light industries, with a 2 to 1 floor area ratio.
The surrounding area includes a variety of zones. The area to the north is zone B-8, high density business. R-2, medium density residential, is found west of the strip and R-3> high density residential, flanks its east edge. 1-1, an industrial zone, is located southwest of the strip.
Although zoning boundaries are clearly delineated, zoning variances and spot zoning have allowed business uses to encroch into residential areas. Such variances create potential negative impacts.
Use s /o of Total:
-Service 39
-Retail 23
-Wholesale/distributing 1^-
-Vacant buildings 9
-Manufactoring 7
-Residential 8
The 700 and 800 blocks show the gratest concentration of retail and service uses. 900 Block is largely automotive suppliers and the 1000 block is currently predominated by a moving and storage facility and vacant lots. The 600 block is primarily service and has the greatest concentration of residences along the strip.

This zoning pattern has created more than a hundred instances of non-conforming residential uses, legally complicating the renovation process. So the value of the property is placed on the land rather than on the structures. This only discorages incentives to rehabilitate existing housing.
Only about 1 4% of the La Alma/Lincoln Park 573 net acres are used for residential purposes, while over 56% of the community's acreage supports industrial, commercial, transportation, communication or utility uses. Generally, residential uses are interior to the community, with non residential uses surrounding the community on the edges.
B-4 : 1) Permitted uses: a.
Sale retail
Repair, rental and servicing Business and personal service Amusement, entertaiment and recreation Fabrication
f. Pubblic
g. Special trades
h. Residential
2) Floor Area Ratio: it is total floor area of a building
divided by the area of the lot. In B-^-the total floor area of all structures on a lot shall not be grater than twice the area of the lot.
total floo area ^
FAR" total lot area <2
3) Bulk regulations: for B-^ apply only where the lot adjoins
the side of rear line of property zoned R-0, R-l or R-2 with no separation created by a pubblic alley.

4) Height limits: Maximum height to which a building may-
be built. Must comply to floor Area Ratio.
5) Open space: No requirement.
6) Setback: Zero setback for property line.
1) Permitted uses: Primarily the same as B-^, except
manufactoring also allowed. See zoning ordinance.
2) FAR: Same as B-^-
3) Bulk regulations: Does not apply to 1-1.
*0 Height limits: Same as B-4
5) Open space: No requirement.
6) Setback: Same as B-4.

Source Denver Planning Office. Neighborhood Land Use by Zoning

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A few persons own many of the properties. These owners, with the exception of the residences, would possible be willing to partecipate in redevelopment efforts. But owners occupied business and rental properties are fairly evenly divided and randomly dispersed throughout the study area. General differences are that the Westside of Santa Fe' is comprised of large masses of owner occupied or rental buildings whereas the eastside is lergely an alternating ownership pattern. No specific pattern of ownership could be established at street intersections.
While this random land ownership pattern is typical of a commercial strip, it is important to note that different lamd users have different motivations for revitalizing their properties. Tenants are primarily concerned with the short term effects, increasing sales. Landholder look at long-term effects, property appreciation. All land users need to see tangible benefits of revitalization is the program is to be successful.
The largest single-owner blocks of property are located in the 1000 block facing Santa Fe' Drive on the SW and NE corner, as well as on the 600 block on the SE corner and across the alley facing 6th Ave. Additional large single-owner blocks of property are on the east side of Santa Fe' Drive in the 900 block.
Large accumulation of property increase the potential for more unified upgrading in these locations. At the southern extremity of Santa Fe' drive studio -600-700 block- can increase the likelihood of creating nodes or focal points.

Employment is a socio-economic factor which relate to much more than how people earn a living. The employment profile of a community also says something about its residents' ability to own and maintain property as well as their needs for pubblic facilities. So, although this plan will generally deal with physical issues and concerns, employment must also be considered in a description of the communities' people to better understand housing, transportation, and pubblic facility needs.
Median family incomes, estimated by the Planning Office in 1977> are very low. La Alma/Lincoln Park's $ 5519 estimate was a gain of over the 1970 figure, while the citywide estimate
showed a gain of k9% for the same period. In 1970, of the
La Alma/Lincoln Park residents were not in the labor force, while the comparable citywide figure was k0%. of labor force was
unemployed while the citywide unemployment rate was Concurrently of the households had income below the poverty level, while the citywide average was only 9%
In 1979t the Denver Regional Council of Governments designated Westside area of economic distress, based on income and unemployment characteristics.
Despite the fact that unemployment remains high in the West-side, where are a large number of firms and jobs located there. In 1976, Employment estimates show over 800 firms employing nearly 10000 people in La Alma/Lincoln Park. With the heavy concentration of industry on the community's western edge, it is not surprising that about k0% of the jobs are in manufactoring, transportation, communications and utilities.

p 0 L I TIC A L
c U L T U R A L
I am an architect graduated in Venice, the city of Marco Polo, the water and the love. 1 interpret Europe and its history and I never would like to lose what I feel in myself. I followed the sun path and I have arrived in America.
In this America which I love so much, there are millions of persons who think in terms of economic opportunity, technology and Marketing. But for these people -whom I esteem because they have rendered this country "America" economically powerful and helped the world to live and to eat- the architect is that man who creates the maximum volume around empty and flexible spaces, where the function can change and the historical and architectonic meaning remains the most neutral that is possible. They are spaces where it is possible to work and to produce in the most possible rational system.
America is always tending towards this trend and the "America of the cars" is integrating with the "America of the computers". That which is abstract seems not to be valid anymore, and buildings like boxes moltiply themselves on the territory.
"Do you play chess with me? Place 1 bean on the first square; then 2 on the second square, then 4, then 8, 16, 32 ... If nothing can stop you and if you don' t make mistakes how and where to invest, you will create an Empire !"

Exhibit 1.12
The Effect of Access on Urban Development

<= Population distribution governed by automobile access alone.
Source: Creighton, Hamburg Inc

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I come from a tired, thoughtful Europe, full of history and experiences which repeat themselves if one is able to understand them. I come from a Europe which is rich and is poor and so it always has been. I come from a Europe of Artists, legends and symbols, methaphors and games... I come from the world of culture, satire and irony; I come from a Europe in decline, from the world of Feelings, Emotions and Expression:
I come from the "interior" world to learn about the "exterior" world which is America; the America which knows where to look, where to walk and where to achieve progress.
For me Europe is the heart and the subconscious; America the body and the mind. Europe is words, messages, love;
America is work, actions, aggressiveness.
When I am in Europe I want to go out and affront America. When I am in America I want to re-enter and to lull myself in Europe. In the middle there is always the ocean from which everybody descends from.
Here the architecture is the pubblic frame around the private space. In Europe it is the pubblic space encircled by the private frame. In other words, in America man go along urban streets without meaning where the succession of private spaces create the structure of the city, all the same in one planned system in balance and closed in architectonic volumes of allusive, hypnotic, exalting, but extraneous public images. Instead, in Europe the public spaces create the structure of the city and follow one another, drawing the passers-by and surprising them behind every corner.

In this way the private spaces are behind symbolic facades, but they are also outside in community with the public spaces: it is all together, integrated, modeled by hands from generation to generation in the perpetual research of one "interior"balance.
The American city vitalizes you or abandons you: everything is renewed, goes on, has a future. What is the sense of restoring or protecting the older or more decadent parts of this "grid system"? As in the computer components, what is the sense of restoring and fixing the old circuit card ? Change it !
There is .a big difference between the country people and the city people, expecially here in the West. Jack Keruac, in 19^7, wrote on his book "On the Road": "...the truck reached the outskirts of Cheyenne, and suddenly we were bucking through a great crowd of people that poured along both sidewalks. "Hell's bells, it's wild west week", said Slim... I was amazed, and at the same time I felt it was ridicolous: in my first shot act the west, I was seeing to what absurd devices it had fallen to keep its proud tradition..."
Keruac came from the large metropolitan environment which from Boston arrive till Washington, but he was sensitive and an artist and he could love the contradiction of his country and its people who also feel and love, but who don't say it and never set themselves free inside.
And the Denver Post, July 26, 1983 came out with this title: Evolution of West Finds a Mirror in Frontier Days".

Are they looking for the traditions to rebuild themselves ?
No, they are only two realities which alternate but not integrate themselves.
In Europe the History continues and what is passed is remembered, what is present is an evolution and what is future is uncertainty. Here instead, what is past still lives in many people in the present; what is present is the will to go on not remembering the past, and what is future is realizing the Great American Dream !
Again another time: what is the sense to stop the past in a City as Denver if not creating "mirrors" which reflect it ?
They are images, landmarks...but always something which enjoy, exist but can also disappear. The present -in this so enthusiastic city- means the creating of something that relates to the future, not the past !
Riet Mondrian wrote: "In a future perhaps remote, we will see the end of the art as something separated from the surrounding environment, that is the present plastic reality. But this end is in the same time a new beginning."
Therefore, to affront the Santa Fe' Drive theme that, as we have seen it is a series of problems and contradictions, it means to understand its meaning as an image in a city projecting into the future. Therefore I believe that the only way to make it survive, will be to find a planned philosophy based on its implicit and explicit contradictions.

Denver is not an European city (so as it is not Boston or San Francisco) where the meaning of the place is expressed by the feelings and by the art of Denver has no strong past which ties it to the ground. It is the arbitrary, the fragmentary... They are the missing parts which generate vitality in the city.
In such a way, my thesis will not want to be a transformation of the space deduced from literal stereotypes, but it will be -most as much as possible- based on an expressive and meaningful lunguage. For me Architecture is still Art, even if perhaps abstract... the important thing is to leave a message !
Therefore a University degree project would illustrate this message and would reveal a sufficient autonomy from too much direct and literal forms of experimentalism and, at the same time, it would avoid sole use of technicism, professionalism and conformism.
An Architect is not simply a technician, an executor or a mediator, nor a planner of neutral spaces...never he has been so Wittenstein said: "Today the difference between a good architect and a bad one is in this: the bad one gives out at every temptation, the other one resists them."
So, my thesis perhaps will be provocative, but more expressive and less neutral. It will be an idea, a message by which it is possible to talk about and critize, to repel or to accept... Will the contradiction of the theme be reflected also on the contradiction of the planned expression ? If this happens it will be coherent.

My goal is the proponing of a solution for Santa Fe' Drive where the same history of the facts serve the recognition of the common consistency of them. We find "reflected history" therefore, and its existential contradiction with the reality of the future city !
Santa Fe' Drive will have to be an image and a place which enjoys, create critical thinkings and leaves a message! I want to create the uniqueness and the identity of a place and, at the same time, to make more understandeble how it could be temporal in a city as Denver. I want to draw people into that place, but at the same time to make it unforgettable that the cars exhist.
I want to create the illusion, the spectacle, but at the same time to make it appear like a mirror or a transparent glass window. I want to create the sense of "inside" and "outside", but where one never could know if he is inside or outside...
Enigma and curiosity for an emblematic area in a city which does not even realize this area exist.
At one time the communications were visual and the wagons ful of Mr. Wooton's whiskey, drew out tracks along Santa Fe' trail to meet people. Now the communication are always more electronic, invisible... and the city could almost not-exist, or to be suspended up in the air... Perhaps a satellite is the city of the future: the point where the communications arrive and depart People are getting used to meeting themselves in this way.
Therefore what is the role of the architectural expression if not totally projecting itself into the future or emphasinzing the contradiction of a present which is already past ?

I come therefore from the "interior" world that is Europe and from the past to learn how to see where the world is going toward the future through the eyes of America. I interpret the present as illusion of the past continuum and of what is already changed... And I observe the future not as something that will come, but that already exists somewhere and it is only spreading out in every field.
When I will go back into the "big library" that is Europe, and into the city of Venice to think about its people, the sound of water and steps and the lights of street-lamps in the winter fog... then I will have learnt many things in the America I love, because it can see and hope in the future of people. And I will want to come back again. And I'll remember to have left a small sign full of meanings: perhaps only a message of the present-time contradiction or the artistic contradiction of my sensitivity !
Denver, Co. 8/12/83

NOTE 1 Please, read also the Proposal of Thesis in Appendix.
NOTE 2: I understand the Thesis as the wholeof 2 parts: the first one includes the Thesis Proposal and the Preparation, understanding them as an prroach to the problem; knowledge of the reality; image, meanings and philosophy of the topic.
The second part will be purposeless and it will include the planning and proposal analysis for Santa Fe' Drive, in harmony with what has sprung from the first part. In other words, it will mean entering in the real project analysing places, courses and relationships with a psycological and visual aspect, and proposing a meaningful solution.
In the second part, analysis and planning cannot be separated because they belong of the same process which include questions and answers in terms of physical, social and expressive design.
NOTE 3: Please, add ary comment and suggestions here:

- History of Denver, 1901. (Colorado Historical Society)
- Santa Fe' Drive; Architectural guidelines, Center for Community development and design and C.D. Agency.
- Santa Fe' Drive Market Study, THK Associates. 1980.
- Westside neighborhood Plan, Denver Plannin Department, 1981/82
- Westside Concept: El nuevo pueblo de Santa Fe, 1975-
- Santa Fe' Drive: Process towards revitalization, 1982

Generation of design concepts: from September 1 to October 1 about.
Selection and decisions! from October 1 to October 15 about.
Design and development: from October 15 to December 1 about.
Presentation: at the end of Fall Semester ( about December 10)


Santa Fe' Drive
(Mix-Use Redevelopment Project)
at Denver
Instructor: JOHN PROSSER
Thesis of Architecture in Urban Design.

PROJECT DESCRIPTION; issues, goals & ojectives.
The area addressed is along Santa Fe' Drive in Denver, north-bond of 6th. Ave. The street, one time economically powerful as southern penetration system in downtown Denver, is now vastly under-use resource. In collaboration with Santa Fe'Dr. Redevelopment Corporation Office, I intend to analyze and understand the real possibility that exist for its revitalization. With some alternative planning suggestions, the street could become an interesting landmark for the Denver Area.
I have decided to choose this area because it is, for many aspects, contradictory and potentially vague:
-Historically it is an area which developped along a penetration
road into Denver, with all its economical character.
Today this is not anymore. Now it is an area with an indefinite character between residential and commercial and poor retail shops. It is an area which didn' t become "parking lot" (between downtown and the new parts of the city) only -I think- because of its architectural character and,in some way, for some residential image.
-Sociologically it is a contradictory area because a population of
Hispanic/Chicano culture live in a phisical environment where economical activities with center-northern European character, develop individually along one street. Instead, the cultural tendency of the Hispanic/Chicano population, has to be found in the sense of collectivity, in the commun spaces and in the community life. -Economically it is a contradiction because it could be an area
potentially strong, while now it is almost dead. It is a closed sack among streets with high volume of traffic; an area where anchoragments or attractions do not exist.

-Architecturally it is a continuos contraddiction between hispanic
and anglo-saxons architectures and styles. Also in the relationship between typology and morphology of the settlement there is a contradiction: houses of Spanish styles face themselves on Santa Fe' Dr. which has nord-European morphological pattern, without internal courtyards nor commun spaces.
Therefore it is interesting to study and understand what is Santa Fe' Drive. Does it exist or doesn't it exist as an enthity? How is it possible to increase its value and, at the same time, to make it an attractive area? Etc. It is problematic, but for this it is more interesting.
My personal intent, in preparing this thesis project, is to find the opportunity to incorporate a unified land use pattern with a multy-use system of retails, offices, housing, tourist attractions and recreational interests. The urban design potential, here exists also in term of integration of old and new structures. Other project concepts include:
-Preserve the old structures and facades with a strong meaning; -Separate pedestrian and automotive uses;
-Improve landscaping;
-New shapes and materials should emphasize what derive from a critical analysis.
I will give a strong importance to a critical analysis also during the planning process, and expecially for historical, sociological and environmental issues.
Therefore I'll suggest a urban design solution that will be an answer for a so contradictory area. Maybe also fantastic ideas could result, in a provocative (or coherent?) architectural lunguage or expression, but perhaps the only one that is possible to make survive Santa Fe' Drive.

To understand the character of Santa Fe' Drive, and to make it economically competitive,is my first scope. At the same time, to create a mix-use area where the architecture and the pubblic spaces will play an important role. Emphatizing historical and social aspects, the architecture will exalt the contradictions as planning matrix. I think the project will be limited to only few blocks, but with the wish to be culturally expressive and significant.
My personal goal is to enrich myself culturally, interpreting the problem and suggesting one coherent solution with the analysis, in one lunguage that is difficult to define in this paper: perhaps traditional, perhaps provocative, perhaps fantastic... but where the meaning of the solution exalts the critic interpretation of the reality.
I believe that the University is, first of all, culture, that is to deepen one problem, decompose it, analys get to a practical-operative solution, or maybe to a non-solution, or again to the satire and irony: all three can be cultutally and critically coherent at the problem.
(Graphic Analysis
Photographic Analysis Historical-documentation Analysis Statistical Analysis Descriptive Analysis
B. A Material:
Cartography Photo, slides... Historical material.
C. A Methodology: environmental perception and behavior.

I) Lecture_of_the_Optical_Image -Spatial delimitation of the area.
-Undertanding of places, axis, nodes, areas, volumes, colors, details and signs.
-Relationship and connections of the environmental-image elements.
II) ynderstanding_of_the_Significant Image
-Graphical synthesis of the structure of environmental image: hierarchies, parts, ties, contacts, relationships, landmarks and referiments.
-Social-economic environment, behavior and expressions. -Confrontation between Optical and Significant (Mental) Image.
III) Global_Environmental_Analysis -Orography, Idrography, Climatology.
-History: development of the original settlement, people and previous and today master plans.
-Demography: density and structure of the population.
-Building situation: location, number, S.F., quality, type, age,
categories, hygienic conditions, destination. -Green areas: private and pubblic.
-Religious buildings: kind of religion.
-Schools: relation with other cultural areas.
-Hospitals: and pharmacies.
-Shops: markets, retails...
-Recreation Buildings: cinemas, discotheques, swimming pools... -Industry.
-Commerce areas: art and crafts centers, artisans, business. -Tourist and City Services.
-Communication and Transportation: volumetric diagrams, lines
and directions of traffic, pubblic transportation, parking.
-Property bondaries.
-Economic situation.
IV) APolitical-Cultural-Critical_Syntesis

The product of thesis will be an urban design project and a report that will be illustrated during the presentation.
Instructor: John Prosser, Urban Design.
Advisory Board: Paul Foster, Urban Design.
Paul Heath, Architecture.
Dan Schler, Social environment -CCDD-
Tom Edminston, Westside Neighborhood Design.
I Week
contacts, material and organization. General analysis.
General analysis.
Relationship of elements of the analysis. Critical analysis and synthesis. Conclusion and report.
NOTE: I know the area pretty well because I have collected materials,
informations ...when I studied it during Spring Semester.

Auraria Higher Education Complex
Colfax Ave.
N Lincoln Park Public Housing
Lincoln Park
S Lincoln Park Public Housing
I 25
8 Blocks {--------

AREA CODE 303 5r5-2r21
Friends of Denver:
Denver is a city proud of its strong and diverse neighborhoods. The City and County of Denver is committed to the preservation and improvement of its neighborhoods. There are many reasons for this. Residents identify most closely with their neighborhood and their quality of life is strongly affected by the neighborhood environment in which they live and work.
Denver's neighborhoods possess a priceless wealth of physical and social
Resources. The cost of duplicating or replacing total neighborhoods is rohibitive and could never recapture the unique mix of our existing neighborhoods. In addition, the growing appeal of established urban neighborhoods is being reinforced by the increasing cost and uncertain long term availability of gasoline supplies that have so long contributed to the sprawl of large metropolitan areas like Denver. r
The enclosed adopted plan for the Westside Neighborhoods of LaAlma/Lincoln Park and Baker is an additional step toward adding neighborhood plans to the 1978 Comprehensive Plan for Denver. It was prepared jointly by the Denver Planning Office and a neighborhood planning team comprised of residents, business persons, and other concerned citizens. It was also reviewed by a variety of city and public agencies and was approved, after extensive review and public hearings, by the Planning Board, the Mayor and City Council.
The plan recognizes the La/Alma Lincoln Park and Baker neighborhoods as one of strategic importance to Denver. The policies contained in the plan outline in some detail the steps that need to be taken by the public and private
sectors working together to preserve, selectively redevelop and strengthen the neighborhood.
We thank all those who have worked so hard on this neighborhood plan and urge residents, neighborhood organizations, the business community and other
public jurisdictions to join the City and County of Denver in the challenging
opportunity of implementing this fine plan.
W. H. McNichols, Jr MAYOR

ROOM 400
This report is the officially approved plan for the west side neighborhoods of La Alma/Lincoln Park and Baker. It is the third neighborhood plan to go through a review and approval process by the City Council (as well as by the Planning Board and Mayor) as specified by Council ordinance. It is also the third neighborhood plan to be officially adopted since the document, Planning Toward the Future: A Comprehensive Plan for Denver, was adopted by the Mayor and City Council in 1978.
As such, it becomes a part of the Comprehensive Plan. I
The plan is an important guide to the future of these neighborhoods. Many detailed policy recommendations are proposed to contribute toward neighborhood preservation and reinvestment. Older inner city neighborhoods, such as La Alma/Lincoln Park and Baker are critical resources for the future of this City. The preservation of the housing stock and the continuance of close-in job opportunities are vital considerations in the definition of this plan. Much work remains to be done by many individuals and organizations to carry out the ideas of the Planning Team.
We are grateful to the numerous residents, neighborhood organizations, businesses, public agencies, and individual citizens who participated in the preparation of this document. Their continued support is essential to the improved neighborhoods that are prescribed in the plan.
Alan L. Canter Director of Planning
L .
George A. Cavender, Chairman Denver Planning Board

. V*. I ii l L l J C- V 1 t ^ ^ ^
Annual Summary With Comparative Data
Narrative Climatological Summary
Denver enjoys the mild, sunny, semi-arid climate that prevails over much of the central Rocky Mountain region, without the extremely cold mornings of the high elevations and restricted mountain valleys during the cold part of the year, or the hot afternoons of summer at lower altitudes. Extremely warm or cold weather is usually of short duration.
Air masses from at lqast four different sources influence Denver's weather: arctic air from Canada and Alaska; warm moist air from the Gulf of Mexico; warm dry air from Mexico and the southwest; and Pacific air modified by its passage over coastal ranges and other mountains to the west.
The good climate results largely from Denver's location at the foot of the east slope of the Rocky Mountains in the belt of the prevailing westerlies. During most summer afternoons cumuliform clouds so shade the City that temperatures of 90* or over are reached on an average of only thirty-two days of the year, and in only one year in five does the mercury very briefly reach the 100 mark.
In the cold season the high altitude and the location of the mountains to the west combine to moderate temperatures. Invasions of cold air from the north, intensified by the high altitude, can be abrupt and severe. On the other hand, many of the cold air masses that spread southward out of Canada over the plains never reach Denver's altitude and move off over the lower plains to the east. Surges of cold air from the west are usually moderated in their descent down the east face of the mountains, and Chinooks resulting from some of these westerly flows often raise the temperature far above that normally to be expected at this latitude in the cold season. These conditions result in a tempering of winter cold to an average temperature above that of other cities situated at the same latitude.
In spring when outbreaks of polar air are waning, they are often met by moist currents from the Gulf of Mexico. The juxtaposition of these two currents produces the rainy season in Denver, which reaches its peak in May.
Situated a long distance trom any moisture source, and separated from the Pacific source by several high mountain barriers, Denver enjoys a low relative humidity, low average precipitation, and considerable sunshine.
Spring is the wettest, cloudiest, and windiest season. Much of the 37 percent of the annual total precipitation that occurs in spring falls as snow during the colder, earlier period of that season. Stormy periods are often interspersed by stretches of mild sunny weather that remove previous snow cover.
Summer precipitation (about 32 percent of the annual total), particularly in July and August, usually falls mainly from scattered local thundershowers during the afternoon and evening. Mornings are usually clear and sunny. Clouds often form during early afternoon and cut off the sunshine at what would otherwise be the hottest part of the day. Many afternoons have a cooling shower.
Autumn is the most pleasant season. Local summer thunderstorms are mostly over and invasions of cold air and severe weather are infrequent, so that there is less cloudiness and a greater percent of possible sunshine than at any other time of the year. Periods of unpleasant weather are generally brief. Precipitation amounts to about 20 percent of the annual total.
Winter has least precipitation accumulation, only about 11 percent of the annual total, and almost all of it snow. Precipitation frequency, however,' is higher than in autumn. There is also more cloudiness and the relative humidity averages higher than in the autumn. Weather can be quite severe, but as a general rule the severity doesn't last long.

Average Temperature
Y **r 1 J*n | fb I Mar j Apr j May | June | Jufr I Ajg I St pt | Oct | Nov | Dec ^AnTmal
P 6 3
P 71 1*72
71.t aa.h 7C.* 6*P
7 ) V
71.1,' 71.2 *1
. *.<( II

it.; **. *.* 10.*
10.1 ll. 10.0 41.7
11.0 a.i
41. 7
41.4 17.0
Heating Degree Days r^r,
Nov | Dec [ Jin | Feb1 Mar j Apr | Maypuny 1 claT
Seasonj July! Auf, ISrpt' 0:t
Pf9-*i! PM-4l|
P* 2-5) p*3.4*
104 >7
1*1: *P
77* 10*1 *4*' 11 471 J 71
111 *14 1P1 111* 4171 ) 20
l Ml
4*2 3| .701 2 7 j 7.4: *0 ha! i7*; 7>
74*11147 107*
10 *V 1** *01
* 4 1 4**
7 7 *71 74*
771 *40 714 01
0 71* 717 II
111- 1*11 *41 1*17 1121 101* 41 *11
77 101* HI* 1*2* 10*1
07 20
1P2 1 1044 *21 10*1
loll 10*1 11*1 1*77 1014
7 i I--*! IG
71 4). | * j 7
7* i 4*4j **7 1 c 4 7 *12 1*1
l C | l 1 04 4 j I
pp 4*1 1*1 ** ill 7ii
21 I *
14 4f*
471* 7* 4131
19 1 )
7i I 4:>
1*4 HP 4104 1*12
Cooling Degree Days
Yar j | Feb j Mar} Apr | Maypune[ Jutyj AuglSeptj Oct ) Nov
II 4* 112 24* 4|
1 222 24* *0
Dec Total
II 141 111 Til 114
Precipitation Snowfall
Year | Jn Feb | Mar t Apr | M >1 June) July Aug Sept | Oct j Nov Dec jAnnual Season |july|Aug Iseptj Oct J Nov | Dec | Jan | Feb | Mar | AprJ MaypunejToUl
Pi* 0.12' l.l*| 1.0* 1.LI 1.2) i.o*; o.n o.ll 0.2* 0. *7 0.0* o.n 1.41 1*37-40 0.0 o.o 0,0 7.4 0.) 4.9 UP 4.1 11.7 T 0.0 op 44.1
P*o 1.01' 0.47 2.24 1.4 1.*) 0.10 1.2* 0.21 4.01 0.11 0.75 0.41 14.10
P* 1 .u| 0.2* 1.21 . 1.71 >>! I.l* IP* 2.4* 2.* 0.42 OP* 22.01 l**l-42 0.0 0.0 T T 2.2 4.7 4.0 11.1 7.4 IP 1.7 op 44.1
1**2 0.4* 0.*1 0.44 *.P i-u 1.0*| 1.01 0.77 0. 41 2 *4 0.24 0.1! 14.1* l**2-4> 0.0 o.o 0.4 6,M 4.1 4.1 5.0 IP 7.3 T * J 0,0 16.1
1*41 C.21 0.17 0.*! 1.0* 1.1*1 1.2*! 0.71 l.P 0.07 0-2T 0.41 0.17 *12 1*1-4* 0.0 0.0 0.0 IP 2.) 1.0 12.1 1.) 24.1 IIP 7.7 0.0 *1.1
P** 1.3 0.25 2.4* 1.*] 1.71 0* *7| 1.14 0.4* T 0.04 0.5J 0.17 11.14 1**4-} 0.0 0.0 0.0 o.n I.l ).* 12.2 4.2 1.0 21.0 7 op IIP
1*41 c.7e O.N* 0.11 2.11 2.12 2.02 2.1* 2.D i.17 0.7 0.40 0.0* ll.l*
1 3-*4 0.0 0.0 T 2.7 1.4 0.4 10.2 . l.t T 0.1 0,0 21.9
1*44 0.4*' 0.27 0.57 2.0* IP* 0.12 14 e l.P l.P O.l* 2.*7 o.o* P.14 41**6-47 0.0 o.o 0.4 ip 1). 1 0,7 7.1 UP 12.0 *.7 1.) T 11.4
* ; 7 e. j- :.*i 1.0* 1.13 4 4 11 2-74. 1.11 1.27 0.*] l.*l 0.71 0.77 1 05 1* 7-*1 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.1 4.4 4.4 ll.l 7.) >22.0 ). T 0.0 7*.4
P*4 J.* i.7l 2.17 1.4*1 1.** 0.49 0.4] 0.41 0.14 0.55 0.26 12.42 1*4.* 0.0 0.0 0.0 0. 5.7 4.4 20.1 OP il*.2 12.7 T 0,0 40.1
* i.i 3 v 1 2.2* 1.** 1.11 4.71 1 1.11 0.*2 0.2* 1.14 0.01 o.n 15.71 0.0 0.0 7.1 0.0 4.0 4.4 IP 3.4 P 11.4 0.0 12.4
P1D 0.47. 0.2* 0.11 2. 2.40 1.12 J 0.15 0.2* l.P 0.12 1.00 o.a 11.*1
1*30-51 0.0 0.0 0.0 o.r ii.* 1.6 11.7 10.1 17.4 IIP 0.0 6,1 76.4
Pll 0.11 0.7* 1.47 2.01 1.T4 I.Ill 0.11 4.47 0.*7 2.14 1.17 0.5* 1 1 1*51-32 0.0 0.0 4.2 7.7 U.l n.2 0.1 P.2 23.2 11.2 T op 14.1
PJ2 c.c*. 3.4* 2.17 2.71 d.lll 1.0* 1.41 O.l* 0.P 1.11 o.l* 11.41 1*32-5) o.c 9.0 C.U 1.7 14.) i.i 7.4 PP 11.4 12.0 1.7 0,0 44.2
Pll 0.1* 1.1* l.P 1.2*1 2.4* 1.4* , l.*l 1.2 0.20 0.44 1.00 1.01 14.2) 1*51-5* 0.0 0.0 0.1 7.2 i*.* 2.7 0.4 4.3 TP 2.5 0,0 IP
PP 0.21 3.0* * 0.44 0.43 0.** !.* 6.51 0.77 c.o* 0.57 o.n 7.11 l*5*-ll 0.0 0.0 0.6 ).* 4.4 1.) 12.2 19.) *.* 0.0 0,0 HP
Pll 0.21 0. *5 UP 0.44 2.*7 I.l* !.* 2.41 2.72 0.5* 0.36 0.15 14.01
1*55-56 0.0 0.0 0.0 4.1 7.1 .* 4.1 P.l 11.0 1.7 T op 47. I
1*1* C.U 0.77 0.1* 0.71 2.1* 0.4* 4.17 1.1) 0.01 0.27 1.25 0.41 11.72 1*56-57 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.* 71.1 4.) 5.) IP 4.9 21.) I.l 0,0 7P
1*17 C.U 0.71 1.0* *.H 7.J1 1.0* 1.2* a.o) 0.*2 2.41 0.4* 0.04 21.11 1*57-5* 0.0 0.0 T ).* 1.0 0.1 IP 12.0 1*.* 14.1 0.0 o.c 19.1
1*14 0.7 j ;.co i.*l 1.71 4. *5 1 7 1.19 l.P l.ll 0.17 0.7* OP* 14.40 Pll-3* 0.0 0.0 T 2.6 4.7 7.7 17P 17.) *16.4 IT.5 T 0,0 19.1
PI* 1.2* i.M 2.4* 1.1) l.H 0.4* 0.41 0.2) 1.42 2.4* 0.40 0.2* p.54 1 3 4-60 0.0 12. 11.4 S.l 2.7 10.7 PP 9.0 4.1 T 0,0 0.4
1*43 0.77 1.44 0.4* 2.14 2.27 C.4> 1.11 0.0* 0.14 2.44 0.** 1.10 14.**
j 1*60-41 c.o 0.0 0.0 4.4 1.1 1 7.4 1.0 TP 29.2 IP 4P 0.0 *0.4
1*41 0.C7 2.46 2.51 1.05 4.12 1.1 1.53 1.21 4.47 0.77 0.*1 o.o 1*.01 1*?1-42 c.o s.l 4.7 11.* . 17.2 IIP 4.1 10.0 0.0 oro 71.1
P*2 1.11 1.3) 0.57 1.19 0.4* i.* 0.1* 0.4* 0.1* 0.54 0.17 4.*5 1*42-4) 0.0 0.0 0.7 0.0 1.0 1.2 *.l 2.1 14.0 0.2 0.3 0.0 14.1
P*> C 1 3.21 1.41 0.51 1.5* 0.1) 2.52 1.21 o.ll 0.43 0.31 12.2) 1 1-6* c.c 0.0 0.0 1.1 1.) . 2.4 12.7 1*.* 12.1 1.0 0,0 17.1
14* C. 2 * 1.0* l.ii; 1.25 2.) 0.47 0.73 0.27 0.41 C.U 0.44 0.*0 10. 1* p6*-4l 0.0 0.0 0.0 T 4.0 4.* 11.2 17.1 14 * o.) T 0.0 IIP
1*41 1.39; !<* 1.201 l.C 1.57 * l * 4.41 1.0* I.M 0.0 0.16 0.31 21.47
1** 3-64 0.0 5.3 o.r I.l 4.4 1.4 1*.* 2.1 4P IP op 44P
P* 4 9.): 1.2*1 0.17 1.44 0.1* l.*l 1.0* 2.0* I.l* 0.94 0.12 0.i7 10.41 1*66-67 0.0 0.0 T *.) 1.0 IP P 4P 4.5 IP 1.0 o.o *0.7
P* 7 1 C.4* 0.7*, 4.77 >.i> 0.41 0.40 1.11 1.01 1.04 21.11 P67-64 0.0 o.o o.o 1.7 4.4 11.1 1.0 7.) 9.2 P.l T 0,0 IIP
P4I | c.U* 0.7*1 0.15 2.1* 0.71 0.13 1.1* 2.5 0.5* 0.75 0.71 0.31 12.11 1*41-6* 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.6 1.4 * IP 4.2 11.2 T 0.0 op ll.l
:'.* | 0.17 c.o 1.11 4.12 2.** 1.41 0.7* i.*7 4.17 0.47 0.12 21.12 l*6*-70 0.0 0.0 0.0 11.7 I.l 1.1 OP op 13.5 4.T T op IP
P 70 1 0.10 O.wll l.J*j 0.4* 1.41 1.57 O.l* 2.47 O.P 1.1* 0.09 11.71
! 1 1 1*70-71 0.0 0.0 4.6 5.* *.2 OP 4.4 UP 9.4 4.0 T 0,0 14.9
ii i 0.15 0.7I| o.ii; !.* 1.1* 0.21 1.20 o.ii 2.1) 0.44 0.1* 0.21, 10.*5 1*71-72 0.0 0.0 17.2 1.1 1.4 P 10P 7.1 7.1 17.2 0.0 op 96.4
1*72 | 0.)( 0.**: 0.50' i.i 0.4* 2.** 0.41 2.71 2.07 0.*2 1.4* C. 70 14.47 1*72-71 0.0 o.o 0.0 *.* 1V.4 P 12.1 i.o ll.l 1*. 5 1.0 ep *6.9
PH 1.U 0.P 1.7* 1.71 5.0* 0.20 2.47 1.24 2.11 0.47 0.41 1.4* 22.*4 1*73-7* 0.0 o.o o.o 2.1 I.l 9.4 4.2 PP Ll.l 17.* 0.0 T 1.1
1*7* | 1.31 3. *2 2.21 o.o* 2.91 2.1* 0.P 0. *4 l.P 1.06 0.2* 14.01 1*7*.75 0.0 0.0 ! l.r UP 2.1 1.4 4.0 il*.l 10. 4.1 0.0 >1.9
1*75 0.21 3. *7i l.Pi 1.1* 2.43 2.11 1.74 2.00 0.2* o.lo l.*4 0.*7 11.11
1*73-76 0.0 o.o 0.0 2.7 11.2 7.1 1.2 4.4 IIP l.t 0.0 op 14.9
1*74 ; 3.1* 3.5* !.>* !.! i.l* 0.51 2.11 2.10 l.P 0.*1 0.17 0.1* 11.41 1*76-77 0.0 o.o 0.0 7.7 A.I 1.1 2.6 1.1 9.6 *. 7 0.0 op >6.4
1*77 o.l* 0.27, 1.2* 2.11 C.l* 1.02. 2.*4 1.00 0.10 0.44 0.1* 0.01 |0.1* 1*77-74 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.1 4.1 0.7 IP 6.2 4.6 4.4 11.1 ep 44.1
PH ] -"i O.Pj "i 1.42 1.4* i.l* 0.14 0.2* 0.07 1.45 0.10 0.*< 11.70 1*74-7* 0.0 0.0 T *.* i.) P-2
IC30| i l rrctp
Mi 4 N j -*i -Mi l.iej 2.01 2.1* 1.4* 1.70 l.P 1.12 1.00 0.44 0.41 14.10 M|AN 0.0 0.0 l.? IP T.T 4.4 TP 7.9 11.4 *.4 1p T IIP
# Indicate* Station aovt or relocation of Instruoents. Sea Station Lex at Ion table.
Record **ean values above are ntsnt through ltx current year for the period beginning in 1872 for temperature and precipitation, 19)5 for snowfall. Teaperature and precipitation are froo City Office location* throueh 19)0. Heating degree d*y* are fro* City Office locations through Ju\t 1939. Snowfall if from City Office locations through June 1934. Otherwise the data are fron Airport locations.

Meteorological Dc. j For The Current Year
feeilon OlNVCt* (ninRAOO STAPlfTOM IHTIAHATIONAL AP Stendard time veed: MOUNTAIN latitude: 14* *J' N longitude: 10** 51 V Elevation (round) : *** e*l Veer: 1*70
j I 23062___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________
| ""T Relative ^
Tmwwitgn * OtfrM Bata 4 Precipitation tn Inchet Relative humidity, pet Wind j i! f Number of deyt rrn- pr m,'. mb
Month Aver epee Extreme* 5 *F Water equivalent Snow Ice pallets 1 03 1 11 Loca 1 17 Vr time! 1 2) V nt> Rawltent 1 1 ! Fatten mile Is ?! Sunrlw to aunaet i! l! II i! j t Temperature *P
h ft II M. a imum Minimum
i! * O E f 1 1 S 1 f f l l 4- k 1 J h s I I 1! 1 1 1 IS s (b| l\ hi ll 3>3? Met r*\% 1
j*N 37.5 14.1 21.4 31 4 0 1 1206 0 0.27 o.u 11-16 3.3 2.3 21-24 64 33 34 66 04 1.0 5.4 24 HU 25 6 V 6.4 6 4 l 6 6 i 0 2 0 4 31 l
f ri a ?. ? 20. 31.4 *6 23 7 17 436 0 0.27 0.13 11-1? 6.? 3.1 15-16 76 34 34 73 0* 1.6 7.2 30 HE 20 7) 6.6 4 11 13 6 2 0 0 7 2# 0 31.*
M 37.0 24.6 41.1 77 31 -1 4 661 0 1.07 0.67 22-23 6.6 4.3 2-1 60 34 33 33 3* 0.6 0.1 27 w 16 0 a 6. a 4 a 14 a 4 2 1 0 l 1 9 2 1 J 4 4
AR 61.4 36.4 30.3 2 7 27 10 431 0 1.02 0.66 4 4.6 4.2 4 6 38 33 31 24 1.7 10.1 41 u 17 7a 6. a 1 14 11 6 l 3 2 0 0 6 0 111.7
n*t 67.1 41.7 14.4 47 11 23 7 333 12 3.46 1.12 30-1 13.5 6.4 5-6 64 43 40 61 17 1.7 4.1 34 SE 16 43 6.1 9 6 14 12 I 1 1 0 0 2 0 Jj.a
JUM 0.6 53.1 66.4 41 24 1 1 7 112 l.P 0,41 4-5 0.0 0,0 63 19 14 54 16 2.0 7.R 30 N 7 67 5.7 10 4 11 7 0 7 0 ll 0 0 0 1). *
jut 90.4 34.0 74.7 4* 23 10 21 0 300 0.54 0 21 24 0.0 0.0 62 30 26 43 14 1.4 0.1 14 HU 16 7) 4.3 12 14 1 1 0 11 1 22 0 0 0 5* 1
AUG 9.5 33.7 64.6 44 17 44 13 20 171 0.26 0,11 2-1 0.0 0.0 63 31 30 52 14 1.) 0.2 42 H 1 7) 4.7 10 14 7 0 6 0 12 0 0 0 I* *
Sr R 11.1 41.7 61.0 44 32 21 46 103 o.oi 0,07 I.-J0 T T 20 31 23 20 40 17 2.4 0.1 30 3 7 6) 1.1 21 7 2 2 0 1 0 7 0 1 0 6 1 1
on 64.2 17.4 33.1 N6 l 21 22 366 2 1.0 1.24 21-22 2.7 1.7 22 34 31 20 44 14 0.4 7.2 26 HF 4 7a 4.0 14 3 7 3 2 0 0 0 0 o ) 7
NPV 46.1 21.7 17.1 7 A 27 11 0 0.10 0,31 23-26 6.4 4.0 25-26 66 4) 46 63 04 0.3 7.2 26 HU 26 16 6.0 11 6 13 1 2 0 4 0 J 2a 0 a i
OfC 16.9 12.1 24.4 57 4 -10 1241 0 0.02 0,38 5-6 14.2 7.1 5-6 63 30 36 62 1* 0.4 0.4 33 HE 5 72 5.3 10 10 11 7 4 0 1 0 4 31 eu.
Tf AA 41.2 36.1 44.7 44 21 1--10 6202 741 11.70 1.24 21-22 62.2 0.4 5-6 64 40 16 56 14 o. 0.0 54 SE 16 72 5.4 126 111 124 74 <1 11 20 32 41 1 aa |9 .
v h
Normals, Means, And Extremes
Meant and ntriMi above are frow exlating and coeparable expoeuree. Annual extremee have been exceeded at other altea In the locality aa followai Hlqheat temperature 105 In Au9uat 1070 *laua monthly precipitation 1.57 In May 107tj minimum monthly precipitation 0.00 In December lltli eaxlnum precipitation In 24 houra (.53 In May 1074) maximum monthly anowfall 57.4 in December lllli maximum anowfall in 24 houra 23.0 in April lt!5i faateat mile of wind 45 from Meat In May 193)*
N0RMAIS Bated on record for the 1941-1970 period.
DATt OF Aft EXTREME The mott recent In catat of multtpla occurrence.
MCVAUIKG Vino 0lrCTI0n Record through 1943.
W1 mo DIRECTION Numerals Indicate tern of deereet cleckwlse fro* true north. 00 Indicates cal*.
FASTEST MlLC VINO Speed la fatten observed 1-alnvlt valve when the direction It In lens of deyreet.
(a) length ef record, years, through the current year unless otherwise noted. Bated an January data.
(b) 70* and ebeva at Alaskan stations.
less than one half.
1 Trace.

zone lot has three (3) front lines, and passes through points ten (10) feet above the midpoints of such.
1 Side lines of the zone lot; or
2. Through a point ten (10) feet above the midpoint of the side
line opposite the front setback; or
3. Through a point ten (10) feet above the midpoint of the side line opposite the arterial front line of the zone lot when such zone lot has three (3) front lines.
Whenever any side line is coincidental with a public alley the bulk plane shall be a plane extending up over the zone lot at an angle of sixty-three (63) degrees and twenty-six (26) minutes with respect to the horizontal (a pitch of two (2) feet additional rise for each foot additional setback) and which plane starts at a horizontal line which is co-directional to the centerline of such alley and passes through a point ten (10) feet above the midpoint of the centerline of such alley.
(d) Maximum zone lot coverage by structures. The sum total of the ground area covered by all structures on a zone lot shall not exceed thirty (30) per cent of the area of the zone lot on which the structures are located.
(Code 1950, § 612.27-4; Ord. No. 407-81, § 1, 8-17-81)
Sec. 59-325. Permitted signs.
The provisions of article IV of this chapter on permitted signs, shall be in full force and effect in this district.
(Code 1950, § 612.27-5)
Sec. 59-326. Off-street parking requirements.
The provisions of article V of this chapter on off-street parking requirements shall be in full force and effect in this district.
(Code 1950, § 612.27-6)
Supp. No. 1
Sec. 59-327. Off-street loading requirements.
The provisions of article VI of this chapter on off-street loading requirements shall be in full force and effect in this district.
(Code 1950, § 612.27-7)
Sec. 59-328. Special zone lot plan for planned building groups.
The provisions of article VII of this chapter on special zone lot plan for planned building groups shall be in full force and effect in this district.
(Code 1950, § 612.27-8)
Secs. 59-32959-335. Reserved.
Sec. 59-336. Generally.
The provisions of this division apply to all lands, uses and structures in B-4 districts.
(Ord. No. 261-81, § 1, 5-2681)
Sec. 59-337. Permitted uses.
No land shall be used or occupied and no structure shall be designed, erected, altered, used or occupied except for either one or more of the following uses by right or for one or more of the following uses by temporary permit; provided, however, that a use by right may be accompanied by lawful accessory uses and/or one or more of the following uses by temporary permit:
(1) Uses by right. The following uses may be operated as uses by right:
a. Sale at retail, sale at wholesale and warehousing of the following commodities:
1. Any commodity the fabrication or assembly of which is a permitted use in the district;
2. Apparel and accessories;
3. Appliances;
4. Art gallery;
5. Auctioneer;

16. IT. 18. 19
iipp. No. 1
3.' Music, musical instruments and records;
34. Monuments, need not be enclosed; provided, however, that any outdoor display shall be screened from abutting properties by means of some planting, a fence or wall;
35. Newspaper distribution station;
36. Paint and wallpaper;
37. Pets;
38. Packaged coal or wood for household use, subject to the following limitations:
a. Packaging of coal and cutting or splitting of wood is not conducted on the premises; and
b. Not more than two (2) tons of packaged coal and not more than five (5) cords of wood are stored on the premises at any time;
need not be enclosed;
39. Picture framing;
40. Radio and television equipment;
41. Shoes;
42. Signs;
43. Sporting goods;
44. Stationery;
45. Tobacco and pipes;
46. Toys;
47. Vegetables, need not be enclosed to the extent that the unenclosed portion shall not exceed in area one-fourth the gross floor area of the structure containing the use by right;
48. Any other similar commodity not listed elsewhere in this chapter.
b. Repair, rental and servicing of any article the sale, warehousing, fabrication or assembly of which is permitted in this district including the following:
1 Automobile gasoline filling station, service, repair but no commercial wrecking. dismantling or junkyard; need not be enclosed provided that the unenclosed part of such use shall comply with all specifications for maintenance of off-street parking space except the limitation against sale";
2. Automobile wash, excluding truck tractors and steam cleaning. Shall include space for three (3) vehicles in the en-
Auton..ihiles; automobile trailer.;
1 . c trailers; recreation vehicles;
trucks having a capacity of not more than l'/2 tons, but no commercial wrecking, dismantling or junkyard; need not be enclosed provided that the unenclosed part of such use shall comply with all specifications for maintenance of off-street parking space except for the limitation against sale; Automobile and truck parts, accessories. tires and tubes;
Bakery products;
Book store, adult;
Camera and photographic equipment; Christmas tree sales, need not be enclosed;
Dairy products;
Department store, sale limited to items listed under this subsection (1);
Drugs and medicine;
Dry goods;
Eating place, need not be enclosed; Eating place with adult amusement; Egg and poultry products, no slaughtering;
Fish or seafood;
Flowers or fruit, store need not be enclosed to the extent that the unenclosed portion shall not exceed in area one-fourth the gross floor area of the structure containing the use by right; Food locker plant renting individual lockers for home customer storage including the cutting and packaging of meats or game, no slaughtering; Garden supplies, need not be enclosed; Groceries;
Home building materials, limited to retail sales only, all outdoor storage shall be enclosed by a fence or wall adequate to conceal such storage from adjacent property;
Mail order house;
Meat, not including slaughtering; Motorcycles;

§ 59 337
trance lane of each washing bay, shall comply with the requirements of section 59-585, use end maintenance of parking space, and shall meet all the requirements of wastewater management division of public works;
3. Automobile repair garage excluding commercial wrecking,dismantling, junkyard, tire recapping and truck-tractor repair;
4. Boat repair not including dismantling
or wrecking, need not be enclosed provided that the unenclosed part of such use shall comply with all specifications for maintenance of off-street parking space except the limitation against sale;
5. Locksmith;
6. Metal sharpening;
7. Mirror silvering;
8. Pressing, altering and repairing of wearing apparel;
9. Radio and television repair;
10. Shoe repair;
11. Any similar article or service not listed elsewhere in this chapter.
Business and personal service uses as
1. Ambulance service;
2. Bank and/or savings and loan;
3. Barbershop;
4. Beauty shop;
5. Blood plasma service;
6. Caterer;
7. Clinic, dental or medical;
8. Health treatment on payment of a fee or admission charge;
9. Laboratory, dental or medical;
10. Laundry and dry cleaning shop;
11. Mortuary;
12. Office;
13. Optician;
14. Parking and/or commercial storage of vehicles; need not be enclosed, provided that any part of such use conducted outside a completely enclosed structure shall comply with all the specifications for maintenance hereinafter required for off-street parking space;
Supp. No. 1
15. Printing, publishing, blueprinting, photostating;
Professional studio or academy;
Radio or television transmission and recording;
18. Tattoo studio;
19. Veterinarian, including observation
kennels for household pets only, kennels need not be enclosed;
20. Any other similar use not listed elsewhere in this chapter.
d Amusement, entertainment and recreation
uses as follows;
1. Amusement, entertainment and recreation uses on the payment of a fee or admission charge; need not be enclosed; provided, however, if such a use is operated outside a completely enclosed structure, it shall have no outdoor public address system or any such type of amplified music device;
2. Adult amusement or entertainment;
3. Billiard parlor;
4. Coin-operated amusement center;
5. Photo studio, adult;
6. Sexually oriented commercial enterprise;
7. Theater;
8. Theater, adult;
e. Fabrication. The fabrication or assembly
of the following articles;
1. Art goods;
2. Awnings;
3. Bakery products;
4. Bottling and/or packaging of prepared specialty food products, excluding processing ingredients;
5. Brooms;
6. Brushes;
7. Cameras;
8. Clocks;
9. Clothing, costumes or millinery;
10. Cosmetics, excluding the manufacture of pigments and other basic, raw materials, but including the final by mixing;
11. Craftwork;
12. Engraving;
13. Fishing tackle;

14. Fur dyeing, finishing and apparel (no tanning);
Glass products;
Ink mixing and packaging (no pigment manufacture);
Instruments, precision and musical; Jewelry,
Optical goods and equipment; Orthopedic appliances;
Photographic supplies;
Plastic products;
Taxidermy shop;
Window shades;
Any other similar article.
Public, quasi-public and/or utility uses, such as the following:
1. Church;
Club or lodge;
Garage for public utility vehicles;
Gas regulator station;
Landing and take-off area for maintenance, repair, fueling or hanger facilities; need not be enclosed;
Meeting hall;
Police station;
Post office;
Railway right-of-way; any existing railway right-of-way, but not including railway yards, maintenance or fueling facilities; need not be enclosed; Reading Room;
School of any type except schools for the training of animals;
Telephone exchange;
Terminal for intracity rubber-tired vehicles or railroad passenger station, for movement of persons or freight; need not be enclosed;
Utility pumping station;
Water reservoir, need not be enclosed; Any other similar use not listed elsewhere in this chapter.
Special trades contractor involving the following trades;
20. 21. 22.
28. 29.
10. 11.
1. Air conditioning;
2. Cabinet making;
3. Carpentry;
4. Decorating;
5. Electrical work;
6. Exterminations;
7. Fire-proofing;
8. Floor laying;
9. Glass;
10. Glazing;
11. Heating;
12. Linoleum;
13. Masonry;
14. Ornamental iron work;
15. Painting;
16. Paper hanging;
17. Plumbing;
18. Refrigeration;
19. Sign construction or installation;
20. Stone work;
21. Tile;
22. Waterproofing;
23. Wiring;
24. Other similar trades not listed else- ^ where in this chapter, but specifically excluding contractors dealing with excavation, structural steel, well drilling,
and other similar heavy construction, and specifically excluding trucks having a manufacturers capacity of more than two (2) tons from remaining on the premises except to load and discharge contents, h. Residential uses as follows:
1. Dwelling unit, multiple dwelling unit;
2. Hotel or tourist home;
3. Motel (not including a trailer camp or trailer court);
(2) Uses by temporary permit. Upon application to and issuance by the department of zoning administration of a permit therefor, the following uses may be operated by temporary permit and need not be enclosed:
a. Bazaar and/or carnival; provided, however, that each permit shall be valid for a period of not more than twelve (12) consecutive day's and provided, that a period of at least ninety (90) days shall intervene between the termination of one permit and
pp. No. 1

§ Mi ma'iu . a norlu.r permit for triv :
lon: n-: :i not be enclosed;
b. Par! r,- lot designated for a special event; proviuou, however, that each permit shall be valid only for the duration of the designated special event; and provided, further, that if the designated special event is a seasonal activity, the permit may be valid for the entire season but shall be restricted in use to designated dates and times during which the event is occurring; need not be enclosed;
c. Temporary building or yard for construction materials and/or equipment, both incidental and necessary to construction in the zoning district. Each permit shall specify the location of the building or yard and the area, within the same zoning district, of the permitted operation, no part of which area shall be a distance of more than two
(2) miles from the building or yard. Each such permit shall be valid for a period of not more than six (6) calendar months and shall not be renewed for more than four (4) successive periods at the same location; need not be enclosed.
(3) Accessory uses. Incidental only to a use by right, any use which complies with all of the following conditions may be operated, either in a detached structure or in the structure containing the use by right, as an accessory use and need not be enclosed:
a. Is clearly incidental and customary to and commonly associated with the operation of the use by right;
b. Is operated and maintained under the same ownership or by lessees or concessionaires thereof, and on the same zone lot as the use by right;
c. Does not include structures or structural features inconsistent with the use by right;
d. The gross floor area utilized by all accessory uses of all uses by right in the same structure shall not be in excess of ten (10) per cent of the gross floor area utilized by all of the uses by right.
(4) Certain uses requiring separation. The following permitted uses may be established, oper-
Supp. No. 1
a ted or maintained in the district provided t hot (1) such use is located more than five hundred (500) feet from any residential district, any church and/or school meeting all the require ments of the compulsory education laws of the state, and (2) no more than any two (2) uses are located within one thousand (1,000) feet of each other:
a. Adult amusement or entertainment
b. Billiard parlor, need not satisfy requirement (1) above;
c. Book store, adult;
d. Coin-operated amusement center, provided such use shall not be closer than one thousand (1,000) feet from any elementary and/or secondary school need not satisfy requirement (1) above;
e. Eating place with adult amusement or entertainment;
f. Photo studio, adult;
g. Sexually oriented commercial enterprise;
h. Tattoo studio, need not satisfy requirement (1) above;
i. Theatre, adult.
(Code 1950, § 612.9-3; Ord. No. 63-80, § 1, 2-4-80;
Ord. No. 245-81, § 1, 5-18-81; ord No. 261-81, § 1,
5-26-81; Ord. No. 385-81, § 1, 7-27-81; Ord. No.
444-81,§ 1,8-31-81)
Sec. 59-338. Limitations on external effects of uses.
All uses shall comply with the following
(1) Enclosure of uses. Every use, unless expressly exempted by this chapter, shall be operated in its entirety within a completely enclosed structure; the exemption of a use from the requirement of enclosure will be indicated by the phrase need not be enclosed appearing after any use exempted.
(2) Vibration generated. Every use shall be so operated that the ground vibration inherently and recurrently generated is not perceptible, without instruments, at any

point of any boundary lint of the z>ne lot on which the use is located.
<3) Emission of heat, glare, radiation and fumes. Every use shall be so operated that it does not emit an obnoxious or dangerous degree of heat, glare, radiation or fumes beyond any boundary line of the zone lot on which the use is located.
14) Outdoor storage and waste disposal:
a. No highly flammable or explosive liquids, solids or gases shall be stored in bulk above ground. Tanks or drums of fuel directly connecting with heating devices or appliances located on the same zone lot as the tanks or drums of fuel are excluded from this provision.
b. All outdoor storage of equipment, fuel, materials and products shall be enclosed by a fence or wall adequate to conceal such storage from adjacent properties.
c. No materials or wastes shall be deposited upon a zone lot in such form or manner that they may be transferred off the zone lot by natural causes or forces.
d. All materials or wastes which might cause fumes or dust or which constitute a fire hazard or which may be edible by or otherwise be attractive to rodents or insects shall be stored outdoors only in closed containers.
(Code 1950, § 612.9-2; Ord. No. 245-81, § 1, 5-18-81; Ord.No. 261-81, § 1,5-26-81)
Sec. 59-339. Permitted structures.
(a) Zone lot for structure!,. A separate ground area, herein called the zone lot, shall be designated, provided and continuously maintained for one or more uses by right or for each structure or group of structures containing one or more uses by right. Each zone lot shall have at least one front line and may contain in addition to the principal structure or structures one or more subordinate structures containing only accessory uses. Upon application to and approval by the department of zoning adminis-
tration, tin boundaries and ; < (i. uci-ignal*
zone lot may be er. :' i: *ull compliance with all requirements of th: r ean be maintained.
(b) Maximum gross floor area in structures. The sum total of the gross floor area of alV structures on a zone lot shall not be greate^ than twice the area of the zone lot on which
the structures are located.
(c) Bulk of structures adjacent to certain residential districts. Where the zone lot adjoins the side or rear line of property zoned R-0, R-l or R-2 with no separation created by a public alley, no part of any structure (except eaves, church spires, church towers, flagpoles, antennas, chimneys, flues, vents or accessory water tanks) shall project up through bulk limits which are defined by planes extending up over the zone lot at an angle of forty-five (45) degrees with respect to the horizontal and which planes start at horizontal lines which are co-directional to the lines of the zone lot adjacent to the residential zone and pass through points ten (10) feet above the midpoint of each line.
(Code 1950, § 612.9-4; Ord. No. 261-81, § 1,5-26-81; Ord.No. 501-81, § 1,10-5-81)
Sec. 59-340. Permitted signs.
The provisions of article IV of this chapter on permitted signs shall be in full force and effect in this district.
(Code 1950, § 612.9-5; Ord. No. 261-81, § 1, 5-26-81)
Sec. 59-341. Off-street parking requirements.
The provisions of article V of this chapter on off-street parking requirements shall be in full force and effect in this district.
(Code 1950, § 612.9-6; Ord. No. 261-81, § 1, 5-26-81)
Sec. 59-342. Off-street loading requirements.
The provisions of article VI of this chapter on off-street loading requirements shall be in full force and effect in this district.
(Code 1950, § 612.9-7; Ord. No. 261-81, § 1,5-26-81)
aupp- No. i

... .xi.NY,
£; r/ '>S3. eservetl.
l.'jllor'k note 'rd No 2G1 !>:. 5 i 1961. amended Code 1950 8 612.9, "together with ail sot and subdivisions thereof," to read as set out in §§ 59 59-343, concerning special zone lot plans for plsnm u building groups, deriving from § 612.9-8, was not reenacte-r Therefore, the editor has deleted those provisions, reserving the section number.
Secs. 59-34459-350. Reserved.
Sec. 59-351. Generally.
The provisions of this division apply to all lands, uses and structures in B-A-4 districts.
Sec. 9-352. Permitted uses.
No land shall be used or occupied and no structure shall be designed, erected, altered, used or occupied except for either one or more ila following uses by right or j r one or more of the following uses by temporary permit; provided, however, that a use hv right may be accompanied by lawful accessory uses and or one or more of the following uses by temporary permit:
> -> i. r- ! ing uses rn r.
operated as use- hv right:
a Auctioneer, for the sale of new and/or used automobiles and trucks only;
b Automobile accessory store;
c. Automobile gasoline filling station, service, repair but no commercial wrecking dismantling or junk yard; need not be enclosed provided that the unenclosed part of such use shall comply with all specifications for maintenance of off-street parking space except the limitation against sale;
d. Automobile laundry, including steam cleaning, if visible steam is not discharged directly into the outside air;
e. Automobile sales, but no commercial wrecking, dismantling or junk yard; need not be enclosed provided that the unenclosed part of such use shall
comply with all specifications for maintenance of off-street parking space except the limitation against sale;
f Boat sales or repair, not including dismantling or wrecking; need not he
Supp. No. 1

group:- sh : < o' no i tee and do district
(Code 195U, § 612.13-8)
Secs. 59-41559-420. Reserved.

Sec. 69-421. Generally.
The provisions of this division apply to all
lands, use.-* and .ructures in 1-1 districts.
Sec. 59-422. Permitted uses.
No land shall be used or occupied and no structure shall be designed, erected, altered, used or occupied except for either one or more of the following uses by right or for one or more of the following uses by temporary permit; provided, however, that a use by right may be accompanied by lawful accessory uses and/or on- or more of the following uses by temporary per;
(1) Uses by rignt. The following uses may be
operated as uses by right:
a. A:..' ci i e service;
b. Amnia: hospital;
c. At; -mobile towing service storage yard: shall be completely screened by a solid fence or wall having a height of not less than six (6) feet;
d. Bank;
e. Blueprinting;
f. Clinic, dental or medical;
g. Community center owned and operated by governmental entity and/or community recreational facility owned and operated by a governmental entity;
h. Contractor yard for vehicles, equipment, materials and/or supplies: a contractor yard for vehicles, equipment, materials and/or supplies which complies with all of the following conditions:
1. is properly graded for drainage, surfaced with concrete, asphaltic concrete, asphalt, oil or any
(the li -i .i mg and
maintained in good condition, free of weeds, dust, trash and debris;
2. Is provided with barriers of such dimensions that occupants of adjacent structures are not unreasonably disturbed, either by day or by night, by the movement of vehicles, machinery, equipment or supplies;
3. Is provided with entrances and
mi?- so located as to minimize traffic congestion;
4. Is provided with barriers of such type and so located that no part of parked vehicles will extend beyond the yard space or into the setback space from a zone lot line abutting a residential zone lot or separated therefrom by a street;
5. Lighting facilities are so arranged that they neither unreasonably disturb occupants of adjacent residential properties nor interfere with traffic;
i. Electric substation;
j. Entertainment and sports arena owned or operated by a governmental entity;
k. Fire station;
l. Gas regulator station;
l. 5. Grocery store;
m. Junk yard conducted in its entirety within a solid wall or fence deemed by the department of zoning administration sufficient to provide complete visual screening; provided, however, that no such wall or fence shall be less than six (6) feet in height and need not be more than ten (10) feet in height. Shall be maintained in good condition at all times in accordance with the provisions of this Code elsewhere provided;
n. Laboratory;
o. Landing or take-off area for rotor-craft, not including maintenance, repair, fueling or hangar facilities;
0.5 Lodge or meeting hall;
Supp. No 1

. 6P-<22
p. Manufacturing, processing a.a/o: fabrication: the manuf: eturing
processing and/or fabrication, as enumerated and limited herein, of any commodity except the following: abrasives, basic manufacture; alcoholic distillation; animal by-products, basic manufacture or processing; bone black, basic manufacture; brewery; carbon black and lamp black, basic manufacture; charcoal, basic manufacture; chemicals, heavy or industrial, basic manufacture or processing; cinder and cinder blocks, basic manufacture or fabrication; clay and clay products, basic manufacture or fabrication; coal or coke, manufacture or processing; concrete and concrete products, manufacture or fabrication; detergents, soaps and by-products, using animal fat, basic manufacture; electric power generator station; fermented fruits and vegetables products, manufacture; fertilizers, manufacture or processing, fungicides, manufacture; gases, other than nitrogen and oxygen, manufacture; glass, manufacture; glue and size, manufacture; grain milling; graphite, manufacture; gypsum and other forms of plaster base, manufacture, insecticides, manufacture; insulation, flammable types, manufacture or fabrication; matches, manufacture; meat slaughtering or packing; metals, extraction or smelting; metal ingots, pigs, castings, sheets or bars, manufacture; oils and fats, animal and vegetable, manufacture; paints, pigments, enamels, japans, lacquers, putty, varnishes, whiting and wood fillers, manufacture of fabrication; paper pulp and cellulose, basic manufacture; paraffin, manufacture; petroleum and petroleum products, manufacture or processing; Portland and similar cements, manufacture; rubber, manufacture, processing or reclaiming; sawmill or planing
upp. No. l
mill; serums, toxins, viru manufacture; sugar and starch* mono facture, tannery; turpentine, manufacture; wax and wax products, manufacture; wood preserving by creosot-ing or other pressure impregnation of wood by preservatives; provided, however, that any manufacturing process hereby excluded may be operated as and subject to the limitations of an accessory use;
q Motel (not includin n trailer camp or trailer court);
r. Motor vehicle service or gasoline filling station;
s. Motor vehicular club;
t. Newspaper distribution station;
u. Office;
v. Parking and/or commercial storage of vehicles;
w Pet store;
x. Plant husbandry and sale of produce and plants raised on the premises; need not be enclosed;
y. Police station;
z. Post office;
aa. Poultry hatchery;
bb. Railroad facilities, but not including shops;
cc. Repair, rental and servicing: the repair, rental and servicing of any commodity, the manufacture, processing, fabrication, warehousing or sale of which commodity is permitted in the district;
dd. Restaurant;
ee. Roller skating rink either with or without dancing to music by live musicians;
ff. Sale at retail: the sale at retail of the following:
1. Hardware;
2. Any commodity manufactured, processed or fabricated only on the premises;
3. Any commodity warehoused only on the premises but only to the extent that the total floor area devoted to retail sales of all such

.:ii cj:i ; 8ho 11
not exceed twenty (L-j) pe r cent of the gross floor area of the warehouse;
4. Equipment, supplies and materials (except commercial explosives) designed especially for use in agriculture, mining, industry, business, transportation, building and other construction;
5. Firewood and packaged coal for household use;
b. LI' gas through an LP gas-dispensing unit which is operated on the same zone lot and in association with a motor vehicle service or gasoline filling station and subject to the issuance of a permit by the fire department and need not he enclosed;
gg. Sale at wholesale or storage: the sale at wholesale, the warehousing and/or storage of any commodity except the following:
1. Live animals other than household pets;
2 Commercial explosives;
3. Above-ground storage of flammable liquids or gases, unless and only to the extent that the storage of such liquids or gases is directly connected with energy or heating devices on the premises, the servicing of railroad locomotives or the fueling of vehicles operated in association (or as an accessory use) with the use by right; hh. Savings and loan association, state or federally chartered; ii. School for training in occupational skills, enrollment may be open to the public or limited, may include dormitories for students and instructors;" jj. Telephone exchange; kk. Terminal for intra-city vehicles for movement of persons or freight;
11. Theater;
mm. Trampoline center; need not be enclosed; provided, however, such center may be enclosed by a fence not to exceed six (6) feet in height;
Supp. No. 1
i Trucking frei terminal; oo Utility pumping station; PP
Water reservoir.
(2) Uses by temporary permit. Upon application to and issuance by the department of zoning administration of a permit therefor, the following uses may be operated as
uses by temporary permit:
a. Amusement, entertainment or recreation on the payment of a fee or
admission charge; shall not be enclosed. Each permit shall be valid for a period of not more than six (6) calendar months but may be renewed;
b. Bazaar, carnival and/or circus; provided, however, that each permit shall be valid for a period of not more than three (3) days and shall not be renewed for more than three (3) successive periods, and provided, further, that a period of at least ninety (90) dava must intervene between the termination of one permit and the issuance of another permit at the same location;
c. Noncommercial concrete batching plant, both incidental and necessary to construction in the zoning district. Each permit shall specify the location of the plant and the area, within the same zoning district, of the permitted operation, no part of which area shall be a distance of more than two (2) miles from the plant. Each such permit shall be valid for a period of not more than six (6) calendar months and shall not be renewed for more than six (6) successive periods at the same location;
d. Parking lot designated for a special event; provided, however, that each permit shall be valid only for the duration of the designated special event; and provided, further, that if the designated special event is a seasonal activity, the permit may be granted for the entire season but restricted in use to designated dates