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Alphabetic literacy in the digital age : the rise of the e-book and its affect on American college students

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Alphabetic literacy in the digital age : the rise of the e-book and its affect on American college students
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Leddy, Brittany
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Metropolitan State University of Denver
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Alphabetic Literacy in the Digital Age: The Rise of the E-Book and Its Affect on American
College Students
by Brittany Leddy
An undergraduate thesis submitted in partial completion of the Metropolitan State University of Denver Honors Program
May 2013
Dr. Elizabeth Kleinfeld Dr. Luis Rivas Dr. Megan Hughes-Zarzo
Primary Advisor
Second Reader
Honors Program Director




Leddy 1
Alphabetic Literacy in the Digital Age:
The Rise of the E-Book and Its Affect on American College Students
Brittany Leddy
Metropolitan State University of Denver
Honors Thesis


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Abstract
This study examines the development of e-book technology within the publishing industry, and its applications for students in institutions of higher education. The goal of the research is to discover if there is any difference in the reading practices of students when they use an e-book compared to a printed book. In the primary research I have conducted, I am comparing how students critically read the same reading sample in a digital format and in print format, and then qualitatively analyzing the data collected through two different formats: a critical reading quiz and an interview.


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Introduction
In the new age of technology, we are constantly reading; e-mails, text messages, status updates, and tweets are all readily consumed through devices such as laptops, smart phones and tablets. When it comes to reading for comprehension, however, there has been a heated debate over the validity of print within that context despite advances to digitize.
The most noted technology within this debate has been the e-book. Its rise in popularity over the last few years has been cited as the death of the printed word as a cultural artifact and has been the scorn of book lovers and academics alike.1 Lester Faigley paraphrases Sven Birkerts assertions in The Gutenberg Elegies that [the importance of reading] is increasingly shrinking, with the attendant effects of the loss of deep thinking, the erosion of language, and the flattening of historical perspective2
In a speech given in 2012 to the National Press Club, Education Secretary Arne Duncan stated, Over the next few years... textbooks should be obsolete3. He suggested that they would soon be replaced with more multi-media alternatives such as e-books with hypertext to other sources and content specific web sites. One academic highly opposed to this move to digital is Justin B Hollander, an assistant professor of urban and environmental policy and planning at Tufts University. In his article Long Live Paper, he argues that this move to digital has come all too quickly, and has not had substantial time or research dedicated to see the dysfunctions of this new format. He also worries about the perpetuity of a digital form if technology is still rapidly growing and changing. He argues,
1 Bolter, Information Technologies and the Future of the Book, in Literacy: An International Handbook, ed. Daniel A. Wagner et al., Boulder (1999): 457.
2 Faigley, "Literacy After the Revolution: 1996 CCCC Chairs Address, in Literacy Theory in the Age of the Internet, ed. Todd Taylor etal. (New York, 1998): 13.
3 Qtd. in Hollander, "Long Live Paper, in The New York Times (October 10, 2012): A23.


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With strength and durability that could last thousands of years, paper can preserve information without the troubles we find when our most cherished knowledge is stuck on an unreadable floppy disk or lost deep in the cloud.4 5 6
The reference to the now obsolete floppy disk furthers his point that technology, especially in this time of rapid growth and evolution, cannot be counted on as a permanent solution for storing knowledge.
Despite the long-term applicability of the technology, one of the primary research questions of this new digital age regards the use of these devices within an academic setting.
E-Books and Their Role in the Publishing Industry
E-Book Sales and Growth
In 2010, two major trade groups, the American Association of Publishers (AAP) and the Book Insdustry Study Group (BISG), conducted a comprehensive survey called BookStats in order to test the growth or decline of the publishing industry between 2008 and 201056.
Since their introduction, [publishers say that approximately 30% of their business is digital7 and as the price of e-reader devices such as Barnes and Nobles Nook and Amazons
4 Ibid.
5 Bosman, "Publishing Gives Hints of Revival, Data Show, in The New York Times (August 9, 2011): Cl
6 "Industry Sales Rose 3.1% in 2010; Trade E-book Sales the Big Winner, Publisher's Weekly (August 9, 2011). http://www.publishersweekly.com/pw/by-topic/industry-news/financial-reporting/article/48280-industry-sales-rose-3-l-in-2010-trade-e-book-sales-the-big-winner.html.
7 McFadden, Are Textbooks Dead? Making Sense of the Digital Transition, Springer Science+Business Media (2012): 93.


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Kindle continue to decrease, these sales are only predicted to increase8. From 2009 to 2010 alone, e-book sales rose 201% and since then e-books have only risen in popularity9 10
Intellectual Property and Open Source Concerns
Within the traditional print publishing model, the publishers role is to ensure that the piece of work created by the writer is the copyright of its original creator, and this protects the piece from plagiarism or false accounts of ownership by another person. This copyright also provides the company with the rights to produce the work or sell it to another publisher.
As he notes in his article From Pencils to Pixels: The Stages of Literary Technologies, Dennis Baron says, Things are not so black and white in the world of digital text.. .the security and authenticity of ordinary texts is a major concern and cites concerns such as easy corruption or alteration of the text and a lack of traditional citation information such as date of
publication, the edition... and editorial changes or formatting introduced during the digitation
io
process
Since the Internet is open source, it may be difficult to establish the expertise of a particular author11. In a print publishing model this would be established by an editor who acts as a gatekeeper between the author and the intended audience, and whom then decides if this published work contributes to the current discussion of the topic, and if the author has presented
8 Bosman, "Publishing Gives Hints of Revival, Data Show, in The New York Times (August 9, 2011): Cl.
9 "Industry Sales Rose 3.1% in 2010; Trade E-book Sales the Big Winner, PublishersWeekly.com, August 9, 2011, http://www.publishersweekly.com/pw/by-topic/industiy-news/financial-reporting/article/48280-industry-sales-rose-3-l-in-2010-trade-e-book-sales-the-big-winner.html [accessed October 12, 2012].
10 Baron, "From Pencils to Pixels: The Stages of Literary Technologies, in Literacy: A Critical Sourcebook, ed. Ellen Cushman et al., Boston (2001): 81.
11 Ibid.


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themselves appropriately. However, online any one is able to develop a website or start a blog and publish it instantly, creating a void in the type of quality control in the print model. This could present itself as a problem in the form of independent student research, when the student may accidentally use an inappropriate source for academic work if not properly guided by faculty to valid databases.
The University Press Consortia
One of the largest shifts from print to digital has come from the university press sector. Seeing a trend in their reduced funding and decreased individual subscriptions, they knew that, [t]hey want[ed] to transition to a mixed-modeldigital and printsystem of content delivery.. .University presses realized they needed to get digital fast [and they] may be stronger and healthier working together12.
What emerged was four different models for university presses to choose from: Books at JSTOR, University Publishing Online (UPO), University Press Content Consortium (UPCC), and University Press Scholarship Online (UPSO). Each offers a unique business and distribution model, so the presses had the freedom to choose one that would best fit their unique needs.
Consistently throughout all four models, the e-book content is searchable alongside their existing journal content, allowing for easy distribution to students. The e-book content is also available in a PDF format, ensuring that the electronic and print version contain the same pagation.
One especially unique feature sets UPSO apart from the others: library distribution: UPSO offers libraries unlimited access to more than 7,000 books in 22 subject areas from six
12 Polanka, "University Presses and Ebooks: A New Horizon, Online (January/ February 2012]: 53.


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university press partners13 14. This feature especially persuaded Alison Mudditt, director of the University of California Press, to opt for this service over the others.
Below is a comparison of the four models:
Table 1: E-Book Consortium Models14
Product Name Host Pa rtners Titles Format URL
Books at JSTOR JSTOR 30 15,000 PDF http://about.jstor.org/books
University Publishing Online Cambridge University Press 6 13,000 PDF www.universitypublishingonline.org
UPCC Book Collections of Project MUSE Project MUSE 60-70 15,000 PDF http://beta.muse.jhu.edu
University Press Scholarship Online Oxford University Press 6 7,000 XML, PDF www.universitypressscholarship.com
One other model that came into this rise was the Gutenberg E-Project. Its goal was to provide a way for PhD dissertations to become published in fields that were often difficult to publish in conventionally15. The developers hoped that this would help alleviate costs to both the author and any library that wanted access to the materials. It eventually failed due to a lack of financing and over expansion.
13 Ibid, 55.
14 Polanka, "University Presses and Ebooks: A New Horizon, Online (January/ February 2012): 56.
15 Spielberg, review of The Case for Books: Past, Present, and Future, by Robert Darnton, PublicAffairs (2009): 4.


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E-Books in the Academic Setting
Potential Multi-Modal Applications
As e-books become more and more sophisticated, additional content can be embedded directly into the text, providing students with a multi-modal and more in depth context for their particular subject matter. Mike Sharpies places significance on the fact that electronic texts are, developing [their] own intrinsic character as [blenders] of interactive media, capable of merging text with images and acting as a personal assistant, interpreter, guide, and teacher within their multiple capabilities16. It is even speculated that, Once workflows are in place and new revenue streams [are] established, university presses can focus on a future of enhanced ebooks, those with multimedia, embedded links, and an array of nontext features allowing for even small academic presses to move towards a multi-media strategy for communicating academic topics.17
One such technology in place that has been studied extensively is the use of hypertext. Hypertext allows the author to provide an electronic link between his or her text and an outside source, providing the reader with a [redefinition of] the relationship between author, reader, and text18. These works are also not limited to text: some multi-modal examples include photographs, artwork, videos, or interactive media. One example of hypertext given by Jay David Bolter could be a canonical work like Hamlet or Pride and Prejudice can acquire links to critical essays, to similar but less monumental works by other authors, and to the students own
16 Sharpies, "Electronic Publication: Writing for the Screen, in Literacy in the Information Age: Inquiries into Meaning Making with New Technologies, ed. Bertram C. Bruce (Newark, 2003]: 47.
17 Polanka, "University Presses and Ebooks: A New Horizon, Online (January/ February 2012]: 56.
18 Bolter, Information Technologies and the Future of the Book, in Literacy: An International Handbook, ed. Daniel A. Wagner et al., Boulder (1999): 458.


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notes19. Through the use of hypertext, students are able to see the larger academic discourse on that particular topic, and therefore expand their understanding outside of the text itself.
Within the academic sphere, academic journals could utilize hypertext to directly link readers to the source of their citations. For researchers, this allows them to see the context around the quoted information, and to then draw their own assertions about whether or not the particular review of the author aligns with the conclusions in the text. There would also be greater ease in finding multiple sources on one particular topic, and having a more complete view of the major arguments on the subject at the time20.
There are arguments that the use of hypertext may disrupt the reading process that develops after having read a number of the same type of text. Reading theorists hypothesize that people formulate generalized, abstract patterns or frameworks, called schemas, that [readers] call on as they encounter new texts of the same type21 22. Once a schema is active, the reader will then look for the established pattern of that particular type of writing and decide which aspects or areas of the text to direct their attention to and thus what content they remember. Within a particular schema, readers will also judge what information the author has provided, and will place their trust in him or her to pick out the relevant information they need from the quoted source. However, with hypertext the reader may quickly succumb to information overload, or could question the validity of the original author, thus disrupting their comprehension of the
19 Bolter, Information Technologies and the Future of the Book, in Literacy: An International Handbook, ed. Daniel A. Wagner et al., Boulder (1999): 459.
20 Charney, "The Effect of Hypertext on Processes of Reading and Writing, in Literacy: A Critical Sourcebook, ed. Ellen Cushman etal., Boston (2001): 90.
21 Ibid, 91.
22 Ibid, 94-96.


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E-Textbooks
One segment of the e-book market that has seen rapid growth has been the e-textbooks segment. In 2011, e-textbook sales only accounted for eleven percent of all textbook sales, but that is a 44.3 percent increase in sales when compared to 201023. This rapid adoption of e-textbooks by students is due largely to the significant difference in cost between and e-book and its printed counterpart. In her article Are Textbooks Dead? Making Sense of the Digital Trasition, Christine McFadden notes that [c]ost remains a major factor and is a key consideration in student purchase decisions24. She also notes that according to a Follet analysis currently 80 % of course material sales come from just 10.5% of traditional textbook titles.. .and cost on average, more than $7525. If cost is a driving factor for student purchases, then you begin to see where the digital transition will take shape first26. By 2017, Follett predicts traditional print purchases will drop by about half as digital alternatives take their place27. As students continue to make the transition to digital, e-textbook developers have established two different formats for electronic learning: native digital and enhanced print.
Native digital materials function much like other software or web-based content: providing interaction with the material on an individual basis. One of the most popular examples of this type of format is My MathLab, which provides online homework assignments and tutorial and management tools, as well as the option for faculty to distribute their tests and quizzes
23 Yu, Technology, costs, lack of appeal slow e-textbook adoption. USA Today: Tech, January 17, 2012. http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/tech/news/story/2012-01-16/ebook-textbook-sales/52603 526/1
24 McFadden, Are Textbooks Dead? Making Sense of the Digital Transition, Springer Science+Business Media (2012): 93.
25 Ibid, 94.
26 Ibid, 94.
27 McFadden, Are Textbooks Dead? Making Sense of the Digital Transition, Springer Science+Business Media (2012), 96


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through the portal. This type of model is best suited for problem-based disciplines such as math or any math-based discipline such as physics or economics28.
Enhanced print is simply digital replicas of printed textbooks or course materials that include digital enhancements and study tools29. One of the most well reviewed features of the enhanced print format by faculty was the ability to make notes and highlights, and then to share those with the whole class. This engaged students in a dialogue about the course material, and they no longer viewed textbooks as the definitive point of information since they would witness their professor challenge one or more points within it30. This mirrors the peer-review process in academia, and introduces students to the concept of establishing an intellectual dialogue through critical reading of a text.
The Amazon Kindle DXPilot
In the fall of 2009, online retailer Amazon had seven universities in the United States participate in a pilot program for their new e-reader, the Kindle DX: Reed College, Arizona State University, Case Western Reserve University, Pace University, Princeton University, the University of Washington, and Darden School of business at the University of Virginia.31 After the rapid growth in e-reader use for leisure reading, Amazon was interested in testing the Kindle DXs potential use in an academic setting, and the challenges and benefits that students would incur while using the device.
28 Ibid, 95.
29 Ibid, 95.
30 Ibid, 98.
31 Trina Marmarelli and Martin Ringle, The Reed College Kindle Study, The Reed Institute (2009): 1.


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In comparison to the original Kindle, the Kindle DX featured a 9.7 inch screen instead of the standard six inch screen, which allows for a better viewing experience for newspapers, magazines, or other graphic rich reading content like textbooks32. Like its smaller counterpart, the Kindle DX uses e-ink technology. It is designed to look and readjust like paper and ink, and is not backlit in any way. This reduces the strain on the eyes that many backlit screens produce after long periods of use, and also allows the reader to use the device in a variety of lighting situations that may cause glare on a backlit screen.33
The overall goals of the pilot were to evaluate the features of this particular platform [Kindle DX]... identify impacts of the Kindle DX on teaching and learning activities... [and] assess the overall prospects of eReaders in higher education.34 The University of Washington also had the student participants keep a diary in order to find qualitative patterns amongst the participants. Their central question for the diary study was How do students integrate e-readers into their academic reading practice?35. Unlike Reed College and the University of Washington, Princeton University was also interested in the reduced paper usage by their students participating the pilot.36
32 Amazon, Kindle DX, Free 3G, 9.7 E Ink Display, 3G Works Globally, Amazon, http:// http://www.amazon.com/dp/B002GYWHSQ/?tag=googhydr-
20&hvadid= 16413069595&hvpos=ltl&hvexid=&hvnetw=g&hvrand=916711800321531836&h vpone=&hvptwo=&hvqmt=b&ref=pd_sl_lgtlqzgaj7_b [Accessed November 1, 2012],
33 M. Castillo, E-Readers and E-Paper, American .Journal of Neuroradiology 31 (2009): 1-2.
34 Trina Marmarelli and Martin Ringle, The Reed College Kindle Study, The Reed Institute (2009): 1.
35 Alexander Thayer, Charlotte P. Lee, Linda H. Hwang, Heidi Sales, Pausali Sen, and Ninad Dalai, The Imposition and Superimposition of Digital Reading Technology: The Academic Potential of E-readers (paper presented at ACM CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Vancover, BC, May 12, 2011).
36 Princeton Board of Trustees, The E-reader pilot at Princeton: Fall semester, 2009, Final Report, (executive summary), (2010).


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Each institution was also testing the use of the Kindle DX amongst different student and course types. In the three formal reports, written by the University of Washington, Reed College, and Princeton University, no two samplings of tested courses in the pilot program were identical. The University of Washington provided first year Computer Science and Engineering graduate students with a Kindle DX with all course materials uploaded into the device previously37. On the other hand, Princeton provided the Kindle DX to graduate students enrolled in the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, but only three courses and the students enrolled in them were selected38. Reed College, in comparison to Princeton and the University of Washington, stands in stark contrast; it is a small liberal arts college with no graduate programs. Rather than focus on the use of the Kindle DX on one student type in one discipline, Reed College diversified their study through the pilot course selection. They chose all upper division classes, but in English, French, and Political Science disciplines. This allowed Reed College to not only be able to provide insight into how undergraduate students utilized the Kindle DX and its features, but also how those uses, and shortcomings of the device, varied between disciplines39.
Despite the variations in sample populations, the three reports had similar findings amongst their participants. Many agreed that the Kindle DX was well suited for leisure or linear reading; when little to no annotations or reader response was required. However, the
37 Alexander Thayer, Charlotte P. Lee, Linda H. Hwang, Heidi Sales, Pausali Sen, and Ninad Dalai, The Imposition and Superimposition of Digital Reading Technology: The Academic Potential of E-readers (paper presented at ACM CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Vancover, BC, May 12, 2011).
38 Princeton Board of Trustees, The E-reader pilot at Princeton: Fall semester, 2009, Final Report, (executive summary), (2010).
39 Trina Marmarelli and Martin Ringle, The Reed College Kindle Study, The Reed Institute (2009).


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shortcomings of the Kindle DXs annotation abilities often forced students to abandon using it for academic purposes.
The students in the University of Washington, Reed College, and Princeton pilot reports favored the Kindle DX as a physical device. All three reports showed that students enjoyed the long battery life, portability, and legibility of the E ink technology. One of the faculty members in the Reed College study also commented on how the device is limited to one function in the classroom, reading: .. .use of the Kindle DX in class didnt lead to the distractions that re typical of laptop use. Students were not tempted to check their email, brows the web, or use the Kindle in class for anything except to refer to course materials40. These combined features made the Kindle DX appear to be a functional device in the classroom setting that would not lead to distractions that other devices, like iPads or laptops, can present because of their multifunctionality.
Regardless of the many functional capabilities the Kindle DX presented, the largest complaints from students came from their ability to interact with and annotate texts. In the three studies, all of them had uploaded scholarly articles in the form of PDF files to the Kindle DX. Despite the saved paper, the Kindle DX did not have features to annotate or highlight them, decreasing their comprehension rates for the texts41. Within the classroom as well, the Kindle DX was very clumsy, particularly when the entire class was trying to get to the same location in the text for group discussions42. This hinders classroom discussions, and Reed College reported that students used less textual evidence during class discussion because of the difficulty of navigating through the text. Faculty noted that this caused an overall decrease in the quality of
40 Ibid, 3.
41Princeton Board of Trustees, The E-reader pilot at Princeton: Fall semester, 2009, Final Report, (executive summary), (2010).
42 Ibid, 3.


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class discussion, and that fewer students were engaging in the types of textually supported claims that they had engaged in with traditional paper or laptops.
Overall, this pilot resulted in the developments that Amazon made to the Kindle line in its future generations. The Kindle Fire, the most recent Kindle, features a touch screen, which allows for easier navigation within the text, and for easier highlighting. However, the Kindle Fire acts more like a tablet than the traditional e-reader of the future generations. The LED screen causes glare, that decreases legibility in all lights, and features apps and easy web browsing, resulting in distractions if used in the classroom setting. Now alongside the transition from print to digital, the e-book industry is also caught in the transition from e-ink technology to the more sophisticated tablet. This newest medium allows for more interaction with the text, as well as the advantage of clear and colored images, but poses the threat of multi-tasking students in the classroom.
iPad Pilot Programs
The most popular tablet platform to come out in recent years is undoubtedly Apples iPad. Featuring a full color, 9.7 inch (diagonal) LED touch screen, and weighing only 1.33 pounds, it has become a replacement to the traditional laptop for some due to its functional diversity43.
In comparison to the Kindle DX, several institutions across North America and Europe have begun pilot programs centered on Apples iPad. Unlike the Kindle pilots, however, many of these programs have focused on teaching applications and modalities that the iPad could
43 Apple, Select an iPad 2, Apple,
http://store.apple.com/us/buy /home/shop_ipad/family/ipad2?product=IPAD2#tech-specs [Accessed March 13, 2013],


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provide to faculty, or the various applications students could use for the purposes of studying. According to a study conducted by Bulent Dogan from North American College, only four-percent of the students surveyed said that they have used their iPad for reading textbooks, while 36 percent reported using it to take notes, and 21 percent reported using a specific application for learning or studying44. From this data, it can be inferred that students, when given a more multimodal device, choose to use it as more of a tool for studying, and less as a tool for reading when compared to the single function Kindle device.
In 2010, Reed College, one of the participants in the Kindle DX pilot, did a follow up study with the iPad device; testing its usability as an e-book platform. The goals were similar to the Kindle DX pilot, and only one upper-division seminar, Political Science 442: Nuclear Politics, was asked to participate. This was one of the classes from the Kindle DX pilot as well, making the data easy to compare since the reading list had been changed very little within that time.
Students reported that they enjoyed the high-contrast color LED screen, and found it only slightly less effective for viewing graphics than the printed textbook. This is a vast improvement from the black and white e-ink display on the Kindle DX. The students also reported little notable eyestrain and easy text legibility from long periods of from the backlit screen contrary to the hypothesis of the researchers.
One of the most notable differences between the Kindle DX and the iPad was that the students reported carrying it with them at all times both on and off campus. This was due to the fact that as a device it serves more than one function, and therefore was applicable to more aspects of their education than assigned reading. Due to the easy portability, students also
44 Dogan, Integration of iPad in Higher Education: A Pilot Project, Global Conference of Technology, Innovation, Media and Education (2012).


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mentioned that they found themselves reading or reviewing material more often than if they had a printed format This may also be due to the fact that the iPad, with its Apple branding, acts more as a lifestyle and status item than the Kindle DX, and is therefore more likely to be used for personal use outside of the classroom.
The touch screen capabilities were also more navigable than the Kindle DXs keyboard and joystick system, and students found it easy to switch between texts in classroom discussion.
Much like in the Kindle DX Pilot, the iPad failed to meet expectations in regards to highlighting, annotation, and manipulation of texts45. While there were applications to annotate PDFs and to make multi-colored highlights, the students noted that the inconsistencies in how the PDF was scanned sometimes made it difficult to read all of the text without scrolling horizontally. They suggested instituting a college-wide standard for formatting PDFs, but this may be hard to implement, and would require extensive faculty training.
Since the iPad is not a single function device, unlike the Kindle DX, one of the major concerns professors had was that they might become a distraction in class. Within the tested course however, which was largely discussion based, students found that the switch between applications was fast enough to go from the reading to a web browser in order to pull up relevant information for the discussion, but they didnt feel like it was quick enough to warrant switching between them frequently. However, they did note that if they had been in a large lecture, the temptation to switch to an email client or web browser might occasionally be irresistible46.
45 Marmarelli et al., Reed College iPad Study, (2011), 1.
46 Marmarelli et al., Reed College iPad Study, (2011), 4.


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Another struggle with the iPad was the lack of an internal filing system in order to organize notes and course readings. Students reported that it was often hard to find documents, and this hampered productivity47.
Overall, by the end of the study the students said that they would continue to use their iPad academically. These students received their iPads at a discount by the end of the study, and the report noted that the upfront cost would be a high deterrent to requiring all students to own one in order to implement an institution wide initiative of any kind.
Primary Research
Methodology
While the literature acknowledges that reading practices differ between the printed and digital forms, it has not been thoroughly analyzed as to the effect those differences place on the students performance in tests and classroom participation. The goal of my research was to discover the cognitive differences, if any, between how students read in a printed form versus an electronic form for academic or educational purposes within higher education.
In order to determine these differences, I conducted primary research using two vehicles48. The participants where given a 250-word reading sample from Mark Twains Advice to Youth in either a print or portable document format (PDF) on an iPad. This sample was chosen because of the popularity and familiarity for most with the author, but the style of the piece is a parody. This style requires a more analytical reading in order to derive the true
47 Ibid, 5.
48 The format of the study was reviewed and approved in advance by Metropolitan State University of Denvers Institutional Review Board.


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meaning, ensuring that the participants would need to employ more cognitive reading strategies. An unmarked copy of the sample has been provided in Appendix A.
For the participants that were given a printed copy, they were also supplied with colored highlighters and pens for making annotations. The most common iPad applications for viewing PDFs (Apple iBooks, Amazon Kindle, and Evemote) did not have methods for making annotations, so participants who were tested in this form were not able to make any.
All of the participants were told to treat the reading sample as if they were reading it for class, and were also told that they will be administered a short quiz after their reading. This was done to ensure that the participants read this within an academic frame of mind that would simulate what they stress and accentuate while reading for college level coursework.
The quiz itself was four questions: three multiple-choice and one short answer. The short answer questions were modeled after standardized test questions on Advanced Placement English literature practice quizzes. The goal of Advanced Placement tests is to judge students academic aptitude for college-level coursework, therefore placing the format and content of the questions within college level application. The percentage of correct answers for the participants also serves as a quantitative evaluation method. Depending on what format their reading sample was given in, and the number of correct answers on their quiz, their could be a correlation found between the reading format, and critical reading.
The short answer question, on the other hand, was a device for qualitative assessment. The response was not meant to be longer than a paragraph, and the question required that the subject use textual analysis and examples from the text to defer the meaning of a device used within the reading. A highly successful response would include at least one example of textual


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support (either directly quoted or alluded to), and a brief explanation how this device fits within the piece as a whole on a thematic level.
Secondarily, after the reading and quiz, the participants were informally interviewed regarding their experience or inexperience with e-books and using them for academic purposes. The first question was consistent amongst all of the participants, and was Have you ever used any kind of e-book for school before? I then will ask them why they have or have not, and the advantages and disadvantages they find to both media. Other points of inquiry included devices they own and use for reading e-books, if they prefer one form to another, and common strategies they employ while academically reading. These interviews were audio recorded and then transcribed for accurate quotation with the exception of Participant C, whose interview did not properly record.
There were a total of 6 participants, ranging in age from 18-24, and all were currently students at Metropolitan State University of Denver. Complete profiles, which includes sex, class standing, academic major and minor, and which sample type they were given, of the participants are as follows:
Participant A: Male, Senior, English major, Technical Communications minor, print sample.
Participant B: Male, Senior, English major, History minor, print sample.
Participant C: Female, Sophomore, English major, Secondary Education minor, digital sample.
Participant D: Male, Senior, English major, Anthropology minor, print sample.
Participant E: Female, Senior, Sociology major, digital sample.
Participant F: Male, Sophomore, Music Education major, print sample.


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comes with reading a printed book, and the effect that has on their perception of how much they had read. Participant E, in particular, noted that the kinesthetic act of writing notes in the margins causes her to have a higher comprehension of the material versus if she types notes or is unable to make notes.
The participants who do not already own a tablet or e-reader also noted that the additional upfront costs of buying a tablet or e-reader is a major factor in why they have not made the transition, which is in line with the literature. They noted that even though their laptops could also function as e-reader devices, they would be too heavy and cumbersome to carry around all day and many of them do not feature a long enough battery life to allow them to be in use all day without charging.
Limitations of the Conclusions and Further Research
All of my participants had majors or minors within the humanities, arts, or social sciences. Further research is needed to test the applicability of e-book technology for students within the hard sciences. Test performance will also need to be further quantified with a larger sample size.
A learning style inventory could also be administered to the participants before they are given the reading sample. This could gauge any relationship between learning style and performance on the quiz and preferred format.


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Recommendations and Best Practices
As the popularity of e-books continues to rise for college students in the U.S., educators are trying to find the most effective ways to incorporate this technology in the classroom. After a review of the literature and my own research, I do not think that the e-book technology has advanced far enough to meet the tactile annotation needs of students and the lack of consistency between formats for discussion-based classes is another major point of concern.
One way publishers could address these two obstacles would be to develop a system for students to make annotations on their text with a stylist or some other device that could mimic handwriting. This would provide students with the same capabilities as the print form as to having their notes right alongside the text, and providing the kinesthetic needs of students by writing and not typing their notes and developing their own system for highlighting or marking important parts of the text.
Another area that must be consistent across all e-book platforms is pagation. Especially in the humanities and other discussion-based disciplines, students need to be able to reference a certain section and have other students quickly find that section themselves. If the page numbers of the printed version corresponded directly with the page numbers of its printed counterpart, students could very easily have one or the other and not disrupt the flow of discussion. Students would also be able to choose which format best serves their learning style, and wouldnt need to abandon using this technology midway through a semester because it was too difficult to keep up in class like Participant A experienced.
Once those developments are made, e-books could become a highly viable alternative to print, and then it is up to the faculty and the institution to see as to how to best implement this technology in the classroom. Based on my research, the best method in how to carry this out


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would be to let the student choose which format he or she prefers. However, as the multi-media aspect of electronic texts continues to develop, faculty may want to incorporate these new features into their lectures or discussions. In order to discover if these new media significantly supplement learning, more research will need to be done.


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Bibliography
Amazon, "Kindle DX, Free 3G, 9.7 E Ink Display, 3G Works Globally." Accessed November 1, 2012. http://www.amazon.com/dp/B002GYWHSQ/?tag=googhydr-20&hvadid= 16413069595&hvpos=ltl&hvexid=&hvnetw=g&hvrand=91671180032153 183 6&hvpone=&hvptwo=&hvqmt=b&ref=pd_sl_l gtlqzgaj 7_b.
Baron, Dennis. From Pencils to Pixels: The Stages of Literacy Technologies. Literacy: A Critical Sourcebook. Edited by Ellen Cushman, Eugene R. Kintgen, Barry M. Kroll, and Mike Rose. Boston: Bedford/ St. Martin's, 2001.
Barron, Phillip. "E-Readers in the Classroom." Transformation: The Journal of Inclusive Scholarship and Pedagogy. no. 1 (2011): 133-138.
Bolter, Jay David. Information Technologies and the Future of the Book. Literacy: An
International Handbook. Edited by Daniel A. Wagner, Richard L. Venezky, and Brian V. Street. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1999.
Bosman, Julie. "Publishing Gives Hint of Revival, Data Show." New York Times, August 09, 2012. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/08/09/books/survey-shows-publishing-expanded-since-2008.html?_r=l&partner=rss&emc=rss (accessed October 31, 2012).
Charney, Davida. The Effect of Hypertext on Processes of Reading and Writing. Literacy: A
Critical Sourcebook. Edited by Ellen Cushman, Eugene R. Kintgen, Barry M. Kroll, and Mike Rose. Boston: Bedford/ St. Martin's, 2001.
Hollander, Justin B. "Long Live Paper." New York Times, October 09, 2012.
http://www.nytimes.com/2012/10/10/opinion/long-live-paper.html?_r=2 (accessed October 9, 2012).


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"Industry Sales Rose 3.1% in 2010; Trade E-Book Sales the Big Winner." Publisher's Weekly, August 09, 2011. http://www.publishersweekly.com/pw/by-topic/industry-news/financial-reporting/article/48280-industry-sales-rose-3-l-in-2010-trade-e-book-sales-the-big-winner.html (accessed October 9, 2012).
Kmetz, Marcia, Robert Lively, Crystal Broch-Colombini, & Thomas Black. Disciplining
Technology: A Selective Annotated Bibliography, In On the Blunt Edge: Technology in Compositions History and Pedagogy, edited by Shane Borrowman, 98-114. Anderson: Parlor Press LLC, 2012.
Kress, Gunther. Literacy in the New Media Age. London: Routledge, 2003.
Marmarelli, Trina, and Martin Ringle. The Reed College Kindle Study. Portland: Reed Institute, 2009. http://www.reedinstitute.org/cis/about/kindle_pilot/Reed_Kindle_report.pdf (accessed November 1, 2012).
----- The Reed College iPad Study, Portland: Reed Institute, 2011
McFadden, Christine. "Are Textbooks Dead? Making Sense of the Digital Transition." Springer Science Business Media. (2012). 10.1007/sl2109-012-9266-3 (accessed January 6, 2013).
Pettenati, Corrado. "Electronic Publishing at the End of 2001." World Scientific, December 4, 2001.
Polanka, Sue. "University Presses and Ebooks: A New Horizon." Online, January 2012, 53-56.
Princeton Board of Trustees, The E-reader pilot at Princeton: Fall semester, 2009, Final Report, (executive summary). Princeton: 2010.
Robertson, Sherry Rankins & Duane Roen. Textbooks and their pedagogical Influences in Higher Education: A Bibliographic Essay. In On the Blunt Edge: Technology in


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Compositions History and Pedagogy, edited by Shane Borrowman, 98-114. Anderson: Parlor Press LLC, 2012.
Sharpies, Mike. Electronic Publication: Writing for the Screen. Literacy in the Information Age: Inquiries into Meaning Making with New Technologies. Edited by Bertram C. Bruce. Newark: International Reading Association, 2003.
Spielberg, David. Review of The Case for Books: Past, Present, Future, New York. Journal of High Technology Law, 2012.
Thayer, Alexander, Charlotte P. Lee, Linda H. Hwang, Heidi Sales, Pausali Sen, and Ninad Dalai. The Imposition and Superimposition of Digital Reading Technology: The Academic Potential of E-readers. Paper presented, ACM CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Vancover, BC, May 12, 2011.
Wolf, Maryanne. Proust and Squid: The Story and Science of the Reading Brain. New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 2007.
Yu, Rodger. Technology, costs, lack of appeal slow e-textbook adoption. USA Today: Tech, January 17, 2012. http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/tech/news/story/2012-01-16/ebook-
textbook-sales/52603 526/1


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Appendix A: Reading Sample
This excerpt is taken from Advice to Youth by Mark Twain. In this speech, given to a group of young women, Twain uses his humorous writing style to parody the traditional moralistic lecture.
Now as to the matter of lying. You want to be very careful about lying; otherwise you are nearly sure to get caught. Once caught, you can never again be in the eyes to the good and the pure, what you were before. Many a young person has injured himself permanently through a single clumsy and ill finished lie, the result of carelessness born of incomplete training. Some authorities hold that the young ought not to lie at all. That of course, is putting it rather stronger than necessary; still while I cannot go quite so far as that, I do maintain, and I believe I am right, that the young ought to be temperate in the use of this great art until practice and experience shall give them that confidence, elegance, and precision which alone can make the accomplishment graceful and profitable. Patience, diligence, painstaking attention to detailthese are requirements; these in time, will make the student perfect; upon these only, may he rely as the sure foundation for future eminence. Think what tedious years of study, thought, practice, experience, went to the equipment of that peerless old master who was able to impose upon the whole world the lofty and sounding maxim that Truth is mighty and will prevailthe most majestic compound fracture of fact which any of woman born has yet achieved. For the history of our race, and each individuals experience, are sewn thick with evidences that a truth is not hard to kill, and that a lie well told is immortal. There is in Boston a monument of the man who discovered anesthesia; many people are aware, in these latter days, that that man didnt discover it at all, but stole the discovery from another man. Is this truth mighty, and will it prevail? Ah no, my hearers, the monument is made of hardy material, but the lie it tells will outlast it a million years. An awkward, feeble, leaky lie is a thing which you ought to make it your unceasing study to avoid; such a lie as that has no more real permanence than an average truth. Why, you might as well tell the truth at once and be done with it. A feeble, stupid, preposterous lie will not live two yearsexcept it be a slander upon somebody. It is indestructible, then of course, but that is no merit of yours. A final word: begin your practice of this gracious and beautiful art early begin now. If I had begun earlier, I could have learned how.


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Appendix B: Reading Quiz
Comprehension Questions:
1. Twains attitude toward lying is:
a. Its bad and no one should do it
b. Its an inevitable part of human existence
c. Lying should be studied before being put into practice
d. Lying will only lead to moral ambiguity
2. According to Twain, all of the following are skills needed to be a successful liar except:
a. Diligence
b. Painstaking attention to detail
c. Patience
d. Cunning
3. Twains tone suggests that the phrase Truth is mighty and will prevail is
a. Outdated
b. Misinformed
c. Ignorant
d. Enlightened
4. Please give a maximum one paragraph response to the following question: What purpose does the mention of the man who was falsely credited to have discovered anesthesia serve within the text?


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Appendix C: Scans of Participants Reading Quizzes
Participant A
Comprehension Questions:
X- Twains attitude toward lying is:
a. Its bad and no one should do it
b. Its an inevitable part of human existence
c. Lying should be studied before being put into practice (cU Lying will only lead to moral ambiguity
2. According to Twain, all of the following are skills needed to be a successful liar
except:
4.
a. Diligence
b. Painstaking attention to detail
c. Patience (ji) Cunning
Twains tone suggests that the phrase "Truth is mighty and will prevail is
a. Outdated (2) Misinformed
c. Ignorant
d. Enlightened
Please give a maximum one paragraph response to the following question: What purpose does the mention of the man who was falsely credited to have discovered
anesthesia serve within the text?
a Mt
tJlsMLib


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Participant B
B
Comprehension Questions:
Twains attitude toward lying is:
a. Its bad and no one should do it It' s an inevitable part of human existence
c. Lying should be studied before being put into practice
d. Lying will only lead to moral ambiguity
2, According to Twain, all of the following are skills needed to be a successful liar except:
a. Diligence
h Painstaking attention to detoil c. Patience (C} Cumimg
Twains tone suggests that the phrase Truth is mighty and will prevail is
a. Outdated
b. Misinformed £) Ignorant d. Enlightened
4. Please give a maximum one paragraph response to the following question: What purpose does the mention of the man who was falsely credited to have discovered
anesthesia serve within the text?
r j., pr''/
tor -1 , Mto
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po>'n+ about )


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Participant C
i. C. Z D. 3. 6
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fu
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3 zd~0Cy Seizes && J//___________ .o (C
f*cf- 'f^^ /- ^*4** A //e As cc-f/'A^/


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Participant D

Comprehension Questions:
1. Twains attitude toward lying is:
a. It's bad and no one should do it
b. It's an inevitable part of human existence
/'tlsv) Lying should be studied before being put into practice d. Lying will only lead to moral ambiguity
2. According to Twain, all of the following are skills needed to be a successful liar except:
a. Diligence
b. Painstaking attention to detail
c. Patience (a ^Cunning
3. Twains tone suggests that the phrase "Truth is mighty and will prevail is
a. Outdated (dx) Misinformed
c. Ignorant
d. Enlightened
4. Please give a maximum one paragraph response to the following question: What purpose does the mention of the man who was falsely credited to have discovered
anesthesia serve within the text?


:s ?Ve_
vs as a ^ ^
\k\JL cvv\{>|



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Participant E
Comprehension Questions:
1. Twains attitude toward lying is:
a. Its bad and no one should do it
b. Its an inevitable part of human existence
(c/) Lying should be studied before being put into practice
d. Lying will only lead to moral ambiguity
2. According to Twain, all of the following are skills needed to be a successful liar except:
a. Diligence
b. Painstaking attention to detail
c. Patience / (dj) Cunning
Jib: Twain's tone suggests that the phrase "Truth is mighty and will prevail is
a. Outdated
b. Misinformed Ignorant
d. Enlightened
4. Please give a maximum one paragraph response to the following question: What purpose does the mention of the man who was falsely credited to have discovered
anesthesia serve within the text? (W (v>fYfei
vxgoo u^vxd oo^reSa_
a dp 4ne. PhorMiwwJ
9^^ UidV toC&V\ \£06M^'d
NCfcayfe rvw vrb\ho ^Vxei&^-to
es to
ymc <**-*& "t e-
W'oXWk'W-Qy^' \ouJ> ^ Ipeyyacusfi- £- H.


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Participant F
r
Comprehension Questions:
,1. Twains attitude toward lying is:
a. Its bad and no one should do it
b. Its an inevitable part of human existence
c. Lying should be studied before being put into practice y (tL) Lying will only lead to moral ambiguity
. 2. According to Twain, all of the following are skills needed to be a successful liar except:
a. Diligence
b. Painstaking attention to detail (c) Patience
d. Cunning
3. Twain's tone suggests that the phrase Truth is mighty and will prevail is
a. Outdated (b) Misinformed
c. Ignorant
d. Enlightened
4. Please give a maximum one paragraph response to the following question: What purpose does the mention of the man who was falsely credited to have discovered anesthesia serve within the text?
"Dr scores b? l:cS c-ow ^.r^ofWvr ''*


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Appendix D: Transcripts of Interviews
Transcript from Interview with Participant A
Brittany Leddy
7:45
Q: OK, so, [Participant A], I know you read a lot on your iPad and on other electronic formats, but when you first got started what were some of the challenges you might have seen in using that format over print?
A: Um, I think some of the challenges were that I could not have a physical, a tangible feel for how far I was getting into the book, and it felt like, this is gonna sound weird, but...Im like a progress guy, so its like, I have to kind of see my progress for the book its easy to turn a page, you see the page number and you kind of, you know, you see that dimension, oh you know, thats, thats a fourth of a way through the book, but with an iPad or a phone, especially a phone, you know, with the small screen you flip, and then its as if, with my phone, its as if I flip five times and I havent even gone past one page, all right, how long do I have to read?
Q: Like, what am I doing?
A: What am I doing? And then with an iPad, it was kind of the same thing, it was a little more tolerable, but it was just that whole, Im flipping my finger and Im just like, when am I gonna get through, perhaps, perhaps its the electronic...uh, items fault or maybe its just Im a slow reader. It could go either way.
Q: So have you ever used those formats for class before?
A: I have.
Q: Yeah. And then what was your experience like with that?
A: Um...itwas not great cause I barely got through any book. Um, it was good if it was a technical course where if I had the book in my iPad and I just needed to know terms or research and I would just flip through that page. But if it was for a literature a lit class -like young adult literature and I had one book a week, and I would download some of those books on my iPad, and I was, it was, Im literally just throwing money away because I never got to the books but that wasnt mainly because of the iPad, I really think it was because, because I didnt have a disciplined reading routine in place, which I think is at the core of everything. Because now Im used to out-of-print or electronic and I can go through any book.
Q: And kind of just flip flop between them?


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A: Flip-flop between, yeah, whats efficient and what I feel like, you know. I love the phone because if Im standing in line, we waste nine years of our lives. Nine years, yeah, in our entire lifetime, just standing in line, if I had my phone Ill read.
Q: So do you do any kinds of like, annotations or anything, in your phone, like, hows that process?
A: Um, I do. With Kindle you can highlight and do notes. So when I read Fault in Our Stars by...John Green read that book! number one book in 2012 according to Time Magazine...um, yeah, I you know, profound, profound quotes or, you know, parts of the book, and then now, now that Im more conscious as a, as a writer, if I see that, oh, OK, this is a good place where, uh, on craft, you know, like highlight the entire paragraph or make a note about, OK, this author uses this technique, look back into this. Or something like that, you know.
Q: So whats the...do you use the Kindle app on your iPad or do you have, like a Kindle Kindle?
A: Oh, just on iPad.
Q: OK.
A: I would find that redundant.
Q: Yeah.

A: Yeah, got two machines, now what?
Q: Yeah.
A: Yeah.
Q: So you can can you highlight in different colors on the Kindle app or is it just the one color?
A: Im gonna assume that, by that comment, you can do that with the Kindle Kindle. No, you can only, one color, you can only do that.
Q: OK, and do you find that its easy to go back and look at your notes in that app or is it a little bit of a tricky system?
A: You know, ultimately I consider myself a print guy. Um, with the Kindle and the iPad, the electronics, I dont see myself...like going back through them to get the notes, but they have really efficient system where, its some, I mean you probably know this, but its just some


Leddy 40
option where it shows you all the highlights of the notes youve written, so its, it stores it in a very organized way, which is fun and easy to access, but because Im a print guy, Im used to my notes being on paper, or handwritten by my, by me.
Q: Yeah.
A: So, Im trying to improve my writing, Im more likely to go to my written notes than my electronic.
Q: OK. So, when you like have a book for a class for example, do you usually get a print and an electronic or just one or the other?
A: Ill get one.
Q: Youll just get one?
A: Ill just get one.

A: Ill get one, would you like me to elaborate?
Q: Yeah!
A: Urn.
Q: What kind of, what kind of facilitates that choice?
A: Gotcha. Finance, uh, finances facilitates that choice, um, just practicality, why would I, you know, why would I carry two, I guess maybe with my phone, yeah, if I store it in my phone, I can flip through it and its not heavy, or bigger, like a book, but really if I have one or the other I can carry, as long as I have my hands, my arms... , you know, a shark doesnt eat them, you know, thats fine. Knock on wood, you know, I can pull 'em out of my bag if its a book, or my phone, and just, yeah, look through it.
Q: Mmhm.
A: But yeah, I think thats what facilitates my choice.
Q: OK. So are there, I know you mentioned that for lit classes, you like to have a print one, but for tech classes you do prefer an electronic, so does that kind of also play into it a little bit?
A: Um, I never made that conscious choice, but when you say it that way, it makes a lot of sense to me, and I think thats what I would do.


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Q: Yeah...
A: Yeah, just because uh, with texts, with textbooks...I guess you dont necessarily have to read them in order, you know, just basically you find your, the quickest solution to being able to be able to get the answers you need.
Q: Yeah.
A: Cause youre just answering questions, if my answers located around 343,1 may not need to know anything thats in....2...222, you know saying unless its all foundation that builds on top of each other, I guess the circumstances vary.
Q: Yeah. So like, in your young adult lit class, when you were using electronic books, did you find that you could keep up with, you know, finding the locations that people were talking about in the books.
A: Oh, um, so one of the problems the earlier versions I think of the Kindle app had that, where some books, where they were translated into that format was that they did not show the page numbers, they had their own systems.
Q: Yeah.
A: And just... I was just, I was lost, you know, I was just like, uh, unit two thousand four hundred eighty three, what does that mean? Oh thats page 20. Oh, well, how was I supposed to know that, and I remember being in class with my iPad just like, looking through stuff, trying to find that page, and if I didnt finish the book, I was even more screwed.

Q: Just have no idea where this is...
A: Yeah, Id just kind of close it down and start playing, you know, froggie. Its like, no, I never did that.
Q: I can just see you in class, just flipping through...
A: Uh, Javier, what is that?

A: Take your iPad from you. Not fourth grade.
Q: Yeah, so did you find that that was a distraction when you had your iPad out in class, was the ability to like, check other things or...anything like that?


Leddy 42
A: Um, no, it was not, because Im, uh, Im, you know, I I stay pretty focused, I dont want to get in trouble.
Q: Yeah.
A: Yeah, you know, um, I can say though that the productivity apps like, you know, notetaking, or, like, their bootleg Word, you know, I, I would think, all this is fancy, I can type my notes on here, its so inefficient for me, Im a, Im a really print guy, Im more organized when I can write it down with my fingers, rather than type them up in an iPad. Now, if its a laptop, thats a different story, Im pretty organized with a laptop.
Q: Yeah. OK. Well, I think thats really all Ive got so...
A: Sweet!


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Transcript from Interview with Participant B
Brittany Leddy
3:04
Q: OK. So I guess well go ahead and start with, um, have you ever used an e-book or read on an e-book format before?
A: Um, Ive used a couple of PDFs, uh, read a PDF, uh, so I guess, yeah, that would be an e-book format.
Q: Technically, yeah, um, did you read that on, like, an iPad, Kindle, or just a regular laptop? A: Just a laptop.
Q: OK. Um...have you ever used, like, read like a full-length e-book? Like for class or anything like that? Or have you always stuck with the printed counterparts?
A: Uh, I prefer the printed counterparts. Um, and also I dont have a tablet so the printed counterparts are a lot easier for me to transport around so, long answer to the question is no.

Q: OK, so what is it about the print form that you prefer maybe over, like, adopting a tablet or something like that?
A: Um, part of it is price point, you know the tablets are, like, a couple hundred dollars where I can go buy a book for $6.99 or something. Um, the other part is just I I think its easier for for me to just pick up a book and read it as opposed to picking up a...an electronic formatted thing, even though I havent really done a whole lot of it.
Q: Mmhm. So with PDFs have you ever printed them out or have you always just read them on a laptop?
A: Ive just read them on a laptop cause theyre too, theyre too long to print out.
Q: OK.
A: So...
Q: Um, so when you have a printed form do you find that you, like, make any kinds of annotations or anything like that or do you just kind of read just to read it?
A: I usually just read to to read it, cause, unless Im being required to annotate it for something.


Leddy 44
Q: OK. Do you think thats your own personal learning style or do you think its just for simplicity and convenience?
A: I I think that, you know, thats just generally how I go about things, cause I, I have this weird thing about, uh, marking in in books, so I just dont do it.
Q: OK. And with a PDF youve never, like, highlighted or annotated with any of the, like Adobe stuff that you can do with it?
A: No, not really.
Q: OK. Um, and, did you find that reading the PDFs before class, like, still gave you enough to kind of remember what they were about without having them right in front of you?
A: Im trying to think of a...Ive done a couple of those where I had to read something on...on a PDF or something, but...
Q: Mmhm.
A: ...I dont remember a...a significant difference between, between a lot of it, I mean, yeah, I cant remember a significant difference. Thats not to say there wasnt one, I just cant remember one at this point.
Q: OK. Um, and I know youre an English major, um, but whats your minor in.
A: Uh, history.
Q: In history? OK. So for history, youre still mostly looking at printed materials.
A: Mmhm.
Q: OK. So, I really think thats all I have for you, so...kudos.
A: That was quick.


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Transcript from Interview with Participant D
Brittany Leddy
4:02
Q: OK, so my first question is always, have you ever used any kind of e-books for school before? A: No, I have not.
Q: Why havent you adopted e-books as an alternate yet?
A: Um.. .1 guess its because the main thing is I dont have an e-reader, so lugging around my laptop is too heavy and cumbersome. Um, and honestly, Im just one of those purist assholes who likes to have a book, a hard copy of a book in my hand.
Q: So what do you find is beneficial of reading in print over reading on your computer screen, for example?
A: Um, number one the tactile experience, theres just something to be said about actually being able to touch, smell, feel the book as the pages turn, and I just think its a lot quicker, its easier to navigate with your hands as opposed to I dont know just like having to open up a bunch of windows, go back to your reference page, and quickly go back to it. I also like to highlight, I like drawing, so coloring is very fun to me.
Q: OK, so would you say that when youre reading something for class that you do make a lot of notes and annotations in the margins and stuff?
A: Um, not as many annotations as, um, just more like physical highlighting, flagging with post-it notes and stuff like that, um. Yeah, I mean sometimes Ill write in the margins and thats easier than having to go down to the dialogue box and look down, open comments, click on it, make a comment. I can just pull out my pencil and bang, done, right there.
Q: Have you ever been required to have an electronic copy for class before or anything like that?
A: Yeah, I mean theres been like hybrid classes and stuff, and theres always like online content so, thats kind of part of it but Ive never been actually required to buy a book online or anything or have a digital copy of a book, theres always been that option.
Q: Have you found that learning, like, reading something on your computer screen, you remember it more or less?
A: Much less.
Q: Much less?
A: Yeah.


Leddy 46
Q: Do you have an idea of as to why that is?
A: Um, probably theres so much more going on with the computer screen, its a lot easier to become distracted, and it just fries your eyeballs.
Q: Yeah.
A: Staring at a screen all day, I mean, youre a writer too, you know what its like so...
Q: Yeah.
A: Yeah, itll fry your eyeballs, whereas you can read for hours and probably just end up getting kind of tired but, unless its a very exciting book that youre reading.
Q: So if, lets say, you were given some kind of tablet device, um, would you consider buying e-books just on a price basis or would you still go for that tactile experience?
A: Im never gonna change, theyre going to have to pry my books from my cold, dead hands. It would be fun to have a tablet for other things, and I would probably use it to, you know, go on to Amazon and open the book and kind of get an idea of, like, the table of contents and a couple pages, but if its a book Im actually interested in reading and engaging and the full experience, Im gonna buy a copy of it no matter what.
Q: Okay. So I really think thats all Ive got for you.


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Transcript from Interview with Participant E
Brittany Leddy
5:08
Q: OK, so, outside of todays research have you ever used, like a tablet, or any kind of e-book for educational purposes?
A: I have a Kindle application on my phone that Ive used, uh, for the sake of pulling up, um, like my educational texts, like, not textbooks but kind of the supplementary reading to textbooks, like any other stories or, like philosophy books or whatever, but I havent used any e-textbooks or any of that.
Q: OK, um, and have you ever considered buying a tablet to do that?
A: I have, but I have so many resources on my phone and on my computer that it almost seems like it would be a bit much.
Q: Mmhm.
A: Like kind of pointless.
Q: Yeah. Um and so...have you ever considered going straight to e-books? Maybe using your computer instead?
A: I have but I realize, because I tried using my laptop to like, take notes and, um, look things up in class one semester, and I realized I wasnt retaining information very well when I was, like, taking notes in that sort of format. Like I retain information better when I write it, and so I think if I do that, then, or and using e-books like, I dont know, Im very hands-on, I like to write my notes, I like being able to highlight or sticky note things, so I have considered it, I just dont think I would personally do as well with it.
Q: And have you always just used, like, a print form instead?
A: Yeah, and I didnt even, like, things that Ive had, like, for my own research, Ive had a bunch of like things on a flash drive, and even instead of just, you know, having those up and looking at them, Ive always printed out copies of everything, and sat there and highlighted and underlined and made notes in the margins.
Q: OK, um and do you find that you go back and review those notes pretty frequently?
A: I do, and I find that Ive had to remember what Im writing down, like.. .even things that I highlight Ill write them right next to the margins just so that I can retain them a little better.
Q: OK, um, so even with things like PDFs or supplementary materials, you still choose to print them out instead?


Leddy 48
A: Yeah, even for like classes, like, um if teachers are telling me to go online, access this PDF or they send you one, I still print them out just cause, I dont know, Im very, Im very hands-on, I like you know, writing little notes or highlighting.
Q: OK. Um, so is price a big factor in this at all or for you is it more just the learning experience?
A: For me its more the learning experience, like I have my laptop, and when I, I havent had it for very long, but I couldve easily gotten an iPad just for maybe a hundred dollars more and that wasnt a big issue, um.. .for me, it was definitely more, you know, even with the laptop itself, I was like, you know, Im not doing as well for this, Im not retaining information as well, so, its more of the experience.
Q: And what would you say led you to the conclusion that you just werent retaining information quite as well?
A: When I went to study for quizzes, you know, um, or I would take quizzes or take tests, I was realizing, oh, I dont know this as well as I thought I did, even though now Ive typed this up,
Ive typed it up on study guides from the notes and.. .1 just realized, Im very much more of a writer and I remember handwritten.
Q: OK, so beyond notes are there any other kidns of strategies that you use when you have a printed version versus, like, something electronic?
A: Um, like I said, some of the highlighting, I like using the little flags and the little sticky notes, um...lets see what else...
Q: Do you have an kind of like color-code system?
A: Oh God yes.

A: I am like, kind of OCD, type A, in that regard, I, um, if you look at my research reports from the project I just did, it is all highlighted and certain colors and halved in different places, its nuts.

Q: So theres definitely some kind of process youve established to...
A: Oh yeah, theres a method to my madness.

Q: And you dont think theres an electronic equivalent to that process yet?


Leddy 49
A: No, I dont think, I mean, Im sure for other people there are, and I know people who swear by their iPads, my brother-in-law just got one for Christmas, and he is in love, like I think he likes that more than he likes his dog, or my sister. But um.. .yeah, like I know people who swear by their iPads, they keep everything organized on there or by their Macbooks, or yeah, theyre iPod Touches or whatever. And you know. Its all about different learning styles, which I appreciate because definitely not everybody is like me, its probably a good thing, cause theyd probably be crazy , um, but just me personally, I dont think, for myself theres an equivalent, to probably my weird system yet.
Q: OK, um, so I think for the most part thats.. .all OK!


Leddy 50
Transcript from Interview with Participant F
Brittany Leddy
4:59
Q: OK, so my first question is always, have you ever used any kind of like e-book or electronic reading device before?
A: No.
Q: No? Um, why is that?
A: Um, mostly I just havent had access to one but I kind of prefer reading it on the page just because I can mark on the text if I want to and its easier to keep my place.
Q: OK. Um, so have you ever even just read something on a computer screen?
A: I have read on a computer a few times.
Q: OK. And what was that experience like for you?
A: Um. Well I wear like really thick glasses so it strained my eyes a lot to do that, and I kept getting distracted by the internet while I was reading so I didnt have a lot of good focus there.
Q: OK. So have you ever been required to have PDFs for class or something like that?
A: I had an e-book for one class but it was a computer class, so...
Q: OK, and did you, how did you feel about being required to have that e-book?
A: Um, it was pretty tough just because of the format of the book it was hard to get used to, so I feel like I didnt learn as much as I could have.
Q: OK, because in all of your other classes youve always just gotten the print version?
A: Yeah.
Q: OK, and so that was just a one-semester class? And you just didnt feel that it worked for you?
A: Yeah, I mean I got a bad grade in the class so...
Q: So youre like, that just really didnt pan out for me.
Q: So what do you think was the big disadvantage for you with reading in that format?


Leddy 51
A: Um, mostly it was just like less convenient than a book cause like, in a book its always fit to the window, you know, its always the right size for the page, and with reading on a computer it would be, like, too large or too small sometimes.
Q: OK. So you said that you take notes all the time, so you do that in the margins or on a separate page...
A: I usually just underline things, cause it helps me to like keep track of where I am in the reading. So usually with shorter readings I dont but like with books, I always underline things.
Q: OK, and what are you currently majoring in?
A: Im majoring in music education.
Q: Music education. OK. So obviously thats a major minor design so Ill have to ask you another question. What kinds of literature would you use within a music education program?
A: Um.. .probably like sheet music mostly. Um, I would use, and um, biographies on composers, and um, like, um, Im.. .its music eduation, so like, um... so it would be like texts on how to teach students and things like that, so um.. .1 cant really think of any, like literature like fiction that I would use, but...
Q: OK. Yeah, I guess that was a bit of jargon that I used. Because, yeah, literature would describe just the things that you said. Um.. .and so.. .with that, especially with sheet music, its a very tactile thing, and you...
A: Definitely, and its, when youre singing especially, um, cause Im in vocal music, um, with singing especially you have to have a pencil at all times to like change the text so...
Q: OK, so especially within a music discipline its critical that youre able to like take notes and do things on the sheet music.
A: Mmhm, and Ive had success with like uh, digital sheet music, but I usually like to mark it, I would have to print it out.
Q: OK, so youve used, like, what was that experience like, the digital sheet music versus...
A: Well I didnt use it to like play the music but I looked at it and I have to compose music on digital things a lot of the time and that experience was better than reading English words but I still prefer, like, the page.
Q: OK. So for you its a big, like, this is how I kind of think it through.
A: Yeah, well Im a really kinesthetic learner, so to have something tactile that I can touch really helps with me.


Leddy 52
Q: OK. Um, and so, lets say you had a tablet, would price ever effect whether you would convert to e-books or not.
A: Definitely, yeah. I mean, Im a college student so I have a really low budget.
Q: So would that, like, lets say you won an iPad in this realm, so then would you consider transferring completely to e-books if you had that option, and say it were significantly cheaper?
A: Significantly cheaper, yeah I would because there are so many books I want to read, and it would be pretty convenient as long as the battery wouldnt die right away, but I dont think I would ever transition completely to e-books.
Q: So do you think that maybe for, like, kind of like recreational reading, would that be a great alternative?
A: Yeah, and like, if I just want to check out a book instead of keep it forever, like I would still want to get a physical book if it was like my favorite book.


Full Text

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Alphabetic Literacy in the Digital Age: The Rise of the E Book and Its Affect on American College Students by Brittany Leddy An undergraduate thesis submitted in partial completion of the M etropolitan State University of D enver Honors Program May 2013 Dr. Elizabeth Kleinfeld Dr. Luis Rivas Dr. Megan Hughes Zarzo Primary Advisor Second Reader Honors Program Director

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! "#$$% & ! ! Alphabetic Literacy in the Digital Age: The Rise of the E Book and Its Affect on American College Students Brittany Leddy Metropolitan State University of Denver Honors Thesis

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! "#$$% Abstract This stud y examines the development of e b ook technology within the publishing industry, and its applications for students in institutions of higher education The goal of the research is to discover if there is any difference in the reading practices of students when they use an e b ook compared to a printed book. In the primary research I have conducted, I am comparing how students critically read the same reading sample in a digital format and in print format, and then qualitatively analyzing the data collected through two different formats: a criti cal reading quiz and an interview.

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! "#$$% ( Introduction In the new age of technology, we are constantly reading; e mails, text messages, status updates and tweets are all readily consumed through devices such as laptops, smart phones and tablets. When it comes to reading for comprehension, however, there has been a heated debate over the validity of print within that context despite advances to digitize. The most noted technology within this debate has been the e book. It s rise in popularity over the last few years has been cited as the death of the printed word as a cultural artifact and has been the scorn of book lovers and academics alike. 1 Lester Faigley paraph rases Sven Birkert 's assertions in The Gutenberg Elegies "that [the importance of reading] is increasingly shrinking, with the attendant effects of the loss of deep thinking, the erosion of language, and the flattening of historical perspective" 2 In a spee ch given in 2012 to the National Press Club, Education Secretary Arne Duncan stated, "Over the next few years textbooks should be obsolete" 3 He suggested that they would soon be replaced with more multi media alternatives such as e books with hypertext to other sources and content specific web sites. One academic highly opposed to this move to digital is Justin B Hollander, an assistant profe ssor of urban and environmental policy and planning at Tufts University. In his article "Long Live Paper," he argues that this move to digital has come all too quickly, and has not had substantial time or research dedicated to see the dysfunctions of this new format He also worries about the perpetuity of a digit al form if technology is still rapidly growing and changing. He argues, !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 1 Bolter, "Information Technologies and the Future of the Book," in Literacy: An International Handbook ed. Daniel A. Wa gner et al., Boulder (1999): 457. )*+,-#%.!/"+0#1*2%!340#1!05#!6#78-90+8:;!&<<=!>>>>!>5*+1?@!3$$1#@@.A!+:! !"#$%&'()*+$,%()"-) #+$)./$),0)#+$)1-#$%-$# .!#$B!C8$$!C*%-81!#0!*-B!DE#F!G81H.!&<
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! "#$$% R With strength and durability that could last thousands of years, paper can preserve information without the troubles we find when our most cherished knowledge is stuck on an unreadable floppy disk or lost deep in the "cloud." 4 The reference to the now obsolete floppy disk furthers his point that technology, especially in this time of rapid growth and evolution, cannot be counted on as a permanent solution for storing knowledge. Despite the long term appli cability of the technology, one of the primary research questions of this new digital age regards the use of these devices within an academic setting. E Books and Their Role in the Publishing Industry E Book Sales and Growth In 2010, two major trade groups, the American Association of Publishers (AAP) and the Book Insdustry Study Group (BISG), conducted a comprehensive survey called BookStats in order to test the growth or decline of the publishing industry between 2008 and 2010 5 6 Since their introduction, "[p]ublishers say that approximately 30% of their business is digital'" 7 and as the price of e reader devices such as Barnes and Noble's Nook and Amazon's !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!! R SP+$B T U8@V*:.!/M9P-+@5+:,!W+7#@!L+:0@!84!6#7+7*-.!X*0*!Y58F.A!+:! *+$)2$3)4,%5)*"6$7 D39,9@0!<.! 'Q&&J;!>& = /S:$9@01%!Y*-#@!68@#!(B&Z!+:!'Q&Q[!C1*$#!\ ] P88H!Y*-#@!05#!U+,!^+::#1.A! 89:;"7+$%<7) =$$5;( D39,9@0!<.!'Q&&JB! 500N;__FFFBN9P-+@5#1@F##H-%B28V_NF_P% ] 08N+2_+:$9@01% ] :#F@_4+:*:2+*] 1#N810+:,_*10+2-#_RI'IQ ] +:$9@01% ] @*-#@ ] 18@# ] ( ] & ] +: ] 'Q&Q ] 01*$# ] # ] P88H ] @*-#@ ] 05# ] P+, ] F+::#1B50VB ` McFadden, "Are Textbooks Dead? Making Sense of the Di gital Transition," Springer Science+Business Media (2012): 93.

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! "#$$% T Kindle continue to decrease, these sales are only predicted to increase 8 From 2009 to 2010 alone, e book sales rose 201% and since then e books have only risen in popularit y 9 Intellectual Property and Open Source Concerns Within the traditional print publishing model, the publishers role is to ensure that the piece of work created by the writer is the copyright of its original creator, and this protects the piece from plag iarism or false accounts of ownership by another person. This copyright also provides the company with the rights to produce the work or sell it to another publisher. As he notes in his article "From Pencils to Pixels: The Stages of Literary Technologies ," Dennis Baron says, "Things are not so black and white in the world of digital textthe security and authenticity of ordinary' texts is a major concern" and cites concerns such as easy corruption or alteration of the text and a lack of traditional citat ion information such as "date of publication, the edition and editorial changes or formatting introduced during the digitation process" 10 Since the Internet is open source, it may be difficult to establish the expertise of a particular author 11 In a pr int publishing model this would be established by an editor who acts as a gatekeeper between the author and the intended audience, and whom then decides if this published work contributes to the current discussion of the topic, and if the author has presen ted !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!! I U8@V*:.!/M9P-+@5+:,!W+7#@!L+:0@!84!6#7+7*-.!X*0*!Y58F.A!+:! *+$)2$3)4,%5)*"6$7 D39,9@0!<.! 'Q&&J;!>&B < /S:$9@01%!Y*-#@!68@#!(B&Z!+:!'Q&Q[!C1*$#!\ ] P88H!Y*-#@!05#!U+,!^+::#1.A! M9P-+@5#1@^##H-%B2 8V.!39,9@0!<.!'Q&&.! 500N;__FFFBN9P-+@5#1@F##H-%B28V_NF_P% ] 08N+2_+:$9@01% ] :#F@_4+:*:2+*] 1#N810+:,_*10+2-#_RI'IQ ] +:$9@01% ] @*-#@ ] 18@# ] ( ] & ] +: ] 'Q&Q ] 01*$# ] # ] P88H ] @*-#@ ] 05# ] P+, ] F+::#1B50V! a*22#@@#$!O208P#1!&'.!'Q&'bB &Q U*18:.!/ From Pencils to Pixels: The Stages of Literary Technologies," in Literacy: A Critical Sourcebook ed. Ellen Cushman et al., Boston (2001): 81. && SP+$B

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! "#$$% = themselves appropriately. However, online any one is able to develop a website or start a blog and publish it instantly, creating a void in the type of quality control in the print model. This could present itself as a problem in the form of independen t student research, when the student may accidentally use an inappropriate source for academic work if not properly guided by faculty to valid databases. The University Press Consortia One of the largest shifts from print to digital has come from the uni versity press sector. Seeing a trend in their reduced funding and decreased individual subscriptions, they knew that, "[t]hey want[ed] to transition to a mixed model digital and print system of content deliveryUniversity presses realized they needed to ge t digital fast [and they] may be stronger and healthier working together" 12 What emerged was four different models for university presses to choose from: Books at JSTOR, University Publishing Online (UPO), University Press Content Consortium (UPCC), and University Press Scholarship Online (UPSO). Each offers a unique business and distribution model so the presses had the freedom to choose one that would best fit their unique needs. Consistently throughout all four models, the e book content is searchabl e alongside their existing journal content, allowing for easy distribution to students. The e book content is also available in a PDF format, ensuring that the electronic and print version contain the same pagation. One especially unique feature sets UPSO apart from the others: library distribution: "UPSO offers libraries unlimited access to more than 7,000 books in 22 subject areas from six !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!! &' M8-*:H*.!/c:+7#1@+0%!M1#@@#@!*:$!\P88H@;!3!E#F!L81+d8:.A! >-;"-$ De*:9*1%_!)#P19*1%! 'Q&'J;!T(B!

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! "#$$% ` university press partners" 13 This feature especially persuaded Alison Mudditt, director of the University of Cal ifornia Press, to opt for this service over the others. Below is a comparison of the four models: !"#$%& (&) +,,-&.,/0,12345&6,7%$0 '8 & Product Name Host Partners Titles Format URL Books at JSTOR JSTOR 30 15,000 PDF http://about.jstor.org/books University Publishing Online Cambridge University Press 6 13,000 PDF www.universitypublishingonline.org UPCC Book Collections of Project MUSE Project MUSE 60 70 15,000 PDF http://beta.muse.jhu.edu University Press Scholarship Online Oxford University Press 6 7,000 XML, PDF www.universitypressscholarship.com One other model that came into this rise was the Gutenberg E Project. Its goal was to "provide a way for PhD disse rtations to become published in fields that were often difficul t to publish in conventionally" 15 The developers hoped that this would help alleviate costs to both the author and any library that wanted access to the materials. It eventually fai led due to a lack of financing and over expansion. !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!! &( SP+$.!TTB! &R M8-*:H*.!/c:+7#1@+0%!M1#@@#@!*:$!\P88H@;!3!E#F!L81+d8:.A! >-;"-$ De*:9*1%_!)#P19*1%! 'Q&'J;!T=B! &T YN+#-P#1,.!1#7+#F!84! *+$)?&7$)0,%)@ ,,57A)8&7#B)8%$7$-#B)&-C)D9#9%$ .!P%!68P#10!X*1:08:.! 89:;"'.00&"%7 D'QQ
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! "#$$% I E Books in the Academic Setting Potential Multi Modal Applications As e books become more and more sophisticated, additional content can be embedded directly into the text, providing students with a multi modal and more in depth context for their particular subject matter. M ike Sharples places significance on the fact that electronic texts are, "developing [their] own intrinsic character as [blenders] of interactive media, capable of merging text with images and ac ting as a personal assistant, interpreter, guide, and teacher" within their multiple capabilities 16 It is even speculated that, "Once workflows are in place and new revenue streams [are] established, university presses can focus on a future of enhanced eb ooks, those with multimedia, embedded links, and an array of nontext features" allowing for even small academic presses to move towards a multi media strategy for communicating academic topics. 17 One such technology in place that has been studied extensive ly is the use of hypertext. Hypertext allows the author to provide an electronic link between his or her text and an outside source, providing the reader with a "[redefinition of] the relationship between author, reader, and text" 18 These works are also no t limited to text: some multi modal examples include photographs, artwork, videos, or interactive media. One example of hypertext given by Jay David Bolter could be "a canonical work like Hamlet or Pride and Prejudice can acquire links to critical essays, to similar but less monumental works by other authors, and to the student s own !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!! &= Y5*1N-#@.!/\-#2018:+2!M9P-+2*0+8:;!^1+0+:,! 481!05#!Y21##:.A!+:! !"#$%&'()"-)#+$)1-0,%6&#",-) ./$A)1-E9"%"$7)"-#,)F$&-"-/)F&5"-/)3"#+)2$3)*$'+-,;,/"$7 .!#$B!U#101*V!>B!U192#!DE#F*1H.! 'QQ(J;!R`B &` M8-*:H*.!/c:+7#1@+0%!M1#@@#@!*:$!\P88H@;!3!E#F!L81+d8:.A! >-;"-$ De*:9*1%_!)#P19*1%! 'Q&'J;!T=B &I Bolter, "Information Technologies and the Future of the Book," in Literacy: An International Handbook ed. Daniel A. Wa gner et al., Boulder (1999): 45 8.

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! "#$$% < notes" 19 Through the use of hypertext, students are able to see the larger academic discourse on that particular topic, and therefore expand their understanding outside of the text itself. Within the academic sphere, academic journals could utilize hypertext to directly link readers to the source of their citations. For researchers, this allows them to see the context around the quoted information, and to then draw their own as sertions about whether or not the particular review of the author aligns with the conclusions in the text. There would also be greater ease in finding multiple sources on one particular topic, and having a more complete view of the major arguments on the s ubject at the time 20 There are arguments that the use of hypertext may disrupt the reading process that develops after having read a number of the same type of text. Reading theorists hypothesize that "people formulate generalized, abstract patterns or fr ameworks, called schemas,' that [readers] call on as they encounter new texts of the same type" 21 Once a schema is active, the reader will then look for the established pattern of that particular type of writing and decide which aspects or areas of the te xt to direct their attention to and thus what content they remember. Within a particular schema, readers will also judge what information the author has provided, and will place their trust in him or her to pick out the relevant information they need from the quoted source. However, with hypertext the reader may quickly succumb to "information overload," or could question the validity of the original author, thus disrupting their comprehension of the text 22 !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!! &< Bolter, "Information Technologies and the Future of the Book," in Literacy: An International Handbook ed. Daniel A. Wa gner et al., Boulder (1999): 45 9. 'Q >5*1:#%.!/C5#!\44#20!84!L%N#10#f0!8:!M182#@@#@!84!6#*$+:,!*:$!^1+0+:,.A!+:! !"#$%&'(A).) ?%"#"'&;)G,9%'$:,,5B) #$B!\--#:!>9@5V*:!#0!*-B.!U8@08:!D'QQ&J;!
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! "#$$% &Q E Textbooks One segment of the e book market tha t has seen rapid growth has been the e textbooks segment. In 2011, e textbook sales only accounted for eleven percent of all textbook sales, but that is a 44.3 percent increase in sales when compare d to 2010 23 This rapid adoption of e textbooks by students is due largely to the significant difference in cost between and e book and its printed counterpart. In her article "Are Textbooks Dead? Making Sense of the Digital Trasition," Christine McFadden notes that "[c]ost remains a major factor and is a key cons ideration in student purchase decisions" 24 She also notes that according to a Follet analysis "currently 80 % of course material sales come from just 10.5% of traditional textbook titlesand cost on average, more than $75" 25 If cost is a driving factor fo r student purchases, "then you begin to see where the digital transition will take shape first" 26 By 2017, "Follett predicts traditional print purchases will drop by about half" as digital alternatives take their place 27 As students continue to make the tr ansition to digital, e textbook developers have established two different formats for electronic learning: native digital and enhanced print. Native digital materials function much like other software or web based content: providing interaction with the material on an individual basis. One of the most popular examples of this type of format is My MathLab, which provides online homework assignments and tutorial and management tools, as well as the option for faculty to distribute their tests and quizzes !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 23 Yu, "Technology, co sts, lack of appeal slow e textbook adoption." USA Today: Tech January 17, 2012. http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/tech/news/story/2012 01 16/ebook textbook sales/52603526/1 'R McFadden, "Are Textbooks Dead? Making Sense of the Digital Transition," Springer S cience+Business Media (2012): 93. 'T SP+$.!
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! "#$$% && th rough the portal. This type of model is best suited for "problem based disciplines" such as math or any math based discipline such as physics or economics 28 Enhanced print is simply "digital replicas of printed textbooks or course materials" that include "digital enhancements and study tools" 29 One of the most well reviewed features of the enhanced print format by faculty was the ability to make notes and highlights, and then to share those with the whole class. This engaged students in a dialogue about the course material, and they no longer viewed textbooks as "the definitive point of information" since they would witness their professor challenge one or more points within it 30 This mirrors the peer review process in academia, and introduces students t o the concept of establishing an intellectual dialogue through critical reading of a text. The Amazon Kindle DX Pilot In the fall of 2009, online retailer Amazon had seven universities in the United States participate in a pilot program for their new e reader, the Kindle DX: Reed College, Arizona State University, Case Western Reserve University, Pace University, Princeton University, the University of Washington, and Darden School of business at the University of Virginia. 31 After the rapid growth in e reader use for leisure reading, Amazon was interested in testing the Kindle DX's potential use in an academic setting, and the challenges and benefits that students would incur while using the device. !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 'I SP+$.! 95. '< SP+$.!
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! "#$$% &' In comparison to the original Kindle, the Kindle DX f eatured a 9.7 inch screen instead of the standard six inch screen, which allows for a better viewing experience for newspapers, magazines, or other graphic rich reading content like textbooks 32 Like its smaller counterpart, the Kindle DX uses e ink technol ogy. It is designed to look and read just like paper and ink, and is not backlit in any way. This reduces the strain on the eyes that many backlit screens produce after long periods of use, and also allows the reader to use the device in a variety of ligh ting situations that may cause glare on a backlit screen. 33 The overall goals of the pilot were to "evaluate the features of this particular platform [Kindle DX] identify impacts of the Kindle DX on teaching and learning activities[and] assess the overa ll prospects of eReaders in higher education." 34 The University of Washington also had the student participants keep a diary in order to find qualitative patterns amongst the participants. Their central question for the diary study was "How do students inte grate e readers into their academic reading practice?" 35 Unlike Reed College and the University of Washington, Princeton University was also interested in the reduced paper usage by their students participating the pilot. 36 !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 32 Amazon, "Kindle DX, Free 3G, 9.7" E Ink Display, 3G Works Globally," Amazon, http:// http://www.amazon.com/dp/B002GYWHSQ/?tag=googhydr 20&hvadid=1641306959 5&hvpos=1t1&hvexid=&hvnetw=g&hvrand=916711800321531836&h vpone=&hvptwo=&hvqmt=b&ref=pd_sl_1gtlqzgaj7_b [Accessed November 1, 2012]. 33 M. Castillo, "E Readers and E Paper," American Journal of Neuroradiology 31 (2009): 1 2. (R Trina Marmarelli and Martin Ring le, "The Reed College Kindle Study," The Reed Institute (2009): 1. 35 Alexander Thayer, Charlotte P. Lee, Linda H. Hwang, Heidi Sales, Pausali Sen, and Ninad Dalal, "The Imposition and Superimposition of Digital Reading Technology: The Academic Potential of E readers" (paper presented at ACM CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Vancover, BC, May 12, 2011). 36 Princeton Board of Trustees, "The E reader pilot at Princeton: Fall semester, 2009, Final Report, (executive summary)," (2010).

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! "#$$% &( Each institution was also testin g the use of the Kindle DX amongst different student and course types. In the three formal reports, written by the University of Washington, Reed College, and Princeton University, no two samplings of tested courses in the pilot program were identical. The University of Washington provided first year Computer Science and Engineering graduate students with a Kindle DX with all course materials uploaded into the device previously 37 On the other hand, Princeton provided the Kindle DX to graduate students enrol led in the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, but only three courses and the students enrolled in them were selected 38 Reed College, in comparison to Princeton and the University of Washington, stands in stark contrast; it is a smal l liberal arts college with no graduate programs. Rather than focus on the use of the Kindle DX on one student type in one discipline, Reed College diversified their study through the pilot course selection. They chose all upper division classes, but in En glish, French, and Political Science disciplines. This allowed Reed College to not only be able to provide insight into how undergraduate students utilized the Kindle DX and its features, but also how those uses, and shortcomings of the device, varied betw een disciplines 39 Despite the variations in sample populations, the three reports had similar findings amongst their participants. Many agreed that the Kindle DX was well suited for leisure or linear reading; when little to no annotations or reader respon se was required. However, the !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 37 Alex ander Thayer, Charlotte P. Lee, Linda H. Hwang, Heidi Sales, Pausali Sen, and Ninad Dalal, "The Imposition and Superimposition of Digital Reading Technology: The Academic Potential of E readers" (paper presented at ACM CHI Conference on Human Factors in Co mputing Systems, Vancover, BC, May 12, 2011). 38 Princeton Board of Trustees, "The E reader pilot at Princeton: Fall semester, 2009, Final Report, (executive summary)," (2010). 39 Trina Marmarelli and Martin Ringle, "The Reed College Kindle Study," The Reed Institute (2009).

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! "#$$% &R shortcomings of the Kindle DX's annotation abilities often forced students to abandon using it for academic purposes. The students in the University of Washington, Reed College, and Princeton pilot reports favored the Kindle DX as a physical device. All three reports showed that students enjoyed the long battery life, portability, and legibility of the E ink technology. One of the faculty members in the Reed College study also commented on how the device is limited to one func tion in the classroom, reading: "use of the Kindle DX in class didn't lead to the distractions that re typical of laptop use. Students were not tempted to check their email, brows the web, or use the Kindle in class for anything except to refer to course materials" 40 These combined features made the Kindle DX appear to be a functional device in the classroom setting that would not lead to distractions that other devices, like iPads or laptops, can present because of their multi functionality. Regardless o f the many functional capabilities the Kindle DX presented, the largest complaints from students came from their ability to interact with and annotate texts. In the three studies, all of them had uploaded scholarly articles in the form of PDF files to the Kindle DX. Despite the saved paper, the Kindle DX did not have features to annotate or highlight them, decreasing their comprehension rates for the texts 41 Within the classroom as well, the Kindle DX "was very clumsy, particularly when the entire class was trying to get to the same location in the text for group discussions" 42 This hinders classroom discussions, and Reed College reported that students used less textual evidence during class discussion because of the difficulty of navigating through the text Faculty noted that this caused an overall decrease in the quality of !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 40 Ibid, 3. 41 Princeton Board of Trustees, "The E reader pilot at Princeton: Fall semester, 2009, Final Report, (executive summary)," (2010). 42 Ibid, 3.

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! "#$$% &T class discussion, and that fewer students were engaging in the types of textually supported claims that they had engaged in with traditional paper or laptops. Overall, this pilot resul ted in the developments that Amazon made to the Kindle line in its future generations. The Kindle Fire, the most recent Kindle, features a touch screen, which allows for easier navigation within the text, and for easier highlighting. However, the Kindle Fi re acts more like a tablet than the traditional e reader of the future generations. The LED screen causes glare, that decreases legibility in all lights, and features apps and easy web browsing, resulting in distractions if used in the classroom setting. N ow alongside the transition from print to digital, the e b ook industry is also caught in the transition from e ink technology to the more sophisticated tablet. This newest medium allows for more interaction with the text, as well as the advantage of clear and colored images, but poses the threat of multi tasking students in the classroom. iPad Pilot Programs The most popular tablet platform to come out in recent years is undoubtedly Apple's iPad. Featuring a full color, 9.7 inch (diagonal) LED touch scree n, and weighing only 1.33 pounds, it has become a replacement to the traditional laptop for some due to its functional diversity 43 In comparison to the Kindle DX, several institutions across North America and Europe have begun pilot programs centered on Apple's iPad. Unlike the Kindle pilots, however, many of these programs have focused on teaching applications and modalities that th e iPad could !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 43 Apple, "Select an iPad 2," Apple, http://store.apple.com/us/buy/home/shop_ipad/family/ipad2?product=IPAD2#tech specs [Accessed March 13, 2013].

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! "#$$% &= provide to faculty, or the various applications students could use for the purposes of studying. According to a study conducted by Bulent Dogan from North American College, only four percent of the students surveyed said that they have used th e ir iPad for reading text books, while 36 percent reported using it to take notes, and 21 percent reported using a specific application for learning or studying 44 From this data, it can be inferred that students, when given a more multi modal device, choose to use it as more of a tool for studying, and less as a tool for reading when compared to the single function Kindle device. In 2010, Reed College one of the participants in the Kindle DX p ilot, did a follow up study with the iPad device; testing its us ability as an e book platform The goals were similar to the Kindle DX pilot, and only one upper division seminar, Political Science 442: Nuclear Politics, was asked to participate. This was one of the classes from the Kindle DX pilot as well, making the d ata easy to compare since the reading list had been changed very little within that time. Students reported that they enjoyed the high contrast color LED screen, and found it only slightly less effective for viewing graphics than the printed textbook. Thi s is a vast improvement from the black and white e ink display on the Kindle DX. The students also reported little notable eyestrain and easy text legibility from long periods of from the backlit screen contrary to the hypothesis of the researchers. One o f the most notable differences between the Kindle DX and the iPad was that the students reported carrying it with them at all times both on and off campus. This was due to the fact that as a device it serves more than one function, and therefore was applic able to more aspects of their education than assigned reading. Due to the easy portablilty, students also !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 44 Dogan, "Integration of iPad in Higher Education: A Pilot Project," Global Conference of Technology, Innovati on, Media and Education (2012).

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! "#$$% &` mentioned that they found themselves reading or reviewing material more often than if they had a printed format This may also be due to the fact that the iPad, with it s Apple branding, acts more as a lifestyle and status item than the Kindle DX, and is therefore more likely to be used for personal use outside of the classroom. The touch screen capabilities were also more navigable than the Kindle DX's keyboard and joystick system, and students found it easy to switch between texts in classroom discussion. Much like in the Kindle DX Pilot, the iPad failed to meet expectations in regards to "highlighting, annotation, and manipulation of texts" 45 While there were applications to annotate PDFs and to make multi colored highlights, the stude nts noted that the inconsistencies in how the PDF was scanned sometimes made it difficult to read all of the text without scrolling horizontally. They suggested institu ting a college wide standard for formatting PDFs, but this may be hard to implement, and would require extensive faculty training. Since the iPad is not a single function device, unlike the Kindle DX, one of the major concerns professors had was that they might become a distraction in class. Within the tested course however, which was largely discussion based students found that the switch between applications was fast enough to go from the reading to a web browser in order to pull up relevant information for the discussion, but they didn't feel like it was quick enough to warrant switching between them frequently. However, they did note that if they had been in a large lecture, "the temptation to switch to an email client or web browser might occasionally be irresistible" 46 !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 45 Marmarelli et al., "Reed College iPad Study," (2011) 1 R= Marmarelli et al., "Reed College iPad Study," (2011) 4

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! "#$$% &I Another struggle with the iPad was the lack of an internal filing system in order to organize notes and course readings. Students reported that it was often hard to find documents, and this "hampered productivity" 47 Overall, by the end of the study the students said that they would continue to use their iPad academically. These students received their iPads at a discount by the end of the study, and the report noted that the upfront cost would be a high deterrent to requiring all studen ts to own one in order to implement an institution wide initiative of any kind. Primary Research Methodology While the literature acknowledges that reading practices differ between the printed and digital forms, it has not been thoroughly analyzed as to the effect those differences place on the student's performance in tests and classroom participation. The goal of my research was to discover the cognitive differences, if any, between how students read in a printed form versus an electronic form for academic or educational purposes within higher education. In order to determine these differences, I conducted primary research using two vehicles 48 The participants where given a 250 word reading sample from Mark Twain's "Advice to Youth" in either a print or portable document format (PDF) on an iPad. This sample was chosen because of the popularity and familiarity for most with the author, but the s tyle of the piece is a parody. This style requires a more analytical reading in order to derive the true !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!! R` SP+$.!TB RI C5#!481V*0!84!05#!@09$%!F*@!1#7+#F#$!*:$!*NN187#$!+:!*$7*:2#!P%!g#018N8-+0*:!Y0*0#! c:+7#1@+0 %!84!X#:7#1?@!S:@0+090+8:*-!6#7+#F!U8*1$B

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! "#$$% &< meaning, ensuring that the participants would need to employ more cognitive reading strategies. An unmarked copy of the sample has been provided in App endix A. For the participants that were given a printed copy, they were also supplied with colored highlighters and pens for making annotations. The most common iPad applications for viewing PDFs (Apple iBooks, Amazon Kindle, and Evernote) did not have m ethods for making annotations, so participants who were tested in this form were not able to make any. All of the participants were told to treat the reading sample as if they were reading it for class, and were also told that they will be administered a short quiz after their reading. This was done to ensure that the participants read this within an acad emic frame of mind that would s imulate what they stress and accentuate while reading for college level coursework. The quiz itself was four questions: three multiple choice and one short a nswer. The short answer questions were modeled after standardized test questions on Advanced Placement English literature practice quizzes. The goal of Advanced Placement tests is to judge student's academic aptitude f or college level coursework, therefore placing the format and content of the questions within college level application. The percentage of correct answers for the participants also serves as a quantitative evaluation method. Depending on what format their reading sample was given in, and the number of correct answers on their quiz, their could be a correlation found between the reading format, and critical reading. The short answer question, on the other hand, was a device for qualitative assessment. The re sponse was not meant to be longer than a paragraph, and the question required that the subject use textual analysis and examples from the text to defer the meaning of a device used within the reading. A highly successful response would include at least one example of textual

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! "#$$% 'Q support (either directly quoted or alluded to), and a brief explanation how this device fits within the piece as a whole on a thematic level. Secondarily, after the reading and quiz, the participants were informally interviewed regardi ng their experience or inexperience with e books and using them for academic purposes. The first question was consistent amongst all of the participants and was "Have you ever used any kind of e book for school before? I then will ask them why they have or have not, and the advantages and disadvantages they find to both media. Other points of inquiry included devices they own and use for reading e books, if they prefer one form to another, and common strategies they employ while academically reading. Thes e interviews were audio recorded and then tra nscribed for accurate quotation with the exception of Participant C, whose interview did not properly record There were a total of 6 participants ranging in age from 18 24, and all were currently students at Metropolitan State University of Denver Complete profiles, which includes sex, class standing, academic major and minor and which sample type they were given of the participants are as follows: Participant A: Male, Senior, English major, Technical Communications minor print sample Participant B: Male, Senior, English major, History minor print sample Participant C: Female, Sophomore, English major, Secondary Education minor digital sample Participant D: Male, Senior, English major, Anthropolog y minor print sample Participant E: Female, Senior, Sociology major digital sample Participant F: Male, Sophomore, Music Education major print sample

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! "#$$% '& Participants were given one sample over another based on which day they participated in the study. O ver the two days, I had three participants each day, with two last minute cancellations. I tried to alternate between print and digital with each participant, with the exception of Particpant A, whom I knew to be very familiar with using an iPad for class With that previous knowledge, I wanted to see how he performed in the printed version instead. Data Analysis and Conclusions The ability to annotate the sample was a large factor for how quickly the participants completed the quiz. Participants given the printed sample were provided a pen and highlighters. The three main applications for viewing PDFs on an iPad (iBooks, Kindle, and Evernote) did not have the tools in place to make annotations to the reading sample. Therefore, participants with the digital sample could not make annotations. Overall, there were no notable difference s between the frequencies of correct and incorrec t a nswers for the multiple choice question between the two formats a s you can see in figures one and two. Figure three shows a more condensed comparison of the frequencies. Q! &! '! K9#@0+8:!&! K9#@0+8:!'! K9#@0+8:!(! S:2811#20! >811#20!

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! "#$$% '' 93:41%& (&91%;4%/<= & ,>&?/0@%10 & A3:32"$&B"5C$%& & 93:41% & D (&91%;4%/<=&,>&?/0@%10 & E13/2 & B"5C$% & & & 93:41%& F (&.,5C"130,/&,>&91%;4%/<3%0&,>&.,11%<2GH/<,11%<2&?/0@%10&+%2@%%/&2I%&!@,&6%73" & The most significant difference between performance and sample formats was within the shor t answer question. The question was, "Please give a maximum one paragraph response to the following question: What purpose does the mention of the man who was falsely credited to have discovered anesthesia serve within the text?". All of the participants gave essentially the same answer, but overall the participants who were tested using the print sample were more likely to include textual support for their response either in a direct quotation, or by paraphrasing a point within the text. The ir responses were also much more thought out, and showed better overall Q! &! '! (! K9#@0+8:!&! K9#@0+8:!'! K9#@0+8:!(! S:2811#20! >811#20! Q! &! '! (! K9#@0+8:!&! K9#@0+8:!'! K9#@0+8:!(! S:2811#20]X+,+0*-! S:2811#20]M1+:0! >811#20]X+,+0*-! >811#20]M1+:0!

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! "#$$% '( structure than the responses from the participants utilizing the digital format. An example can be seen below in figure four. While both answers are essentially the same topically, Participant A's response utilizes a direct quotation in order to strengthen his argument, and also expands on his original statement. Participant C, on the other hand, only gave a very generalized response with little evidence of critical reading due to the lack of examples or textual support. In contrast to Participant C, Participant E (whom also had a digital sample) gave a lengthy response, but it was not cohesive. The participant seemed to be struggling to articulate her answer or to find her central point. Only at the very end did she accomplish this, after two very lengthy sentences before it. Even if she reread the sample, this writing demonstrates that she did not have a full grasp on the concept or the reading for quite some time, even directly after reading it. The most telling information about the applicability of e books in the classroom came from the interviews that followed the testing. Each of the parti cipants reported that they either use all print textbooks, or a mix of print and digital. When asked why they have not completely made the switch, Participants A, D, and E all noted that the tangibility and tactile experience that 6#@N8:@#!418V! M*10+2+N*:0!3!DM1+:0! Y*VN-#J! h iC5#!*:*-8,%!@#17#@!*@!*:! #f*VN-#.!*!N1884!08!05#! *@@#10+8:!iBBB*!-+#!F#--!08-$!+@! +VV810*-Bi!C5#!#7+$#:2#! #:5*:2#@!CF*+:j@!*1,9V#:0! P%!#f5+P+0+:,!5+@!N*@@+8:!*:$! #fN#10+@#!8:!05#!08N+2Bi! 6#@N8:@#!418V! M*10+2+N*:0!>!DX+,+0*-! Y*VN-#J! h iC5+@!@081%!@#17#@!*@!*:! +--9@01*0+8:!84!05#!4*20!05*0!*! -+#!5*@!890-+7#$!05#!01905Bi! 93:41%& 8 (&.,5C"130,/&,>&J%0C, /0%0&>1,5&E"123<3C"/20&?&"/7&.

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! "#$$% 'R comes with reading a prin ted book, and the effect that has on their perception of how much they had read. Participant E, in particular, noted that the kinesthetic act of writing notes in the margins causes her to have a higher comprehension of the material versus if she types note s or is unable to make notes. T he participants who do not already own a tablet or e reader also noted that the additional upfront costs of buying a tablet or e reader is a major factor in why the y have not made the transition, which is in line with the li terature. They noted that even though their laptops could also function as e reader devices, they would be too heavy and cumbersome to carry around all day and many of them do not feature a long enough battery life to allow them to be in use all day withou t charging. Limitations of the Conclusions and Further Research All of my participants had majors or minors within the humanities, arts, or social sciences. Further research is needed to test the applicability of e book technology for students within the hard sciences. Test performance will also need to be further quan tified with a larger sample size. A learning style inventory could also be administered to the participants before they are given the reading sample. This could gauge any relationship between learning style and performance on the quiz and preferred form at.

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! "#$$% 'T Recommendations and Best Practices As the popularity of e books continues to rise for college students in the U.S., educators are trying to find the most effective ways to incorporate this technology in the classroom. After a review of the litera ture and my own research, I do no t think that the e book technology has advanced far enough to meet the tactile annotation needs of students and the lack of consistency between formats for discussion based classes is another major point of concern One w ay publishers could address these two obstacles would be to develop a system for students to make annotations on their text with a stylist or some other device that could mimic handwriting. This would provide students with the same capabilities as the prin t form as to having their notes right alongside the text, and providing the kinesthetic needs of students by writing and not typing their notes and developing their own system for highlighting or marking important parts of the text. Another area that mus t be consistent across all e book platforms is pagation. Especially in the humanities and other discussion based disciplines, students need to be able to reference a certain section and have other students quickly find that section themselves. If the page numbers of the printed version corresponded directly with the page numbers of its printed counterpart, students could very easily have one or the other and not disrupt the flow of discussion. Students would also be able to choose which format best serves t heir learning style, and wouldn't need to abandon using this technology midway through a semester because it was too difficult to keep up in class like Participant A experienced. Once those developments are made, e books could become a highly viable alternative to print, and then it is up to the faculty and the institution to see as to how to best implement this technology in the classroom. Based on my research, the best method in how to carry this out

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! "#$$% '= would be to let the student choose which format he or she prefers. However, as the multi media aspect of electronic texts continues to develop, faculty may want to incorporate these new features into their lectures or discussions. In order to discover if these new media significantly supplement learning, more research will need to be done.

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! "#$$% '` Bibliography Amazon, "Kindle DX, Free 3G, 9.7" E Ink Display, 3G Works Globally." Accessed November 1, 2012. http://www.amazon.com/dp/B002GY WHSQ/?tag=googhydr 20&hvadid=16413069595&hvpos=1t1&hvexid=&hvnetw=g&hvrand=91671180032153 1836&hvpone=&hvptwo=&hvqmt=b&ref=pd_sl_1gtlqzgaj7_b. Baron, Dennis. From Pencils to Pixels: The Stages of Literacy Technologies Literacy: A Critical Sourcebook Edite d by Ellen Cushman, Eugene R. Kintgen, Barry M. Kroll, and Mike Rose. Boston: Bedford/ St. Martin's, 2001. Barron, Phillip. "E Readers in the Classroom." Transformation: The Journal of Inclusive Scholarship and Pedagogy no. 1 (2011): 133 138. Bolter, Jay David. Information Technologies and the Future of the Book Literacy: An International Handbook Edited by Daniel A. Wagner, Richard L. Venezky, and Brian V. Street Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1999. Bosman, Julie. "Publishing Gives Hint of Revival, Data Show." New York Times August 09, 2012. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/08/09/books/survey shows publishing expanded since 2008.html?_r=1&partner=rss&emc=rss (accessed October 31, 2012). Charney, Davida. The Effect of Hypertext on Processes of Reading and Writing Literacy: A Critical Sourcebook Edited by Ellen Cushman, Eugene R. Kintgen, Barry M. Kroll, and Mike Rose. Boston: Bedford/ St. Martin's, 2001. Hollander, Justin B. "Long Live Paper." New York Times October 09, 2012. http://www.nytimes.com/2012/ 10/10/opinion/long live paper.html?_r=2 (accessed October 9, 2012).

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! "#$$% 'I "Industry Sales Rose 3.1% in 2010; Trade E Book Sales the Big Winner." Publisher's Weekly August 09, 2011. http://www.publishersweekly.com/pw/by topic/industry news/financial reporting/ar ticle/48280 industry sales rose 3 1 in 2010 trade e book sales the big winner.html (accessed October 9, 2012). Kmetz, Marcia, Robert Lively, Crystal Broch Colombini, & Thomas Black. "Disciplining Technology: A Selective Annotated Bibliography," In On the B lunt Edge: Technology in Composition's History and Pedagogy edited by Shane Borrowman, 98 114. Anderson: Parlor Press LLC, 2012. Kress, Gunther. Literacy in the New Media Age London: Routledge, 2003. Marmarelli, Trina, and Martin Ringle. The Reed College Kindle Study Portland: Reed Institute, 2009. http://www.reedinstitute.org/cis/about/kindle_pilot/Reed_Kindle_report.pdf (accessed November 1, 2012). -----. The Reed College iPad Study Portland: Reed Institute, 2011 McFadden, Christine. "Are Textbooks Dead? Making Sense of the Digital Transition." Springer Science Business Media (2012). 10.1007/s 12109 012 9266 3 (accessed January 6 2013). Pettenati, Corrado. "Electronic Publishing at the End of 2001." World Scientific December 4, 2001 Polanka, Sue. "University Presses and Ebooks: A New Horizon." Online January 2012, 53 56. Princeton Board of Trustees, The E reader pilot at Princeton: Fall semester, 2009, Final Report, (executive summary) Princeton: 2010. Robertson, Sherry Rankins & Duane Roen. "Textbooks and their pedagogical Influences in Higher Education: A Bibliographic Essay." In On the Blunt Edge: Technology in

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! "#$$% '< Composition's History and Pedagogy edited by Shane Borrowman, 98 114. Anderson: Parlor Press LLC, 2012. Sharples, Mik e. Electronic Publication: Writing for the Screen Literacy in the Information Age: Inquiries into Meaning Making with New Technologies Edited by Bertram C. Bruce. Newark: International Reading Association, 2003. Spielberg, David. Review of The Case for Books: Past, Present, Future New York. Journal of High Technology Law 2012. Thayer, Alexander, Charlotte P. Lee, Linda H. Hwang, Heidi Sales, Pausali Sen, and Ninad Dalal. "The Imposition and Superimposition of Digital Reading Technology: The Academic Potential of E readers." Paper presented, ACM CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Vancover, BC, May 12, 2011. Wolf, Maryanne. Proust and Squid: The Story and Science of the Reading Brain New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 2007. Yu, Rodger. "Technology, costs, lack of appeal slow e textbook adoption." USA Today: Te ch January 17, 2012. http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/tech/news/story/2012 01 16/ebook textbook sales/52603526/1

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! "#$$% (Q Appendix A: Reading Sample This excerpt is taken from "Advice to Youth" by Mark Twain. In this speech, given to a group of young women, Twain uses his humorous writing style to parody the traditional moralistic lecture. Now as to the matter of lying. You want to be very careful about lying; otherwise you are nearly sure to get caught. Once caught, you can never again be in the eyes to the good and the pure, what you were before. Many a young person has injured himself permanently through a single clumsy and ill finished lie, the result of carelessness born of incomplete training. Some authorities hold that the young ought not to lie at all. Tha t of course, is putting it rather stronger than necessary; still while I cannot go quite so far as that, I do maintain, and I believe I am right, that the young ought to be temperate in the use of this great art until practice and experience shall give the m that confidence, elegance, and precision which alone can make the accomplishment graceful and profitable. Patience, diligence, painstaking attention to detail -these are requirements; these in time, will make the student perfect; upon these only, may he rely as the sure foundation for future eminence. Think what tedious years of study, thought, practice, experience, went to the equipment of that peerless old master who was able to impose upon the whole world the lofty and sounding maxim that "Truth is mig hty and will prevail" -the most majestic compound fracture of fact which any of woman born has yet achieved. For the history of our race, and each individual's experience, are sewn thick with evidences that a truth is not hard to kill, and that a lie well told is immortal. There is in Boston a monument of the man who discovered anesthesia; many people a re aware, in these latter days, that that man didn't discover it at all, but stole the discovery from another man. Is this truth mighty, and will it prevail? Ah no, my hearers, the monument is made of hardy material, but the lie it tells will outlast it a million years. An awkward, feeble, leaky lie is a thing which you ought to make it your unceasing study to avoid; such a lie as that has no more real permane nce than an average truth. Why, you might as well tell the truth at once and be done with it. A feeble, stupid, preposterous lie will not live two years -except it be a slander upon somebody. It is indestructible, then of course, but that is no merit of yo urs. A final word: begin your practice of this gracious and beautiful art early -begin now. If I had begun earlier, I could have learned how.

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! "#$$% (& Appendix B: Reading Quiz Comprehension Questions: 1. Twains attitude toward lying is: a. It's bad and no one should do it b. It's an inevitable part of human existence c. Lying should be studied before being put into practice d. Lying will only lead to moral ambiguity 2. According to Twain, all of the following are skills needed to be a successful liar except: a. Diligence b. Painstaking attention to detail c. Patience d. Cunning 3. Twain's tone suggests that the phrase "Truth is mighty and will prevail" is a. Outdated b. Misinformed c. Ignorant d. Enlightened 4. Please give a maximum one paragraph response to the following question: What purpose does the mention of the man who was falsely credited to have discovered anesthesia serve within the text?

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! "#$$% (' Appendix C: Scans of Participants' Reading Quizzes Participant A

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! "#$$% (( Participant B

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! "#$$% (R Participant C

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! "#$$% (T Participant D

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! "#$$% (= Participant E

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! "#$$% (` Participant F

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! "#$$% (I Appendix D : Transcripts of Interviews !1"/0<13C2&>1,5&H/2%1K3%@&@32I&E"123<3C"/2&? & U1+00*:%!"#$$% `;RT K;!Ok.!@8.!aM*10+2+N*:0!3b.!S!H:8F!%89!1#*$!*!-80!8:!%891!+M*$! *:$!8:!805#1!#-#2018:+2! 481V*0@.!P90!F5#:!%89!4+1@0!,80!@0*10#$!F5*0!F#1#!@8V#!84!05#!25*--#:,#@!%89!V+,50!5*7#! @##:!+:!9@+:,!05*0!481V*0!87#1!N1+:0l 3;!cV.!S!05+:H!@8V#!84!05#!25*--#:,#@!F#1#!05*0!S!289-$!:80!5*7#!*!N5%@+2*-.!*!0*:,+P-#!4##-! 481!58F!4*1! S!F*@!,#00+:,!+:08!05#!P88H.!*:$!+0!4#-0!-+H#.!05+@!+@!,8::*!@89:$!F#+1$.!P90mS?V! -+H#!*!N18,1#@@!,9%.!@8!+0?@!-+H#.!S!5*7#!08!H+:$!84!@##!V%!N18,1#@@!481!05#!P88H!+0?@!#*@%!08! 091:!*!N*,#.!%89!@##!05#!N*,#!:9VP#1!*:$!%89!H+:$!84.!%89!H:8F.!%89!@##!05*0!$+ V#:@+8:.! 85!%89!H:8F.!05*0?@.!05*0?@!*!489105!84!*!F*%!05189,5!05#!P88H.!P90!F+05!*:!+M*$!81!*!N58:#.! #@N#2+*--%!*!N58:#.!%89!H:8F.!F+05!05#!@V*--!@21##:!%89!4-+N.!*:$!05#:!+0?@!*@!+4.!F+05!V%! N58:#.!+0?@!*@!+4!S!4-+N!4+7#!0+V#@!*:$!S!5*7#:?0!#7#:!,8:#!N*@ 0!8:#!N*,#.!*--!1+,50.!58F!-8:,!$8! S!5*7#!08!1#*$l K;!"+H#.!F5*0!*V!S!$8+:,l 3;!^5*0!*V!S!$8+:,l!3:$!05#:!F+05!*:!+M*$.!+0!F*@!H+:$!84!05#!@*V#!05+:,.!+0!F*@!*!-+00-#! V81#!08-#1*P-#.!P90!+0!F*@!n9@0!05*0!F58-#.!S?V!4-+NN+:,!V%!4+:,#1!*:$!S?V!n9@0!-+H#.!F 5#:!*V! S!,8::*!,#0!05189,5.!N#15*N@.!N#15*N@!+0?@!05#!#-#2018:+2m95.!+0#V?@!4*9-0!81!V*%P#!+0?@!n9@0! S?V!*!@-8F!1#*$#1B!S0!289-$!,8!#+05#1!F*%B K;!Y8!5*7#!%89!#7#1!9@#$!058@#!481V*0@!481!2-*@@!P#481#l 3;!S!5*7#B K;!G#*5B!3:$!05#:!F5*0!F*@!%891!#fN#1+#:2 #!-+H#!F+05!05*0l 3;!cVm+0!F*@!:80!,1#*0!o2*9@#!S!P*1#-%!,80!05189,5!*:%!P88HB!cV.!+0!F*@!,88$!+4!+0!F*@!*! 0#25:+2*-!2891@#!F5#1#!+4!S!5*$!05#!P88H!+:!V%!+M*$!*:$!S!n9@0!:##$#$!08!H:8F!0#1V@!81! 1#@#*125!*:$!S!F89-$!n9@0!4-+N!05189,5!05*0!N*,#B!U90!+4!+0!F *@!481!*!-+0#1*091#! p *!-+0!2-*@@! p -+H#!%89:,!*$9-0!-+0#1*091#!*:$!S!5*$!8:#!P88H!*!F##H.!*:$!S!F89-$!$8F:-8*$!@8V#!84!058@#! P88H@!8:!V%!+M*$.!*:$!S!F*@.!+0!F*@.!S?V!-+0#1*--%!n9@0!0518F+:,!V8:#%!*F*%!P#2*9@#!S!:#7#1! ,80!08!05#!P88H@!P90!05*0!F*@:?0!V*+:%!P#2*9@#!84!05#!+M*$.!S!1#*--%!05+:H!+0!F*@!P#2*9@#.! P#2*9@#!S!$+$:?0!5*7#!*!$+@2+N-+:#$!1#*$+:,!1890+:#!+:!N-*2#.!F5+25!S!05+:H!+@!*0!05#!281#!84! #7#1%05+:,B!U#2*9@#!:8F!S?V!9@#$!08!890 ] 84 ] N1+:0!81!#-#2018:+2!*:$!S!2*:!,8!05189,5!*:%! P88HB K;!3:$!H+:$! 84!n9@0!4-+N!4-8N!P#0F##:!05#Vl

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! "#$$% RR K;!OkB!X8!%89!05+:H!05*0?@!%891!8F:!N#1@8:*-!-#*1:+:,!@0%-#!81!$8!%89!05+:H!+0?@! n9@0!481! @+VN-+2+0%!*:$!28:7#:+#:2#l 3;!S! p S!05+:H!05*0.!%89!H:8F.!05*0?@!n9@0!,#:#1*--%!58F!S!,8!*P890!05+:,@.!o2*9@#!S.!S!5*7#!05+@! F#+1$!05+:,!*P890.!95.!V*1H+:,!+:! p +:!P88H@.!@8!S!n9@0!$8:?0!$8!+0B K;!OkB!3:$!F+05!*!MX)!%89?7#!:#7#1.!-+H#.!5+,5-+,5 0#$!81!*::80*0#$!F+05!*:%!84!05#.!-+H#! 3$8P#!@0944!05*0!%89!2*:!$8!F+05!+0l 3;!E8.!:80!1#*--%B K;!OkB!cV.!*:$.!$+$!%89!4+:$!05*0!1#*$+:,!05#!MX)@!P#481#!2-*@@.!-+H#.!@0+--!,*7#!%89!#:89,5! 08!H+:$!84!1#V#VP#1!F5*0!05#%!F#1#!*P890!F+05890!5*7+:,!05#V!1+,50 +:!418:0!84!%89l 3;!S?V!01%+:,!08!05+:H!84!*mS?7#!$8:#!*!289N-#!84!058@#!F5#1#!S!5*$!08!1#*$!@8V#05+:,! 8:m8:!*!MX)!81!@8V#05+:,.!P90m K;!gV5VB 3;!mS!$8:?0!1#V#VP#1!*m*!@+,:+4+2*:0!$+44#1#:2#!P#0F##:.!P#0F##:!*!-80!84!+0.!S!V#*:.!%#*5.!S! 2*:?0!1#V#VP#1! *!@+,:+4+2*:0!$+44#1#:2#B!C5*0?@!:80!08!@*%!05#1#!F*@:?0!8:#.!S!n9@0!2*:?0! 1#V#VP#1!8:#!*0!05+@!N8+:0B K;!OkB!cV.!*:$!S!H:8F!%89?1#!*:!\:,-+@5!V*n81.!9V.!P90!F5*0?@!%891!V+:81!+:B 3;!c5.!5+@081%B K;!S:!5+@081%l!OkB!Y8!481!5+@081%.!%89?1#!@0+--!V8@0-%!-8 8H+:,!*0!N1+:0#$!V*0#1+*-@B 3;!gV5VB K;!OkB!Y8.!S!1#*--%!05+:H!05*0?@!*--!S!5*7#!481!%89.!@8mH9$8@B 3;!C5*0!F*@!r9+2HB

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! "#$$% RT Transcript from Interview with Participant D Brittany Leddy 4:02 Q: OK, so my first question is always, have you ever used any kind of e books for school before? A: No, I have not. Q: Why haven't you adopted e books as an alternate yet? A: UmI guess it's because the main thing is I don't have an e reader, so lugging around my laptop is too heavy and cumbersome. Um, and honestl y, I'm just one of those purist assholes who likes to have a book, a hard copy of a book in my hand. Q: So what do you find is beneficial of reading in print over reading on your computer screen, for example? A: Um, number one the tactile experience, the re's just something to be said about actually being able to touch, smell, feel the book as the pages turn, and I just think it's a lot quicker, it's easier to navigate with your hands as opposed to I don't know just like having to open up a bunch of window s, go back to your reference page, and quickly go back to it. I also like to highlight, I like drawing, so coloring is very fun to me. Q: OK, so would you say that when you're reading something for class that you do make a lot of notes and annotations in the margins and stuff? A: Um, not as many annotations as, um, just more like physical highlighting, flagging with post it notes and stuff like that, um. Yeah, I mean sometimes I'll write in the margins and that's easier than having to go down to the dialo gue box and look down, open comments, click on it, make a comment. I can just pull out my pencil and bang, done, right there. Q: Have you ever been required to have an electronic copy for class before or anything like that? A: Yeah, I mean there's been l ike hybrid classes and stuff, and there's always like online content so, that's kind of part of it but I've never been actually required to buy a book online or anything or have a digital copy of a book, there's always been that option. Q: Have you found that learning, like, reading something on your computer screen, you remember it more or less? A: Much less. Q: Much less? A: Yeah.

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! "#$$% R= Q: Do you have an idea of as to why that is? A: Um, probably there's so much more going on with the computer screen, it's a lot easier to become distracted, and it just fries your eyeballs. Q: Yeah. A: Staring at a screen all day, I mean, you're a writer too, you know what it's like so Q: Yeah. A: Yeah, it'll fry your eyeballs, whereas you can read for hours and pro bably just end up getting kind of tired but, unless it's a very exciting book that you're reading. Q: So if, let's say, you were given some kind of tablet device, um, would you consider buying e books just on a price basis or would you still go for that t actile experience? A: I'm never gonna change, they're going to have to pry my books from my cold, dead hands. It would be fun to have a tablet for other things, and I would probably use it to, you know, go on to Amazon and open the book and kind of get an idea of, like, the table of contents and a couple pages, but if it's a book I'm actually interested in reading and engaging and the full experience, I'm gonna buy a copy of it no matter what. Q: Okay. So I really think that's all I've got for you.

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! "#$$% R` Transcript from Interview with Participant E Brittany Leddy 5:08 Q: OK, so, outside of today's research have you ever used, like a tablet, or any kind of e book for educational purposes? A: I have a Kindle application on my phone that I've used, uh, for the sake of pulling up, um, like my educational texts, like, not textbooks but kind of the supplementary reading to textbooks, like any other stories or, like philosophy books or whatever, but I haven't used any e textbooks or any of that. Q : OK, um, and have you ever considered buying a tablet to do that? A: I have, but I have so many resources on my phone and on my computer that it almost seems like it would be a bit much. Q: Mmhm. A: Like kind of pointless. Q: Yeah. Um and sohave you ever considered going straight to e books? Maybe using your computer instead? A: I have but I realize, because I tried using my laptop to like, take notes and, um, look things up in class one semester, and I realized I wasn't retaining information very we ll when I was, like, taking notes in that sort of format. Like I retain information better when I write it, and so I think if I do that, then, or and using e books like, I don't know, I'm very hands on, I like to write my notes, I like being able to highli ght or sticky note things, so I have considered it, I just don't think I would personally do as well with it. Q: And have you always just used, like, a print form instead? A: Yeah, and I didn't even, like, things that I've had, like, for my own research, I've had a bunch of like things on a flash drive, and even instead of just, you know, having those up and looking at them, I've always printed out copies of everything, and sat there and highlighted and underlined and made notes in the margins. Q: OK, um and do you find that you go back and review those notes pretty frequently? A: I do, and I find that I've had to remember what I'm writing down, likeeven things that I highlight I'll write them right next to the margins just so that I can retain them a little better. Q: OK, um, so even with things like PDFs or supplementary materials, you still choose to print them out instead?

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! "#$$% RI A: Yeah, even for like classes, like, um if teachers are telling me to go online, access this PDF or they send you on e, I still print them out just cause, I don't know, I'm very, I'm very hands on, I like you know, writing little notes or highlighting. Q: OK. Um, so is price a big factor in this at all or for you is it more just the learning experience? A: For me it's more the learning experience, like I have my laptop, and when I, I haven't had it for very long, but I could've easily gotten an iPad just for maybe a hundred dollars more and that wasn't a big issue, umfor me, it was definitely more, you know, even with the laptop itself, I was like, you know, I'm not doing as well for this, I'm not retaining information as well, so, it's more of the experience. Q: And what would you say led you to the conclusion that you just weren't retaining information quite as well ? A: When I went to study for quizzes, you know, um, or I would take quizzes or take tests, I was realizing, oh, I don't know this as well as I thought I did, even though now I've typed this up, I've typed it up on study guides from the notes andI just r ealized, I'm very much more of a writer and I remember handwritten. Q: OK, so beyond notes are there any other kidns of strategies that you use when you have a printed version versus, like, something electronic? A: Um, like I said, some of the highlighti ng, I like using the little flags and the little sticky notes, umlet's see what else Q: Do you have an kind of like color code system? A: Oh God yes. < laughter > A: I am like, kind of OCD, type A, in that regard, I, um, if you look at my research reports from the project I just did, it is all highlighted and certain colors and halved in different places, it's nuts. < laughter > Q: So there's definitely some kind of process you've established to A: Oh yeah, there's a method to my madness. < laugh ter > Q: And you don't think there's an electronic equivalent to that process yet?

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! "#$$% R< A: No, I don't think, I mean, I'm sure for other people there are, and I know people who swear by their iPads, my brother in law just got one for Christmas, and he is in l ove, like I think he likes that more than he likes his dog, or my sister. < laughter > But umyeah, like I know people who swear by their iPads, they keep everything organized on there or by their Macbooks, or yeah, they're iPod Touches or whatever. And you know. It's all about different learning styles, which I appreciate because definitely not everybody is like me, it's probably a good thing, cause they'd probably be crazy < laughter >, um, but just me personally, I don't think, for myself there's an equival ent, to probably my weird system yet. Q: OK, um, so I think for the most part that'sall OK!

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! "#$$% TQ Transcript from Interview with Participant F Brittany Leddy 4:59 Q: OK, so my first question is always, have you ever used any kind of like e book or electro nic reading device before? A: No. Q: No? Um, why is that? A: Um, mostly I just haven't had access to one but I kind of prefer reading it on the page just because I can mark on the text if I want to and it's easier to keep my place. Q: OK. Um, so have you ever even just read something on a computer screen? A: I have read on a computer a few times. Q: OK. And what was that experience like for you? A: Um. Well I wear like really thick glasses so it strained my eyes a lot to do that, and I kept getting distracted by the internet while I was reading so I didn't have a lot of good focus there. Q: OK. So have you ever been required to have PDF's for class or something like that? A: I had an e book for one class but it was a computer class, so Q: OK, an d did you, how did you feel about being required to have that e book? A: Um, it was pretty tough just because of the format of the book it was hard to get used to, so I feel like I didn't learn as much as I could have. Q: OK, because in all of your other classes you've always just gotten the print version? A: Yeah. Q: OK, and so that was just a one semester class? And you just didn't feel that it worked for you? A: Yeah, I mean I got a bad grade in the class so Q: So you're like, that just really did n't pan out for me. Q: So what do you think was the big disadvantage for you with reading in that format?

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! "#$$% T& A: Um, mostly it was just like less convenient than a book cause like, in a book it's always fit to the window, you know, it's always the right size for the page, and with reading on a computer it would be, like, too large or too small sometimes. Q: OK. So you said that you take notes all the time, so you do that in the margins or on a separate page A: I usually just underline things, cause it helps me to like keep track of where I am in the reading. So usually with shorter readings I don't but like with books, I always underline things. Q: OK, and what are you currently majoring in? A: I'm majoring in music education. Q: Music education. OK So obviously that's a major minor design so I'll have to ask you another question. What kinds of literature would you use within a music education program? A: Umprobably like sheet music mostly. Um, I would use, and um, biographies on composers, and um like, um, I'mit's music eduation, so like, umso it would be like texts on how to teach students and things like that, so umI can't really think of any, like literature like fiction that I would use, but Q: OK. Yeah, I guess that was a bit of jargon that I used. Because, yeah, literature would describe just the things that you said. Umand sowith that, especially with sheet music, it's a very tactile thing, and you A: Definitely, and it's, when you're singing especially, um, cause I'm in vocal mus ic, um, with singing especially you have to have a pencil at all times to like change the text so Q: OK, so especially within a music discipline it's critical that you're able to like take notes and do things on the sheet music. A: Mmhm, and I've had su ccess with like uh, digital sheet music, but I usually like to mark it, I would have to print it out. Q: OK, so you've used, like, what was that experience like, the digital sheet music versus A: Well I didn't use it to like play the music but I looked at it and I have to compose music on digital things a lot of the time and that experience was better than reading English words but I still prefer, like, the page. Q: OK. So for you it's a big, like, this is how I kind of think it through. A: Yeah, well I'm a really kinesthetic learner, so to have something tactile that I can touch really helps with me.

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! "#$$% T' Q: OK. Um, and so, let's say you had a tablet, would price ever effect whether you would convert to e books or not. A: Definitely, yeah. I mean, I'm a c ollege student so I have a really low budget. Q: So would that, like, let's say you won an iPad in this realm, so then would you consider transferring completely to e books if you had that option, and say it were significantly cheaper? A: Significantly c heaper, yeah I would because there are so many books I want to read, and it would be pretty convenient as long as the battery wouldn't die right away, but I don't think I would ever transition completely to e books. Q: So do you think that maybe for, like kind of like recreational reading, would that be a great alternative? A: Yeah, and like, if I just want to check out a book instead of keep it forever, like I would still want to get a physical book if it was like my favorite book.