Canyon Center

Material Information

Canyon Center a mixed-used development
Silverman, Margaret Alima
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
52, [9] leaves, [5] plates : illustrations, maps, color photographs, plans ; 28 cm


Subjects / Keywords:
Real estate development -- Colorado -- Boulder ( lcsh )
Real estate development ( fast )
Colorado -- Boulder ( fast )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )


General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for a Master's degree in Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
Margaret Alima Silverman.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
08822110 ( OCLC )
LD1190.A72 1982 .S54 ( lcc )

Full Text

__CAfIYON CENTER A Mixed-Use Development
Margaret Alima Silverman
Thesis Design, Fall 1981

Introduction Project Description Vicinity Map Area History
Project Concept Approach and Goals
Building Code Research
Environmental Elements
Land Use
Existing Utilities and Public Facilities Structural Constraints Crime and Security
Legal Description
Photographs of Areas Surrounding the Site Site Development Site Development Plan
Program Areas and Uses Program Relationships Architectural Intent

Project nescription
Canyon Center is a phased mixed-use Planned Unit Development (PUD) that incorporates commercial, retail, and residential units. The site is in the City of Boulder's downtown 'core area', between Walnut Street and Canyon Boulevard, west of Ninth Street, in a High Density Residential Redeveloping Zone (HRX). Phase I of the project is already complete on the west end of the site, including 82 units of housing for the elderly, 41 parking spaces, and 27,560 SF of developed open space. Phase II of the project is the subject of this design thesis, and includes 75 condominium units and approximately 70,000 SF of office and commercial space.
The developer for the Canyon Center project is the Canyon Center Development Company, a joint venture partnership of La Garde Eklund Ltd. and Downing Leach Associates. The architects and planners for the project are Downing Leach Associates. The development team seeks to create a project that, through the strong use of physical form, landscaping and textural surfaces, will provide the residents, tenants, and clientele of Canyon Center an exciting, pedestrian-oriented place to live, work and shop.
The project is designed primarily for single people or childless couples who consciously seek an urban lifestyle and whose open space requirements are relatively modest. The condominium units will be priced at the upper end of the market. Landscaping will be an integral aspect of the overall development and will act to complement the architecture as well as provide visual screening and noise buffering.
A pool and whirlpool spa will be included in the project for the use of the tenants and residential unit owners in both Canyon Pointe (Phase I)

and Canyon Center (Phase II). This area will be owned and maintained by an Owners and Tenants Association.
A series of pedestrian walkways will provide ease of movement from one part of the project to another. Sidewalks will be ramped and the project will be barrier-free throughout so that the elderly and handicapped will have access to all parts of the project. Convenience-oriented businesses have been included to serve the residents and tenants of both Canyon Pointe and Canyon Center.


History of the Area
The lure of gold first brought settlers to Boulder in 1858, and the rail line that brought the ore from the mountains ran down Canyon Boulevard. Although Boulder was first settled as a support town for the mines in the mountains, pioneers soon came to the area and began farming. After 1870, people came to Boulder as a place to live, for the benefits of the climate, and for the educational and business advantages. One of the first residential areas that was developed was the downtown area, but as commercial development expanded, residential building in the downtown area stopped.
There is no particular historic significance to the Canyon Center site, but there are some historic sites in the West Pearl Neighborhood where Canyon Center is located. Also, to the south of the site across Boulder Creek, one can see the Highland School building, built in 1892, and recently preserved as an historic site. It is a three-story, Romanesque, brick and stone school house that has been converted into offices.
In the late 1800's a train depot was built at the corner of Ninth and Canyon Streets, but after a short time, it burned down and was rebuilt on another site. The project site was then used primarily as a train storage yard until the early 1960's when Arnold Brothers Ford built a garage and showroom for their automobile sales business. In the mid-1970's Arnold Brothers Ford moved to a new location and the Regional Transportation District (RTD) moved into the building. RTD still occupies the building, although they have built a new downtown terminal at Fourteenth and Walnut Streets and will be moving soon. A Conoco service station is presently located on the corner of Ninth and Walnut Streets at the northeast corner of the project site.

The West Pearl Neighborhood area is primarily a mixture of urban town-houses, small bungalows, and rental units. There is commercial development along Pearl and Canyon Streets west from Ninth Street to the mountains, where many residential units have been converted to commercial use. To the east of Ninth Street, down Walnut and Pearl Streets is the main downtown business area of Boulder. The Canyon Center site is three blocks from the west end of the Boulder Mall at Eleventh and Pearl Streets.
Other significant buildings nearby are the Boulder Public Library located on the southeast corner of Ninth and Canyon Streets, the Boulder Senior Citizen Center located one block south at the corner of Ninth and Arapahoe Streets, and the Boulder Criminal Justice Center located at the corner of Sixth and Canyon Streets.

Project Concept
Canyon Center was conceived to resemble a European villaqe in its lively and pleasant integration of places to live, work and shop. The project has been planned so that it will make a good neighbor to the businesses and residences already in the area. Care has been taken to let human scale and variety predominate, so that what is a rather large complex will feel friendly and responsive to the needs of its users.
There are several major issues addressed in this project.
1. A combination of land uses on an urban site.
2. Response to existing land use patterns in the neighborhoods surrounding the project.
3. Energy efficiency in siting and design.
4. Maintaining human scale and barrier-free access throughout the site.
Gradual changes in elevation and a variety of roof levels will avoid the impression of a monolithic structure and emphasize a village feeling. Each unit will have a private deck or greenhouse area, orientated to the south in as many units as possible. There will be two plaza areas, one semi-private area for the residential units and one public plaza in the commercial area. This plaza will be surrounded by retail shops on the first level, with offices and residences above that will overlook the plaza. Because of the plazas, the general north/south orientation of major buildings with views to the mountains, and the generous use of balconies and decks, views will be attractive throughout the project.

The residential units in Canyon Center are intended for the upper end of the market. Many units will be designed for joint ownership, where two single people can share a unit which has two master suites. Twenty-four hour security will be provided for the residents by means of a security system and attendants on duty. Although care will be taken to buffer traffic noise, particularly from Canyon Boulevard, there will be activity on the site during the evening as well as during the day, and the atmosphere will be one of a very urban site.
The overall concept for Canyon Center includes an underground parking garage, primarily due to the need for ground level access and orientation while still providing a large parking area. This will also reduce the impact of the automobile on the site.
Exterior surfaces will generally be of materials and colors that are compatible with the natural landscape. All buildings will be of reinforced concrete with red brick facade walls. Roofing will be ribbed metal.
Heavily landscaped earth berms with shrubbery and major trees on the south and west portions of the site will buffer the project from noise and help develop privacy for those residential units from the busy street.

Approach and Goals
There are several goals that I have set for this project:
1. To create an exciting people-oriented space with a variety
of activities and interests. The project is intended to have the friendly, comfortable atmosphere of an integrated community where people live, work, and play.
2. To design an energy efficient group of structures, incorporating passive solar design and energy conservation standards.
The high densities planned for the project will contribute
to energy efficiency, and the project's central location should discourage vehicular energy consumption.
3. To respond sensitively to the existing land uses and surrounding land characteristics, including views to Boulder Creek and the Flatirons to the south and views to the foothills on the north and west.
4. To make maximum use of a prime urban site.
I plan to approach the design as something which responds to its site and climate, to its occupants and users, and to its urban setting. It is most important that the project be a stimulating and useful place for the people that live and work there. In particular, the plazas, the landscaping and the recreation facilities will provide pleasant opportunities for people to relax and enjoy the environment of Canyon Center.

Building Code Research
In addition to the building code summary on pages 13 and 14, and the checklist for barrier-free design on pages 15 and 16, there are several other building regulations that apply to this project because it is a Planned Unit Development and it is in the flood plain.
1. Planned Units. The purpose of the planned unit article in the Boulder Land Use Regulations is to encourage flexibility in the development of land in order to promote its most appropriate use. It is also used to improve the design, character, and quality of new development. The Planned Unit's relationship to its surroundings shall be considered in order to avoid adverse effects to the development caused by traffic circulation, building height or bulk, lack of screening, or intrusions on privacy. In redeveloping residential districts, the Planning Board may reduce the usable open space requirements (800 SF per unit) by up to 50% if it finds that the site plan contains areas allocated for usable open space in a common park area designed for maximum use by the proposed occupants, orientation of buildings to ensure privacy for all of the units' balconies, and that the need of occupants for usable open space is unique and is being satisfied by either 1. a public park, mall or recreation features for which the site of the planned unit has or will be levied a special assessment; or 2. developed facilities in the planned unit, such as, but not limited to, common recreational areas or facilities, plazas, or balconies, or rooftops improved for recreational use. The number of off-street parking spaces may increase or decrease from the

required number in consideration of the following factors:
1. Probable number of cars owned by occupants of dwellings in the planned unit; 2. Parking needs of any non-dwelling uses; 3. Varying time periods of use, whenever joint use of common parking areas is proposed.
2. Flood Plain Regulations- The site is in the Floodway of Boulder Creek with total flow rate of 12,000 cubic feet per second. Residential structures shall have the lowest floor, including basements, elevated to the flood protection elevation. Nonresidential structures shall either have the lowest floor, including basement, elevated to the level of the flood protection elevation or, together with attendant utility and sanitary facilities, shall be floodproofed so that below the flood protection elevation the structure is watertight with walls substantially impermeable to the passage of water, and have structural components capable of resisting hydrostatic and hydrodynamic loads and effects of buoyancy. Where practical in order to minimize the obstruction to flow caused by buildings, it shall be required that structures be placed with their longitudinal axis parallel to the predicted direction of flow of flood waters or that structures be placed so that their longitudinal axes are placed on lines parallel to those of adjoining structures. Participation in the National Flood Insurance Program will be required.
There are several other regulations for planning and building in Boulder.
Parking. Where 10 or more parking spaces are required, 10% of the total
number of parking spaces may be replaced by a rack or structure providing

parking accommodations for bicycles at a rate of 3 bicycle parking accommodations for each 1 parking space replaced. For restaurants and bars, the parking requirement will be based on the greater of one space for every three seats or the parking space to floor area ratio of the zone.
Off-Street Loading Areas. For all business uses, off-street loading spaces each containing 500 SF with no one dimension less than 10 feet are required as an accessory use for new construction as follows: 1 off-street loading space for new floor area between 10,000 SF and 25,000 SF, plus one additional off-street loading space for each additional 25,000 SF, provided no such off-street loading space occupies any part of a public street, alley, driveway or sidewalk.
Energy Conservation and Insulation Code. A summary for non-residential buildings is as follows:
El ement Mode Val ue Line
Heating uo #1
3 stories o.28
or less Cooling OTTV #2
Wal 1 s 33.6
3 stories Heating uo #3
or more 0.34
Cooling OTTV #4
Roof/Ceiling Heating uo #5
Floors Over Heating uo #6
Unheated Spaces 0.08
Heated Slabs Heating R-value #7
On Grade 6.6
Unheated Slabs Heating R-value #8
On Grade 4.5
Solar Factor Cooli ng 127 #9

A summary for residential buildings is as follows:
Element Mode Value
Wal 1 s Heating or Cooling ub 0.11
Roof/Ceil ing Heating or Cooling uo 0.03
Floors Over Unheated Spaces Heating or Cooling R-value R-19, or R-10 on foundation walls from unfinished grade to top of footing.
Slab on Grade Heating R-value R-10 from slab grade to top of footing
All glazing shall be double-glazed and shall have a total solar transmittance of 0.6. There shall be no maximum area limitation on the
amount of glazing which may be located in south facing walls. Glazing located in other than south facing walls shall be limited in area to \2.% of the total area of such walls. Skylight glazing shall be limited in area to 1% of the total floor area of the structure.
Height Exception. City requirements for granting a height exception require that the floor area of building relate to site area in a maximum 3:1 ratio.

PROJECT Canyon Center_____________________
LOCATION Ninth and Canyon 5>t.rppt<;, BnnlHpr
ZONING CLASSIFICATION High Density Residential Redeveloping (HRX)____________________________________________________
FLOOR AREA RATIO/BUILDING SQ. FT. LIMITS .total huilding rannot px^ppH 35,000 SF or..any erne.floor 18.QQQ SF________
BUILDING HEIGHT LIMITS: STORIES/FT. 35 feet or 55 feet with special review___________________________________________
BUILDING SET-BACK/YARD REQUIREMENTS 35 ft. along Canyon. 15 ft. along Walnut. 5 ft. along Ninth._____________________
MINIMUM LOT SIZE REQUIREMENTS__________none__________________________________________________________________________
OFF-STREET PARKING REQUIREMENTS .75 per 300 SF floor area for office and comm.; 1.0 for 1-BD, 1.5 for 2-BO, 2.0 for 3-BD
SCREENING/WALL HEIGHT REQUIREMENTS cannot exceed 7 ft,_______________________________________________________________
DRIVEWAY AND CURB CUT REQUIREMENTS access minimum 10 ft._____________________________________________________________
FIRE ZONE DESIGNATION Zone 3, Type 3, 1 hr.____________________________________________________________________.
OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION B-2 office/retail, A-3 restaurant, B-3 garage, R-l residences_______________________________
OCCUPANCY SEPARATION REQUIREMENTS 1 hr. B-2/B-3, 1 hr. A-3/B-3, 1 hr. R-1/A-3/B-3/B-2___________________________
CONSTRUCTION TYPE Type III___________________________________________________________________________________________
EXTERIOR WALL FIRE RATINGS 2 hr.__________________________________________________________ _________________________
EXTERIOR WALL OPENINGS LIMITATIONS not permitted less than 5 ft., protected less than 10 ft. except in dwellings.
FLOORS FIRE RATING___________1 hr.___________________________________________________________________________________
ROOFS FIRE RATING____________1 hr,_______________________________________________________________.___________________
PARTITIONS FIRE RATING 1 hr.___________________________________________________________________________________
STRUCTURAL FRAME FIRE RATING 1 hr. ._________________________________________________________________________________
MAXIMUM FLOOR AREA: SPRINKLERED/UNSPRINKLERED none___________________________________________________________________
,MAXIMUM HEIGHT: SPR INKL ERED/UNSPRI NKLERED 75 ft. or 5 stories max, ht. fnr ..nsprinHprpH_________________________

DOOR WIDTH REQUIREMENTS exit doors 36", all others 32"
TRAVEL DISTANCE LIMITS 150 ft. if entire buildina is not sprinklered. 200 ft. if it is sprinklered.
DOOR SWING REQUIREMENTS in direction of exit.
STAIR AND BALCONY RAIL REQUIREMENTS 6 in. beyond top and bottom risers. 2 handrails 30"-34" above t.rpads.
RISER TREAD LIMITS H" min . treads, 7" min. riser
RAMP REQUIREMENTS 1:12 slope. 44" width.
EXIT LIGHTING REQUIREMENTS 6" high, at least 1 FC at floor level
EMERGENCY LIGHTING REQUIREMENTS emer. lighting with battery packs by each fire exit
offices, 7'6"
LIGHT AND VENTILATION REQUIREMENTS glazing min .10 total floor area; ventilation min. .20 total floor area ROOF ACCESS REQUIREMENTS none______________________
PENTHOUSE LIMITATIONS shall not exceed 1/3 of the .area of the supporting roof, nor 12* 1 ahnvp roofr 28' for elevator. SKYLIGHT REQUIREMENTS wire(l or tempered glass, min. 7/32". Less than 45 degrees from horiz. shall be mounted 4" above
1 hr conaratinn the plant uf the tOOf.
FURNACE AND BOILER ROOM RESTRICTIONS 1 nr seParat10n_______________________________________________________________
CHIMNEY HEIGHT AND CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS 2 ft. above roof opening, 64 in.2 min,_________________________________
TOILET ROOM FIXTURE REQUIREMENTS! t.nwpl fix ft 1 mirrnr 40" from floor. 44" clear each side of door; stool 30" width SPRINKLER REQUIREMENTS none 24"front; grab bars 32"-34" above floor

Abbreviated Checklist for Accommodating Physically Disabled People
Prepared by Bill Deno, Office of Facilities Planning, University of Colorado, Boulder
"Usable limits" provided in this checklist will provide functional access to buildings and use of facilities fo^ most people with physical disabilities. These limits do not necessarily meet applicable design criteria that may be legally binding. Wherever possible, facilities should be provided that go beyond the standards provided in this or any other guideline.
Item Usable Limits
1. Dimensional/Operatiunal
Wheelchair travel paths. 36" or more in width.
Two wheelchairs to pass. 60" or more.
180 turn in a wheelchair. At least 60" diameter clearance.
Stationary occupied wheelchair space. 30" x 48" or more.
Wheelchair reach fronc approach. 13" to 48" above the floor.
Wheelchair reach side approach. 9" to 54" above the floor.
Range of reach over a desk in a wheelchair. 17" to 24" across.
Items projecting into a travel space. No more than 4" if between 27" and 80" above the floor.
Operation of controls, handles, pulls, etc. With one hand without tight grasping, pinching, or twisting.
Openings on travel path surfaces. No more than 1/2" unless ramped.
Openings on travel paths. No more than 1/2" wide.
Slope of travel paths. No steeper than 1:20 (5%). (Short runs of steeper grades are negotiable. Provide rest areas.)
Cross-slopes of travel paths. No steeper than 1:50 (2%). (Tilted paths of any length are difficult to negotiate.)
Entrance ramps, curb ramps. No steeper than 1:12 (8-1/3%). (Short runs of
_______________________________________________steeper grades are negotiable.)
2. Exterior Facilities
Parking signs. Reserved, symbol of access, free-standing sign.
Parking stall. At least 36" travel aisle required on either side of car or van.
Parking quantities and locations. When provided, a reasonable number, but no less than two located close to an accessible entrance.
Passenger loading zones. Signed, with curb ramp, to entrance walk.
Ramp configuration (includes curb ramps). At least 36" wide, no more than a 30 foot run to a level resting space of at least 60"; at least a 60" level space top and bottom; hand-.rails on both sides with at least a 12" extension.
3. Building Entrances
Door widths. 24" impassable; 30" extremely difficult; 32" usable; 36" accessible.
Maneuvering clearances (at pull side). 12" to 24" on latch side of door.
Thresholds. No more than 1/2" high; up to 1" can be negotiated by some.
Doors in series (vestibules). Ac least 80" between two doors in series; 48" plus width of door is better.
Door opening forces. Reasonable or add assisting openers.
4. Stairs and Handrails
Treads and risers. No less than 11" treads, no greater than 7" risers. Minimum nosings; open stairs not recommended.
Handrail configurations. 32" to 34" above tread, 18" extension beyond top riser, 18" plus tread width extension beyond bottom riser, 1-1/2" diamocer, 1-1/2" clearance from wall. At least one side should be continuous; both sides preferred.

Item Usable Limits
5. Elevators
General. Serve all floors of building thac have essential programs. Public, automatic, push button operation (no keys).
Lobby Access. Call buttons no higher than 48" above the floor. Hall lantern indicators with both visual and audible signals. Raised floor numbers on door jambs at each floor.
Elevator Cab Cab size at least 68" long by 51" deep. Highest
control button no more than 54 above the floor. Emergency control Items at bottom of panel.
Self leveling and protective door reopening device. Tactile numerals and operating
_______________________________________________instructions. _______________________
6. Toilet Rooms______________________________________________________________________________________
Entrance. 32 door usable, 36" door preferred. Privacy screens undesirable; at least a 42" path around required.
Toilet stalls. 36" or 60" in width; at least 60" in depth. 32 clear opening to enter. A lavatory within
is desirable.
Arab bars. 32" to 34" above the floor; both sides of 36" stall; w.c. side and rear of 60" stall.
ttater Closets. Top of seat height 17" to 19" above floor; wall mount preferred.
U rinals. No more than 17" from lip to floor.
Lavatories. No less than 2 7" clearance beneath; no more than 34" to top edge. Insulate hot water supply line and drain. Provide lever-type control handles.
towel dispensers, mirrors, etc. Lower edge or operable part no more chan 48"
above floor. Full length wall mirrors recommended.____________________________
7. Drinking Fountains
Location. No closer than 24" to intersecting walls. Recess alcoves no less than 30" wide.
Configuration. Spout opening no higher than 36" above floor. Water flow as parallel to front as possible. Lever or push-button controls.
8. Public Telephones
Configuration. Clear access, 54" or less to coin slot.
9. Miscellaneous
Showers. Padded seats, grab bars, hand held shower units, anti-scald device, usable controls within reach.
Bathtubs. Movable seat, grab bars, usable controls within reach.
Signage. Symbol of access, contrasting letters to background of sufficient size, tactile letters. Location and identification of accessible facilities.
Floor surfaces. Stable, firm, slip resistant. Carpet and pad securely fastened with a firm feel.
Residential kitchens. Lowered sink and work surface with kneehole, front controls for range, storage cabinet to replace unusable shelves in wall cabinets.

Environmental Elements
There are several environmental factors to consider when designing in Boulder, including the climate, the wind patterns, and the degree of solar access. There are also some general guidelines for designing in a temperate region which can be applied to this project.
Climate. Boulder is located at the mouth of Boulder Canyon where Boulder Creek emerges from the foothills of the Rocky Mountains into the plains. Elevations within the city range from 5300 to 5600. The climate of Boulder is profoundly affected by the presence of the mountains to the west. It is in a region of rapid transition from a high plains climate to a mountain climate. Among the important mountain effects are increased precipitation and reduced annual and daily temperature ranges. Winter temperatures are modified by the frequent occurrence of warm downslope winds from the west. The low frequency of 5 days or less per year of zero or below temperatures is the result also of good drainage for cold air to lower elevations, tending to prevent the buildup of a cold air layer at the ground on calm clear winter nights. Summer afternoon temperatures are often modified by frequent afternoon cloudiness and thunderstorms over and near the mountains. Precipitation is light in winter, 16% of the annual total falling in November through February, and is heaviest in the spring of the year, 52% falling in March through June on the average. Annual snowfall totals have varied from 36.4 inches in 1904 to 123.8 inches in 1959. The high snowfall averages relative to areas just to the east are the result of the higher average precipitation, particularly in the early spring months when precipitation often falls in the form of heavy snow which melts rapidly. The highest monthly average snowfall amounts are in March and April, when temperatures are usually high enough to remove snow cover quickly. Even in midwinter, the frequent occurrence of warm

days usually removes any snow cover in a short time, so that in spite of the higher total of snowfall, the average period of snow cover at Boulder is not appreciably greater than at drier areas to the east.
The average date of the last freezing temperature in spring at Roulder is May 9 and the average date of the first frost in the fall is October
4. Monthly means for temperature, precipitation, and heating and cooling degree days is as follows:
Month Temperature Preci p. Heating Cool
January 33.0 .77 992 0
February 35.5 .75 826 0
March 38.9 1.73 809 0
April 49.2 2.31 482 8
May 58.3 3.21 236 29
June 67.2 2.30 88 154
July 73.9 1.75 6 282
August 72.4 1.68 0 234
September 64.0 1.31 39 109
October 54.0 1.50 367 26
November 42.0 1.01 690 0
December 35.8 .59 805 0
Annual Totals 52.0 18.91 5540 842
Wind. Wind records in the Boudler area are limited, but they indicate that the prevailing direction is from the west throughout the year. More complete wind records made at Henver are not reliable as indicators of Boulder conditions because of the strong influence of mountains on local wind regimes. Although shielded to some extent from the plains winds, the area is subject to strong down-canyon Chinook winds which may become

severe enough at times to cause minor damage to buildings and structures. These damaging Chinook winds have been recorded in every month except July, with January being the month of the most frequent and damaginq wind activity. The Chinook winds are warm, dry winds in which warming and drying are caused by adiabatic compression as the air descends the mountain slopes on the leeward side of the Rockies. The Chinook is associated with cyclonic scale motions, being produced only where the circulation is sufficiently strong and deep to force air completely across the mountain range in a short period of time. Winds have been recorded at over 100 mph during storms and extreme gustiness is another characteristic of the windstorms. Boulder's damaging winds are generally out of the west or west-northwest.
Solar Access. Canyon Center has been conceived as a very energy-conserving development, and it will be important to take full advantage of a good southern exposure and a climate with good solar access. Roulder has nearly 330 days per year when the sun shines for some part of the day.
Being right at 40 North Latitude, the solstices at standard time are as follows:
Season Sunrise Sunset Azimuth Altitude
Winter 7:30 4:30 121-01 26-30
Summer 4:30 7:30 59-01 73-30
Solar access will be guaranteed through the fact that the PUD has been pre-planned and legal documentation will be provided, guaranteeing the maintenance of solar access, if it is deemed appropriate to do so.
Vertical south-facing glass will provide 1234 BTU per square foot of glass area, as much as 20-40% of the heating requirement for a residential unit. Shading devices will be required to keep the units from overheating in the summer.

50 WINTER 8:00 4:00 128-30' 16-30 35 WINTER 7:10 4-50 113-O' 31c-30'
SUMMER 4:00 8'00 51- 30" S30-30 SUMMER 4: SO 7:10 S1-30' 78-30'
45 WINTER 7:40 <.:20 124-30' 21-3G' 30 WINTER 7:00 5^00 117-30' 36-30'
SUMMER 4:20 7:40 5 5"-30' S8-30' SUMMER 5:00 7:00 62-30' 83-30'
40 WINTER 7:30 4:30 121-O 26-30' 25 WINTER 6:50 5:10 116-30' 41-30'
SUMMER 4:30 7:30 89-O' 73-30' SUMMER 5 10 6:50 88-30' 63-30'
Solar Angles

General guidelines for design in a temperate climate.
1. Slopes East of South are preferable, similar to orientation requirements.
2. A close relationship between house and nature is desirable and possible. Unilateral buildings can be developed with relatively free formations.
3. The large range of thermal conditions requires the utilization of radiation and wind effects, as well as protection from them. Breeze utilization in warm periods is important.
4. Open lawns with grouped shade trees are desirable. Windbreaks are desirable against winter NW wind direction. Tree layouts, however, should not block prevailing S-SW summer breezes. Evergreen trees are best for wind protection, deciduous trees for shading purposes. Lawns near structure are useful for radiation absorption. Shade trees are preferred on the east and west sides of residences.
5. Buildings should open to S-SE and be closed on westerly sides. Bedrooms should be located on easterly sides, open porches and greenhouses on S-SE side.
6. Elongation in E-W axis is preferable, with the optimum shape being 1:1.6.
7. Sol-air orientation of 17^ E of S secures a balanced heat distribution. Provision for adequate cross ventilation is necessary.
8. Medium colors are best, with dark colors only in recessed places protected from summer sun; light colors on roof surfaces.

In the Boulder Valley Comprehensive Plan, Canyon Boulevard is classified as a principal arterial and Ninth Street is classified as a minor arterial. Due to the heavy traffic on both of these streets, the staff of the Transportation Department for the City of Boulder has asked that there be automobile access to the site only from Walnut Street. There will be drop-off points for automobiles on both Canyon and Ninth, but all parking, loading, and deliveries will be made from Walnut Street. The Canyon Center project can be served by the existing street system and the completion of the project will not create any traffic overload on the surrounding street system, nor will it require any major off-site public improvements.
Public transportation is nearby in every direction from the site.
An RTD bus stop exists on the Canyon side of the site, and another one going east is across Ninth Street on Walnut. In the Boulder Valley Comprehensive Plan Year 2000 Transit projections, Canyon and Ninth will be advanced bus primary routes with a 5-10 minute frequency on Ninth and a 10-15 minute frequency on Pearl and Canyon.
For bicycles, Ninth Street is a designated bike route with a proposed on-street bikeway. There will be access to bicycles from Canyon, Ninth and Walnut with bicycle storage facilities at each of these points.
Bicycle riding will not be allowed in the public spaces on the site due to the heavy use by pedestrians.
For pedestrians, there will be sidewalks along Canyon, Ninth, and Walnut.
A series of pedestrian ways will enter the site from each of these sidewalks and will provide ease of movement from one part of the site

to another. Sidewalks will be ramped and the project will be barrier-free throughout. There will be a strong emphasis on the movement of pedestrians on the site, with the plazas being focal points for various pedestrian activities.


The foothills of the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains begin about a half mile west of the site. The best views are to the southwest, across Boulder Creek, looking toward the Flatirons. The Flatirons are not only a beautifully rugged series of rock outcroppings, but they are also the identifying symbol of Boulder. Therefore, views to the Flatirons are among the best views in Boulder. Fortunately, orientation of units toward the Flatirons is also beneficial for solar orientation, so that many units can take advantage of both good views and good southern exposure for solar gain. Other views which are also good are those views directly to the west to the mouth of Boulder Canyon, and the views to the foothills to the north. The highest structure in the neighborhood is the Canyon Pointe elderly housing project directly to the west, and this is a hindrance to the western views.
The views to the east toward downtown Boulder are not particularly good at this time, primarily due to the empty lot and billboards across Ninth Street. However, sometime soon that area will also be developed into office and commercial space so that the views in that direction will be better.


Looking south across Boulder Creek to the Flatirons.
Looking southwest to the mountains over the Justice Center

Looking west to the mouth of Boulder Canyon.
Looking north across Walnut Street.

Land Use
The Canyon Center site in a High nensity Residential Land Use area. Directly to the north are two business areas, arterial business and general business land use. There are some non-conforming light industrial uses in the area, and many residences that have been converted to business uses. A mixture of business and residential uses continue on Canyon Boulevard to the west. Directly to the east of the site is a Regional Business Land Use Area which is part of the downtown Boulder core business area. To the south of the site, is a Publ ic/Semi-Publ ic Industrial Land Use Area and to the south of that, an Open Space and Park area which runs along both sides of Boulder Creek. In the Public/ Semi-Public area is the Criminal Justice Center, the Boulder Public Library, and the Boulder Municipal Building.
The land use on the site will respond to the existing conditions of the neighborhood by having low-activity areas such as the residential and the recreation areas on the west end of the site, and the high-activity areas of offices and businesses on the east end of the site where they will adjoin the regional business area. Some convenience commercial space will be located on the northwest part of the site, so that it can relate to the elderly housing project and to the rest of the neighborhood.

vs Arterial
Publ i c /

Existing Utilities and Public Facilities
Parks. Canyon Center is within a half mile of Eben G. Fine Park, a developed neighborhood park at Third and Arapahoe Streets. Central Park is two blocks to the east, and there are large open spaces along Boulder Creek to the south. The City of Boulder has also developed a mini-park by closing Walnut between Sixth and Seventh Streets.
This park is for the benefit of the neighborhood at large, but its proximity also directly benefits the residents and users of Canyon Center. The mountain greenbelt areas are less than half a mile to the west.
Schools. Although Canyon Center is not designed primarily for families with children, there are schools nearby. Mapleton Elementary School is within safe walking distance of the site, and at present is operating below capacity. Casey Junior High and Boulder High School will also serve the development. Numerous day care facilities are located in the surrounding neighborhoods.
Fire Protection. The project can be reached within four minutes by fire equipment from the station at Thirteenth Street and Portland Avenue and, by itself, will not require additional stations, equipment, or personnel.
Police Protection. This project can be served by existing personnel and facilities and is within the existing service routes.
Water Distribution and Sanitary Sewage Collection. The site is presently served by 8" water mains in both Ninth Street and Walnut Street, which meets City of Roulder standards for water service and fire protection.
All main extensions and fire hydrants will be provided by the developer.
The Canyon Center site is presently served by an 8" VCP sewer line main in Walnut Street. This existing sanitary sewer main is large enough

to serve the project without oversizing.
Gas and Electric Lines. Electric lines run along Canyon, Ninth and Walnut. A 2" gas main runs along Walnut Street and gas taps are available at this time with a minimum wait from Public Service Company. Special Facil ities.and Services. There are two neighborhood groceries within one block of the site and additional convenience shopping will be available within Canyon Center. The Boulder Public Library is across the street, and the Senior Citizens Center is one block south of the site.

Structural Constraints
The main structural constraints on the site are primarily from the soil conditions and the fact of the site being in the Boulder Floodway.
The Canyon Pointe site (Phase I) was taken out of the Floodway by extensive berms and floodwalls. In addition to continuing these berms and retaining walls onto the Canyon Center site, more floodproofing and structural design for the flood will be necessary. The underground parking garage poses some of the biggest problems, and will have to be designed for hydrostatic and hydrodynamic loads. It was recommended by the soils engineer for the Canyon Pointe site that the lower level exterior walls and the parking area floor for that building be designed to resist the hydrostatic pressures created by the full head differential between the Water surface on the outside and the inside of the parking areas during flood time. That parking area floor is constructed approximately four feet beneath the ground surface. There will need to be sump pumps operating during any times of flooding or high water; tandum pumps will be necessary with emergency power for the pumps in case of power failures. All habitable spaces will be above the flood level, but the parking garage would be classified for floodproofing as W-2 or an essentially dry space. In this classification, all structural components shall have capability of resisting hydrostatic and hydrodynamic loads and the effects of buoyancy. This includes the foundation, which for this site should probably be drilled piers or caissons. The regulatory flood datum for this site is 5364 feet. The elevations on the site range from 5354 feet on the southeast corner to 5360 feet on the west end of the site. The finished floor elevation for the lowest habitable area would be 5364 feet. Anything below this elevation

shall be designed to resist all water, impact, and soil loads, alone and in combination, in such a manner that the combined effect will result in maximum loads and stresses on the structure and members. Loads shall be used in combination with flood related loads as follows:
1. Dead Load. Use at full intensity.
2. Live Load. Use at reduced intensity as provided in the Building Code for design of columns, piers, walls, foundations, trusses, beams, and flat slabs. Live loads on floors at or below the RFD and particularly on basement slabs, shall not be used if their omission results in greater loading or stresses on such
3. Snow loads. Use at full intensity which for this area is 40 psf The snow load reduction factor is Rs=S/40 ^ for pitches
above 20, S being the base loading requirement for a flat roof.
4. Wind load. Use at full intensity on the areas of the building and structure above the RFD. Wind pressure to be used for Boulder is 120 psf.
5. Earthquake Load. Combined earthquake and flood related loads need not be considered.
The floodwalls which are to retain soils on the site would be designed as retaining walls to resist the lateral earth pressures. It isrecom-mended by the soils engineer that the walls be designed using a lateral earth pressure equivalent to that developed by a fluid weighing 40 pounds per cubic foot plus any appropriate surcharge. Use of this lateral earth pressure assumes that the soils retained by the walls are well drained and will not be allowed to become saturated at any time during the life of the walls. It is recommended that the walls be laterally

supported, particularly during backfilling, to minimize the opportunity for damage. It is also recommended that the backfill adjacent to the foundation walls be mechanically compacted and that the site grading plan include a grade of at least 5 percent perpendicular to the walls for the first 10 feet away from the walls to facilitate rapid runoff of surface water. Roof downspouts or other water collection systems should be discharged well away from the backfill so that surface water does not have an opportunity to pond adjacent to the foundation walls and cause seepage into the backfill.
Soils Conditions. The elevation of the ground water table can be expected to fluctuate throughout the year, depending upon variations in precipitation, surface runoff, and application of irrigation water. Ground water was found in three of the four soil borings at 9-10 feet. The borings were done in November of 1977. A deposit of clay, sand, and silt was found to an average depth of five feet. At these levels, granular deposits were encountered and continued to an average depth of twelve feet where moderately weathered dark blue claystone bedrock was found. A deep foundation system, either drilled piers or driven piles, is recommended for this site due to the flooding potential. However, a deep foundation system will be relatively expensive duetto the difficulty in either drilling or driving through the random mixture of gravel, sand, cobbles and boulders. The fact that the water table is on the order of 10 feet deep beneath the now existing ground surface will also compound the construction problems.

Crime and Security
Although the Criminal Justice Center is one block away, the site is in a relatively high crime area. This is due to its proximity to the downtown core area, including the Boulder Mall and Central Park which attract large numbers of transients especially during the summer months. Crimes to property are the most common including vandalism, auto thefts, and burglaries. There is a security system installed in Canyon Pointe, where you need a key or a code to enter. A similar system will be installed at Canyon Center, the tight security being particularly important because of the exclusive, expensive character of the development.
The security system would be standard for the offices and businesses as well as the residences. During the day, there will be an attendant controlling the parking entrance, and at night the public parking area will not be controlled. The private parking area will require a card to enter at all times. To enter the buildings from the private parking area, a key or an electronic code will be required. The public and private parking areas will be separated by a floor to ceiling steel grate, with one locked entrance and one locked exit.

Legal Description
A portion of the Southeast Quarter of Section 25, Township 1 North, Range 71 West of the 6th P.M., more particularly described as follows:
Commencing at the intersection of the South line of Walnut Avenue and the West line of Ninth Street in the City of Boulder, Colorado, said point being the TRUE POINT OF BEGINNING:
Thence South 7449l07" West, 150.00 feet along the South line of said Walnut Avenue to the Northwest corner of Block 46, WEST B0UL0ER, in said City of Boulder;
Thence South 7449'07" West, 191.31 feet along the South line of said Walnut Avenue;
Thence South 7456'17" West, 163.69 feet along the South line of said Walnut Avenue;
Thence South 1503'43" East, line of said Walnut Avenue;
Thence North 7456'17" East, said Walnut Avenue;
Thence South 1503'43" East, line of said Walnut Avenue;
Thence South 7456'17" West, said Walnut Avenue;
85.26 feet at right angles to the South
9.00 feet parallel to the South line of
63.00 feet at right angles to the South
9.00 feet parallel to the South line of
Thence South 1503'43" East, 92.24 feet at right angles to the South line of said Walnut Avenue to a point on the North line of Canyon Boulevard in said City of Boulder;
Thence South 7627' East, 18.83 feet along the North line of said Canyon Boulevard;
Thence Easterly along the arc of a curve to the left, said arc being along the North line of said Canyon Boulevard, said arc having a radius of 724.00 feet and being subtended by a chord bearing South 87181 East, 114.50 feet; thence Easterly along the arc of a curve to the left, said arc being along the North line of said Canyon Boulevard, said arc having a radius of 724.00 feet and being subtended by a chord bearing North 8457' East, 81.40 feet; thence Easterly along the arc of a curve to the left, said arc being along the North line of said Canyon Boulevard, said arc having a radius of 724.00 feet and being subtended by a chord bearing North 7815'30" East, 87.70 feet; thence North 7447' East, 212.90 feet along the North line of said Canyon Boulevard to a point on the West line of said Ninth Street;
Thence North 1517'18" West, 303.83 feet along the West line of said Ninth Street to the TRUE POINT OF BEGINNING.
Contains 3.37 acres more or less.

Site Hevelopment
There are several specific aspects of the site development which will strongly affect the form of the buildings. Among these are: site circulation, landscaping, open space, and energy conservation.
Site Circulation. The circulation on the site is primarily pedestrian, yet most people do not arrive at the site by walking. For those people who arrive in their automobiles, there is some parking on Walnut Street, but most of the parking will be on a level below the plazas. From this lower level, there will be stairs and elevators to take people from their cars to their residences, offices, or businesses. The retail/ office building on the northeast corner of the site (Building #5) will have its own elevator, and the other four buildings will share two elevator cores, each core having two elevators. There will also be stairways from the parking garage to each residential building and one to the public plaza. For those people who arrive on bicycle, there will be bicycle racks at each pedestrian entrance to the public plaza. There will also be permanent bicycle storage in the parking garage for the residents. For those people who arrive by bus, there is immediate access to the site by pedestrian walkways including ramps for the handicapped due to the close proximity of the bus stops. There will also be dropoff points on Canyon, Ninth and Walnut for those people who share rides or need especially close access.
Landscaping. The landscape development for Canyon Center will primarily make use of native Colorado plants and other species that are drought tolerant. Deciduous trees will be planted on the south and west sides of building with evergreens and conifers planted to the north. The rows of street trees planted along Canyon and Walnut on the

Canyon Pointe site will be continued east to Ninth Street. Breaks in the streetscape planting will occur at entry points to the project by small, flowering, ornamental trees. Each of the plazas will have rows of trees to provide shade and a street quality atmosphere. Also, each plaza will have changes of level and paving patterns to define smaller spaces within the larger spaces. Both plazas will have benches, lamps, and many planters, again with the emphasis on native species and species which reflect the changes of seasons. Other landscaped areas include a greenhouse 'bridge' connecting buildings 3 and 4 on the second level. Also there will be entry courts and deck areas in the residences which will be generously landscaped, appropriate to the nature of the spaces. All landscaped areas will be served by an irrigation system which will be installed by the developer and maintained by the Owners Association.
Open space. The two plazas offer the majority of open space within the development, and each residence will have a private deck or greenhouse area, or in some cases, both. The recreation building will be located next to the residential plaza so that it can be used for parties and other gatherings in connection with the recreation uses.
The residential plaza will be developed like a garden or a park, while the public plaza will be developed with mostly paving.
Energy conservation. The major buildings at Canyon Center will be elongated along an east/west axis which will allow full application of passive solar energy systems. The site has good southern exposure, and the buildings will be stepped back from 2 stories along Canyon to 4 stories along Walnut in order to allow more southern exposure for the units. Large expanses of south-facing ^lass will allow maximum winter insolation and appropriate solar shading will minimize summer heat gains. All buildings will meet or exceed the energy conservation and

insulation standards set by the City of Boulder. To reduce total energy demands, the most energy efficient space and water heating equipment will be used in the project, including such devices as flue dampers, electric ignition furnaces, and extra insulation of water tanks. Active solar domestic water heating equipment will be installed for the residential units in the project. In addition, the high densities planned for Canyon Center will contribute to energy efficiency by the massing of buildings. Also, the placement of residential units close to the downtown core area and urban facilities, with convenient access to public transportation, will encourage walking and reduce the need for the automobile.

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Canyon Center site development plan

Program Areas and Uses
The developers have permits to build 75 residential units.
50 2-Bedroom units, about 1500 SF each 15 1-Bedroom units,, about 1200 SF each 10 3-Bedroom units, about 1800 SF each
There will be about 35,000 SF commercial space. Included in this commercial space will be some convenience commercial to serve the residents of both Canyon Pointe and Canyon Center. Some uses for this space include:
Barber/Beauty Shops
Neighborhood Grocery/Deli
Florist/Garden Supply
Bicycle Shop
Liquor Store
Drug Store/Pharmacy
Bank or Savings and Loan Restaurant/Lounge
The remaining commercial space would be used for specialty shops that would draw on a general market as well as the neighborhood and residents of Canyon Center. Some uses for this space include:
Bookstore Gift/Card store Sporting Goods

Men's and Women's Clothing Pet Shop Shoe Store
Gallery/Artisan Studio Photography Studio Crafts/Hobby Store
There will be approximately 35,000 SF of office space provided in Canyon Center. Some potential uses for this office space include: Architectural, Engineering and Planning Offices Law Offices Medical Offices Insurance Agents Real Estate Offices Accountants Travel Agents
Open Space required is 800 SF per unit
75 units x 800 SF per unit = 60,000 SF
Recreation building, including pool, whirlpool spa, and dressing rooms with saunas 10,000 SF
Parking. 1 space for 1-BD units, 1.5 spaces for 2-BD units, 2 spaces for 3-BD units for a total of 100 spaces for residential. 1 space per 300 SF office and commercial space for a total of 185 spaces. Together the total is 285 spaces.
In addition to the given space requirements, there will need to be some space allowed for circulation and for lobbies in the office areas.
There will also be a central lobby for the residential units. Space for circulation will be about 25,000 SF and about 5,000 SF for lobbies.

Summary of Areas:
Residential 105,000 SF
Commercial 35,000 SF
Office 35,000 SF
Recreation 10,000 SF
Open Space 60,000 SF
Circulation 25,000 SF
Lobbi es 5,000 SF
275,000 SF + 285 parking spaces

Program Relationships
In this type of project where there is mixed use, the relationships of the parts to each other is very important. Each use must he able to function well individually, and then the uses can begin to -Function together. For example, the people who work in the offices can meet for lunch with clients in the restaurant just below and that way they don't waste time commuting to and from the office. Some of these relationships of the different uses on the site have been included as part of the program.
Residential The residences need to have an orientation to a common area, an area which is semi-private and not open to the general public.
Then each resident needs to have an outdoor area which is private. The common area should be designed to help facilitate interaction and activities of the residents with each other. Within the residences, the living spaces (kitchen, dining room, living room) should be on the south side of the unit, or opening out onto an outdoor area which is not on the south side. (Most of the units will have outdoor areas facing south.) Redrooms then would be in the middle or north side of the units. Each residential unit will have access by elevator for the handicapped and for use when carrying baggage and other things like groceries. The walls, floor separations and stairways between units will be sufficiently soundproofed .
Offices. Some people who live in Canyon Center may want to have their office there also so that they can be close to work. Some professionals may choose to locate in Canyon Center because of its location, being close to the Justice Center for example. The offices would have use of the recreation center so that those people who have to work in more sedentary jobs would have a chance to get some exercise during the day. For

workers who wanted to go out jogging during the day, they can come back and shower in the recreation center before returning to work.
There are no particular dimensions set for office sizes and the space would be left to be defined by the tenants.
Commercial. The businesses have the opportunity for many different relationships with the other uses and with each other. The convenience businesses can serve the neighborhood, the residents of Canyon Center, the office tenants, and the other businesses. The convenience commercial space will be located on the site close to Canyon Pointe to make it easier for the elderly to shop there. The commercial space will all be located on the plaza or ground level so that there is direct access from the street and good window exposure for the merchants. The specialty shops that are not in the convenience commercial area, will all be oriented around the public plaza. This will create a pleasant atmosphere for shoppers and help the businesses attract customers for each other. The businesses will have validation stickers for customer parking, and it will be an advantage to have convenient, covered parking to offer, as well as a variety of businesses so that shoppers can do several errands in one stop. The businesses would have an integral relationship with the other businesses in the area, the commercial areas on the site being near existing business zones. The commercial areas then will be sufficiently buffered from the residents of Canyon Center and from the elderly residents of Canyon Pointe to insure privacy and a quiet residential atmosphere.
Recreation Building. The primary users of the recreation building will be the residents of Canyon Center and Canyon Pointe, and therefore the building is located at the west end of the site. From each of the

residential buildings in Canyon Center, there will be a covered walkway to the recreation building. The building will have two entrances, with primary glass areas on the east and west sides, the west side opening onto the residential plaza area. The recreation building would also be available to tenants of the offices and businesses in Canyon Center for a fee determined by the Owners and Tenants Association.
Parking. The parking garage will be divided into two areas, one private and one public. The private area will be for the residents of the condominium units, and that area will be accessible only through locked gates which can be opened with a card or code. The public area is for use by the offices and businesses. The parking spaces on Walnut Street are for the convenience businesses there so that cars can get in and out quickly. There will be several points of access from the parking garage to the units and to the other areas, both stairways and elevators. There is a service dock in the Northwest corner of the site with access to the parking garage for trash pickup. This will be the main service area on the site, although there is another loading and delivery area on Walnut Street closer to Ninth Street. With most of the parking underground, the impact of the automobile on the site will be reduced. Open Space. Besides the perimeter open space area, created basically from the setback requirements, the two plazas comprise the majority of open space within the project. The specialty shops and restaurant
surround the public plaza area with residences and offices overlooking the space. This plaza has a water feature focal point, benches, a clock, many plantings, and some area for events and performances to occur. Each entrance into the plaza from the street will be generously landscaped .

Architectural Intent
The architectural design is intended to be in harmony with the existing natural environment, the existing neighborhood, and within itself. Exterior surfaces will be generally of materials and colors that are compatable with the landscape. Accent colors will be used tastefully.
All buildings will be of brick with ribbed metal roofs. Building orientations are such to take advantage of views and solar opportunities. A maximum number of residential units will orient to the south. Where-ever possible, sun and light will be allowed to penetrate the interiors of the office and living units. Overhangs will be designed to provide appropriate solar shading in the summer months, reducing cooling loads, while still allowing natural light to enter.
Gradual changes in elevation and a variety of roof levels will avoid the impression of a monolithic structure and emphasize a human scale for the project. A series of pedestrian walkways will provide ease of movement from one part of the project to another. Sidewalks will be ramped and the project will be barrier-free throughout.
Landscaping will be an important element of the overall development, to provide visual screening and noise buffering, and also to complement the architecture and integrate it with its site.

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