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Understanding admission models : the identifying factors for museum admission

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Understanding admission models : the identifying factors for museum admission
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Silverman, Katherine C.
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Denver, Colo.
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University of Colorado Denver
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English

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This client-based project was completed on behalf of the Clyfford Still Museum and supervised by PUAD 5361 Capstone course instructor Dr. Wendy Bolyard and second faculty reader Dr. Jane Hansberry. This project does not necessarily reflect the views of the School of Public Affairs or the faculty readers. Raw data were not included in this document, rather relevant materials were provided directly to the client. Permissions to include this project in the Auraria Library Digital Repository are found in the final Appendix. Questions about this capstone project should be directed to the student author.

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University of Colorado Denver Collections
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Auraria Library
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Copyright [name of copyright holder or Creator or Publisher as appropriate]. Permission granted to University of Colorado Denver to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.

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Running Head: SILVERMAN CAPSTONE MUSEUM ADMISSION
Understanding Admission Models:
The Identifying Factors for Museum Admission Katharine C. Silverman
University of Colorado Denver School of Public Affairs
This client-based project is submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Public Administration in the School of Public Affairs at the University of Colorado Denver Denver, Colorado
Summer
2017


SILVERMAN CAPSTONE MUSEUM ADMISSION
Capstone Project Disclosures
This client-based project was completed on behalf of the Clyfford Still Museum and supervised by PUAD 5361 Capstone course instructor Dr. Wendy Bolyard and second faculty reader Dr. Jane Hansberry. This project does not necessarily reflect the views of the School of Public Affairs or the faculty readers. Raw data were not included in this document, rather relevant materials were provided directly to the client. Permissions to include this project in the Auraria Library Digital Repository are found in the final Appendix. Questions about this capstone project should be directed to the student author.


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Table of Contents
Executive Summary.......................................................................5
Literature Review.......................................................................2
Attendance............................................................................3
Membership............................................................................5
Admission Structure...................................................................6
Summary...............................................................................7
Methodology.............................................................................8
Research Questions....................................................................8
Hypotheses............................................................................8
Sampling Procedure...................................................................10
Variables............................................................................10
Analysis.............................................................................11
Validity and Reliability.............................................................12
Results................................................................................13
Correlation of Data..................................................................13
Research Question A..................................................................14
Research Question B..................................................................15
Discussion and Recommendations.........................................................16
Membership and Membership Revenue....................................................16
Attendance and Hours of Operation....................................................17
Social Media.........................................................................18
Personnel Expense and Financial Strength.............................................19
Collection Size and School Groups....................................................20
Recommendations......................................................................21
Membership........................................................................21
Attendance and personnel expense..................................................22
Donations and Operating Budget....................................................23
Limitations..........................................................................24
References.............................................................................27
Appendix A.............................................................................31


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Appendix B....................................................................33
Appendix C....................................................................34
Appendix D....................................................................45
Appendix E....................................................................51
Appendix F....................................................................52
Appendix G....................................................................53
Appendix 1....................................................................54
Appendix J....................................................................55
Appendix K....................................................................56


SILVERMAN CAPSTONE MUSEUM ADMISSION
Executive Summary
The Clyfford Still Museum has requested an analysis of how museum admission fee structure affects museum operations. This capstone investigates this issue by using the Association of Art Museum Directors annual survey to perform a Mann-Whitney test for admission model significance and using a logit model to determine if any variables indicate the likelihood of a museums admission fee structure. Three main findings emerge. First, those museums that do not charge admission show higher attendance and an increase in the amount of their budget spent on personnel. Second, museums that charge admission show higher levels of membership, membership revenue, social media followers, and public operating hours. Neither the total number of works in a museums collection, the museums operating budget, nor does the number of school groups a museum hosts in a year show any relationship to a museums admission model.
Four recommendations are offered. First, should the Clyfford Still Museum move to a free admission model, it should create a low cost membership program that combines the practical and esteem based benefits to capitalize on the potential loss of lower tier memberships. Second, the operating budget should be reviewed and concessions made for an increase in personnel spending across those areas that are most influenced by attendance increases. Third, the Clyfford Still should create an online outreach and marketing plan with emphasis on increasing audience engagement. Fourth, Clyfford Still should begin projecting what amount of revenue will be lost by removing admission fees, creating a plan to pursue large donations to replace the projected loss of revenue.
With this research, the Clyfford Still will able to understand how admission models affect their museum operations. Should the Still decide to switch to a free admission model, they will have steps to pursue that goal.


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The Clyfford Still Museum is a showcase for the work of legendary abstract expressionist, Clyfford Still (1904-1980). After his death, the artists will stipulated that his entire estate be sealed off from both public and private view until an American city was willing to establish a museum exclusively dedicated to displaying the artists work. In 2004, the City of Denver received the collection. The Clyfford Still Museum officially opened in 2011 and currently holds over three thousand works created throughout Stills lifetime, a collection that amounts to 95% of all known Still paintings. Currently, the museum charges admission for daily visitors and hosts a number of events that are included with the cost of admission. In partnership with the Scientific and Cultural Facilities District (SCFD), the Still hosts numerous free admission days throughout the month. The Clyfford Still appreciates the increase in attendance they see during their free events but would like to further understand the operational factors that are affected by a fully free admission structure.
The primary focus of this project is to identify a museums characteristics when it does and does not charge admission. The literature on the topic of museum admission and an analysis of the variables within the data allow this project to examine how museums admission impacts operations. This is done with descriptive statistics, a Mann-Whitney Rank test, and a logit model. The results informs museums that are contemplating moving toward free admission of the specific factors linked to both free and paid admission models.
This project benefits museums that wish to better understand the factors that affect admission policy and structure. The Association of Art Museum Directors (AAMD) conducts an annual survey detailing 247 variables that encompass museum operations. These variables are summarized in an annual report. There is currently no peer-reviewed study that analyzes these survey results to identify trends within the museum industry. As a result, it is hoped this project will have a significant impact on how these survey data can be used and analyzed by museum professionals.


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In order to accomplish this goal, this paper begins with a literature review. The review documents the literature regarding museum admission studies, with emphasis on how free admission impacts museum attendance, motivations for museum membership, and how museums develop individual pricing philosophy. The paper then establishes the methodology. This section defines the research questions, establishes variables and hypotheses, and describes the projects analytic strategies. The paper then reports the research findings. Finally, the paper moves into a discussion of the results with special attention paid to recommendations and study limitations.
Literature Review
Museums are inherently tied to their audience; an increase in access to and fostering public appreciation of art increases the viability of not just one museum, but ah museums (Hein, 2014). Admission policies, then, continue to be a serious question for museum professionals and the public alike.
The literature on attendance confirms the inherent link between access and museum admission policies, showing that as admission fees increase, access is reduced (Kirchberg, 1998). Attendance and admission are inherently linked within the literature, however the literature also shows that attendance can be attributed to a collections value (Luksetich & Partridge, 1997), marketing efforts (Bailey, 1997), and hours of operations (Steiner, 1997). Membership is a significant revenue stream for many museums (Kotler, Kotler, & Kotler, 2008). The literatures shows that lower cost membership is tied to the financial value it provides while higher cost memberships are influenced by social standing (Bhattacharya, Roa, & Glynn, 1995). As a result, higher cost memberships tend to be impervious to admission changes and, in some cases, might increase in the face of free admission (Maher, Clark, & Motley, 2011). Any museum that transitions from charging admission to offering free admission faces revenue short falls, so the financial benefit of maintaining


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membership revenue is significant (Frey & Steiner, 2012)
Finally, the literature discusses how admission policies are determined. There is evidence to show that while ticketed revenue declines when a museum becomes free, donations increase, as the museum increases its cultural value (Johnson & Thomas, 1998). Conversely, reducing or eliminating admission can impact the prestige of an institution by reducing the perceived visitor value of the experience (Rentschler, Hede, & White, 2007). With either free or charged admission, museums are highly encouraged to incorporate a comprehensive admission policy that takes into account access and museum mission (Skinner, Ekelund, & Jackson, 2009).
Attendance
Research shows that museum admission models, particularly moving from a charging admission model to a free admission model, have an impact on attendance rates. A challenge in the study of how admission impacts attendance, however, is that admission models are best analyzed through case studies and thus cannot present a transferable analysis of attendance (Cowell, 2007). A common theme within this selection of literature concerns the questions of access for lower income, social minority groups, and children. Various examinations suggest that establishing or increasing admission fees reduces the ratio of lower income or social minority groups that attend museums (Lampi, Elina, & Orth, 2009; Cowell, 2007). Even when a museum launches a policy to encourage minority museum visitors to attend in greater numbers, a fee impacts the attendance ratio. In this case, even a nominal and non-restrictive fee, supports increasingly white and upper-middle class museum attendance (Lampi, Elina, & Orth, 2009). Though the presence of an admission fee does not explicitly target any particular social group, admission rates have a more pronounced impact on visitor income rather than on visitors of a particular gender or racial minority (Kirchberg, 1998). The relationship between an admission fee and demographic attendance is firmly established and shows


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that, regardless of intent or size of the fee, admission fees are an obstacle for visitors within lower socioeconomic populations (Kirchberg, 1998; Lampi, Elina, & Orth, 2009).1
Attendance is not influenced by a single factor. Luksetich and Partridges (1997) museum demand model showed that attendance variance can be attributed to two distinct factors: quality of the collections (as shown by collection value) and a museums hours of operation. The authors state that an art museum with a collection valued between $60 and $100 million has about 114% greater per capita attendance than a museum with a collection below $100,000 (p. 1558). Access to the museums collection was determined by the hours the museum was open to the public. Those museums, regardless of collection value, that were open for longer hours showed a significant increase in the number of yearly visitors (Luksetich & Partridge, 1997).
Attendance variation can also be accounted for by crowd patterns (Steiner, 1997). By separating crowd functions into weekdays and weekends, a museum is able to assess the socioeconomic status of their audience. Weekend visitors tend to have a higher income and are more willing to pay admission while weekday visitors show lower income and are more price adverse to established or rising admission fees. Steiner (1997) suggests that a museum can maximize revenue and attendance by offsetting weekday admission charges, if any, with weekend admission charges. Other factors may also account for shifts in visitor attendance. In a study of British museums that eliminated admission fees, those museums which recorded increases in attendances above the norm did so as a result of more aggressive marketing policies (Bailey, 1997, p. 363).
Though earlier literature asserts that attendance trends are difficult to track, this is no longer the case (Bailey, Falconer, Foley, McPherson, & Graham, 1997). A majority of museums track
1 The connection between suggested donation admission and socioeconomic access to museums is not discussed within the literature, nor is it explained if free admission includes suggested donation as a subset of admission models.


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attendance by measuring each visitor who walks through the door. Modem technology allows for highly accurate tracking tools, such as electronic turnstiles; though standard ticketed admissions work just as effectively. The AAMD data include tracking method each museum uses, contradicting the assertion that these trends are difficult to track (AAMD 2014 Survey Results, 2015.
Membership
Memberships are important sources of individual support and can be utilized as an important tool for tracking a museums value for the community. Memberships are financially valuable because they set the framework for consistent and value-based giving on behalf of the community. Museum memberships tend to offer two basic benefits: tangible benefits that offer free admission, special events, and other practical gifts, and intangible benefits that emphasize prestige. Intangible memberships often come with rewards, similar to tangible memberships, but also offer invitations to exclusive community events, naming benefits, and recognition. As a membership increases in cost, the intangible rewards outweigh the tangible (Bhattacharya, Roa, & Glynn, 1995).
A majority of memberships offer free or reduced admission as the most basic tangible reward, so it is essential for the study of free admission to understand the inherent motivations for membership. Just as attendance motivation can be separated into socioeconomic groups, so can membership. For those museums that cater to lower- income groups, benefit-motivated membership has a much stronger presence, while altruistic membership is associated with high value individual donations (Maher, Clark, & Motley, 2011). Though the literature finds that benefit-based membership correlates to high individual attendance, it does not show that increased member attendance can replace a paid admission model. There is a perception of higher service and higher museum quality for those individuals who are members and attend the museum regularly ((Maher, Clark, & Motley, 2011).


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At higher levels of membership, where intangible benefits of social well-being outweigh the tangible benefits of free admission, memberships begin to have a subconscious effect on the member. Higher donation levels of museum membership can be used as an avenue for enhancing [the members] sense of self and communicating it to others within their social network (Bhattacharya et al., 1995, p. 48). The result is that a museum which demonstrates a higher public perception of prestige tends to have members who report greater personal satisfaction with their patronage. This study does not connect prestigious membership to museum admission policies, though there is evidence to suggest that museums without admission fees retain their higher level members (Frey & Steiner, 2012). Though some studies use collection size and insurance value as a means of tracking prestige, there is no established pattern for clearly identifying a museums reputation.
Admission Structure
In order to determine an effective admission model, a museum must determine the proposed models effect on attendance, prestige, mission, and revenue. There is some evidence to support that higher-level funders are more likely to donate to an institution with lower or free admission than to those institutions with high admission fees (Frey & Steiner, 2012). There is no research on how suggested donations or equity-based admission (pay what you can) affect donation quantity or frequency. Individual donations, similar to museum memberships, can be correlated with high quality museum reputation or high volume attendance, with those institutions that possess high numbers of both variables seeing higher quality donations (Frey & Steiner, 2012; Johnson & Thomas, 1998).
Free admission is best suited for those institutions that can offset lost revenue by increasing donations based on prestige and attendance. Admission pricing, however, can directly impact the prestige of an institution. Visitors subconsciously assess the quality and value of a museum. Since museums are unable to assure the visitor of the quality of a service product, price becomes an


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important component of the marketing strategy as it is an indicator of quality (Rentschler, Hede, & White, 2007, p. 166). There is evidence to suggest that a museum that charges admission is considered elite while those that do not are perceived as low quality (Rentschler, Hede, & Ramsey, 2004, p. 5). This further confirms the importance of identifying those aspects which indicate free admission as distinct from suggested donation and charged admission.
There is a strong assertion that determining admission pricing structures must involve the museums mission (Kotler, Kotler, & Kotler, 2008). Though determining admission structure based purely on market and strategic decision-making is necessary for the sustainability of the museum, [museum] commercialization is not necessarily the most appropriate or effective value for money (OHagan, 1998, p. 206). Indeed, it has been suggested that charging admission for a museum is equivalent to denying access to a public good: ... it would be wrong to restrict attendance, just as it would be wrong to not produce a loaf of bread when [a buyer] is willing to pay more than the incremental cost of production (Feldstein, 2009, p. 5). Museums that address both their mission and their finances with a conscious budget policy that takes into account cyclical changes, attendance, and prestige prove to be the most successful (Skinner, Ekelund, & Jackson, 2009).
Summary
The literature demonstrates the importance of a conscientious admission policy. First, reducing or eliminating admission fees increases socioeconomic access to a museum which can increase attendance. Attendance can also increase from other factors including hours of operation and total collection value. Secondly, there are two types of museum membership those that are low cost but offer visitors concrete value, such as free admission or entrance to special events, and those that are high cost but offer high social and personal value, such as self-worth and community recognition. The later appear to be at least partially resistant to admission models. Finally, admission models are


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carefully created and informed by museum objectives and financial viability. Some suggest that charging admission increases the perceived value of the museum while others suggest that museums are a public good, and thus should not charge admission on principle. Overall, a successful museum must balance the importance of access, the financial and social value of membership, and the financial viability of admission policies to create an admission structure that fits their mission and needs.
Methodology
The methodology for this project begins with an overview of the AAMD survey data, including the source and size. The sampling procedure is described, detailing how both the dependent and independent variables are selected and how the data are cleaned. Once the variables are established, the hypotheses for each research question are presented, followed by a description of the full analysis procedure. Finally, validity and reliability are explained and addressed in detail.
Research Questions
Research Question A: Which characteristics differentiate free museums from those that charge admission fees?
Research Question B: Which characteristics explain the form of admission a museum uses? Hypotheses
The literature strongly suggests the ability to differentiate between those museums that charge admission and those that do not charge admission (Lampi, Elina, & Orth, 2009). Please see Appendix A for reference to the literature from which each hypothesis is derived. The hypotheses for research questions A and B are as follows:


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Null Hypothesis HO No defined variable can differentiate between museums that charge admission and those that do not charge admission.
Hours HI Museums that offer free admission will record longer opening hours than those museums that charge for admission.
Total Members H2 Museums that offer free admission will show lower membership numbers than those museums that charge for admission.
Attendance H3 Museums that offer free admission will show higher attendance than those museums that charge for admission.
Social Media H4 Museums that offer free admission will show the same average number of followers on social media platforms as those museums that charge for admission.
School Groups H5 Museums that offer free admission will show the same average number of school groups hosted annually as those museums that charge for admission.
Operating Budget H6 Museums that offer free admission will show higher operating budgets than those museums that charge for admission.
Total Member Revenue H7 Museums that offer free admission will show lower membership revenue amounts than those museums that charge for admission.
Total Works in Collection H8 Museums that offer free admission will hold larger collections of works than those museums that charge for admission.
Percent of Expense to Personnel Percentage H9 Museums that offer free admission will show a higher percentage of their operating budget spent on personnel than those museums that charge for admission.
These same hypotheses are used for research question B but are answered in the inverse. Rather than the characteristics that differentiate free museums from those that charge admission fees, research question B measures which characteristics explain the form of admission a museum uses. Data Source
The data for this study are from the Association of Art Museum Directors annual survey of museum operations. This particular project uses data published in 2015 from a 2014 survey (AAMD, 2015). The survey is distributed over a twelve week period and had a high response rate. Of the AAMDs 238 members for the 2014 survey, 219 museums responded for a 92% response rate. The


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survey features 247 questions that cover a variety of topics related to museum management, from size of exhibition halls to employee benefit details (Appendix C).
Sampling Procedure
In order to produce the most accurate results, the data were cleaned by defining the limits of each variable and eliminating those museums that did not fit within the given parameters. The parameters high and low values are defined in Appendix B. Each variables parameters were created through analyzing distribution graphs and eliminating substantial outliers, such as significantly low or high values. The data were additionally parsed by identifying and eliminating those museums that recorded inconsistent data across variables. These methods eliminated 32% of museums from the sample. The analysis used a final sample size of 150 museums (n=150). A list of the museums used in the sample, as well as those eliminated, can be found in Appendix D.
For the final sample size of 150 museums, 53 museums are categorized as free admission and 97 are categorized as charged admission. These values are independent of each other and represent the standard museum admission model for an average adult visitor. Children, students, active military, and seniors benefit from a variety of admission scales and are not included in this research.
Some data, particularly those related to museum financials, showed high standard deviation indicating that the data are spread out over a wide range of values. In order to reduce the wide distribution values, those variables that were used in the logit regression were transformed by taking the square root of the raw number. The transformation reduced the standard deviation which increased the reliability of the projects results (Peng, Lee, & Ingersoll, 2002).
Variables
There are a total of ten variables used in this research: one dependent variable and nine continuous independent variables. A measurement table describing all the variables and their


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attributes can be seen in Appendix B.
Dependent variable. The dependent variable is museum admission gathered from the AAMD survey. General admission was the only admission value utilized. Though the survey designated three values for admission (Free, Suggested, and Charge) there was an insufficient number of museums that used suggested donation to provide significant results for the project to use them as a unique form of admission (Appendix D). As a result, museums that presented with suggested donation (n=13) were categorized as Free.
Independent Variables. The original survey included 247 continuous variables associated with museums. The variables best suited for this study were informed by the literature and the clients needs. Three main types of variables were identified, those that involved financial data, those that used membership data, and those that tracked both attendance and attendance capacity. All nine variables, the evidence for their inclusion, their high and low parameters, and their measurements can be seen in Appendix B.
Analysis
To answer research question A, each variable is tested for significance by admission model.
A Mann-Whitney (Rank) test determines the statistically significant relationship (Conover & Iman, 1981). This test uses the variables medians to determine if the variable is statistically significant in relationship to admission. A small equation to calculate the difference in reported medians informs the direction of the test: a negative value shows that the significant relationship indicates a free museum while a positive value shows that the significant relationship indicates a charging museum.
To answer research question B, a logit model is used. The variable admission is the dependent variable in the equation. The other independent variables are tested against admission to determine their power in explaining the likelihood of museum admission type. In this test, the


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independent variables are tested on their movement towards charged admission and away from free admission. The p-value measures the strength of the relationship, with 0.000 as the strongest value, while the coefficient measures the direction of the significance. A positive coefficient in combination with a low p-value indicates the likelihood that a museum will charging admission while a negative coefficient with a low p-value indicates the likelihood that a museum will not charge admission.
Validity and Reliability
Internal validity is the extent to which an experimenter can be confident that the findings result from experimental manipulation (McDermott, 2011, p. 28). In order to increase confidence in the results from secondary data, the data must be thoroughly analyzed for any inconsistencies and the sample, population, and accuracy must be well understood (Smith, Ayanian, & Covinsky, 2011). The AAMD data set was thoroughly cleaned of inconsistencies and the AAMD was contacted to confirm the response rate. The final sample size was reviewed for validity and consistency. The final data set has high internal validity. To increase the confidence, a Mann-Whitney test is used to account for the variables high standard deviation and two post-estimate tests are performed after the logit model. A collinearity test measures redundancy within the model. High levels of collinearity indicate if the variables are too closely related to provide a valid result. The specification test confirms that the model is the correct choice for these variables and that there are no unnecessary or inappropriate variables used.
External validity is the application of the findings to target populations (Smith, Ayanian, & Covinsky, 2011). The results of this project can be applied by any museum whose operation values fit within the variable parameters indicated by the measurement table in Appendix B. Though it is possible to extrapolate the results to museums that do not fit within the provided parameters, it is not advised as they are not included within the study. Reliability is the measure of the accuracy and


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stability of the results across time (Golafshani, 2003). This project derives results that can be applied for museums in the year 2014. Though the AAMD performs this survey annually, museums operations can shift every year and the project does not account for time analysis or predictions across time.
Results
The results for research question A identify that a high percentage of a museums operating budget spent on personnel can differentiate free museums from charging museums. High membership numbers, high membership revenue, hours of operation, and higher numbers of social media followers are characteristics of museums that charge admission over those that do not. The results for research question B identify that both a high percentage of the operating budget spent on personnel and high attendance increase the likelihood that a museum offers free admission. The likelihood of charging admission is increased by higher memberships and higher numbers of followers on social media. The number of school group visits, the number works in the museums collection and the operating budget are found not applicable to either research question.
Correlation of Data
A correlation matrix identifies those variables that show high correlation (Appendix E). High correlation indicates that there is a strong, linear relationship between two variables that show significant association with each other (Taylor, 1990). While no correlation is set at exactly 0, evidence of correlation increases as the number moves towards -1 or +1 (Taylor, 1990). Two variable sets indicate high correlation: the values of attendance and membership are highly correlated at
0.8113 while membership revenue and membership are highly correlated at 0.8649 (Appendix E).


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Research Question A
With regard to research question one, which characteristics differentiate free museums from those that charge admission fees, four variables are found to be statistically significant. Therefore, the null hypothesis, no variable can explain which museums charge admission and those that do not charge admission, is rejected. Refer to appendix F.
The Mann-Whitney test showed four statistically significant results that uniquely differentiate a charging museum and one statistically significant result that uniquely identifies a museum that does not charge admission. The data showed that both membership and social media are significant indicators for admission at the 0.05 level. This shows that the difference between the medians of free and charging museums for both variables are significant. The test showed that museum revenue and museum visitor hours are also significant at the 0.10 level for charging institutions.
In order to determine the direction of significance, the difference of medians (charging variable median free variable median) is identified and displayed in Appendix G. These values demonstrate that charging museums have higher membership numbers, social media followers, operating hours, and total membership revenue than free museums.
The test shows only one statistically significant result for museums that do not charge admission. The percentage of budget spent on personnel expenses is significant at the 0.05 level. Museums that do not charge admission expend a higher amount of their budget on personnel expenses. The other variables of interest, museum attendance, number of school groups, operating budget, and total works in the collection did not show any significant results (Appendix G). Though the literature indicates that free museums show higher attendance, hold larger collections, and maintain higher operating budgets than charging museums (Cowell, 2007; Luksetich & Partridge, 1997), none of these variables are significant characteristics of free and charging museums.


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Research Question B
With regard to research question two, which characteristics can explain the form of admission a museum uses?, four variables are found to be statistically significant. Therefore, the null hypothesis, there is no defined characteristic that explains the likelihood that a museum will or will not charge admission, is rejected. Refer to Appendix F.
The results of the logit model show that total membership numbers and social media affect the likelihood of a museum charging admission. Total number of members is significant at the 0.05 level (Appendix I). For a single unit increase in the number of members there is a 1.55% increase in the likelihood that a museum will charge admission. Total number of social media followers is significant at the 0.10 level, showing that for every single number increase in social media followers, there is a 0.47% increase in the likelihood that the museum will charge admission (Appendix J).
Attendance shows the strongest influence in the model with a significance level of 0.001. In contrast to both members and social media, for every single number increase in attendance, there is a 0.93% decrease in the likelihood that the museum will charge admission. This indicates that high attendance increases the likelihood that a museum will be a free admission museum. As with the Mann-Whitney test, the logit test shows that personnel expense percentage is significant at a 0.05 level. With every percent increase in the total percent expended on personnel, there is a 3.22% decrease in the likelihood of the museum charging admission (Appendix J). There are no significant results for museum operating hours, total number of school groups, operating budget, total member revenue, or total works in the museums collection.
In order to demonstrate that these results are valid, two post estimation tests were run. The first, a measure of collinearity, shows the variance inflation factor. This tests the variables to confirm that they are both independent and valid data points. A variance inflation factor, shown in Appendix


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K, less than 10 is considered appropriate; no values were reported higher than 5.8 thus the model shows independent variables (Park, K. personal communication. July 13, 2017). A specification error test was run and confirmed that the results were linear (Appendix K).
Finally, the R2 value shows that 13.9% of variance between admission models are explained by the model (Appendix I). Though this is a small amount of explained variance for the model, this number is important for two reasons. First, previous to this model, no variance could be explained with the variables, thus 13.9% variance is an improvement. Secondly, small explained variance is expected in cases with large, widely distributed populations that are traditionally difficult to predict (Grace-Martin, 2016). Museums are complex institutions that depend on and vary in response to their community. A wide variety of outside factors could account for a museums admission differences beyond the 13.9% explained by this model.
Discussion and Recommendations
The results offer parallels to the literature and insights into the Clyfford Stills questions regarding admission operations, particularly as related to membership, hours of operation, social media, financial strength, and school groups and collection size. Steps the Clyfford Still Museum can take to address these results if they choose to eliminate admission fees are noted. These recommendations are focused on four areas, membership, attendance, social media, and donations, and are intended to manage the suggested effects of admission changes. Finally, the limitations of this study are discussed with particular focus on the data, the analysis, and the scope of the project.
Membership and Membership Revenue
The Clyfford Still is particularly interested in how their membership program will be affected by becoming a free museum. The results show that free museums have lower membership numbers


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than their charging counterparts. This is affirmed by the literature which suggests that lower levels of memberships are inherently tied to tangible value, particularly free admission (Bhattacharya, Roa, & Glynn, 1995). Removing benefits decreases the value of an individual and family membership and might explain why free museums show lower levels of membership. Thus a membership revenue stream may be in jeopardy when a museum eliminates the tangible benefits. For the Clyfford Still Museum, this indicates that if they decide to move forward with free admission, both membership and membership revenue will decrease. The results cannot claim causality so further research is needed to determine if free admission actually causes individuals to forgo membership or if it slows the rate of membership growth.
As expected, membership and membership revenue are highly correlated. Though both are affected by admission, only membership numbers affect the likelihood that a museum will charge admission. The literature suggests that this is connected to higher levels of membership where the esteem based rewards are more pronounced. Individuals are less likely to leave higher level memberships when a museum becomes free as those memberships are strongly associated with altruism (Maher, Clark, & Motley, 2011). This supports the assertion that membership revenue is maintained by higher level, philanthropic members in spite of lower membership numbers.
The Clyfford Stills membership program currently offers seven tiers, all of which include free admission and discounted guest admission, ranging from $45 to $5,000 per household. The community value of these membership tiers requires further research; however, it is clear that the Stills membership structure already offers higher level philanthropic memberships. This indicates the loss of revenue might be buoyed by the altruistic impulses of esteem based members.
Attendance and Hours of Operation
The results for research question B show that an increase in attendance does help explain the


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likelihood of a museums admission model. Conversely, the results for research question A differ, demonstrating no substantial difference in attendance between the two types of museum admission. The literature supports the result that admission is not the sole factor that impacts attendance (Luksetich & Partridge, 1997). Both hours of operation and the value of a collection can also have an impact on attendance, a possible explanation for why attendance does not differentiate free and charging museums. It is firmly established, however, that attendance does increase when a museum is free; even a nominal fee impacts both the rates of attendance and ratio of visitors (Lampi, Elina, & Orth, 2009). When that barrier to access is removed, attendance increases in kind, showing a higher ratio of lower income visitors as well as an increase in visitors with low earning potential.
Though hours of operation was predicted to increase public access and be a significant factor for free museums, the rejection of this hypothesis showed that an increase in hours differentiates a paid admission model from a free admission model. An explanation is related to the value of visitors. Every visitor represents earning potential for the museum. Thus, in order to maximize revenue, a charging museum trends toward longer hours than one that does not. The Clyfford Still currently sees an increase in attendance on free days, confirming the suggestion that attendance will increase for free museums (Lampi, Elina, & Orth, 2009). The Still is open to the public six days a week and offers longer hours on Fridays, when admission is free in the evenings, maximizing access on days that it does not charge. The Stills current operating hours, particularly longer Friday hours, appear to be in contrast to Steiners (1997) assertion that weekend visitors are more likely to pay admission than weekday visitors.
Social Media
For both research questions, social media is a significant factor for free admission. The results show that museums that charge admission show higher numbers of followers on Facebook


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and Twitter while an increase in followers indicate a slight tendency towards museums that charge admission. Content creation and community footprint are all identified aspects of social media presence (Kidd, 2011). This study does not suggest that social media presence will decrease or cease to grow once admission fees are eliminated, only that museums that charge admission have a significantly larger online footprint than those that do not charge admission. One explanation is that museums with admission demonstrate higher perceived value among visitors (Rentschler, Hede, & White, 2007). When admission is paid, the visitor perceives a higher quality experience and might be more likely to display that appreciation online; the result is an increase in followers. This explanation attributes the high number of followers to the audience reacting to the admission charge.
The high rate of followers could also demonstrate a charging museums attempt to maximize a primary revenue stream through online marketing. Evidence suggests that alternative means of marketing, particularly social media marketing, has been used for increasing attendance through widening appeal, outreach, and audience engagement (Zafiropoulos, Vrana, & Antoniadis, 2015). A museum that relies, at least in part, on visitor revenue streams, has a vested interest in creating a robust social media presence with a large number of followers. Museums that offer free admission are not immune to the utility of a social media marketing plan but the data support the suggestion that social media visibility is not as highly valued by free museums.
Personnel Expense and Financial Strength
The literature proposes that free admission tends to bring with it financial benefits, particularly an increase in donations (Frey & Steiner, 2012; Johnson & Thomas, 1998). The results for both research questions support this assertion: operating budget does not have a statistically significant relationship to a museums admission model. Though this results indicates free admission does not create a significant loss in revenue, further results demonstrate that membership revenue


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decreases for a free museum.
Results show that personnel expense increases for a free museum. Though the literature does not comment on why personnel costs increase when a museum does not charge admission, the Clyfford Still increases personnel to manage higher visitor attendance. This suggests that there are aspects of museum operations that require an increase in either wages or number of employees when the museum is open to the public. While attendance and personnel expense both require additional funding, the budget is preserved by the increase in donations (Frey & Steiner, 2012; Johnson & Thomas, 1998). Thus the results show that operating budget is maintained, and even increased, through other means apart from membership revenue and admission revenue.
Collection Size and School Groups
There is no relationship between total number of works in a collection and admission. The total value of works is one measure of prestige and that value is related to the total size of the collection (Luksetich & Partridge, 1997). Though hypothesized that the number of works would indicate a free museum, the hypotheses were rejected. A plausible explanation is that the distribution of collection size is too varied between museums to have any true impact on admission models. The Clyfford Still is in an incredibly unique position with a set collection that is unlikely to vary in size or value.
It is unsurprising that while education is an important aspect of museum operations, it shows no statistically significant explanation of admission. Museums engage with education and research in a variety of ways. Some offer tours, others feature designated class rooms, and there are ample opportunities such as discounts or grants to accommodate those students or schools that would not otherwise have access to the museum (Cortell Vandersypen, 2012). Within this research, there is no


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relationship between education access and museum admission models. The Clyfford Still has a functioning education department that confirms this result.
Recommendations
The following recommendations are provided as next steps if the Clyfford Still Museum decides to transform their admission model from their current, charging model to a free admission model. The recommendations are informed by the results of this project and the needs of the museum: membership retention, the increase in personnel expense experienced by free museums, social media marketing, and, maintaining the operating budget through targeted donations.
Membership. Action. Create a low cost membership program that offers a combination of practical benefits, such as discounted tickets to special events, and abstract, esteem based benefits, such a community appreciation announcements.
Benefits. Free museums show marked lower membership rates as well as lower membership revenue rates than those museums that charge admission. The literature strongly suggests that while lower cost practical membership are inherently linked to free admission benefits, memberships have other positive contributions to a museum including providing the member with an increased sense of self-esteem and contributing to perceived museum value (Bhattacharya, Roa, & Glynn, 1995). By opening up lower tier membership to the benefits of higher tier memberships, particularly increased self-esteem. Self esteem can be increased by explicitly connecting the value of the membership to the value of community, honoring Clyfford Still members as valuable members. Through this restructuring of admissions it is possible to maintain overall membership numbers and membership
revenue.


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Attendance and personnel expense. Action. The operating budget should be reviewed and concessions made for an increase in personnel spending across those areas that are substantially influenced by an increase in visitor attendance, particularly within the areas of security, visitor management, and maintenance. Additionally, research should be conducted to determine what time and days of the week attendance increases in order to better prepare the staff.
Benefits. The Clyfford Still currently sees a dramatic increase in attendance on days when they do not charge admission. This has led to a temporary increase in the museums need for security and maintenance. Both the literature and the results for research question B imply that the Clyfford Still will see a consistent increase in attendance if the museum moves to free admission. Any increase in attendance, regardless of population, will add a strain on museum staff at their current level. By creating a comprehensive plan for increasing employee hours, staff numbers, and managing employee positions (for example, increasing the number of full time employees), the Clyfford Still Museum will reduce the strain on employees and increase access for the Denver community.
The literature suggests that the increase in attendance is due, in part, to an increase in visitors with low earning potential (Steiner, 1997). Steiner suggests that free admission encourages an increase in week day visitors because they attend the museum during typical working hours. Further research is needed on how the shift towards nontraditional working hours affects Steiners claim that earning potential differentiates weekday and weekend museum visitors. Understanding attendance patterns across population groups will help the Clyfford Still manage the staff effectively and reduce unnecessary staffing costs.
Social Media Marketing. Action. Create online outreach, marketing, and research plan for the museum placing emphasis on increasing followers and increasing audience engagement.


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Benefits. The literature and results of this project suggest that museums that charge admission have increased social media presence both as a visitor response to perceived value and as a museum marketing technique to increase attendance and admissions revenue. A free museum can still offer significant value via social media, particularly as a means of increasing attendance at special, admission based events. The direction of social media usage must shift from turning individual followers into admission paying visitors to a comprehensive plan that will encourage followers to attend special events, engage with the museum in a meaningful way to create and increase perceived value, and increase the online visibility of the museum. The Clyfford Still currently operates a variety of social media platforms and uses these to promote events, attendance, and outside arts events within the city. Understanding the growth of the Clyfford Stills social media platforms and museum attendance since 2011 could lend insight into the effectiveness of the Stills social media campaigns, particularly in regards to an admission shift.
As free museums encourage altruism from high level donors (Maher, Clark, & Motley,
2011), the Clyfford Still can use its social media platform to foster altruism through fund raising campaigns that promote the importance of free admission within the Denver arts community.
Creating a social media based outreach and marketing plan can impact attendance, improve visitor perception, and create an alternative pathway for increasing donated revenue.
Donations and Operating Budget. Action. The Still Museum should project lost admission revenue and create a plan to pursue large donors, foundations, and special paid events that place high emphasis on museums that do not charge admission.
Benefits. Pursuing donors that align with the Clyfford Stills mission and are eager to see the museum move to a free admission model is strongly supported by the literature and the results of this research. The increase in donations will address the increase in personnel expense and the revenue


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lost from admission and, potentially, memberships. Though further research must be done to manage perceived value, the literature suggests that an increase in the total number of works can increase the popularity of a museum and an increase in supported revenue can contribute to this goal (Luksetich & Partridge, 1997). The Clyfford Still, however, is unable to increase their collected works. Instead, increased value can come through visiting artists, guest curators, and special events, all of which find funding from supported revenue. Another means of maintaining the operating budget is to prioritize donations from organizations that promote arts access. These types of organizations are more likely to fund a museum that offers free admission and private donors might be willing to increase their annual giving as the museum increases access through removing admission.
Limitations
One of the most prominent limitations of this study is the data set. The data were provided by the Clyfford Still Museum and collected by the American Association of Museum Directors. The data points are self-reported by museum directors across North America hence the validity of the data is unverified. While examining and cleaning the data, many incongruous data points were discovered. For example, some museums recorded no operating budget while others recorded gift shop revenue five times that of their total reported earned revenue. These museums were removed from the list, as were those that showed abnormally high or low reporting for the chosen variables. After thorough cleansing, the final models used data from 150 museums, a relatively small sample size for a logit regression (Hosmer Jr, Lemeshow, & Sturdivant, 2013).
Even after the total number of museums was reduced, the variables showed extremely high standard deviation and abnormal distribution. This was addressed by running a Mann-Whitney test instead of the more standard T-test and using a square root to transform the variables for the logit model. This wide distribution, however, is still a threat to validity and influenced the results.


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Additionally, high correlation between the three variables of attendance, membership, and membership revenue are cause for concern.
The logit model itself contains some limitations, the most significant of which is that the model is prone to overstating the significance of the results. This was addressed through both a collinearity test to confirm the variables are not duplicates and a specification test to confirm that both the tests and the variables are valid options of analysis. Despite these tests, logit models are inherently susceptible to overconfidence (Work, Ferguson, & Diamond, 1989; Hosmer Jr, Lemeshow, & Sturdivant, 2013).
Though 13% of the variance in admission models is explained by the model, a data set of this size has the capacity to explain an untold number of occurrences within museum operations. This project only allowed for a single model to explain admission. The diverse nature of different museums and the variable parameters utilized indicate a small level of generalizability, another limitation of this study. In order to grasp a full picture of admission, additional models that test intervening variables across a variety of museum parameters are required.
Conclusion
In summary, this project answered two research questions. Charging museums show higher membership numbers and an increased social media presence while free museums show an increase in personnel expense percentage. This aligns with the literature on the topic of admission and membership and confirms trends in attendance and personnel expense that the Clyfford Still experiences on their free admission days. Though the Still has not made any material steps towards eliminating admission fees, the recommendations provide action steps that address the results found within this study. Membership is a consistent concern for the museum administration as they look at the feasibility of embracing free admission. Though membership numbers are lower for those


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museums that do not charge, the literature and the results of this analysis suggest that: a) any revenue lost from membership is maintained through other means; and, b) there are alternative approaches to membership which can reduce the loss of individual and family memberships.
The Clyfford Still currently sees an increase in personnel expense during their free days, thus they are already prepared to analyze the operating budget and reorganize museum staff in preparation for a steady increase in visitors. As discussed, social media marketing is both a useful tool for marketing and a means of increasing a museums efforts for outreach. The literature suggests that free museums show lower visitor value than museums that charge. Social media can remedy this dip in perceived value though audience engagement and marketing, increasing the audience for paid special events.
The lack of either admission model identifying operating budget is noteworthy. Both free and charging museums show indicators that affect operating budget, yet neither demonstrates any preference for the value of personnel expense and membership reveue, respectively. This implies that while operations may be altered by admission, the museum remains fundamentally stable. This project recommends fundraising that specifically targets those foundations and individuals who prioritize free admission and arts access. The results show that operating budget remains steady across museum admission and the literature shows that donations increase when a museum is free.
As the recommendations suggests, a campaign could capitalize on this donation increase, maintaining revenue after the initial drop in income from forgone admission fees.
The decision to move from a charging admission to a free admission museum is a bold one. The museum must acknowledge the financial and social risks with the rewards of open access, education, and donation. Regardless of the Clyfford Stills decision, this project assures that they will face the prospect with a better understanding of the costs and how to begin managing the transition.


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Appendix A
Hypothesis Justifications for Research Questions
Hypothesis Inclusion
HO No defined variable can differentiate between museums that charge admission and those that do not charge admission. Null hypotheses.
HI Museums that offer free admission will record longer opening hours than those museums that charge for admission Longer operating hours is an indication of increased access and attendance, both of which are connected to free admission (Luksetich & Partridge, 1997; Lampi, Elina, & Orth, 2009).
H2 Museums that offer free admission will show lower membership numbers than those museums that charge for admission Memberships are most valuable when they offer tangible benefits, primarily free admission (Frey & Steiner, 2012)
H3 Museums that offer free admission will show higher attendance than those museums that charge for admission Museums that offer free admission see higher levels of attendance (Lampi, Elina, & Orth, 2009)
H4 Museums that offer free admission will show the same average number of followers on social media platforms as those museums that charge for admission. Social media has a variety of uses, from marketing to value creation, none of which are inherently connected to attendance or admission (Kidd, 2011; Zafiropoulos, Vasiliki, and Konstantinos, 2015).
H5 Museums that offer free admission will show the same average number of school groups hosted annually as those museums that charge for admission. education is a primary goal for museums across admission models and operating factors (Cortell Vandersypen, 2012).


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H6 Museums that offer free admission will show higher operating budgets than those museums that charge for admission Free admissions relationship to attendance indicates that as attendance increase, so does the budget needed to maintain operations (Ginsburch & Mairesse, 1997)
H7 Museums that offer free admission will show lower membership revenue amounts than those museums that charge for admission Memberships are most numerous when they offer tangible benefits, primarily free admission (Frey & Steiner, 2012)
H8 Museums that offer free admission will hold larger collections of works than those museums that charge for admission Collection value and size is related to increased attendance (Luksetich and Partridge, 1997)
H9 Museums that offer free admission will show a higher percentage of their operating budget spent on personnel than those museums that charge for admission The museum sees an increase in personnel needed to manage higher attendance, as indicated by the Clyfford Stills experience with free admission.


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Appendix B
Variable Measurement Table
Variable Survey Question Unit of measurement Type of Variable Measures Indication Form Parameters Low High
Admission 72 l=charging 0=free Dependent Which admission model is used by the museum The admission model used by the museum Binary 0 i
time in hours The total amount of hours Potential access for the
Hours 86 Independent a museum is open to the public per week public (Luksetich & Partridge, 1997) Continuous 25 62
Total Members 88, 89 individuals Independent The total number of family and individual Membership as a practical relationship between the museum and individual Continuous 137 107,675
museum memberships2 (Maher, Clark, and Motley, 2011)

The total number of The total number of
Attendance 110 individuals Independent individuals who visit a individuals who visit a Continuous 17,567 869,692
museum annually museum
Social Media 115a, 115b followers Independent The total number of a museums Twitter and Size and strength of a museums marketing and Continuous 1,141 473,111
Facebook followers online presence (Kidd, 2011)
School Groups 119 groups Independent The total number of school groups that visit the museum in a given year Represents the museums education program (Cortell Vandersypen, 2012) Continuous 18 3,850
Operating Budget 148 u.s. Dollars Independent A museums annual budgets for total operations A baseline financial indicator for museum size (Ginsburch & Mairesse, 1997) Continuous 1,307,000 62,595,000
Total U.S. Dollars Total amount earned in Financial impact of museum
Member 167 Independent membership revenue each membership programs (Frey Continuous 12,774 5,370,500
Revenue year & Steiner, 2012)
Total Works in Collection 62 works in collection Independent Total number of artistic works in a museums collection One means of measuring prestige (Luksetich & Partridge, 1997) Continuous 1,006 1,000,000
Percent of Personnel Percentage 232 percentage Independent What percent of the annual operating budget is expended on personnel Amount expended on personnel Continuous 4 91
2 Corporate membership is excluded as it is related to supported revenue and not useful for the client.


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Appendix C
Full List of Questions from the AAMD Survey (AAMD, 2015)
1. Please select your museum type from the below list.
2. Where is your museum located?
3. What year did the museum open to the public?
4. Does the museum have a degree-granting art school component?
5a. Is the museum part of a larger parent organization?
5b. If you answered "Yes" to Question 5a, please tell us the nature of your parent organization.
5c. If you answered "Yes" to Question 5a, please tell us the name of your parent organization.
6. What is the gross square footage of your main museum building?
7a. What is the gross square footage of offsite museum space that serve as permanent branch exhibition locations?
7b. What is the gross square footage of offsite museum space devoted to storage?
7c. What is the gross square footage of offsite museum space not included in 7a and 7b?
8a. What is the net square footage of exhibit space in main museum and off-site/branch locations?
8b. What is the net square footage of space normally used for special exhibitions?
8c. What is the net square footage of space normally used for exhibitions of your permanent collection?
8d. What is the net square feet of space included in 8a that is controlled for both temperature and humidity?
9. What is the gross space of defined outdoor exhibition areas?
10a. What is your net square footage of museum-based education space?
10b. What is your net square footage of classroom-based education space?
11. What is your net square footage of library space?
12. What is your net square footage of space used for art collection storage within the area defined as main museum?
13. Lobbies can serve multiple purposes. Please indicate the key functions the lobby in the area defined as the main museum serves.
14. What is the net square footage of museum store retail sales and retail display space in the area defined as main museum?
15a. How many auditoria does your institution have in the area designated as the main museum?
15b. How many fixed seats are in your largest auditorium at the main museum?
15c. What is the seating capacity of your largest auditorium at the main museum?
16. What is the net square footage of space dedicated to public food service in area defined as main museum?


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17a. What is the net total square footage of full time office space in the area defined as the main museum?
17b. What is the ratio of office square footage per employee?
18. What is the net square footage of space dedicated to art handling in the area defined as the main museum?
19. What is the net square foot age of space dedicated to conservation in the area defined as the main museum?
20a. What is your net square footage of space used for art collection storage in branch locations or other off-site spaces?
20b. What percentage of your total art collection storage is offsite?
20c. How far, in miles, is the offsite storage from the main museum?
21. Please indicate the key functions the lobby in any off-site or branch location serves. Select as many as apply.
22. What is your net square footage of space of museum store retail sales and display space in branch museums and any museum space defined as off-site?
23a. How many auditoria does your institution have off-site or in branch locations? Auditoria can include flexible-use space.
23b. How many seats in your largest auditorium off-site or in a branch location?
23c. What is the seating capacity of your largest auditorium off-site or in a branch location?
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24. What is the net square footage of space dedicated to public food service off-site or in branch locations?
25. What is the net square footage of administrative space in off-site or branch locations?
26. What is the net square footage of space dedicated to art handling in off-site or branch locations?
27. What is the net square foot age of space dedicated to conservation in off-site or branch locations?
28. What is your net square footage of library space in off-site or branch locations?
6. What is the total number of full-time employees at your institution?
7. What is the total number of part-time employees at your institution?
8. What is the total number of independent contractors at your institution?
32. What is the total number of full-time employees equivalent at your institution?
33. What is the total number of docents at your institution?
34. How many total hours did those docents contribute at your institution in the last fiscal year?
35. What is the total number of volunteers at your institution, including docents?
36. How many total hours did those volunteers (including docents) contribute at your institution in the last fiscal year?
37. How many support groups/auxiliary groups/special interest groups does your institution have?


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38. What was the total dollar amount expended for wages and salaries in the last fiscal year?
39. What was the total dollar amount expended for health care coverage (including dental and vision, if provided) in the last fiscal year?
40. What was the total dollar amount expended for retirement plans in the last fiscal year?
41. What was the total dollar amount expended for life and disability insurance in the last fiscal year?
42. What was the total dollar amount expended for staff in the last fiscal year?
43. Which type of retirement plan, if any, is provided by your institution?
44. If you have a plan, is your plan administered by the museum, or by a governing institution or third party (university, state or local government, etc.)?
45. Are the investment choices offered by your plan all provided by a single mutual fund company or insurer (eg ONLY Fidelity), or are there multiple mutual fund companies or insurers available within the plan eg, Fidelity, ING, and/or others)?
46. What percentage of the employee contribution is currently matched?
47. What is the maximum percentage of salary employees can contribute that the Museum will match at that rate?
48. Is the match rate in your plan adjustable at the discretion of the Museum, or permanently fixed?
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49. What is the minimum number of hours annually or weekly an employee must work to qualify for retirement matching?
50. Is health care offered to employees?
51. How many full time employees are covered by health insurance?
52. How many part time employees are covered by health insurance?
53. What is the minimum number of hours a part-time employee can work and qualify for health insurance?
54a. As a percentage, what is the portion of the total premium cost to the museum for single coverage is paid by the employee?
54b. As a percentage, what is the portion of the total premium cost to the museum for two-person coverage is paid by the employee?
54c. As a percentage, what is the portion of the total premium cost to the museum for family coverage is paid by the employee?
55. What percent is the health care cost as a percentage of wages and salaries (excluding other benefits)?
56. Does the museum offer maternity leave?
57a. Is dental insurance offered to employees?
57b. Is life insurance offered to employees?
57c. Is long-term disability insurance offered to employees?
57d. Is short-term disability insurance offered to employees?
58. What is the annual cost to the museum, per eligible employee of those supplementary benefit programs offered?


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59. Does the museum offer a Flexible Spending Account (aka Cafeteria) plan?
60. How does the museum address employee use of personal vehicles for museum business?
61. What is the total annual cost to the museum of employee mileage reimbursement (or in the case of shared vehicles, what is the total annual cost of the vehicles and insurance)?
**62. What is the total number of works of art in your collection?
63. What is the dollar value of insurance carried on your collections?
64. How many bound objects does your library possess?
65. What is the total cost of all art purchased wholly in the last fiscal year?
66. What is the total value of all art received by donation in the last fiscal year?
67. What is the total number of objects purchased wholly in the last fiscal year?
68. How many objects were received by donation in the last fiscal year?
69. How many objects were received by bequest in the last fiscal year?
70. What is the total number of objects your institution loaned in the last fiscal year?
71. What is total number of objects your institution borrowed in the last fiscal year?
72. What percent of the collection is digitized?
**73. General Admission is:
74. Entry to special exhibition is:
37
75. Entry to collection is usually charge/donation but there is a free day:
76. Entry to collection is usually charge/donation but there is a free evening:
77. Is the free day/evening period sponsored?
78 On free days/evenings is entry to special exhibition still charged?
79. For museums with admission fees, how much is a single adult admission?
80. For museums with admission fees, up to what age are children admitted free?
81a. How do you measure entries to the inside of the museum? Please select all that apply.
81b. If electronic measuring device is used, are you able to differentiate between entries and exits?
82a. If you have a sculpture park or garden, do you measure admissions?
82b. If you answered "yes" to 79a, how do you measure admissions in your sculpture park or garden?
82c. If electronic measuring device is used, are you able to differentiate between entries and exits?
83. Total number of entries to sculpture park:
84. How many days per week in a normal non-holiday week are you open?
85. How many evenings (after 5 p.m.) are you usually open to the public during a normal non-holiday week?
**86. How many hours are you open to the public in a normal non-holiday week?


SILVERMAN CAPSTONE MUSEUM ADMISSION
87. How many total member households does your institution have?
**88. Of total museum members, how many are individuals?
**89. Of total museum members, how many are family?
90. Of total museum members, how many are corporate?
91. Of total museum members, how many are other (not individuals, family, or corporate)?
92a. How many total ticketed admissions?
92b. Of your total ticketed admissions, how many were for access to Permanent Collection only?
92c. Of your total ticketed admissions, how many were for access to Special Exhibitions only?
92d. Of your total ticketed admissions, how many were for access to Sculpture Park/Garden only?
92e. Of your total ticketed admissions, how many were for access to Access to a Public Program only?
93. Of your ticketed admissions, how many are Adults?
94. Of your ticketed admissions, how many are Seniors?
95. Of your ticketed admissions, how many are Children?
96. Of your ticketed admissions, how many are Students (with ID)?
97. Of your ticketed admissions, how many are Other?
38
98. Of your ticketed admissions, how many are Members?
99. Of your ticketed admissions, how many are free?
100a. How many total non-ticketed admissions?:
100b. Of your total non-ticketed admissions, how many were for access to permanent collection only?
100c. Of your total non-ticketed admissions, how many were for access to Special Exhibitions only?
lOOd. Of your total non-ticketed admissions, how many were for access to Access to Sculpture Park/Garden only?
lOOe. Of your total non-ticketed admissions, how many were for access to Access to a Public Program only?
101a. Do you collect demographic info for non-ticketed admissions and public programs?
101b. If you answered "yes" to question 101a, how do you collect demographic info for non-ticketed admissions and public programs?
102. Of your non-ticketed admissions, how many are adults?
103. Of your non-ticketed admissions, how many are seniors?
104. Of your non-ticketed admissions, how many are children?
105. Of your non-ticketed admissions, how many are other?
106. Of your non-ticketed admissions, how many are members?


SILVERMAN CAPSTONE MUSEUM ADMISSION
107. How many people came to rental events/visited the building/went to the cafe or store if they are accessible without securing an admission ticket?
108. What was your total attendance at offsite programs?
109. The sum of all attendance figures reported in this survey:
**110. Total attendance figures for the last fiscal year:
111. Which of the following admissions were included in the figure reported in question 106?
112. What was the total number of user sessions (i.e. one individual's visit) to your museum's website in the last year?
113. What was the total number of individual/unique IP addresses that visited your museum's website in the last year?
114. What was the total number of page views to your museum's website in the last year?
**115a. If your museum is on Facebook, how many "Likes" do you have?
**115b. If your museum is on Twitter, how many followers do you have?
115c. Please select all other social media platforms where your museum is active.
116. What is the content of the most visited page on your website?
117. What is the content of the second most visited page on your website?
118. What is the content of the third most visited page on your website?
39
**119. How many school groups visited the museum in the last fiscal year?
120. How many school districts were served by museum programs in the last fiscal year, both on- and off-site?
121. How many K-12 schools did your museum serve in the last fiscal year?
122. Total K-12 children served in the last fiscal year at the main museum
123. Total K-12 children served in the last fiscal year off-site
124. How many adult tours took place at your museum in the last fiscal year?
125. How many adults participated in tours at your museum in the last fiscal year?
126. How many students were enrolled in museum-run degree programs or credited classes in the last fiscal year?
127. How many public programs were held on-site in the last fiscal year?
128. If your museum offers programs for home-schooled students, how many individuals did this program serve in the last fiscal year?
129. If your museum offer programs for Alzheimers and dementia patients, how many individuals did this program(s)serve in the last fiscal year?
130. If your museum offer programs for seniors in nursing homes or assisted living facilities, how many individuals did this program(s) serve in the last fiscal year?
131. If your museum offers other programs specially tailored for seniors, how many individuals did this program(s) serve in the last fiscal year?


SILVERMAN CAPSTONE MUSEUM ADMISSION
132. If your museum offers programs for medical, nursing, pharmacy or physical therapy students or practitioners, how many individuals did the programs serve in the last fiscal year?
133. If your museum offers programs for patients in hospice or palliative care, how many individuals did the programs serve in the last fiscal year?
134. If your museum offers programs or touch tours for visually-impaired visitors, how many individuals did the programs serve in the last fiscal year?
135. If your museum offers programs for hearing impaired visitors, how many individuals did the programs serve in the last fiscal year?
136. If your museum offers programs for individuals with autism, how many individuals did the programs serve in the last fiscal year?
137. If your museum offers programs for people with disabilities, how many individuals did the programs serve in the last fiscal year?
138. If your museum offers free admission for active military, veterans, and their families, how many individuals were admitted under this program in the last fiscal year?
139. Does your museum offers special programs for active military, veterans, and their families? If so, how many individuals did this program(s) serve in the last fiscal year?
140. Does your museum offers programs for individuals suffering from PTSD? If so,
40
how many individuals did this program(s)serve in the last fiscal year?
141. If your museum offers programs for juveniles under court supervision, how many individuals did the programs serve in the last fiscal year?
142. If your museum offers programs for incarcerated adults, how many individuals did the programs serve in the last fiscal year?
143. If your museum offers teen docent training or teen council programming, how many individuals did this program serve in the last fiscal year?
144. If your museum offers programs for public assistance recipients, how many individuals did the programs serve in the last fiscal year?
145. If your museum offers programs for immigrant or refugee populations, how many individuals did the programs serve in the last fiscal year?
146. If your museum offers programs in languages other than English, how many individuals did the programs serve in the last fiscal year?
147. All financial information entered into this survey should come from your most recently completed fiscal year. Please enter the dates of your most recently completed fiscal year here:
**148. What was your total operating budget for your most recently completed fiscal year?
149. What was the dollar amount the museum received from the National Endowment for the Arts?


SILVERMAN CAPSTONE MUSEUM ADMISSION
150. What was the dollar amount the museum received from the National Endowment for the Humanities?
151. What was the dollar amount the museum received from the Institute of Museum and Library Services?
152. What was the dollar amount the museum received from the National Science Foundation?
153a. What was the dollar amount the museum received from any other federal agencies?
153b. If you entered a dollar amount in 149a, please indicate from which agency your institution received this funding.
154. What was the dollar amount the museum received from your state or province in the last fiscal year?
155. What was the dollar amount the museum received from your county in the last fiscal year?
156. What was the dollar amount the museum received from your city or municipality in the last fiscal year?
157. What was the dollar amount the museum received in other forms of government support in the last fiscal year?
158. Did you receive federal indemnity for exhibitions during the last year?
159. For how many exhibitions did you receive indemnity?
160. What was the total insurance value of the art covered by indemnity?
161. What was the value of the insurance premium saved?
41
162. Please enter the amount of the direct allocation you received from your university or college in the last fiscal year.
163. Please enter the amount you know that the college spent for your support but was not allocated to you in the last fiscal year.
164. Please estimate the amount of in-kind support that is provided by your college or university.
165. What percentage of your total revenue is derived from your college or university?
166. What is the annual rate for a single adult membership?
**167. Please provide the total gross revenue generated from individual and family memberships.
168. Please provide the total gross revenue generated from corporate memberships.
169. What was the total gross revenue the museum received from individual and family contributions in the last fiscal year?
170. What was the total gross revenue the museum received from corporate contributions in the last fiscal year?
171. What was the total gross revenue the museum received from foundations and trusts in the last fiscal year?
172. What was the total gross revenue the museum received from benefit events in the last fiscal year?
173. What was the total gross revenue the museum received from donations to a donation box in the last fiscal year?
174. What is the total of all contributed revenue and support entered into this survey?


SILVERMAN CAPSTONE MUSEUM ADMISSION
175. If you have a fixed fee for museum admission, enter the total gross revenue earned from general museum admissions here.
176. If you do not have a fixed fee but a suggested fee or donation, enter the total gross revenue earned from general museum admission here. Institutions with suggested fees or donations should include revenue from group tours here.
177. Enter the amount earned from fees charged to enter a special admission or an extra charge placed on general admission for a special exhibit here. This is in addition to any revenue from a fixed admission fee; do not combine the figures.
178. What was your gross revenues from educational events not included in museum admission?
179. What was your gross revenue from museum-sponsored travel programs?
180. What was your total gross revenue from exhibition fees?
181. How are your restaurants managed? Please select all that apply.
182. What was your gross revenue to museum from restaurants in main museum?
183. What was your gross revenue to museum from restaurants located in branch locations or other sites not in main museum?
184. How is your catering managed? Please select all that apply.
185. What was your gross revenue to museum from catering?
186. What was your gross revenue from facility rental?
42
187. What was your gross revenue from stores located in the main museum?
188. What was your gross revenue from stores located in branch locations or other sites not part of the main museum?
189. What was your gross revenue for sales generated through mail order operations?
190. What was your gross revenue for sales generated through web-based sales?
191. What was your gross revenue from rights, reproductions, licensing and royalties?
192. What was your gross revenue to the museum from parking in the last fiscal year?
193. Please enter other gross revenue not accounted for elsewhere in the survey
194. Total endowment income used for museum operations (including exhibitions)
195a. What is the total of all earned revenue entered in this survey?
195b. What is the total of all contributed revenue and support and earned revenue entered in this survey?
196. What percentage of your total revenue is derived from federal government support?
197. What percentage of your total revenue is derived from government support other than federal?
198. What percentage of your total revenue is derived from grants (community, family and corporate foundations)?
199. What percentage of your total revenue is derived from earned revenue?


SILVERMAN CAPSTONE MUSEUM ADMISSION
200. What percentage of your total revenue is derived from corporate support (not including corporate foundation grants)
201. What percentage of your total revenue is derived from admissions-related revenue?
202. What was the total gross dollar amount expended for administration in the last fiscal year?
203. What was the total gross dollar amount expended for development in the last fiscal year?
204. What was the total gross dollar amount expended for membership in the last fiscal year?
205. What was the total gross dollar amount expended for benefit events?
206. What was the total gross dollar amount expended for marketing in the last fiscal year?
207. What was the total gross dollar amount expended for public relations and communications in the last fiscal year?
208. What was the total gross dollar amount expended for education in the last fiscal year?
209. What was the total gross dollar amount expended for travel programs in the last fiscal year?
210. What was the total gross dollar amount expended for temporary exhibitions in the last fiscal year?
211. What was the total gross dollar amount expended for curatorial in the last fiscal year?
43
212. What was the total gross dollar amount expended for collections care and management in the last fiscal year?
213. What was the total gross dollar amount expended for restaurants in the main museum in the last fiscal year?
214. What was the total gross dollar amount expended for restaurants located off-site in the last fiscal year?
215. What was the total gross dollar amount expended for catering in the last fiscal year?
216. What was the total dollar amount expended for facility rental in the last fiscal year?
217. How are your museum stores managed? Please select as many as apply.
218. What was the total gross dollar amount expended to operate museum stores at your main museum site?
219. What was the total gross dollar amount expended for operation of off-site museum stores?
220. What was the total gross dollar amount expended for museum mail order operations?
221. What was the total gross dollar amount expended for web-based sales?
222. What was the total gross dollar amount expended on rights, reproductions, licensing, and royalties?
223. What was the total gross dollar amount expended for library, archival, and reference services in the last fiscal year?
224. What was the total gross dollar amount expended for information technology in the last fiscal year?


SILVERMAN CAPSTONE MUSEUM ADMISSION
44
225. What is the total dollar amount expended for building maintenance in the last fiscal year?
226. What was the total gross dollar amount expended for security in the last fiscal year?
227. What was the total gross dollar amount expended for utilities in the last fiscal year?
228. Please enter any expenses in your budget that are not allocated under the categories outlined in questions 198-222
229. What is the total of all operating expenses entered into this survey?
230. What percentage of your operating expenses relate to exhibition expenses?
231. What percentage of your operating expenses relate to collections care and management?
**232. What percentage of your operating expenses relate to personnel?
233. What percentage of your operating expenses relate to education?
234. What was the total dollar amount expended for capital projects in the last fiscal year?
235. What was the total dollar amount expended for art acquisition in the last fiscal year?
236. What was the total dollar amount expended for capital equipment in the last fiscal year?
237. What was the total dollar amount expended for capital fund drives and campaigns in the last fiscal year?
238. Does your museum have a reserve fund and/or a line item for capital projects?
239. Market value at end of fiscal year of total portfolio controlled by your museum include all investments, endowments, trusts or other funds held by your museum:
240. Market value at end of fiscal year of total portfolio not held by the museum but managed by independent trustees or foundations for the benefit of the museum:
241. What was the market value of your museum's endowment (whether managed internally or externally) at the end of the last fiscal year?
242a. Is there a spending rule for investments and endowments?
242b. If yes, what is the spending rate percent?
243. What is the amount of your endowment's realized gain or (loss) in the last fiscal year?
244. What was the market value of your permanent endowment restricted for art acquisition at the end of the fiscal year?
245. What was the market value of temporarily restricted funds for art acquisition at the end of the fiscal year?
246a. Is the museum being asked to make voluntary payments in lieu of taxes on property that it uses in carrying out its mission?
246b. If yes, assessed value of the property:
246c. If yes, amount paid in lieu of taxes:
247. Does the museum make regular voluntary payments to government in lieu of taxes:


SILVERMAN CAPSTONE MUSEUM ADMISSION
45
Appendix D
Total List of all Museums included in Original AAMD Survey with General Admission Model
and Inclusion in the Final Analysis
Museum
Ackland Art Museum
Akron Art Museum
Albright-Knox Art Gallery
Allen Memorial Art Museum
American Folk Art Museum
Anchorage Museum
Antiguo Colegio de San Ildefonso
Arkansas Arts Center
Art Gallery of Nova Scotia
Art Gallery of Ontario
Art Gallery of Windsor
Art Institute of Chicago
Asian Art Museum of San Francisco
Aspen Art Museum
Bass Museum of Art
Berkeley Art Museum and Pacific Film Archive
Birmingham Museum of Art
Blanton Museum of Art
Boise Art Museum
Bowdoin College Museum of Art
Brandywine River Museum of Art
Brooklyn Museum
Burchfield Penney Art Center
Canadian Centre for Architecture
Carnegie Museum of Art
Chrysler Museum of Art
Cincinnati Art Museum
Clark Art Institute
Cleveland Museum of Art
Clyfford Still Museum
Colby College Museum of Art
Colonial Williamsburg Foundation
Columbia Museum of Art
Columbus Museum of Art
Contemporary Arts Center
Contemporary Arts Museum Houston
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
Coming Museum of Glass
General Admission: Included/Removed:
Free Included
Charge Included
Charge Included
Free Included
Free Included
Charge Included
Charge Removed
Free Included
Charge Removed
Charge Included
Free Included
Charge Removed
Charge Included
Free Removed
Charge Included
Charge Included
Free Included
Charge Included
Charge Included
Free Removed
Charge Removed
Suggested donation Removed
Charge Included
Charge Included
Charge Included
Free Included
Free Included
Charge Included
Free Included
Charge Included
Free Included
Charge Removed
Charge Included
Charge Included
Charge Removed
Free Removed
Charge Included
Charge Included


SILVERMAN CAPSTONE MUSEUM ADMISSION
46
Cranbrook Art Museum Charge Included
Crocker Art Museum Charge Included
Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art Free Included
Currier Museum of Art Charge Included
Dali Museum Charge Included
Dallas Museum of Art Free Included
deCordova Sculpture Park and Museum Charge Included
Denver Art Museum Charge Included
Des Moines Art Center Free Included
Dixon Gallery and Gardens Charge Included
Emeritus Charge Included
Eskenazi Museum of Art at Indiana University Free Removed
Farnsworth Art Museum Charge Included
Figge Art Museum Charge Included
Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco Charge Removed
Flint Institute of Arts Free Included
Frances Lehman Loeb Art Center, Vassar College Free Included
Frederick R. Weisman Art Museum Free Included
Freer Gallery of Art & Sackler Gallery Free Removed
Frick Art and Historical Center Free Included
Frist Center for the Visual Arts Charge Removed
Frye Art Museum Free Included
Georgia Museum of Art Free Included
Georgia O'Keeffe Museum Charge Included
Grand Rapids Art Museum Charge Included
Grey Art Gallery Suggested donation Removed
Hammer Museum Free Included
Hampton University Museum Free Removed
Harvard Art Museums Charge Included
Henry Art Gallery Charge Included
Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art Free Included
High Museum of Art Charge Included
Hillwood Estate, Museum, and Gardens Suggested donation Included
Honolulu Museum of Art Charge Included
Hudson River Museum Charge Included
Indianapolis Museum of Art Free Included
Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston Institute of Contemporary Art, University of Charge Removed
Pennsylvania Free Removed
Iris & B. Gerald Cantor Center for Visual Arts Free Included
Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum Charge Removed
J. Paul Getty Museum Free Removed
Jewish Museum Charge Included
John and Mable Ringling Museum of Art Charge Included


SILVERMAN CAPSTONE MUSEUM ADMISSION
47
Jordan Schnitzer Museum of Art Charge Included
Joslyn Art Museum Free Included
Jule Collins Smith Museum of Fine Art Free Included
Kalamazoo Institute of Arts Charge Included
Kimbell Art Museum Free Removed
Laguna Art Museum Charge Included
List Visual Arts Center, MIT Free Removed
Los Angeles County Museum of Art Charge Removed
Lowe Art Museum Charge Included
Madison Museum of Contemporary Art Free Included
Mary & Leigh Block Museum of Art,
Northwestern Univ Free Removed
McMichael Canadian Art Collection Charge Included
McNay Art Museum Charge Included
Meadows Museum, SMU Charge Removed
Memorial Art Gallery Charge Included
Memphis Brooks Museum of Art Charge Included
Metropolitan Museum of Art Suggested donation Removed
Michael C. Carlos Museum Charge Included
Mildred Lane Kemper Art Museum, Washington
University Free Included
Milwaukee Art Museum Charge Removed
Minneapolis Institute of Art Free Removed
Mississippi Museum of Art Free Included
Modem Art Museum of Fort Worth Charge Included
Montclair Art Museum Charge Included
Montgomery Museum of Fine Arts Free Included
Montreal Museum of Fine Arts Charge Removed
Morgan Library & Museum Charge Included
Munson-Williams-Proctor Arts Institute Free Included
Musae National des Beaux-Arts du Quebec Charge Included
Museo de Arte de Ponce Charge Included
Museo de Arte de Puerto Rico Charge Included
Museo Dolores Olmedo Patino Suggested donation Removed
Museo Franz Mayer Charge Included
Museo Universitario Arte ContemporAjneo Charge Removed
Museum of Arts and Design Charge Removed
Museum of Contemporary Art San Diego Charge Included
Museum of Contemporary Art Santa Barbara Free Removed
Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago Suggested donation Included
Museum of Contemporary Art, Denver Charge Removed
Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles Charge Included
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston Charge Removed
Museum of Fine Arts, Houston Charge Included


SILVERMAN CAPSTONE MUSEUM ADMISSION
48
Museum of Fine Arts, St. Petersburg
Museum of Latin American Art
Museum of Modern Art
Nasher Museum of Art at Duke University
Nasher Sculpture Center
National Gallery of Art
National Gallery of Canada
National Museum of African Art
National Museum of Wildlife Art
National Museum of Women in the Arts
National Portrait Gallery
Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art
Neuberger Museum of Art, Purchase College,
SUNY
New Museum of Contemporary Art
New Orleans Museum of Art
Noguchi Museum
Norman Rockwell Museum
North Carolina Museum of Art
Norton Museum of Art
NSU Art Museum Fort Lauderdale
Oakland Museum of California
Oklahoma City Museum of Art
Orange County Museum of Art
Orlando Museum of Art
Palm Springs Art Museum
Palmer Museum of Art
Parrish Art Museum
Peabody Essex Museum
Perez Art Museum Miami
Philadelphia Museum of Art
Philbrook Museum of Art
Phoenix Art Museum
Portland Art Museum
Portland Museum of Art
Princeton University Art Museum
Pulitzer Arts Foundation
Reynolda House Museum of American Art
RISD Museum
Royal Ontario Museum
Saint Louis Art Museum
Samuel P. Ham Museum of Art
San Antonio Museum of Art
San Diego Museum of Art
Charge Included
Charge Included
Charge Removed
Charge Included
Charge Removed
Free Removed
Charge Included
Free Included
Charge Included
Charge Included
Free Removed
Free Included
Charge Removed
Charge Removed
Charge Included
Charge Included
Charge Included
Free Included
Charge Included
Charge Included
Charge Included
Charge Included
Charge Removed
Charge Included
Charge Included
Free Included
Charge Included
Charge Removed
Charge Included
Charge Included
Charge Removed
Charge Removed
Charge Included
Charge Included
Free Included
Free Removed
Charge Removed
Charge Included
Charge Removed
Free Included
Free Included
Charge Included
Charge Removed


SILVERMAN CAPSTONE MUSEUM ADMISSION
49
San Francisco Museum of Modem Art Charge Removed
San Jose Museum of Art Charge Included
Santa Barbara Museum of Art Charge Included
Seattle Art Museum Suggested donation Included
Shelburne Museum Charge Removed
Sheldon Museum of Art Free Included
Smart Museum of Art, University of Chicago Free Included
Smith College Museum of Art Charge Included
Smithsonian American Art Museum Free Removed
Snite Museum of Art Free Included
Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum and Foundation Charge Removed
Speed Art Museum Free Removed
Spencer Museum of Art, University of Kansas Suggested donation Included
Studio Museum in Harlem Suggested donation Removed
Tacoma Art Museum Charge Included
Taft Museum of Art Charge Removed
Tampa Museum of Art Charge Removed
Telfair Museum of Art Charge Included
The Andy Warhol Museum Charge Removed
The Barnes Foundation Charge Included
The Bronx Museum of the Arts Free Removed
The Butler Institute of American Art Free Included
The Dayton Art Institute Suggested donation Included
The Drawing Center Charge Removed
The Fralin Museum of Art at the University of Virginia Free Included
The Frick Collection Charge Included
The George Washington University Museum & The Textile Museum Suggested donation Removed
The Huntington Library, Art Collections, and Botanical Gardens Charge Removed
The Menil Collection Free Included
The Mint Museum Charge Included
The Museum at the Fashion Institute of Technology Free Included
The Phillips Collection Free Included
The Walters Art Museum Free Included
Toledo Museum of Art Free Included
Tucson Museum of Art Charge Included
University of Iowa Museum of Art Free Removed
University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology Suggested donation Included
Utah Museum of Fine Arts Charge Included
Vancouver Art Gallery Charge Included


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50
Vero Beach Museum of Art Virginia Museum of Fine Arts Wadsworth Atheneum Museum of Art Walker Art Center
Westmoreland Museum of American Art Wexner Center for the Arts at The Ohio State University
Whitney Museum of American Art Wichita Art Museum Williams College Museum of Art Winnipeg Art Gallery Worcester Art Museum Yale Center for British Art Zimmerli Art Museum/Rutgers
Charge Removed
Free Included
Charge Included
Charge Removed
Suggested donation Included
Charge Included
Charge Removed
Charge Included
Free Removed
Charge Removed
Charge Removed
Free Included
Free Included


SILVERMAN CAPSTONE MUSEUM ADMISSION
51
Appendix E
Variable Correlation Matrix
Total Total
Total Social School Operating Member Works in Personnel
Admission Hours Members Attendance Media Groups Budget Revenue Collection Expense
Admission 1.0000
Hours 0.0955 1.0000
Total Members 0.0430 0.3093 1.0000
Attendance -0.0655 0.4119 0.8298** 1.0000
Social Media 0.1284 0.1816 0.4451 0.4471 1.000
School Groups -0.1164 0.1240 0.5192* 0.4758 0.2603 1.0000
Operating Budget 0.0532 0.4261 0.6609* 0.7710* 0.4273 0.3626 1.0000
Total Member Revenue 0.0488 0.3222 0.8811 0.7669* 0.4396 0.4305 0.6496* 1.0000
Total Works in Collection -0.0071 0.0343 0.0320 0.0452 0.0830 0.1601 0.2051 0.0988 1.000
Percent of
Expense to Personnel -0.1837 -0.0784 -0.0187 -0.0653 -0.1298 0.0305 -0.0893 0.0233 -0.0031 1.0000
**indicates very high correlation at or above 0.8000 level indicates high correlation at or above 0.50


SILVERMAN CAPSTONE MUSEUM ADMISSION
52
Appendix F
Research Questions: Hypothesis Results
Research Question A
Which characteristics differentiate free museums from those that charge admission fees? Research Question B
Which characteristics can identify the form of admission a museum uses?_____________
Variable Hypothesis RQA Decision Rendered RQB Decision Rendered
Null Hypothesis HOa No defined variable can differentiate between museums that charge admission and those that do not charge admission. Rejected Rejected
Hours Hla Museums that offer free admission will record longer opening hours than those museums that charge for admission Rejected Rejected
Total Members H2a Museums that offer free admission will show lower membership numbers than those museums that charge for admission Accepted Accepted
Attendance H3a Museums that offer free admission will show higher attendance than those museums that charge for admission Rejected Accepted
Social Media H4a Museums that offer free admission will show the same average number of followers on social media platforms as those museums that charge for admission. Rejected Rejected
School Groups H5a Museums that offer free admission will show the same average number of school groups hosted annually as those museums that charge for admission. Accepted Accepted
Operating Budget H6a Museums that offer free admission will show higher operating budgets than those museums that charge for admission Rejected Rejected
Total Member Revenue H7a Museums that offer free admission will show lower membership revenue amounts than those museums that charge for admission Accepted Rejected
Total Works in Collection H8a Museums that offer free admission will hold larger collections of works than those museums that charge for admission Rejected Rejected
Percent of Expense to Personnel Percentage H9a Museums that offer free admission will show a higher percentage of their operating budget spent on personnel than those museums that charge for admission Accepted Accepted


SILVERMAN CAPSTONE MUSEUM ADMISSION
53
Appendix G
Mann-Whitney Tests for Significance
n=150
Variable P Value Difference in Medians (Charge Free)
Hours 0.0924* 4
Total Members 0.0086** 2791
Attendance 0.7159 -6262
Social Media 0.0179** 7322
School Groups 0.5407 43
Operating Budget 0.1514 2236502
Total Member Revenue 0.0691* 95163
Total Works in Collection 0.1291 -5393
Percent of Expense to Personnel 0.0328** -3
**significant at p>0.05 level *significant at p>0.10


SILVERMAN CAPSTONE MUSEUM ADMISSION
54
Appendix I Logit Model Results
n=150
Variable p-value Standard Error Coefficient
Hours 0.221 .0300355 .0367889
Total Members 0.034** .0072567 .015428
Attendance 0.001*** .0026775 -.0092953
Social Media 0.078* * .004735 .004735
School Groups 0.500 .0255993 -.0172531
Operating Budget 0.411 .0002711 .0002228
Total Member Revenue 0.735 .0007966 .0002695
Total Works in Collection 0.592 .001534 -.0008217
Percent of Expense to Personnel 0.043** .0161794 -.0327765
RA2 = 0.1393
*** significant at p>0.001 **significant at p>0.05
*significant at p>0.10


SILVERMAN CAPSTONE MUSEUM ADMISSION
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Appendix J
Significant Logit Variables with Percent and Direction of Movement
n=150
Variable Coefficient Coefficient Exponentiated Percent of Movement Direction towards charging admission
Total Members .015428 1.0155476 1.55% +
Attendance -.0092953 .99074777 0.93% -
Social Media .004735 1.0047462 0.47% +
Percent of Expense to Personnel -.0327765 .96775483 3.22% -


SILVERMAN CAPSTONE MUSEUM ADMISSION
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Appendix K
Post Estimation Tests for Logit Regression
Collinearity Diagnostics
Variable VIF
Admission 1.20
Hours 1.35
Total Members 5.82
Attendance 4.92
Social Media 1.81
School Groups 1.67
Operating Budget 1.35
Total Member Revenue 3.90
Total Works in Collection 4.44
Percent of Expense to Personnel 1.13
Specification Test
Admission Standard Error P Value
hat .2514091 0.000
hatsq .1582452 0.901


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In reference to the following title(s):
Silverman, K. Understanding Admission Models:
The Identifying Factors for Museum Admission. 2017.
I, 14 ,S _________, as copyright holder or licensee
with the authority to grant copyright permissions for the aforementioned title(s), hereby authorize Auraria Library and University of Colorado Denver to digitize, distribute, and archive the title(s) for nonprofit, educational purposes via the Internet or successive technologies.
I,______^______________________________________, as client of the copyright holder
affirm that the content submitted is identical to that which was originally supervised and that the content is suitable for publication in the Auraria Library Digital Collections.
This is a non-exclusive grant of permissions for on-line and off-line use for an indefinite term. Off-line uses shall be consistent either for educational uses, with the terms of U.S. copyright legislation's "fair use" provisions or, by the University of Colorado Denver and/or Auraria Library, with the maintenance and preservation of an archival copy. Digitization allows the University of Colorado Denver and/or Auraria Library to generate image- and text-based versions as appropriate and to provide and enhance access using search software.
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Form Name: capstone repository permission Submission Time: August 2, 2017 3:38 pm Browser: Chrome 59.0.3071.115 / OS X IP Address: 98.109.153.88 Unique ID: 341936126 Location: 40.736400604248, -74.072402954102 SCHOOL OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS ELECTRONIC CAPSTONE REPOSITORY Grant of Permissions Author (Student Name) Silverman, K. Title (Capstone Project Title) Understanding Admission Models: The Identifying Factors for Museum Admission Publication Date 2017 I am the: Client Signature Your Name Joan Prusse Date August 2, 2017 Email Address jprusse@clyffordstillmuseum.org ATTENTION