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Inclusive communities within Colorado municipalities

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Inclusive communities within Colorado municipalities
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Weber, Michaela
Palmer, Nic
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Denver, Colo.
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University of Colorado Denver
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English

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This client-based project was completed on behalf of the Colorado Municipal League and supervised by PUAD 5361 Capstone course instructor Wendy L. Bolyard, PhD, and second faculty reader William Swann, PhD. This project does not necessarily reflect the views of the School of Public Affairs or the faculty readers. Raw data were not included in this document, rather relevant materials were provided directly to the client. Permissions to include this project in the Auraria Library Digital Repository are found as the final Appendix. Questions about this capstone project should be directed to the student authors.

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Running Head: INCLUSIVE COMMUNITIES WITHIN COLORADO MUNICIPALITIES
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Inclusive Communities within Colorado Municipalities Michaela Weber & Nic Palmer University of Colorado Denver School of Public Affairs
This client-based project is submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Public Administration in the School of Public Affairs at the University of Colorado Denver Denver, Colorado
Summer
2017


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Capstone Project Disclosures
This client-based project was completed on behalf of the Colorado Municipal League and supervised by PUAD 5361 Capstone course instructor Wendy L. Bolyard, PhD, and second faculty reader William Swann, PhD. This project does not necessarily reflect the views of the School of Public Affairs or the faculty readers. Raw data were not included in this document, rather relevant materials were provided directly to the client. Permissions to include this project in the Auraria Library Digital Repository are found as the final Appendix. Questions about this capstone project should be directed to the student authors.


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Executive Summary
The foreign-bom portion of the national population has been steadily growing. With the growth comes increasingly more inclusive policies and programs aimed at assimilating the new residents. Likewise, the foreign-bom population within Colorado has been experiencing parallel changes. The unremitting growth of foreign-bom populations has the potential to complicate the formulation of efficient programs and policies for municipal leaders. The Colorado Municipal League (CML) provides services and resources for municipal leaders in managing their governments and Colorado localities. CML is interested in the shifting demographics in relation to the foreign-born population. Municipal leadership is tasked with developing and implementing policies and programs that are effective and efficient for all constituents. Therefore, further research into the foreign-born population within Colorado municipalities is important.
To provide some explanation for the implementation of inclusive policies and programs, this research focuses on the creation of inclusive communities targeting Colorados foreign-born population and answering the question: what are the determinants of inclusive communities within Colorado municipalities? The deliverable is an analysis of socioeconomic, demographic, political, and organizational determinants, along with an in-depth case study on the City of Auroras practices and standards of inclusivity.
The data for the analysis were obtained through the distribution of a Community Inclusivity Survey, along with the 2010 American Census and data from Sperlings Best Places. The Community Inclusivity Survey collected individual municipal characteristics from 59 municipalities. Data for the qualitative portion of the analysis was obtained through a case study analysis of the City of Aurora, which showed the greatest reflection of inclusivity from the distributed survey. Utilizing a mixed method approach, the analysis determined that an increase


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in the foreign-born population within a municipality and support from external community organizations play the largest roles in creating inclusive communities.
Based on the analysis, recommendations CML should provide to municipalities are developed. These recommendations include the following:
Advise municipal leaders to begin surveying their community on both service providing organizations and the demographics of residents
o Utilize the Census data
Discuss the opportunity of creating a committee or office dedicated towards the immigration and migration of the foreign-bom population
Conduct focus groups with residents that have varying demographics (i.e. educational attainment, age, income, business backgrounds, etc.)
Provide feedback on what programs are needed for the specific municipality to the appropriate municipal office (i.e. community engagement, public outreach, communications)
Provide literacy courses (both reading and financial)
Celebrate diversity through cultural festivals and events
Understand the economic benefits of multi-cultural small businesses through an assessment of businesses operated by foreign-born individuals
Consider reaching out to an external task force or committee as a liaison between the foreign-born population and the government
Encourage partnerships to begin organically and at the grassroots level by providing workshops and brainstorming sessions with community organizations
Furthermore, recommendations specifically for CML are developed. Recommendations for CML to promote inclusive communities at meetings, in publications, or within the CML office:
Partner with undergraduate or graduate students to gather demographic, socioeconomic, organizational, and political determinants addressed in this paper
o Further explore the rural versus urban dichotomy
Promote the usage of the American Census Data for municipal leaders in order to gain more knowledge about shifting demographics
o Schedule the State Demographers Office to provide a tutorial at a CML meeting


Inclusive Communities within Colorado Municipalities 5
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 2
Purpose of Research and Structure of Paper 8
FRAMEWORK AND REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 9
Social Cohesion and Inclusive Communities 9
Determinants of Inclusive Communities 11
METHODOLOGY 17
Research Question 18
Measurement and Data Collection 19
Sampling Plan 20
Validity and Reliability 21
Table 3: Factor Loadings for Dependent Variable (CII) 22
Data Analysis 22
Figure 2: Graph of CII Scores Distribution 23
RESULTS 23
Dependent Variable 24
Table 4: Percentages of Policy/ Program Adoption within Municipalities 24
Independent Variables 24
Table 5: Descriptive Statistics 25
Table 6: Effects of Municipal Characteristics and Demographics on CII (n=37) 27
DISCUSSION 28
RECOMMENDATIONS AND FUTURE RESEARCH 30
REFERENCES 33
APPENDIX A: CHART OF FOREIGN-BORN PLACE OF BIRTH FOR COLORADO 38
APPENDIX B: LAIDLAW FOUNDATION INCLUSIVE COMMUNITY DEFINITION 39
APPENDIX C: PERCENTAGE BREAKDOWN OF COLORADO RURAL POPULATION 40
APPENDIX D: DATA MEASUREMENT TABLE 41
APPENDIX E: COVER LETTER AND SURVEY QUESTIONS 43
APPENDIX F: GAMBETTA-ALVARADO INTERVIEW QUESTIONS ON APRIL 12, 2017 47
APPENDIX G: ACCEPTED AND REJECTED HYPOTHESES BASED ON ZINB MODEL 47
APPENDIX H: CITY OF AURORA INCLUSIVE COMMUNITY WHITE PAPER 49 APPENDIX I: FINAL STATA OUTPUT 57
APPENDIX J: DOCUMENT OF COMPETENCIES 61


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Increasingly, the United States is the largest destination for migrants and immigrants across the world. The Pew Research Center reported that the number of immigrants in the U.S. has doubled from 23 million people in 1990 to 46 million in 2013. Within this timeframe, no other country has compared to the number of foreign-born individuals living within its borders. Individuals and families are considered foreign-born when they are in the process of immigrating or migrating from a foreign country to live within the United States. Foreign-bom populations include naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (e.g., those with student, work, or other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization (Migration Policy Institute, 2016).
The federal and state governments have proactively implemented policies and programs that attempt to integrate foreign-bom people into the general fabric of the nation. For example, an increasing percentage of immigrants and migrants have obtained college degrees or more (Zong, 2016). However, these individuals are often unable to practice their trade and contribute to the economy due to language barriers, relicensing issues, employer bias, or gaps in learning. To alleviate this situation, federal and state policies were adopted, including the Michigan International Talent Solutions and the White House Task Force on New Americans (McHugh & Morawski, 2017).
This paper explores foreign-bom integration policymaking within local municipalities. For this research project, the Colorado Municipal League (CML) requested a review of implemented immigration and migration policies or programs within Colorado municipalities. The research question is what are the determinants of inclusive communities within Colorado municipalities? The deliverable is an analysis of socioeconomic, demographic, political, and


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organizational determinants, along with an in-depth case study on the City of Auroras practices and standards of inclusivity. With some exception, there is little research that comprehensively studies the variegated landscape of local foreign-bom policies, and no institution that compiles such information (Walker & Leitner, 2013). This research contributes to the understanding of the Colorado foreign-born population in light of Fennelly and Federico (2008) report that foreign-bom individuals increasingly relocate to more rural and nontraditional locations such as Colorado.
Parallel to the United States, the demographics of Colorado have been shifting to reflect more foreign-bom individuals. In 2015, the American Immigration Council (AIC) conducted a study on the political and economic influence of foreign-born individuals and families within Colorado. The study stated that the foreign-born portion of Colorados population increased from 4.3% in 1990, to 8.6% in 2000, and to 9.5% in 2013. See Appendix A (Table 1) for country of origin/place of birth among Colorados foreign-bom individuals. The unremitting growth of foreign-born populations being partially or infrequently visible to municipal leaders may have the potential to complicate the formulation of efficient programs and policies. This perception indicates that the growth in the foreign-bom population within a municipality may go unnoticed. This could be due to the growth in the overall population of Colorado municipalities or because other issues have captured the municipal leaderships attention.
Municipalities have the autonomy and ability to shape policies and programs that meet more inclusive standards through community participation association within their jurisdiction. However, the question arises: what are the determinants or predictors of inclusive communities? Beyond the scope of inclusivity stands the concept of social cohesion, group assimilation, and unification. While the focus of this research is the determinants of inclusive communities, the


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concept of social cohesion lends itself to be discussed to some degree since the inclusive communities and social cohesion mark the evolvement community standards.
The research on inclusive communities is important for public administration because public organizations play an important role in assimilating individuals into the composition of the community. As a policy area, there is limited knowledge, practically and theoretically, on how to integrate foreign-bom individuals into communities. Within public administration, there is support for the idea that implementation of foreign-bom policies and programs would be efficient and effective due to the unification of community values and standards (Kettl, 2015). Colorado Municipal League
The client for this project, the Colorado Municipal League (CML), organizes and disseminates policy information for local municipalities (CML Strategic Plan, 2017). Through its partnerships, CML provides municipal guidance and forward-thinking advice for municipal leaders. There are various avenues CML uses to provide support for Colorado cities and towns. These avenues include: membership services, advocacy, youth outreach, training, and research. This analysis on Colorado inclusive communities is aiming to further contribute to CML research and to the conversations surrounding immigration and migration for municipal leaders. Purpose of Research and Structure of Paper
The purpose of this research is to establish what factors determine inclusive communities within Colorado municipalities. The aims of this research are 1) to determine which Colorado municipalities are implementing more policies and programs that integrate foreign-bom individuals and families into foundational institutions, and 2) what an example of successful implementation of these policies and programs looks like. The factors examined include: the workforce, social services, housing market, and healthcare. In general, an inclusive community


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would have policies or programs that allow foreign-bom individuals to more easily assimilate and prosper through offered opportunities within the community.
This research paper starts by reviewing the relevant literature, from which the research hypotheses emerge. An overview of the methodology is discussed, which includes data collection, sampling plan, validity and reliability of the research findings. Following is a discussion of the quantitative results, along with a presentation of the case study on the City of Aurora. The conclusion discusses the implications and limitations of this study, while also presenting the recommendations for future research and CML.
Framework and Review of the Literature
The literature for the study of inclusive communities within Colorado will benefit from the delineation of both social cohesion and the characteristics of inclusive communities. Following the two definitions comes the discussion of the socioeconomic and demographic determinants, the political determinants, and the organizational determinants of inclusive communities. From the literature emerge the hypotheses under analysis.
Social Cohesion and Inclusive Communities
Within any community, social cohesion can be defined as citizens having positive feelings toward one another and feeling that they belong (Pagani, 2014). The concept of cohesion within a community has been defined throughout the literature. Small group research by Carron, Widmeyer, and Brawley (2000) places a measurable degree of importance on social perception of cohesion among group members, stating that social perceptions reflect the individuals perceptions about what the group believes about its closeness, similarity, and bonding as a whole and the degree of unification of the group field (p. 90). Social cohesion can be conceptualized as an outcome of communities practicing and implementing inclusive policies and programs. For


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the purpose of this research, social cohesion is presented as a mechanism of unification and neighborliness that may result from a community being inclusive of the foreign-born population.
A group or population can be defined as having social cohesion when several conditions are met. These conditions include: positive feelings towards one another, understanding the benefit of being part of the group, shared tasks to reach a common goal, similar views on issues, constructive problem solving, feeling of responsibility for the groups outcomes, greater trust, and greater productivity (Pagani, 2014). Situational cohesion indicates community perception may be a result of the environment. Beal, Cohen, Burke, and McLendon (2003) consider situations when efficiency is an important goal in the organization (such as government) and when group performance is conceptualized as a behavior instead of an outcome. Comparatively, these situations directly align with the central themes of public administration. Within the scope of cohesion, having a group and population that recognizes the unification within the municipality enhances the municipal leaderships ability to perform effectively and efficiently across policies and programs (Kettl, 2015).
Research conducted on building inclusive communities within Canada reveals the characteristics of inclusive communities. In 2002, the Laidlaw Foundation and the Federation of Canadian Municipalities conducted eleven soundings in ten communities across Canada to extract perspectives on social issues facing urban municipalities and the civic capacities needed to respond to these issues (Clutterbuck & Novick, 2003, p.7). More than 240 community participants, broken into groups, contributed their views. The increase in globalization, migrant patterns, immigrant relocation, and the social capacities to integrate this population into the municipality, were evaluated. The study showed how communities and municipal leaders incorporate an increasing diverse population within everyday life. When the citizen participants


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were asked to describe what an inclusive community meant to them, their responses were categorized into the following sets of characteristics: integrative, cooperative, interactive, invested, diverse, equitable, accessible, sensitive, participatory, and safe. Clutterbuck and Novick (2003) then break apart and define the individual sets of characteristics. They present an in depth definition of the multifaceted properties of inclusive communities that can be found in Appendix B. The information on defining inclusive communities from the 2002 citizen participants can be applied to the current research by setting a baseline standard for inclusive practices. Uncovering the socioeconomic, demographic, political, and organizational determinants of inclusive communities within Colorado is important because of shifting demographics.
Determinants of Inclusive Communities
Socioeconomic and demographic determinants. Educational attainment has been an important variable in policy and program research. For example, a communitys average educational attainment for bachelors degree or higher may indicate the willingness to participate in the community (Wickes et al., 2013). Educational attainment contributes to the communitys sense of inclusivity and acknowledgement of civic relationship building (Ager & Strang, 2008). In the same vein, Condon, Filindra, and Wichowsky (2015) present a theoretical framework for analyzing the effects of policy decisions about immigrant inclusion and its correlation with educational attainment throughout the United States. The authors apply this framework to investigate the effect of the state safety net on educational attainment (Condon et al., 2015, p. 1). They claim that when states broaden the inclusivity of the social safety net in regards to education for immigrants, young Latinos are more likely to graduate from high school (Condon et al., 2015). This in turn increases the average level of educational attainment of a community. Based on the logic presented in the literature, municipalities with a greater average educational


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attainment level will pursue more inclusive policies and programs. This could be through various avenues, such as being aware of civil rights laws, the importance of cultural diversity, and the importance of clearer paths to citizenship (Condon et al., 2015). From this research, hypothesis one emerges: Municipalities with higher educational attainment reflect more inclusive policies and programs.
In studies of foreign-born populations, age is also a common predictor of policy choice. The age of individuals has the potential to affect public opinion regarding the integration of a foreign-born population. For example, Chandler and Tsai (2001) showed that older respondents of the 1994 General Social Survey were more likely to want to reduce the number of foreign-bom legal assimilation into the United States. Alternatively, Espenshade and Hempstead (1996) conducted a similar analysis that yielded different results. These researchers found that individuals within particular age groups (18-24 and 45-54) are more supportive of assimilating the foreign-born population compared to other age groups (Epenshade & Hempstead, 1996). Therefore, this current research tests whether age has an impact on the implementation of inclusive policies and programs. Hence, hypothesis two is: Municipalities with a younger average age will reflect more inclusive policies and programs.
Alba and Nee (2003) describe the roles of immigrants in the United States both historically and currently. They argue that an individuals desire to assimilate into American culture is still led by a desire to improve their social and material livelihood. The authors also show that immigrants are continuing to change American society and culture in a positive way (Alba & Nee, 2003). If there is a high percentage of Latinos/Hispanics in a community per capita, it is likely that the community will implement inclusive policies and programs to support the positive changes and the shifting constituent demographic (Alba & Nee, 2003). Further


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research shows that communities with greater Latino/Hispanic populations increase the perception or feeling of inclusivity (Putnam, 2007). This concept is progressed through Putnams explanation of the shifting paradigm of ethnic diversity in the United States and its impact on social interaction. He argues that there are long-term, positive impacts that are a result of immigration and diversity that are likely to have important cultural, economic, fiscal, and developmental benefits (Putnam, 2007). Furthermore, a steadily increasing foreign-born population will prompt the demand for more inclusive policies and programs. The policies and programs would be aimed at supporting the needs and demands of the foreign-bom population as they integrate into the community. Thus, this research tests hypothesis three: Municipalities with a greater percentage of a Latino/Hispanic population will reflect more inclusive policies and programs; and hypothesis four: Municipalities with a greater change in foreign-born population between the years of 2010 and 2015 will reflect more inclusive policies and programs.
Religion is a consistent predictor of community standards (Green, Barton, & Johns,
2012). The assumed standing and moral authority of religious leaders within a community ensures that they are influencing community interactions and individuality often through programs for children and young people. This in turn shapes the opinion on social or political issues. Faith-based leaders have the ability to strengthen community cohesion by providing a stable institution for support and relationship building (Green, et al., 2012). This logic can be applied to communities with strong faith-based direction. A religious presence in the community has the ability to progress the formulation and implementation of inclusive policies and programs for foreign-bom individuals to move forward. Therefore, the research maintains that: Municipalities with a greater percentage of religious residents will undertake more inclusive policies and programs, and is tested as hypothesis five.


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Political determinants. Community political attitudes may also influence policy and program adoptions for inclusivity. Immigration and increasing racial diversity are shaping partisan politics within the American population (Hajnal & Rivera, 2014). White voters with more anti-immigrant views or more negative views of Latinos/Hispanics are less likely to favor liberal candidates and are more likely to identify as Republican, while voters with more supportive views on immigration tend to support more liberal candidates. Shifting patterns highlight the enduring but changing impact of race on American politics (Hajnal & Rivera, 2014, p. 773). Municipalities that reflect liberal voting patterns may also reflect a greater willingness to implement a policy or program that benefits foreign-born individuals and families due to the more moderate support of assisting foreign-born citizens (Hajnal & Rivera, 2014). Specifically, liberal voting patters may reflect a larger degree of inclusive implementation compared to more conservative voting patters. Furthermore, foreign-bom individuals are more likely to vote for Democratic candidates, which results in foreign-born individuals contributing to the liberal election tendency by increasing the number of liberal candidates being elected in communities (Patten, 2013). When party leaners are taken into account (i.e., those who remain in the middle of the party aisle), about half of immigrants either identify with (31%) or lean towards (23%) the Democratic Party, while about two in ten identify with (4%) or lean towards (15%) the Republican Party (Patten, 2013). These statistics support the notion that foreign-bom individuals are more likely to vote for Democratic candidates, which may influence local election results. Therefore, this research expects and tests with hypothesis six: Municipalities with a higher rate of registered Democrats will reflect more inclusive policies and programs.
Community organizations can advocate on behalf of foreign-born individuals within the workforce. Interest groups within the political economy play an important role in shaping U.S.


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immigration policies and programs (Facchini, Mayada, & Mishra, 2011). For example, business interest groups assign a particular level of value on immigrant workers (Facchini et al., 2011). In 2006, community-based organizations, social service providers, and advocacy groups mobilized in support of the foreign-born populations rights across the United States (Cordero-Guzman, Martin, Quiroz-Becerra & Theodore, 2008). Specifically, organizations that serve immigrants have the opportunity to assist in the political assimilation among constituents by framing and considering constituent concerns, and furthermore by communicating these concerns within the political institution. This research hypothesizes (hypothesis seven) that: Municipalities with more active external community organizations advocating on the behalf offoreign-born individuals andfamilies will reflect more inclusive policies and programs.
Organizational determinants. In Colorado, immigrant and migrant statistics show that the majority of foreign-born individuals in the state are Latino and Asian (State Demographics Data, 2016). Nearly one in ten Coloradans is a foreign-bom immigrant (American Immigration Council, 2016). For the municipalities in which a greater staffing capacity per capita is possible, foreign-born individuals are more easily integrated. Staffing capacity indicates community liaisons, enhanced delivery of goods or services, inter-agency relationships, and developed trainings (Kogan, 1997). This belief is paired with the idea that a municipality with a higher population will also have a greater amount of individuals serving within its government. For example, the state of North Carolina responded to an increase in immigrant population within the school district by increasing staffing capacity to better serve students (Rodriguez, 2008). Municipalities may follow the same pursuit. Therefore, this research anticipates, as tested through hypothesis eight, that: Municipalities with a greater staffing capacity for integrating foreign-born individuals andfamilies will reflect more inclusive policies and programs.


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Additionally, municipalities with a greater financial capacity may be more willing to undertake more policies and programs (Buchanan & Weber, 1980). Municipalities with greater fiscal capabilities should have a greater financial capacity to integrate foreign-born individuals into community policies and programs. The Colorado Department of Local Affairs (2016) has reported that the population in Colorado has increased by 100,986 individuals between July 2014 and July 2015. This was a result of more than 60,000 individuals migrating to the state from across the United States and the world. This information is valuable because it shows the shifting population trends and demand for government provided recourses within Colorado. Furthermore, with population growth, municipalities will see a rise in property tax collections, which may allow for more services to be provided in general (Buchanan & Weber, 1980, p. 179). Therefore, the final hypothesis (hypothesis nine) expects: Municipalities with a greater financial capacity will reflect more inclusive policies and programs.
Control variables. Community demographics are also important factors in explaining inclusive communities within Colorado. Specifically, population size captures the urban versus rural account of policy adoption. Municipalities with a smaller population size are located in more rural and agricultural regions of the state. Rural and urban municipalities have varying resources, demographics, support systems, and capabilities of enacting policies and programs in general. See Figure 1 (Appendix C) for the percent of rural population by counties in Colorado. The rural versus urban variation accounts for the differences in the nature of local immigration and foreign-born policies (Walker & Leitner, 2013). Using background characteristics (age, education, and income), Fennelly and Federico (2008) discovered that more rural and suburban municipalities tend to reflect more restrictive immigration policies compared to central cities. This suggests that research on inclusive communities should take into consideration the attitudes


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and perceptions of the foreign-bom population among the municipal leadership within rural and urban municipalities.
This analysis also controls for policy priority and community festivals and events. They are controls obtained through the Community Inclusivity Survey. Policy priority captures the humanistic variable of enacting a social policy or program. The priority placed on a specific set of policies or programs by a municipal leader may directly align with the municipalitys capabilities and support for such a policy or program. Priority is subjective and based on the individual human aspect. Community festivals and events could be an indicator of demand for more inclusive policies, programs, and events. However, these events could also be a direct result of the inclusive policies and programs. Therefore, the analysis controls for the incidence of community festival events. The literature discussed supports the socioeconomic and demographic, political, and organizational determinants this analysis purports. Furthermore, the hypotheses within the several categories of determinants are reinforced as sound variables for the study of inclusive communities.
Methodology
The relationship between the individual Colorado municipality and the socioeconomic, demographic, political, and organizational determinants of inclusive communities is the focus of this research. The quantitative analysis draws from the Community Immigration Survey responses, 2010 American Census data, and information provided by Sperlings Best Places. The qualitative analysis focuses more in-depth on the case of the City of Aurora selected for its inclusive innovation with adopting an Integration Strategic Plan and establishing productive partnerships with community organizations.


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Research Question
This research aims to answer the following research question: what are the determinants of inclusive communities? Through the previous literature review, specific categorical determinants emerge for use this analysis of inclusive communities, which include: socioeconomic, demographic, political, and organizational determinants. With a focus on these determinants, the research explores the municipality driven inclusive community practices. Furthermore, the research uncovers an exemplary model of a Colorado municipality that embraced foreign-bom individuals and developed an inclusive community through policy or program implementation.
Through a qualitative case study gathered from an interview with Ricardo Gambetta-Alvarado, Manager in the Office of International and Immigrant Affairs at the City of Aurora, a fruitful narrative is extrapolated for the client, CML. A case study is defined as being the intensive analysis of a single unit or small number of units, where the researchers goal is to understand a larger class of similar units (Seawright & Gerring, 2008, p. 296). A case study approach is useful for the qualitative research side of the project because focusing on the individual municipality as the subject of in-depth analysis better serves the purpose of generalizing key themes, future trends, hidden issues, and greater clarity in regards to best practices. A case study approach also increases internal validity (Yin, 2013). Through the use of an influential choice of case, the inclusive community analysis can check the assumptions behind the foreign-bom population model on policy and program implementation (Seawright & Gerring, 2008). The extent in which the City of Aurora fits the overall model is important since the results might influence the set of findings for the whole state and national population. The case study identifies the best practices the City of Aurora adopted and how the municipality successfully


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implemented a Strategic Integration Plan. The City of Aurora serves as a representative sample in offering useful descriptions on the factors of interest (Seawright & Gerring, 2008).
Measurement and Data Collection
A mixed method approach is used within the research. This qualifies that the utilization of both quantitative and qualitative data within a single investigation is used to test the hypotheses and answer the research question. Through the Community Inclusivity Survey, Sperlings Best Places, and Census data collection, the dependent and independent variables are derived. For a complete breakdown of dependent and independent variable collection and sources see the Data Measurement Table presented in Appendix D (Table 2). Additionally, refer to Appendix E for the corresponding Community Inclusivity Survey cover letter and survey questions.
Based on the previous literature, the independent variables within each municipality that are important for this study include: population size, average age, race diversity, average educational attainment, foreign-bom population size, and municipal voting systems (Wickes et al., 2013; Walker & Leitner, 2013). To tailor this specific research more towards Colorado communities, active support organizations, religion, financial capacity, and integration priority were added to the independent variable list. Several independent variables will be collected using the 2010 American Census Survey provided by the United States Census Bureau. The Census data variables include: population size, average age, foreign-born population, and average educational attainment. The level of integration priority, active support organizations, municipal capacity, and financial capacity are independent variables drawn from the Community Inclusivity Survey. The religion percentage and percentage of registered Democrats are collected using Sperlings Best Places.


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The dependent variable, the Community Integration Index (CII), was obtained from the Community Inclusivity Survey. For the dependent variable, an aggregated inclusivity variable is created and utilized using survey responses regarding policy or program implementation. The aggregated variable, the CII, captures the inclusivity of the Colorado communities. Additive indices are a well-established measure of policy commitment across the public administration and urban affairs literature (Lubell et al., 2009; Swann, 2015; Walker et al., 2015). In this study, adoption of policies and programs directly relating to municipal committees, citizenship programs, social services, healthcare, housing, and workforce training programs, are aggregated into a measure of an inclusive community.
The quantitative analysis is augmented with an in-depth case study of the City of Auroras integration and inclusivity. An in-person interview (see Appendix F for the interview protocol) with Ricardo Gambetta-Alvarado, manager in the Office of International and Immigrant Affairs, was conducted. The interview was administered to gain a better understanding of the processes local governments undergo to successfully implement inclusive policies and programs.
Sampling Plan
The unit of analysis for the research is municipalities within Colorado (N= 271). The Colorado population from which the sample is drawn is important for political and socioeconomic diversity, and it contributes a variation among viewpoints on immigration due to the political landscape of Colorado being a historical swing-state. The primary data for our analysis was collected through an on-line survey instrument, the Community Inclusivity Survey. The survey was distributed to 179 Colorado municipal managers in four waves starting at two weeks before April 15, and then in one-week intervals. Surveys were sent to municipal (city and


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town) managers because these individuals generally have the most knowledge about policies and programs within the municipality. Mark Radtke, Municipal Research Analyst, and Leigh Russo, Database and Administrative Coordinator at CML, provided the contact information for the 179 municipal managers.
Validity and Reliability
Validity in the case of the research refers to whether or not a test, measurement instrument, or gathered data actually measures what it purports to measure (Colliver, Conlee, & Verhulst, 2012). In order to maximize internal validity, each municipal manager throughout the state was surveyed to create the sample population of Colorado municipalities. This is intended to assist in measuring the number of inclusive polies and measures within the community. Furthermore, emailing the survey to all 179 Colorado municipalities with town managers will confirm the selection of subjects does not allow for bias. A factor analysis provides evidence of internal validity and the validation of the Community Integration Index. The factor analysis indicated retaining a single factor (eigenvalue = 2.34). An eigenvalue greater that one indicates a single factor should be retained because it demonstrates stability and accounts for more variability. Overall, the items appear to be a good measure of inclusivity commitment. The Cronbachs alpha (.76) indicates reasonably strong internal consistency and validity of the dependent variable, the Community Integration Index.
While there are limitations, the findings can be generalized across municipalities in the United States. Colorado is considered a social and political microcosm and an ideal testing arena for understanding the influences of immigration and migration integration because of the considerable variation in preferences for policies and programs that integrating foreign-bom individuals and families have carried. Furthermore, the political landscape of Colorado provides


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a clear and succinct study on the influence politics and public administration have on integrating foreign-born individuals into government offered programs, educational arenas, housing opportunities, the workforce, and healthcare.
Table 3: Factor Loadings for Dependent Variable (CII)
Factors Retained 1
Committee 0.36
Workforce Training 0.60
Housing Assistance 0.70
Access to Healthcare 0.75
Assistance for Gaining Citizenship 0.67
Social Services 0.59
Total Variance 0.77
Note: The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) measure of sampling adequacy indicated that the sample was factorable (KMO = .55).
The research design maximizes external validity because of the previous attention Colorado has drawn from the enactment of varying social policies and the sanctuary city discussion surrounding municipalities. For example, the City of Boulder introduced the inclusion of immigrants of different citizen status into the City Code, thus shedding light on being coined a sanctuary city (Boulder, 2017). Attention from this type of policy implementation opened the doors for citizens and municipal leaders, within and outside of Colorado, to take notice of the forward thinking progress this state is taking on social issues. With more attention being drawn to policies and programs within Colorado as a whole, the research design ensures that external validity is maximized.
Data Analysis
A count model was tested to model the effects that capacity and municipal demographics have on the implementation of inclusive policies or programs. The model reflects that the dependent variable (CII) consists of an additive index of the count of the policies and programs implemented, and also contained a reasonably high proportion of zero outcomes. The histogram


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in Figure 2 clearly displays a zero-inflated negative binomial distribution with over 50% of municipalities scoring a zero on this index, and the percentage of municipalities scoring higher on the index generally becomes increasingly smaller. The data also displayed slight overdispersion; that is, the variance for the CII was about 2.24 times greater than its mean. Therefore, a zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) estimation technique is appropriate. Appendix I presents the STATA output for the ZINB Model, all diagnostic tests, and the factor analyses.
Figure 2: Graph of CII Scores Distribution
Community Inclusivity Index Scores For Colorado Municipalities
Community Inclusivity Index Score
Within the survey responses was the option of selecting Not applicable. For the data analysis, the Not applicable responses were recorded as zero. This decision was necessary to increase the sample size for the estimating model.
Results
The Community Inclusivity Survey resulted in 59 municipalities responding beginning in March 2017. The median size of municipalities that responded to the survey was 24,199 residents. Comparatively, the median size of all Colorado municipalities is about 20,560 residents. Additionally, the average percentage of registered Democrats for municipalities that


Inclusive Communities within Colorado Municipalities
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responded was 46%, and the average percentage of registered Democrats in Colorado is about 32% (Colorado Secretary of State, 2017). Even more so, the average percentage of municipalities with residents having a bachelors degree or higher was 32%, the average for Colorado is 38.1% (2010 American Census). Therefore, the sample size is reasonably representative of Colorado. Furthermore, 37 municipalities became the sample size after the Not applicable response option was factored into the analysis (n=37).
Dependent Variable
Table 4 demonstrates the percentage of the specific policy or program implementation rate among the municipalities that responded to the Community Inclusivity Survey. As noted, a program directed towards assisting, educating, or providing the resources for obtaining citizenship was the most prevalent with a 23.72% adoption rate. Following is the integrative approach of municipalities orchestrating a foreign-born committee within the community or government body at 20.33%. The remaining policies or programs that make up the Community Inclusivity Index (CII) are consistently adopted between 15-18% among the municipalities.
Table 4: Percentages of Policy/ Program Adoption within Municipalities
Inclusive Policy/Program for CII (%)
Integration Committee 20.33
Workforce Training 18.64
Housing Assistance Program 15.25
Healthcare Policy 18.64
Citizenship Program 23.72
Social Services Policy 18.64
Independent Variables
Table 5 reports the descriptive statistics for all variables, including those constructed from the data collected from the Community Inclusivity Survey, as well as 2010 American Census Data and Sperlings Best Places. Table 6 reports the results of the analysis. Overall, the


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results indicate some variables having a relationship with the municipalitys successfulness of implementing an inclusive policy and/or program. There is some support for hypothesis one (educational attainment), hypothesis four (change in foreign-bom population), and hypothesis seven (support from external community organizations). A control variable for community events/festivals was also positively correlated as anticipated. Conflicting evidence was found for the hypothesis two (effects of age) and hypothesis six (liberal-leaning communities), although the predicted effect is small.
Table 5: Descriptive Statistics
Variable Obs. Mean Std. Dev. Min. Max
Community Inclusivity Index 59 1.15 1.61 0 6
Educational Attainment 59 0.32 0.18 0.05 0.81
Average Age 59 39.13 6.51 29.5 58.5
% Latino/Hispanic Population 59 0.19 0.18 0.02 0.87
Change in Foreign-bom Population 58 5.14 35.55 -0.80 271
% Religious Residents 59 0.96 4.45 0.15 34.52
% Registered Democrats 59 0.46 0.13 0.17 0.70
External Community Organizations 41 -0.32 1.39 -2 2
Staffing Capacity 58 -0.07 1.21 -2 2
Financial Capacity Control Variables 58 -1.10 1.07 -2 2
Total Population 59 24199.32 71620.78 183 416,427
Community Events & Festivals 54 0.59 0.49 0 1
Priority Level 55 -0.13 1.09 -2 2
For a more intuitive presentation of the findings, the Incident Rate Ratios (IRRs) were
reported. Table 6 (below) provides evidence that several variables have a statistically significant
relationship with the CII. Additionally, each hypothesis is discussed separately in relation to the
statistical findings.
Socioeconomic and demographic determinants. First, hypothesis one, municipalities
with higher educational attainment will reflect more inclusive policies and programs, is supported by the analysis. There is modest support for educational attainment predicting the CII (HI) (IRR=41.36, p < .10).


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Hypothesis two, municipalities with a younger average age will reflect more inclusive policies and program, had conflicting results. This entails that the effect of younger communities on the adoption of more policies and programs was not consistent with hypothesis two, although this was significant only at the .90 confidence level (IRR=.95, p < .10). Alternatively, older communities may be more successful at reflecting inclusivity.
Hypothesis three, municipalities with a greater percentage of a Latino/Hispanic population will reflect more inclusive policies and programs, had no statistical effect.
Hypothesis four, municipalities with a greater change in foreign-born population between the years of 2010 and 2015 will reflect more inclusive policies and programs, showed support for the change in foreign-bom population controls predicting the CII, but this is only statistically significant at the .90 confidence level (IRR= 2.51 ,p<0.10).
Hypothesis five, municipalities with a greater percentage of religious residents will reflect more inclusive policies and programs, had no statistical effect.
Political determinants. Next, hypothesis six, municipalities with a higher rate of registered Democrats will reflect more inclusive policies and programs, found conflicting results. This entails that the effect of liberal-leaning communities on the CII differentiated from the literature, although the predicted effect is small. Furthermore, the data analysis showed that if there were an increase in the number of registered Democrats by one percent, then the number of policies or programs adopted would be expected to decrease by a factor of 1.63%.
Hypothesis seven, municipalities with more active external community organizations advocating on the behalf offoreign-born individuals andfamilies will reflect more inclusive policies and programs, had the strongest support. The model showed that the expected support from external organizations in the community would have a positive association with the number


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of inclusive policies or programs implemented. The results suggest for every additional one unit increase in support from external community organizations, the count of integrative and inclusive policies or programs adopted is expected to increase by about 85%, holding all other variables in the model constant (IRR=1.85, p < .01).
Organizational determinants. Following, hypothesis eight, municipalities with a greater staffing capacity for integrating foreign-born individuals andfamilies will reflect more inclusive policies and programs, had no statistical effect.
Lastly, hypothesis nine, municipalities with a greater financial capacity will reflect more inclusive policies and programs, had no statistical effect.
In terms of control variables, community events and festivals positively predicted the CII (IRR=3.32, p < 0.05). However, the model finds no evidence that total population (logged) influences the number of policies or programs adopted, even though the literature indicates that higher urban populations tend to adopt more initiatives targeting immigrants. The model explained about 26% of the total variance in the CII (McFaddens A-squared = .26). We consider this reasonably high given the novelty of the research. A clear presentation of the hypotheses accepted or rejected is presented in Appendix G (Table 7).
Table 6: Effects of Municipal Characteristics and Demographics on CII (n=37)
Variable ZINB Model Variable ZINB Model
Educational Attainment 41.36* External Support Organizations 1.85***
(80.09) within Community (0.37)
Average Age 0.95* Staffing Capacity 1.33
(0.03) (0.28)
% Latino/Hispanic Population 0.63 Control Variables
(1.07)
Change in Foreign-bom Population 2.51* Total Population 0.08
(1.18) (0.41)
% Religious Residents 13.59 Community Events & Festivals 3.32**
(24.44) (1.62)
% Registered Democrats 0.02* Priority Level 1.59
(0.04) (0.47)
Note. Standard errors in parentheses. *p< .1; **p< .05; ***p< .01


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Ultimately, the change in foreign-bom population, support from external community organizations, and the average educational attainment of the municipality played the largest role in indicating inclusivity within the municipalities tested. To bolster the results of the statistical analysis, a case-study evaluation of the City of Aurora was conducted with Ricardo Gambetta-Alvarado in the Office of International and Immigrant Affairs. The outcome of the case study was that the municipal government within Aurora recognized the increasing growth of the foreign-bom population, and then formed partnerships with external, grassroots organization. These partnerships were very important for the City of Auroras ability to implement inclusive policies and programs that reached the needs of their changing culture and demographics. A more in-depth presentation of the case study is discussed below and within Appendix H.
Discussion
The quantitative results help to answer the research question by identifying the likely determinants of inclusive communities. Although the model is limited by its sample size, the variables that appear to be most predictive of the CII are educational attainment, change in the foreign-bom population, and the presence of support from external community organizations. These three variables fit within the socio-economic/demographic and political determinant categories.
First, educational attainment is supported through the analysis. This indicates that municipalities with a larger population holding a bachelors degree or higher are more successful in implementing inclusive policies or programs. Additionally, the 2010 Census Data indicates that individuals with a bachelors degree or higher are normally 25 years old and above. This presents the illustration that communities with a slightly older average age tend to be more


Inclusive Communities within Colorado Municipalities
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inclusive based on the communitys educational attainment level. The statistical analysis supports this claim by indicating conflicting evidence for hypothesis two (younger average age).
Creating an aggregated variable identified the determinants prevalent for integration within a community and government services. While staffing capacity and financial capacity do not seem to have much of an effect on the CII, some degree of capacity within the municipalities must still be present; this capacity may be more applicable in the form of the municipality having the ability to build partnerships and relationships with community organizations. Furthermore, the capacity to implement inclusive policies and programs could be better served when the municipality recognizes the needs and the demands of the changing constituency. Recognizing the demand encourages the municipality to form these dynamic partnerships with community organizations in order to implement inclusive policies and programs.
Additionally, the qualitative results collected from the City of Aurora case study bolster the importance placed on the variables that reflect the change in the foreign-born population and the support from external community organizations. The City of Aurora is the most diverse city in all of Colorado with over 20% of the population being foreign-bom. In order to achieve such a high level of integration, the City of Aurora partnered with various grassroots level, nonprofits to help provide services, programs, and policies targeted at assimilating the foreign-born population. For example, the Office of International and Immigrant Affairs (OIIA) developed a Comprehensive Strategic Plan for integrating the foreign-born population in 2015. Within this plan, there are several specific goals and proposed activities to help meet the needs of the foreign-born population and to embrace the diversity of the community. One specific goal was to integrate the foreign-born population through economic and financial growth since 40% of small business owners are foreign-bom, according to Gambetta-Alvarado. Therefore, OIIA partnered


Inclusive Communities within Colorado Municipalities
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with the Community College of Aurora and the Community Enterprise Development Services to develop the Entrepreneurship Incubator to help individuals that may require technical or financial assistance launch their businesses. The partnership and support from various community organizations made the program possible and helped to solidify the efforts being progressed by the Comprehensive Strategic Plan. This research places a great amount of importance on the municipalitys willingness and ability to partner with external organizations in order to implement inclusive policies and programs. Please refer to Appendix H for a white paper evaluation of the City of Auroras efforts to integrate the foreign-born population.
Recommendations and Future Research
Building community relationships and partnerships is a clear indication of success for inclusive standards. Furthermore, recognizing the increasing amount of the foreign-born populations within Colorado municipalities indicates the potential to promote inclusivity. CML could recommend that municipalities interested in implementing inclusive policies or programs to first develop a strategic plan, and then clearly identify any shortcomings in goals or services within the plan. Through this development process, integration efforts can be recognized and community partnerships can begin to be established. The City of Aurora serves as an exemplary case and could present at a CML meeting the success of their strategic plan to other municipalities that are interested. Furthermore, community events and festivals that celebrate the diversity of the community may be a result of the established community partnerships. Events and festivals are easily recognizable efforts for creating inclusive and integrative citizen engagement that could be tracked by CML and municipal leadership. The findings of community events and festivals are reported in the separate CML white paper. Recommendations CML should provide to municipalities include the following:


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Advise municipal leaders to begin surveying their community on both service providing organizations and the demographics of residents
o Utilize the Census data
Discuss the opportunity of creating a committee or office dedicated towards the immigration and migration of the foreign-bom population
Conduct focus groups with residents that have varying demographics (i.e. educational attainment, age, income, business backgrounds, etc.)
Provide feedback on what programs are needed for the specific municipality to the appropriate municipal office (i.e. community engagement, public outreach, communications)
Provide literacy courses (both reading and financial)
Celebrate diversity through cultural festivals and events
Understand the economic benefits of multi-cultural small businesses through an assessment of businesses operated by foreign-born individuals
Consider reaching out to an external task force or committee as a liaison between the foreign-born population and the government
Encourage partnerships to begin organically and at the grassroots level by providing workshops and brainstorming sessions with community organizations
Recommendations for CML to promote inclusive communities at meetings, in publications, or within the CML office:
Partner with undergraduate or graduate students to gather demographic, socioeconomic, organizational, and political determinants addressed in this paper
o Further explore the rural versus urban dichotomy
Promote the usage of the American Census Data for municipal leaders in order to gain more knowledge about shifting demographics
o Schedule the State Demographers Office to provide a tutorial at a CML meeting
The small sample size created some limitations for the analysis. Even though the Community Inclusivity Survey produced a 33% response rate, the sample size created from the responses was relatively small. This shaped some limitations when trying to conclude the best model to use and when determining the control variables. It is suggested that future research collect a larger sample size by maintaining a survey response window for a longer period of time. Within future surveys, a Not applicable option should be discussed as a limitation, along with the terminology regarding community versus county services. CML should continue future


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research methods by collecting information on the City of Auroras efforts of being an inclusive and integrative city. It would be interesting to observe the efforts to integrate foreign-born populations in urban settings versus rural settings with more detail. With that, CML should continue to do research on the changing demographics and capacity levels of municipalities in order to further research the interaction the determinants play in creating an inclusive community. The increasing Census data will play an important role in this future research. Colorado will continue to be a desirable destination for various individuals with diverse backgrounds. Therefore, the efforts to embrace diversity and inclusivity have the potential to be systematically incorporated within municipalities. Social cohesion could also be a subject of future research. It would be recommended to access the level of social cohesion reached from a community with inclusive standards. For example, future researchers could analyze social cohesion within the City of Aurora since it has been established as an exemplary inclusive community.
Colorado municipalities serve as an important testing ground for the implementation of inclusive policies or programs. Through this analysis, the determinants of inclusive communities were illustrated as being a network of socioeconomic, demographic, political, and organizational characteristics that converge and diverge to create the landscape of diversity and integration. The City of Aurora serves as a representative municipality for integrating a foreign-born population. This study obliges as a jumping off point for future research on the implementation of integrative and inclusive efforts to engage the foreign-bom population by focusing on determinants of a municipality.


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Appendix A: Chart of Foreign-Born Place of Birth for Colorado
Table 1: Place of Birth Representation Among Foreign-Born Individuals Within Colorado
2015 2000 1990
Foreign-born Foreign-born Foreign-bom
Place of Birth Number % Number % Number %
Region of Birth (excluding born at sea) 537,066 100% 369,903 100% 138,191 100%
Bom in Africa 30,949 5.8% 9,763 2.6% 3,310 2.4%
Bom in Asia 124,862 23.2% 72,417 19.6% 36,823 26.6%
Bom in Europe 72,138 13.4% 65,274 17.6% 45,292 32.8%
Bom in Latin America (South America, Central America, Mexico, and the Caribbean) 292,031 54.4% 205,691 55.6% 42,795 31.0%
Bom in Northern America (Canada, Bermuda, Greenland, and St. Pierre, and Miquelon) 13,559 2.5% 13,684 3.7% 8,837 6.4%
Bom in Oceania 3,527 0.7% 3,065 0.8% 1,134 0.8%
Source-. State Demographics Data, 2016


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Appendix B: Laidlaw Foundation Inclusive Community Definition
Integrative and cooperative Inclusive communities bring people together and are places where people and organizations work together.
Interactive Inclusive communities have accessible community spaces and open public places as well as groups and organizations that support social interaction and community activity, including celebrating community life.
Invested Inclusive communities are places where both the public and private sectors commit resources for the social and economic health and well-being of the whole community.
Diverse Inclusive communities welcome and incorporate diverse people and cultures into the structures, processes and functions of daily community life.
Equitable Inclusive communities make sure that everyone has the means to live in decent conditions (i.e. income supports, employment, good housing) and the opportunity to develop ones capacities and to participate actively in community life.
Accessible and Sensitive Inclusive communities have an array of readily available and accessible supports and services for the social, health, and developmental needs of their populations and provide such supports in culturally sensitive and appropriate ways (essential services identified include good schools, recreation, childcare, libraries, public transit, affordable housing and supportive housing, home care, crisis and emergency supports, well coordinated and comprehensive settlement supports).
Participatory Inclusive communities encourage and support the involvement of all their members in the planning and decision-making that affect community conditions and development, including having an effective voice with senior levels of government.
Safe Inclusive communities ensure both individual and broad community safety and security so that no one feels at risk in their homes or moving around the neighborhood and city (Clutterbuck & Novick, 2003, p.7).


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Appendix C: Percentage Breakdown of Colorado Rural Population
Figure 1: Percentage Breakdown of Colorado Population
Colorado: Percent Rural Population
2010
rH < i5% n 15% to 40% a 40% to 70% rH 70% to 100%
Colorado State Demography Office, 10/29/2013
Sources: Esri. USGS. NOAA
Source: Colorado Department of Local Affairs 2010 State Census Data


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Appendix D: Data Measurement Table
Table 2:Data Measurement Table with Level of Measurement and Source
Variable (DV/IV) Measure Level of Measurement Source or survey question(s)
Community Integration Index (DV) Comprehensive measure indicating local governments latent commitment to assimilate foreign-born immigrants and migrants into communities in regards to workforce, housing, healthcare, residency access, and social services. Interval (count variable) Community Inclusivity Survey Q#s: 5, 7-11
Integration Priority (IV) Indicating the degree to which integrative policies or programs are a priority Ordinal measure (5-point Likert-type scale) Community Inclusivity Survey Q#: 1 & 6
Population Size (IV) Continuous measure of municipality population Continuous American Census Survey (ACS), U.S. Census (2010)
Educational attainment (IV) Estimated percentage of residents with a bachelors degree or more Interval ACS, U.S. Census (2010)
Municipality racial demographics (IV) Total white populace and Latino/Hispanic populace within municipality Interval ACS, U.S. Census (2010)
Foreign-bom population (IV) Total population of foreign-born populace within municipality Interval ACS, U.S. Census (2010)
Municipal voting system (IV) Percentage of liberal voting patterns in 2008 election and election style Interval Sperlings Best Places Municipal Breakdown
Active support organizations (IV) Extent of activity among advocacy organizations for foreign-bom integration Ordinal Community Inclusivity Survey Q#: 2& 12
Religion (IV) Continuous measure of community religiosity Continuous Sperlings Best Places Municipal Breakdown


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Municipal capacity (IV) Indicating the ability of the staff for implementing integrative policies/programs Ordinal measure (5-point Likert-type scale) Community Inclusivity Survey Q#: 3
Fiscal/financial capacity (IV) (We instead may use question 3 from the survey) Continuous measure of own source revenue Interval Q#:4
Average Age (IV) Average age of municipal residents Continuous ACS, U S. Census (2010)


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Appendix E: Cover Letter and Survey Questions
Dear Sir or Madam,
We are writing you today to request information on immigration policies or programs within your municipality. Information from all Municipal Managers is being requested for our research on inclusive communities. In May, we will be completing a Masters in Public Administration at the University of Colorado Denver. For graduation, a capstone project is required. Our capstone project is an unpublished research paper to be presented to our client, the Colorado Municipal League (CML). Sam Mamet, CML Executive Director, is our direct contact for this research project.
For local municipalities, immigration policies have sparked and carried multifaceted conversations surrounding community standards, economic growth, shifting demographics, and educational opportunities. Our research broadly concerns how Colorado municipalities are embracing migrant and immigrant individuals and families, along with developing inclusive communities through policy actions and initiatives.
We ask you to please complete the attached survey regarding the policies or programs within your municipality that surround the topic of social and community integration of immigrants and migrants. Once the data is collected, we will interpret the results for qualitative and quantitative inferences on the determinants of inclusive communities.
Your contact information will not be shared and the risks for participating are minimal. Your answers will be transcribed and kept securely and digitally stored in my personal password-protected computing device. We are the only individuals with access to your interview answers, and all answers will remain anonymous.
The survey should take approximately five minutes to complete. Please return the completed survey by April 15, 2017. We would be happy to share the aggregated results of this study with you.
Thank you for your time and contribution to our research. Feel free to contact us directly with any questions.
Best regards,
Nicholas Palmer & Michaela Weber School of Public Affairs University of Colorado, Denver 1380 Lawrence St. #500


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Denver, CO 80204
Nicholas.palmer@ucdenver.edu
Michaela.weber@ucdenver.edu
Community Inclusivitv Survey
First, we would like to gather information through several questions that are specific to your community and municipal government:
Q1 Does your community have heritage days or cultural community festivals?
Yes. Please list:
. No
Not Applicable
Q2 Does your municipality have an established committee that addresses foreign-bom, immigrant, or migrant populations in your community?
Yes. Please list: No
Not Applicable
Q3 Do you agree or disagree with the following statement: The local government staff within the municipality are well trained and well equipped with handling the demands of foreign-born individuals, immigrants, and migrants.
Strongly Disagree
Mildly Disagree
Neutral
Mildly Agree
Strongly Agree
Q4 Do you agree or disagree with the following statement: The municipal budget has the capacity for providing assistance or aid to foreign-born individuals, immigrants, or migrants.
Strongly Disagree
Mildly Disagree
Neutral
Mildly Agree
Strongly Agree


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Q5 Is law enforcement in your municipality prohibited from inquiring about country of origin or disseminating information about immigration status (except in the case of a serious criminal offense)?
Yes, there is a policy or program
No, there is neither
Not Applicable
Next, the series of following questions would elicit your opinion or knowledge on what the community as a whole has provided for the foreign-born population:
Q6 Do you agree or disagree with the following statement: Is integrating foreign-born, immigrant, or migrant individuals into your community a high priority in your municipality?
Strongly Disagree
Mildly Disagree
Neutral
Mildly Agree
Strongly Agree
Q7 Does your community have a policy or program that promotes inclusion of foreign-born, immigrant, or migrant workers in the local workforce training?
Yes, there is a policy or program
No, there is neither
Not Applicable
Q8 Does your community have a policy or program that promotes inclusion for foreign-bom, immigrant, or migrant individuals in the local housing market?
Yes, there is a policy or program
No, there is neither
Not Applicable
Q9 Does your community have a policy or program that promotes gaining access to healthcare for immigrant or migrant individuals?
Yes, there is a policy or program
No, there is neither
Not Applicable
Q10 Does your community have a policy or program that attempts to increase the level of awareness for obtaining citizenship?


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Yes, there is a policy or program
No, there is neither
Not Applicable
Q11 Does your community have social service policies or programs that specifically target foreign-born, immigrant, or migrant individuals or families (e.g. child protective services, SNAP benefits, WIC benefits, etc.)?
Yes, there is a policy or program
No, there is neither
Not Applicable
Q12 Within your community, how active are organizations advocating on behalf of foreign-born individuals, immigrants, or migrants?
Not at all active
Not very active
Somewhat active
Very active
Not Applicable


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Appendix F: Gambetta-Alvarado Interview Questions on April 12, 2017
Can you please describe the general approach of your municipality for integrating foreign-bom individuals and families into the community?
How did the municipality identify inclusivity as something that needed to be addressed?
What criteria do you use for integrating the foreign-born population into the community?
What types of policies, programs, or initiatives does your community have for integrating foreign-bom individuals and families?
How did your municipality develop these initiatives? E.g., did you look to what other communities were doing, or did these initiatives come about more organically?
What are the obstacles to implementing these programs/policies? Please describe.
What other organizations/groups does your municipality work with to implement inclusive policies or programs?
How if at all does community support (e.g., support from neighborhood and civic groups) relate to the implementation of integrative initiatives? How is this support sustained and leveraged to enhance policy implementation?
How do you measure performance and track/evaluate the success of integration in the community?
How has your municipality engaged community stakeholders on this issue?
Are there any new agenda items for integration that your municipality is considering?
Are there any additional challenges your municipality has faced in implementing inclusive community practices/initiatives?


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Appendix G: Accepted and Rejected Hypotheses based on ZINB Model
Table 7: Accepted or Rejected Hypotheses
HI: Municipalities with higher educational attainment will undertake more inclusive policies and programs. Accepted
H2: Municipalities with a younger average age will undertake more inclusive policies and programs. Rejected
H3: Municipalities with a greater percentage of a Latino/Hispanic population will undertake more inclusive policies and programs. Rejected
H4: Municipalities with a greater change in foreign-bom population between the years of 2010 and 2015 will undertake more inclusive policies and programs. Accepted
H5: Municipalities with a greater percentage of religious residents will undertake more inclusive policies and programs. Rejected
H6: Municipalities with a higher rate of registered Democrats will undertake more inclusive policies and programs. Rejected
H7: Municipalities with more active external community organizations advocating on the behalf of foreign-bom individuals and families will undertake more inclusive policies and programs. Accepted
H8: Municipalities with a greater staffing capacity for integrating foreign-bom individuals and families will undertake more inclusive policies and programs. Rejected
H9: Municipalities with a greater financial capacity will undertake more inclusive policies and programs. Rejected


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Appendix H: City of Aurora Inclusive Community White Paper
The Aurora Way: A Discussion of a Colorado Inclusive Community
Nic Palmer and Michaela Weber
University of Colorado Denver


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Immigration Integration in the City of Aurora
Beginning in September 2015, the City of Aurora, Colorado, created a new office titled the Office of International and Immigrant Affairs. This office was implemented to facilitate the successful integration of immigrants and refugees into Aurora's civic, economic, and cultural life. Their innovative approach to integrating foreign-born individuals has brought national recognition to the community. With nearly one in five Aurorians being born in another country, policy makers have come to understand that their government must adjust in order to assimilate these individuals into their community.
The City of Aurora, a city of roughly 340,000 residents, provides for a valuable case study when examining foreign-bom integration in Colorado. Aurora was selected after preliminary research sought to answer the question, Which Colorado municipalities are embracing foreign-bom individuals and developing inclusive communities through policy or program implementation? There is the possibility of the foreign-bom population to shape policies and programs to meet more inclusive standards through community participation and cohesion within the particular municipality. Community standards, economic growth, and shifting demographics are considered results of the influx in foreign-bom individuals and families relocating to Colorado municipalities. Next, at the request of Colorado Municipal League, research began to gather understanding of what it means for a municipality to be inclusive. Created through information gathered from supplemental writings, the qualifications of what makes a municipality inclusive were placed in a survey. This survey was distributed to Colorados 179 municipal managers, with 59 responding (roughly a 33 percent response rate). Of the responses received, the City of Aurora delivered answers that indicated maximum inclusivity within the Community Inclusivity Index. Due to this, an interview was conducted with the of


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Head of the Office of International and Immigrant Affairs, Ricardo Gambetta-Alvarado, and his responses are included throughout this paper.
Office of International and Immigrant Affairs
Since its inception, the Office of International and Immigrant Affairs has handled several departments within the City of Auroras government. These include the Aurora Immigrant and Refugee Commission, Aurora International Roundtable, Aurora Global Fest, and the Aurora International Cabinet. In addition to these programs, the office created its Comprehensive Strategic Plan to be executed beginning in 2015, and lasting through 2018. The programs created were designed to integrate foreign-bom individuals into the community in a variety of ways. Aurora is adopting immigrant-friendly policies to increase immigration into its city, in an effort to improve competitiveness and economic well-being. The city is also providing a welcoming environment through its comprehensive strategic plan that views the foreign-bom population retention and inclusion as a path to creating successful and sustainable communities.
Ricardo Gambetta-Alvarado is proud of where Aurora is headed. This city is the most diverse city in Colorado, said Gambetta-Alvarado, Head of the Office of International and Immigrant Affairs, and an immigrant from Peru. He stated, With over 80% of Colorados refugees residing in our community, we had to create an office to support these individuals. That number of foreign-bom individuals residing in the city has now risen to over 69,000 says Gambetta-Alvarado. Of these, the city reports nearly 12 percent have ventured from Latin America.
Making up the second largest demographic race in the city at 30 percent, Latin Americans only fall behind whites (60 percent) in terms of the citys race/ethnic composition. Again, with roughly one in five individuals in Aurora being foreign-born, the city looked to implement their Comprehensive Strategic Plan to embrace their citys diversity. The policies, programs, and


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opportunities the Comprehensive Strategic Plan introduces and provides to the foreign-bom population matches the characteristics of an inclusive community (Clutterbuck & Novick, 2003).
Auroras Comprehensive Strategic Plan
The city of Aurora has been striving toward becoming a more inclusive community for several years. Around 2013, the city began looking into different areas to reach out to refugees within the community, Gambetta-Alvarado explained. The government of Aurora is developing innovative practices to improve local competitiveness, support immigration, stimulate entrepreneurship, and to reduce poverty. To craft the plan's strategies and priorities, the Office of International and Immigrant Affairs worked with several local agencies to gather public input from service providers, immigrant and refugee leaders, and community advocates. The Comprehensive Strategic Plan is designed to align the city's efforts with organizations and service providers, and to create opportunities for immigrants and refugees so that they can develop leadership skills and take part in making decisions in local government. Specifically, the integration plan in Aurora consists of five key areas: community engagement and public input, a strategic timeline to implement new policies and programs, strategic policy recommendations, the comprehensive strategic plan, and organizational structure.
Community Engagement and Public Input
Two major areas of community engagement include the Auroras Global Fest and their Welcome Center. Gambetta-Alvarado explained, The entire idea for an office devoted to integration really began with Global Fest in 2014. This has been the most important event in regards to immigrants and refugees in our city. Global Fest celebrates world culture through a variety of events such as a fashion show, an international beverage tasting, and, of course, spectacular food. This event puts Auroras diversity front and center, which is one method of


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incorporation that a community looking to be more inclusive can strive to do. Last year, the City of Aurora turned 125 years old. To celebrate its unique growth, the community expanded Global Fest and boasted its largest crowd yet. Gambetta-Alvarado stated, The city is trying really hard to support new people from all over the world who come to live in the City of Aurora.
In late 2014, the City introduced the Aurora Welcome Center for refugees and immigrants. For foreign-born individuals new to this country, the Welcome Center is key in implementing the integration plan. According to its website, the Aurora Welcome Center (AWC) began as the Aurora Human Rights Center (AHRC), which was first formed in 2008... The Aurora Welcome Center serves as an emerging multi-tenant facility offering a variety of services focused on the intemational/immigrant community in Aurora. AWC is physically situated within Aurora Public Schools to intentionally serve students and families through the schools as well as the community at large (AuroraWelcome.org). The Welcome Center partnered with the International Roundtable, Aurora Sister Cities, and the Aurora Immigrant and Refugee Task Force to conduct a survey that would provide the city the data necessary in drafting the comprehensive strategic plan. We do not have official representation with the Welcome Center, stated Gambetta-Alvarado, we only operate as advisors and partners. This hands-off approach is difficult for Gambetta-Alvarado to accept, but he truly believes that this may be the best option to provide new migrants into the city a safe place to feel welcomed. Strategic Timeline
The Comprehensive Strategic Plan began its implementation in May of 2015. This began stakeholder meetings to tackle the issues that the community looked to address in regards to immigration integration. By July, the city was developing and delivering the survey in partnership with the Welcome Center. The city government examined their results, conducted


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their drafts, and by September of 2015, the Comprehensive Strategic Plan was being introduced to Auroras City Council, as well as other leaders of the immigrant and refugee communities within the city.
Strategic Policy Recommendations
Ricardo Gambetta-Alvarado believes that collaboration is what will allow for greater inclusion of foreign-born individuals into the Aurora community. When I came to [work in] Aurora, we made a very intentional decision, Gambetta-Alvarado described. We said that whatever we decide to do, it must be a partnership with the immigrant and refugee communities. Meaning, we must begin with grassroots and move forward with policies and programs that fit our communitys needs. The goals of the Comprehensive Strategic Plan required changes beginning within Auroras own organizational structure and government. We had to conduct a complete internal assessment to address the programs we already had and our staffing capacity, Gambetta-Alvarado said. We talked to a lot of people in the community to generate a sample. This consisted of two different surveys: one for service provider organizations and another for immigrants and refugees within Aurora. By the end of the summer, we had hired a consultant that could review our data, conduct several focus groups, and generate a report we could use to help us create new programs and policies for our community.
The research team was able to make policy recommendations confidently due to the creative way it gathered information. Because of the research they conducted over the summer, Aurora was able to establish formal structures and opportunities for refugees and immigrants to develop their leadership skills and participate in decision-making in local government. Perhaps the greatest achievement that came from the research was that of the Office of International and Immigrant Affairs. Without this office, the city would not have the needed structure and


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resources to provide its citizens the inclusive community they experience today. The City Council has tasked the Office of International and Immigrant Affairs with coordinating the citys various efforts related to the international, immigrant, and refugee community. This office examines other cities across the country to gather best practices that can be used within Auroras implementation of new policies and programs.
In addition to the Office of International and Immigrant Affairs, Aurora also formalized the Immigrant and Refugee Task Force and established the International Cabinet. The Aurora Immigrant and Refugee Task Force (AIRTF) was designed to reach out to the community and build a relationship with its members to identify community needs. The Comprehensive Strategic Plan expands on the need of formalization for AIRTF, in order to encourage more civic participation from the community and to cultivate new leadership within the international population. The plan for AIRTF is to establish the task force as a formal city commission that can also identify emerging issues and offer advice and insight for elected leaders and city staff in regards to the foreign-bom community within Aurora. I dont want to say that we do not have our issues, but I truly believe we are making progress in this area, stated Gambetta-Alvarado. I believe our International Cabinet can truly influence the decisions made in our community. The Comprehensive Strategic plan provides the idea of an International Cabinet. This cabinet is an inter-agency approach that aims to help ensure that the programs, strategies, and plans for the local foreign-born populations are implemented in a cost effective and timely manner.
Goals and Proposed Activities
The City of Aurora strives for open integration in a variety of subject matters. From civic engagement, to economic and financial growth, and even in sports and recreation, it is evident that Aurora leaves no aspect of life unaccounted for when assimilating foreign-born individuals.


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We cover nine different areas to provide as inclusive of a community as possible here in Aurora, said Gambetta-Alvarado about the Comprehensive Strategic Plan. To me, it comes down to personal responsibility. What does that mean? That means that we as a city must do our part in embracing and engaging our new neighbors, but also, that we have the expectation that our newcomers will do their best to integrate and assimilate into our community as well. This is not very popular sometimes, but I believe in order for our community to thrive, we must have participation from both sides.
It all begins with integration through civic engagement. The goal here is to encourage more people with an immigrant or refugee background to get involved in civic affairs so that their intercultural competence can be used for the benefit of the Aurora community. Gambetta-Alvarado explained, In Europe and even Canada, evaluation methods like what we used have been implemented for a long time. We want to take our previous survey results and check back in on these people in five years, ten years, to see not only how these new programs are benefitting them, but also how they are giving back to their community. What are some of these activities that Aurora looks to introduce? For starters, the city looks to improve local naturalization efforts in collaboration with the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services and local community partners. Gambetta-Alvarado stated, Everything we do is in the form of partnerships. This gives us an opportunity to form lasting relationships with immigrants and refugees while also expanding the network within Aurora. Perhaps one of the most inspiring creations is that of the development of the New Americans Citizens Academy. Designed to train and develop leadership skills among emerging community leaders from the foreign-bom community, the Academy looks to educate newcomers, foster communication between new residents and the city government, and even encourage future leaders. In the Academy,


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participants will learn about a wide variety of topics, from city services to how the local government in Aurora functions. These are just two of the dozens of goals that Aurora has set in creating a civically engaged community.
Gambetta-Alvarado was most excited to explain the Natural Helpers Program in Aurora. The program provides leadership, information, tools, and training for foreign-born volunteers to help their fellow foreign-born residents in the process of integration (see Natural Helpers Program handout). We have over 65 volunteers from 25 different countries involved in this program he described. Our volunteers, called Natural Helpers, help immigrants and refugees with transitioning to life in Colorado. Natural Helpers are immigrants themselves who understand the challenges of moving to a new place and establishing a home in the United States. These individuals live and work in Aurora and assist immigrants and refugees with finding community organizations and services. The ultimate purpose of the Natural Helpers Program is to build social capital and create a network of volunteers that support each other while helping other. Natural Helpers work with the Aurora Welcome Center and commit to attending a 20-hour training program with the following components: the cultural integration process, servant leadership, the helping process, and systems of care within the City of Aurora.
All of the new programs are designed to support the Comprehensive Strategic Plan in some capacity. Every single program represent a section of the plan, confirmed Gambetta-Alvarado. We are doing everything we can to support the plan through 2018, but we of course want our goals to continue past this date. We will need to conduct evaluations so that we know what programs to expand, and what to eliminate. This will provide us additional steps so we can move forward and establish a framework, concluded Gambetta-Alvarado.


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Conclusion
Currently, the Office of International and Immigrant Affairs directs the City of Auroras plan to integrate foreign-bom individuals into the community. As the key facilitator, the office led by Ricardo Gambetta-Alvarado aims to provide successful integration of foreign-bom individuals into Auroras civic, economic, and cultural life and to oversee development and implementation of the strategic citywide plan regarding policy programs and initiatives toward the local foreign-bom population.
Auroras foreign-bom populations come from all over the world, with very different experiences of political participation and government capacity. It is possible that many of these individuals are reluctant to engage local government institutions. However, Aurora aims to change that reluctance through their new Office of International and Immigrant Affairs. Though some residents may still be unaware of the government services that exist and how to access them in Aurora, if the Comprehensive Strategic Plan is delivered as advertised, then this issue will not remain for long. Programs that engage the foreign-bom population in the process of local governance are critical first steps to encourage greater civic understanding and participation. Finally, through events such as Global Fest and several boards that provide necessary provision for the implementation of dozens of policies and programs designed to support the foreign-born community, Aurora serves as the premier case study of an inclusive community in Colorado.


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Final Model.
Appendix I: Final STATA Output
. zinb newindex events admincap fincap priority xorg age educ perHisp changeforpop religion democrat, inf(lpop) irr
Fitting constant-only model:
Iteration 0 Iteration 1 Iteration 2 Iteration 3 Iteration 4 Iteration 5 Iteration 6 Iteration 7
log likelihood = log likelihood = log likelihood = log likelihood = log likelihood = log likelihood = log likelihood = log likelihood =
-66.79206
-61.848678
-61.347491
-60.44598
-59.708352
-59.620198
-59.619706
-59.619703
(not concave)
Fitting full model:
Iteration 0 Iteration 1 Iteration 2 Iteration 3 Iteration 4 Iteration 5 Iteration 6 Iteration 7 Iteration 8
log likelihood = log likelihood = log likelihood = log likelihood = log likelihood = log likelihood = log likelihood = log likelihood = log likelihood =
-59.619703
-52.881865
-47.078073
-46.766889
-45.181266
-45.029913
-45.029569
-45.029551
-45.029551
(not concave)
Zero-inflated negative binomial regression Number of obs
Nonzero obs = 20
Zero obs = 17
37
Inflation model = logit LR chi2( 11) = 29.18
Log likelihood =-45.02955 Prob > chi2 = 0.0021
newindex | IRR Std. Err. z P>|z| [95% Conf. Interval]
newindex I
events | 3.324295 1.615894 2.47 0.013 1.28216 8.618998
admincap I 1.334233 .2824179 1.36 0.173 .8811653 2.020254
fincap | .7555566 .1405879 -1.51 0.132 .5246652 1.088057
priority | 1.588863 .468103 1.57 0.116 8918868 2.830501
xorg | 1.849855 .3732975 3.05 0.002 1.245566 2.747317
age | .9470359 .0294705 -1.75 0.080 .891001 1.006595
educ | 41.35797 80.08515 1.92 0.055 .9296114 1839.997
perHisp I .631617 1.072624 -0.27 0.787 .0226427 17.61896
changeforpop I 2.507813 1.182295 1.95 0.051 .9954072 6.318145
religion | 13.58742 24.44239 1.45 0.147 .3998639 461.7023
democrat I .0162946 .0351525 -1.91 0.056 .0002375 1.117767
cons | 2.252945 3.250378 0.56 0.573 .1332605 38.08901

inflate |
lpop| .0814514 .4143472 0.20 0.844 -.7306542 .893557
_cons | -2.726733 3.989893 -0.68 0.494 -10.54678 5.093314
/Inalpha | -18.12503 912.7205 -0.02 0.984 -1807.024 1770.774
alpha | 1.34e-08 .0000123 0


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Model Fit:
fitstat
Measures of Fit for zinb of newindex
Log-Lik Intercept Only: -60.849 Log-Lik Full Model:
D(22):
McFadden's R2: ML (Cox-Snell) R2: AIC:
BIC:
BIC used by Stata:
90.059 LR(12): 31.640
Prob > LR: 0.002
0.260 McFadden's Adj R2:
0.575 Cragg-Uhler(Nagelkerke) 3.245 AIC*n: 120.059
10.619 BIC': 11.691
144.223 AIC used by Stata:
-45.030
0.013
R2: 0.597
120.059
Factor Analysis for Dependent Variable (CII):
factor committee wrktrain house health socialserv citizen, mineigen(1) (obs=59)
Factor analysis/correlation Method: principal factors Rotation: (unrotated)
Number of obs = 59
Retained factors = 1
Number of params = 6
Factor | Eigenvalue Difference Proportion Cumulative
Factorl | 2.33788 1.61380 0.7691 0.7691
Factor2 j 0.72408 0.47667 0.2382 1.0072
Factor3 j 0.24741 0.07973 0.0814 1.0886
Factor4 | 0.16768 0.32480 0.0552 1.1438
Factor5 j -0.15712 0.12288 -0.0517 1.0921
Factor6 j -0.28000 -0.0921 1.0000
LR test: independent vs. saturated: chi2(15) = 127.48 Prob>chi2 = 0.0000 Factor loadings (pattern matrix) and unique variances
Variable | Factorl | Uniqueness
committee | 0.3640 | 0.8675
wrktrain | 0.5967 | 0.6440
house| 0.6993 | 0.5110
health | 0.7470 | 0.4419
socialserv | 0.5932 | 0.6482
citizen | 0.6712 | 0.5495


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Cronbachs Alpha for Dependent Variable (CII):
. alpha committee wrktrain house health socialserv citizen, item
Test scale = mean(unstandardized items)
average
item-test item-rest interitem
Item | Obs Sign correlation correlation covariance alpha
+_ committee | 59 + 0.5333 0.3148 .0635301 0.7751
wrktrain | 59 + 0.6373 0.4541 .0570427 0.7389
house | 59 + 0.6994 0.5524 .0542373 0.7149
health | 59 + 0.7740 0.6414 .048422 0.6888
socialserv | 59 + 0.6647 0.4901 .0553185 0.7296
citizen | 59 + 0.7471 0.5855 .0487434 0.7027
Test scale 1 .054549 0.7612


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Appendix J: Document of Competencies
Our capstone project was partnered with Colorado Municipal League (CML), and it focused on the determinants of inclusive communities within Colorado municipalities. As a team, we were able to synthesize and collect a larger amount of data, along with being able to apply a more complicated research design. There is value placed on working as a team since a large portion of our professional work will be grounded in the ability to work with other individuals, incorporate diverse backgrounds, and communicate with various audiences. The project identified several competencies that we were able to expound upon. Specifically, four PUAD courses helped to embed the competencies identified. The courses include: 5003, 5002, 5001, and 5008.
PUAD 5003 Research and Analytic Methods
The concepts learned in PUAD 5003 directly influenced our methods as researchers. This course provided an in depth study of basic and advanced analytic techniques that can provide the skills necessary for real world scenarios. When one is able to demonstrate an ability to analyze data and make informed recommendations, they can quickly become an indispensable part of the team. In regards to our own research, these techniques provided the needed tools when selecting the appropriate research methods to find, collect, synthesize, and analyze data. Because of Dr. Swanns support, we learned the fundamental skills necessary for data collection and management. His instruction taught us the statistical procedures required for running our analyses in Stata. This course also covered the techniques needed for qualitative and mixed-methods analysis. This promoted critical thinking by providing an observation into a problem that could be logically assessed through our research design.


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Data tells a story. Dr. Swann taught us how to be good analysts that can decipher the data and build an interesting and compelling story that could be useful for our client. Through using the methods taught in this course, we hope to provide CML best practices that can be set as mission-driven goals for other municipalities. With the hundreds of data points gathered from over 60 sources, it was with Dr. Swanns guidance in this course that we were able to sift through the metrics and identify the key indicators of inclusivity.
PUAD 5002 Organizational Management and Behavior
In PUAD 5002, we were taught the skills necessary to help maneuver through the challenges that come with organizational management. Professor Larson explained the importance of organization and the practices that can be utilized to effectively manage a group of individuals who come together to achieve a mission that no one could achieve by acting alone. Beginning with organizational theory, Professor Larson expanded upon how governments operate differently from non-profits. She explained that, even though these organizations have little in common in many areas, both require the ability to communicate effectively in writing as well as speaking. Arguably one of the most helpful lessons learned from PUAD 5002 is that of managing stress. Professor Larson spent many hours on the importance of preparation and its impact on lowering stress. Additionally, this course focused on effective decision-making, motivation and engagement, leadership, power, organizational politics, effective communication, working in groups, managing conflict, organizational change, and external relations involving other stakeholders. All of these concepts must be utilized in order to run an organization efficiently.
In regards to our capstone work, PUAD 5002 can been useful in explaining the importance of inclusivity for municipalities. For governments, organizational effectiveness is far


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more than the ability to provide needed services. Rather, it focuses on the overall effectiveness of the government as a whole. This requires active survey of the community, an appreciation for local culture, adaptive leadership, innovation, and engaging communication. Professor Larson instructed that there is often confusion within roles in an organization, and a lack of coordination among employees leads to a failure to share ideas. This slows decision-making and brings managers unnecessary stress that can damage the organization. One goal of our research was to provide city managers best practices that can be used to increase inclusivity measures within their community. Through using the methods taught in PUAD 5002, these managers can implement the practices discussed in our research positively and effectively PUAD 5001 Introduction to Public Administration
The coursework presented in PUAD 5001 is important for this research because it demonstrates the roots and current issues within public administration. Additionally, the public sector deserves the discussion of and the recommendations for the integration of the foreign-bom population. The research and the presentation of best practices are important for public administration because it shows how municipal leaders attack the challenge of creating inclusionary policies and programs when the demographics, wants, and needs of constituents are evolving. PUAD 5001 introduced us to the work of Donald F. Kettl (2015). Kettls work was paramount in our connection between inclusive communities and public administration. Kettl describes the three themes of public administration as being politics, performance, and accountability. Our research on how municipalities are incorporating and including foreign-born individuals and families contributes to these three themes. Specifically, politics within public administration is the choice among values. The choices made among public organizations and municipal leaders are established in the political landscape of their constituency. Maneuvering


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this landscape can present challenges, but ultimately these challenges revitalize the community values. Next, performance persists because public administration exists to get things done and to ensure that the system of checks and balance are being expended. Efficiency and effectiveness of performance are strong drivers for public agencies and for municipal leaders to provide quality goods and services to the constituents it serves. And lastly, accountability ensures that there is a relationship between government and the citizens about what and for whom a good or service is imperative. Politics, performance, and accountability work together in serving an individual and a community, especially when a policy or program needs to be tailored to reach a particular population.
A portion of leading and managing within public governance is understanding the cause of the problem, potential solutions, and the resources needed to achieve the outcome. The completed project illustrates a key determinant of an inclusive community as being partnerships with external organizations. This piece of crucial information serves as both a solution and resource for municipalities wanting to create more inclusive policies or programs. This research places a great deal of importance on forming these collaborative partnerships that can excel at incorporating the foreign-born population, along with continuing to provide existing services.
We are able to understand the context, process, and connection between policymaking, external organizations, and administrative leadership at all levels of democratic government. This connection allows the integration of the foreign-born population within municipalities to thrive. PUAD 5008 Evidence-Based Decision-Making
PUAD 5008 is utilized within our capstone project through selecting the correct project design and appropriate data analysis. Particularly, as the name suggests, the course instills the importance of forethought in implementing a project design and data analysis techniques that are


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driven and supported by evidence. In our case, the evidence stems from prior research and literature. For example, we base some of our independent variables on the variables used by the authors Walker and Leitner (2011) in their study of U.S. municipalities implementing immigration policies at the local level. Our analysis of Colorado municipalities would not be as supported without the evidence provided by these predecessors. Our goal was to base our analysis in evidence supported research and literature for the benefit of CML and for the usage by public organizations or municipalities. We were able to understand, generate, and select among policy determinants, as well as identify barriers and opportunities for effective implementation through the policy and program analysis.
The transparency of our research process is also progressed through the PUAD 5008 course. In this course, we perform several mini-capstone projects that are used to help solidify our research and data analysis techniques. Practicing transparent and accountable techniques within the academic context ensures that our standards of creating reliable, replicable, transparent, and accountable practices are transferred into the public sector as professionals. Furthermore, the capstone is an interesting project because a new lens of thought is applied to the research and writing. We were able to apply this different perspectives in assessing and understanding research to generate policy and management decision determinantes. Keeping in mind that the finished product and all subsequent research is intended for a clients use brings a different perspective and assessment to the project analysis. This sentiment is especially true in attempting to close the gap between academic research and practitioners usage of the analysis. We produced a report specifically for CMLs usage in advising municipalities based on our research, which was guided by evidence. As an assignment for PUAD 5008, the class was to take a Collaborative Institutional Training Initiative (CITI) course online. We are both now CITI trained in Human


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Subjects Research, which adds credibility and trustworthiness in the data analysis of our capstone research.


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Email Address michaela.m.weber@colorado.edu
ATTENTION


In reference to the following title(s):
Weber, M. & Palmer, N. Inclusive Communities within Colorado Municipalities. 2017.
title(s), hereby authorize Auraria Library and University of Colorado Denver to digitize, distribute, and archive the title(s) for nonprofit, educational purposes via the Internet or successive technologies.
I,______________________________________________, as client of the copyright holder
affirm that the content submitted is identical to that which was originally supervised and that the content is suitable for publication in the Auraria Library Digital Collections.
This is a non-exclusive grant of permissions for on-line and off-line use for an indefinite term. Off-line uses shall be consistent either for educational uses, with the terms of U.S. copyright legislation's "fair use" provisions or, by the University of Colorado Denver and/or Auraria Library, with the maintenance and preservation of an archival copy. Digitization allows the University of Colorado Denver and/or Auraria Library to generate image- and text-based versions as appropriate and to provide and enhance access using search software.
This grant of permissions prohibits use of the digitized versions for commercial use or profit.
______________________________________________ 7/26/2017
Signature of CopyrigfiTFiolder Date of Signature
Signature of Copyright Holder Date of Signature
Michaela Weber & Nic Palmer Printed or Typed Name of Copyright Holders
Signature of Copyright Holders Client Date of Signature
Sam Mamet
Printed or Typed Name of Copyright Holder's Client Attention:
Auraria Digital Library Program / Matthew C. Mariner Auraria Library 11100 Lawrence | Denver, CO 80204 P: 303-556-5817 | matthew.mariner@ucdenver.edu


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