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Observing vulnerability to human trafficking within regional districts in the State of Colorado

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Observing vulnerability to human trafficking within regional districts in the State of Colorado
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Anderson, Charlotte
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Metropolitan State University of Denver
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Observing Vulnerabalitity to Human Trafficking within Regional Districts in the State of
Colorado
by Charlotte Anderson
An undergraduate thesis submitted in partial completion of the Metropolitan State University of Denver Honors Program
May 2014
Dr. Annjanette Alejano-Steele Primary Advisor
Jim Smithwick Second Reader
Dr. Megan Hughes-Zarzo Honors Program Director


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Running Head: Human Trafficking Vulnerability
Observing Vulnerability to Human Trafficking within Regional Districts in the State of Colorado
Charlotte Anderson
To Fulfill the Requirements of the Senior Honors Thesis
Metropolitan State University


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Abstract
It is difficult to determine exactly how many individuals are trafficked each year within the United States due, in part, to ongoing challenges of data sharing. In other words, what little data have been collected is not being shared among professionals who typically encounter victims of trafficking. Whats more, because there has been little research conducted, most people assume human trafficking is not a problem in the United States. It is difficult for many service providers to identify victims, because so little data are available. It is also difficult to bring attention to this issue because so few people are aware that human trafficking is a problem within the United States.
Despite the fact that most people are unaware that human trafficking is a problem, several cases of human trafficking have been documented within the state of Colorado (Laboratory to Combat Human Trafficking, 2013). For example, in 2006, five victims of labor trafficking won a federal civil suit against Moises and Maria Rodriguez who kept workers in a state of debt bondage while working on farms in Northern Colorado. Moises housed the workers in substandard living quarters and carried a firearm on his person at all times; his primary means of control was psychological, laborers reported that they lived in fear of Moises. (Cardona & Vaughan, 2009.) There have also been several cases of sex trafficking reported in Colorado as well. For example, in 2010 The Denver District Attorneys Office charged a woman in Denver with keeping a place of prostitution, pimping of a child, contributing to the delinquency of a minor and pandering (Colorado Department of Law, 2011.) The woman was responsible for pimping out both her own daughter, as well as another underage girl; primarily to gang members


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in exchange for meth, cocaine, or money. In exchange for sex, the girls were rewarded with food, shelter, clothes and drugs (Colorado Department of Law, 2011.)
There are industries that make human trafficking possible and characterize what trafficking looks like in a given area. Agriculture and construction are prominent Colorado industries which are likely to take advantage of cheap immigrant labor; there is also a lack of oversight in these industries as well. Colorado also offers an international airport, which makes it easy for traffickers to bring victims into the United States undetected. Two major US highways also run through Colorado; such as 1-70 and 1-25, which facilitate easy transportation for traffickers to move their victims. The geography of this state also plays a key role, as the mountains serve as a good hiding place for exploited people. Colorado is home to many sporting events, conventions and resorts; all of which may bring an influx of people who have a demand for sex services, an industry where trafficking is known to occur (Smithwick, personal communication, 2013.)
Fortunately, efforts have been made to lay the foundations to end human trafficking. The Laboratory to Combat Human Trafficking (LCHT), a local, non-profit organization dedicated to end human trafficking, began The Colorado Project to comprehensively end human trafficking (Colorado Project) in 2010; a comprehensive research project that was launched to understand what is working to address human trafficking efforts within Colorado by utilizing the 4P model (the four key elements essential to effectively fight human trafficking, as stated by the Trafficking Victims Protection Act: prevention, protection, prosecution and partnerships) to support coordinated community responses to human trafficking.


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The purpose of this thesis is to supplement the information that the Colorado Project collected by evaluating information; and then cataloging data which outlines potential vulnerabilities and resources that exist in each county of Colorado. The goal is to compose a comprehensive picture of which districts in Colorado need to improve methods of helping victims and what efforts are sufficient and should be replicated in other districts. This thesis will also outline what makes different counties vulnerable to trafficking; assemble a comprehensive understanding of what resources are available in each Colorado district using the 4P model; and align with trends and patterns that were also found by researchers of The Colorado Project. This catalog of results will help draw conclusions that will illustrate to different communities, what efforts can still be improved upon.


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Introduction
Human trafficking is the recruitment, transportation, harboring or obtaining of an individual through means of force, fraud or coercion for the purposes of commercial sexual exploitation, services or labor exploitation (Department of State, 2011.) Human trafficking is not only a global issue; it is also a national and a statewide issue (LCHT 2013.) Unfortunately, due to a lack of research and an absence of data collection and sharing, the general population knows very little in regards to human trafficking (LCHT, 2013.) Currently, researchers, community members and service providers struggle to solve this crime because there arent enough data available to completely understand the complexities of human trafficking. Consequently, its difficult for service providers to identify and properly help victims because so little data are available. Community members are also ill-equipped to properly help victims and prevent future instances of trafficking due to a lack of understanding of what makes individuals vulnerable to exploitation and/or violence. Each region within Colorado has unique features that could potentially put it at risk to become an incubator for trafficking to occur.
Although some work has been done in Colorado to address the issue of human trafficking, a majority of the efforts have been centered in the city of Denver. Cases of human trafficking have been found throughout the state of Colorado (LCHT 2013.) Although Denver is a good starting point because human trafficking has been found in Denver, trafficking happens everywhere; and as such, research efforts should evaluate different regions in order to understand the unique vulnerabilities that threaten each community. It is important to understand the landscape of efforts that exist throughout the entire state of Colorado. Features of a given community which make it vulnerable to trafficking should be documented and understood, along with the current resources available to potential and current victims. An all-inclusive


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documentation would help community members and service providers understand what is currently being done to address trafficking; and what gaps still need to be filled in order to properly facilitate the needs of victims and prosecute traffickers (LCHT 2013.) Through the Colorado Statewide Action Plan, a comprehensive collection of what services and vulnerable populations exist is underway. The purpose of this thesis is to outline what specific vulnerabilities exist in different regions in Colorado; and what resources are available in regards to all aspects of the 4P model.
When observing what resources are available to victims and potential victims of human trafficking, it is important to look at resources within the 4P model; the four key aspects, as stated by the Trafficking Victims Protection Act (TVPA), necessary to end human trafficking (TVPA, 2011.) These four aspects include, prevention (public awareness campaigns), protection (social services, mental health advocacy), prosecution (prosecuting attorneys, law enforcement); partnerships (the collaborative efforts of different service providers.) For the purposes of this paper, resources available to victims and potential victims will be observed through the 4P model. Tracking available efforts will provide baseline data to determine what communities need to improve their efforts and which efforts are effective and could be used as a model for replication in other areas.
Prior to mapping statewide efforts, it is important to note definitions in order to create a framework to understand human trafficking. The Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children, was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 2000. It entered into force on December 25, 2003. It is the first


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international legal document to provide a standardized, agreed upon definition on trafficking in persons:
Trafficking in persons shall mean the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation. Exploitation shall include, at a minimum, the exploitation of the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labor or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or the removal of organs ("United Nations," 2000.)
The purpose of generating this definition was to create a uniform understanding of human trafficking among the international community, to facilitate cooperation in investigating and prosecuting trafficking in persons cases ("United Nations," 2000.) To combat the crime of trafficking within the U.S., Congress passed The Trafficking Victim Protection Act (TVPA) in 2000 which defined a series of new crimes on trafficking, forced labor and involuntary servitude. Recognizing that modern-day slavery takes place in the context of fraud and coercion, as well as force, and is based on new clear definitions for both trafficking into sexual exploitation and labor exploitation: Sex trafficking was defined as, a commercial sex act that is induced by force, fraud, or coercion, or in which the person induced to perform such an act has not attained 18 years of age (TVPA 2000.) Labor trafficking was defined as, the recruitment, harboring, transportation, provision, or obtaining of a person for labor or services, through the use of force, fraud, or coercion for the purpose of subjection to involuntary servitude, peonage, debt bondage, or slavery (TVPA 2000.)
The state of Colorado defines human trafficking as the selling, exchanging, bartering or leasing an adult (16 years old or older); or child (person younger than 16), in exchange for money. Trafficking also includes receiving the services of an adult in exchange for money


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(SENATE BILL 06-207.) There are obvious differences between the state and national definition of human trafficking. The difference in terminology between state and federal legislation make it difficult to prosecute certain individuals who have been convicted of trafficking others because the definitions are so conflicting. Terms like bartering and leasing which are excluded from the national legislation, are confusing to a jury who needs to decide the verdict of a trafficking case (LCHT, 2013.)
Community Vulnerability
To gain a better understanding of how to combat human trafficking, its important to look at what aspects of a community make it potentially vulnerable to human trafficking. For the purposes of this paper, vulnerability will be defined as the degree to which people are susceptible to harm, degradation, or destruction on being exposed to a hostile agent or factor (BusinessDictionary, 2013.) Understanding vulnerability provides insight to understand what action(s) communities can take in order to improve the fight against trafficking. Due to unique features of Colorado (mountainous landscape, agriculture, international airport/highways, geographical location within the U.S., etc.) vulnerability looks different in Colorado compared to other states. Vulnerability also looks different within Colorado as it is such a diverse state, there are discrepancies that exist between different regions that create different vulnerabilities; which is why it is important to look at all areas within the state, to get a more complete picture of what vulnerability looks like throughout Colorado (e.g. vulnerability will look different in Denver then it does in Grand Junction.)
Colorado is positioned near the center of the U.S. and is accessible to the rest of the U.S. through the two interstates that run through Colorado, as well as the Denver International Airport


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(Colorado Government, 2014.) Because of its location, Colorado is not only a destination for traffickers to take their victims, but it is also a transit state that whereby victims are moved from one area to another (LCHT, 2013.) A source location is the trafficking victims area of origin, typically the place where the trafficker recruited the victim. A transit location is the area traffickers frequently move victims through in order to reach the destination location, or the area that receives the trafficking victim (Anderson, 2003.) Colorado is a source, transit and destination location (LCHT, 2013.)
Colorado is known for its mountainous regions and reclusive landscape (Colorado Government, 2014.) Areas which are hidden away from the general population are attractive to traffickers looking for a place to hide potential victims. Many people who are exploited for their labor are often taken to farms that are hidden from roads and cities where other people may report trafficking. Metropolitan areas are also vulnerable to human trafficking. The presence of large sex industries potentially put community members in danger of trafficking (LCHT, 2013.) This state brings in people all over the country for its tourist attractions and destination resorts (Colorado Government, 2014.); which makes it possible to transport trafficking victims to and throughout Colorado without being questioned. As previously stated, little research has been conducted to understand vulnerability to trafficking. Although there have been some efforts, most have been centered on the city of Denver because it has one of the highest populations in the state and therefore contains more vulnerable individuals. It is important to look at different regions within Colorado in order to understand what could make each region uniquely vulnerable to trafficking. One easy way of dividing up the regions in a state is to divide by district.


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Colorado is a diverse state; containing both a major city with an active nightlife, as well as secluded plains and mountain regions (Colorado Government, 2014.) Some districts are vulnerable because they have a high crime and poverty rate. Pueblo County, for example, had reported one of the highest rates of poverty and the highest rate of crime in 2009, followed by Denver County (Illescas, 2010.) Others are made vulnerable by agriculture and the demand for cheap labor. Some districts contain Indian reservations which are more vulnerable to trafficking due to a high rate of crime and poverty (LCHT, 2013.) Different areas in Colorado are so diverse that they should be examined individually (e.g. Denvers metropolitan region vs. El Paso Countys mountainous landscape) in order to understand what specific steps should be taken by a community in order to best fight human trafficking within their district. It is also important to then look at the resources, within a comprehensive framework, that are available to victims or potential victims within each region.
In understanding vulnerability, it is imperative to examine agencies within the 4P framework to get an understanding of what resources are available to vulnerable and underserved populations. Because there are few agencies that specifically help victims of human trafficking, agencies from parallel movements, that is, movements that also come into contact with potential victims of human trafficking (child abuse, domestic violence, immigrant services, law enforcement, etc.) need to be examined (LCHT, 2013.) Many service providers encounter victims of human trafficking, sometimes without recognizing it. Therefore, it is important to include an analysis of agencies within movements such as child abuse, domestic violence, immigrant advocacy agencies, etc. to understand what resources are available to victims of human trafficking (LCHT, 2013.)


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Currently, research in the anti-human trafficking movement is a landscape of scattered efforts (LCHT, 2013.) Many communities are pulling together available resources and information to try and understand what is currently being done to combat trafficking and what efforts still need to be improved upon (LCHT, 2013.) Many researchers have only focused on a single component or one aspect within the 4P framework; as a result, the entire picture of what vulnerabilities look like and what services are available to victims, is still unclear. Research in only one aspect of the 4P model creates an incomplete picture of what is available to stop trafficking in the future. The Colorado Project to Comprehensively Combat Human Trafficking has sought to understand (using the 4P model) what efforts in Colorado are sufficient in meeting the needs of trafficking victims and where efforts should continue to improve (LCHT, 2013.)
Community-specific vulnerabilities
In order to gain a comprehensive understanding of vulnerability in Colorado, it is important to collect data from each region regarding specific features that could potentially make it an area where trafficking is likely to occur. First of all, its imperative to understand what types of vulnerable populations exist within each county. Individuals are most productive during the ages of 18 to 30 years old (Human Trafficking Lecture, 2013.) Due to the high rate of productivity, this is the age range that people are typically recruited for trafficking purposes; therefore, a youthful population is more at risk to become victims of trafficking (LCHT, 2013.) Youth are more vulnerable to trafficking, not only because they are physically productive, they are also disproportionately affected by poverty, placing them at risk to engage in risky behavior in order to meet their needs economically (LCHT, 2013.) Additionally youth can be particularly naive to potentially dangerous situations (Whitbeck, Hoyt, Yoder, Cauce, & Paradise, 2001.)


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Traffickers will typically take advantage of this naivety and use it to their advantage when recruiting victims.
The homeless population is extremely vulnerable to trafficking. A Point-in-Time survey, conducted on January 24, 2012 found a significant number of people experiencing homelessness within Colorado. Within the Denver Metro Area alone, 12,605 people were found experiencing homelessness; furthermore, 1,228 more people were experiencing homelessness than at the same time in 2011. This study also found that 1,383 people were homeless as result of domestic violence (Metro Denver Homeless Initiative, 2012.) Individuals who have no food or shelter are more likely than most to agree to do something potentially exploitative in exchange for their survival (LCHT, 2013.)
Homeless, runaway and throwaway (meaning youth that have been kicked out of their homes) youth are particularly vulnerable to traffickers. Youth who are experiencing homelessness are not only in need of food and shelter but are also often engaged in high-risk behaviors; in Denver, substance abuse is high among homeless youth, 11% have engaged in survival sex, and 13% share needles for drug use (Van Leeuwen et al. 2006.) Traffickers recruit homeless individuals and promise to provide them with money, food, shelter and love if they agree to work for them. The homeless population is made up of individuals who are less likely to get hired; working for a stranger off the street may seem like the only option.
The immigrant population is also important to consider when observing vulnerable communities. There are approximately 120,000 people who are considered undocumented immigrants in the workforce, 107,500 of whom are actively working in the United States (Harris 2011b.) Some immigrants are unable to speak English and do not have a comprehensive


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understanding of the U.S. legal system; and therefore are more susceptible to being coerced into a trafficking situation (LCHT, 2013.) Some immigrants also lack the proper documents that are required to gain employment in the U.S. Traffickers and some employers are willing to take advantage of undocumented workers, knowing they can treat them poorly, make them work long hours and pay them very little without the threat of a law suit (LCHT, 2013.) The immigrant population in Colorado is also vulnerable to poverty; 27% of people who were noncitizens live below the poverty line (Migration Policy Institute 2012a.) Twenty-two percent of immigrant children live below the poverty line, twice the rate of poverty for native born children (Anne E. Casey Foundation 2012a.) Some immigrants come over to the U.S. with the assistance of a coyote who in turn forces them into indentured servitude in order to pay for the trip to the U.S. (Krissman, Foner, Rumbaut, & Gold, 2000).
Most victims of sex trafficking are survivors of sexual abuse in childhood; therefore, it is also important to understand children who have been abused both physically and sexually are also more vulnerable to trafficking. Eight children in 1,000 under 18 were abused or neglected in 2011 (Anne E. Casey Foundation 2012a.) Growing up with the understanding that the person who should be protecting you is also exploiting you, normalizes abuse. Several cases of human trafficking have also been documented where parents sell their children to people for the purpose of sexual exploitation in exchange for money, drugs, etc. (LCHT, 2013.) Its likely that some children who have been sexually abused may have also been victims of trafficking.
Survivors and current victims of domestic violence are also at a higher risk to become victims of trafficking. In Colorado during 2012, 13,384 cases of domestic violence were reported to Colorado law enforcement agencies (Colorado Coalition, 2012.); one in six house-holds in Colorado is affected by domestic violence (Womens Foundation of Colorado 2013.) Many


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women who endure abuse on a regular basis are at risk of being trafficked by their significant other. When domestic disturbance is called into the police, many trafficking victims will claim that their pimp is actually their boyfriend who they had got into a fight with. Therefore some instances of domestic violence can mask cases of human trafficking.
The LGBTQ (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer) population are even more susceptible to public health risks and are also considered at high-risk of becoming victims of trafficking (LCHT, 2013.) This is largely attributed to parents kicking their kids out of the house when they come out as LGBTQ. As noted earlier, homelessness puts anyone at a higher risk to become a victim of human trafficking. Individuals who identify as transgender or queer are two to three times more likely to be the target of sexual violence (National Coalition of Anti-Violence Programs 2012.)
Native Americans are also considered to be a vulnerable population in regards to trafficking. Reservations have relatively high crime rates and a large amount of the population living under the poverty line; which make individuals not only susceptible to crime but also desperate for money (Harvard Project on American Indian Economic Development, 2008.) Tribal lands have very few resources available to victims and instances of trafficking are dealt with by the tribal courts.
Substance abusers are also an important vulnerable population to consider. Individuals who are addicted to substances are typically more willing to put themselves in dangerous situations in exchange for drugs, alcohol or money that will allow them to get their next fix (United State Insurgency Council on Homelessness, 2013.) Substance abusers also make up a large portion of the homeless population. It is estimated that nearly half of all individuals


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experiencing homelessness, and 70 percent of Veterans experiencing homelessness, suffer from substance abuse disorders (United State Insurgency Council on Homelessness, 2013.) Typically traffickers will stake out people who are desperate and in need of something (e.g. drugs, shelter, food, security, love); and exploit that individuals need for their own personal gain (LCHT, 2013.) Individuals who are in need of something are particularly vulnerable to human trafficking and should be accounted for when researching vulnerable communities. Understanding the numbers of vulnerable populations in these counties/ regions could provide insight as to what makes a specific county vulnerable to human trafficking.
Colorado Context: Industries where human trafficking can occur
Industries that exist within each Colorado County are also relevant to look at when trying to get a comprehensive understanding of human trafficking. Agriculture, for example, is an industry known for the exploitation of undocumented workers. Again, traffickers and employers may take advantage of individuals who dont speak English or have proper documentation to work; this allows them to employ people to do the back-breaking work required for farming and pay them very little. Anywhere that agriculture is prominent opens up the opportunity for someone to exploit the labor of their workers. Mining, drilling and construction are other industries that have a reputation for exploiting cheap immigrant labor. These are prominent industries in Colorado that should be examined when looking at vulnerability.
The sex industry is also likely to exploit people for money. Some strippers are forced to strip and sometimes forced to have sex in exchange for money. Its not unlikely that a stripper may fall victim to a pimp and eventually be coerced into trading sex for money. Wherever there is a lucrative sex industry, there is likely to be individuals who are forced to work against their


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will. Maid and nanny services also have the opportunity to exploit individuals who need work and do not have the proper documentation. The manufacturing and restaurant industries are also known to take advantage of immigrant labor and people in need.
When examining industries, it is not only important to look at what industries may potentially exploit people but also what industries are likely to draw in people who would exploit others or create the demand to exploit others. For example, major sporting events can draw in large crowds of wealthy men who may be in the market for obtaining someone for the purposes of sex. Ski resorts and tourist attractions are also likely to draw in wealthy people who are willing to exploit others for personal gain. Traffickers understand where the demand for commercial sex and labor exploitation are within different communities; and use this knowledge to transport individuals to places where they can easily make a profit (Turner & Kelly, 2009.)
In addition to vulnerable populations and industries, it is also important to examine geographical aspects which could potentially make an area vulnerable to human trafficking. For instance, a countys proximity to a state border makes it more vulnerable to trafficking. Often traffickers transport their victims across state lines; so these communities may be at a higher risk for trafficking to occur. The proximity to an interstate (such as 1-70 or 1-25) and an international airport, like the Denver International Airport, could make a community vulnerable to human trafficking as well. The U.S. is a destination spot for traffickers to take victims. Some traffickers take their victims across state or country borders using an international airport or interstate highway. Whether its for transportation or destination purposes, victims and traffickers utilize these modes of transportation; and therefore, put communities near airports and highways, at risk to become areas where human trafficking may occur.


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The mountainous regions of Colorado also pose a dangerous threat to communities. The reclusivity of the mountainous landscape makes it easy for traffickers to hide victims away from plain sight of the community. Many traffickers will take victims to remote locations, far from where their exploitation will be seen. Proximity to large cities is also relevant when examining vulnerability to human trafficking. Large cities have a larger population of people, which typically coincides with a higher crime rate. For example, the cities of Denver and Aurora are two of the most populated cities in the state and also have some of the highest crime rates (Illescas, 2009.) With a large population comes a higher rate of vulnerable communities (homeless, LGBTQ, victims of child abuse/domestic violence, etc.); and a higher rate of people willing to exploit others for personal gain. Cities typically have larger commercial sex, hospitality, and restaurant industries that put the surrounding community at higher risk for human trafficking to occur.
Exploring the aspects of each county that could potentially make it vulnerable to trafficking is important to understand which counties may be at higher risk. It is also important to look at the resources available in each county in order to determine whether a particular county is could meet the needs of victims and potential victims. Available resources are best understood through the 4P framework; the idea that trafficking can be stopped by increasing efforts in four areas: prevention (public awareness campaigns, education, etc.); protection (agencies advocating and protecting victims); prosecution (law enforcement, prosecuting attorneys); partnerships (partnerships among community agencies) (LCHT, 2013.) Examining available resources provide insight as to which counties are making a sufficient effort to help victims and prosecute traffickers, and which counties need to improve their efforts. One project that is attempting to


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comprehensively support community efforts to combat human trafficking is the Colorado Project to Comprehensively Combat Human Trafficking.
Colorado Project 4Ps
The Laboratory to Combat Human Trafficking (LCHT), a local, non-profit organization dedicated to end human trafficking, began The Colorado Project in 2010; a comprehensive and interdisciplinary research project that was launched to understand what is working to address human trafficking within Colorado by utilizing the 4P model to support coordinated community-based responses to human trafficking. The Colorado Project sought information from service providers working with survivors of human trafficking, among others. The research created an action plan from which other communities would be able to utilize as a tool in order to fight this crime in their area.
Early in the movements history, efforts to combat human trafficking have been a landscape of scattered efforts. When previous research has been conducted, it has primarily only focused on one aspect of the four Ps at a time. These scattered efforts have left an incomplete picture of the entire problem; the Colorado Project focused its efforts to evaluate each of the four Ps within Colorado in order to comprehensively understand what is being done to stop human trafficking; what could be improved upon to better serve victims and prosecute traffickers. At a national level, the project sought to create baseline of promising practices to fight human trafficking. The Colorado Project can be replicated in other states to help communities understand what efforts are working and which need to still be improved upon. The data collected from the Colorado Project surpasses assumptions of what should happen and guides community action toward common goals. The 4Ps were drawn from two instruments:


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Trafficking Victims Protection Act and the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children which was implemented by United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC.)
The UNODC was established in 1997 through unification between the United Nations Drug Control Programme and the Centre for International Crime Prevention. The UNODC is the international leader in the fight against terrorism, crime and illicit drugs; and operates throughout all regions of the world. The objectives of the Ps in UNODC are: Field-based technical cooperation projects to counteract illicit drugs, crime and terrorism; and research and investigative work to expand the evidence base for policy regarding crime and illicit drugs; as well as work to assist States in the ratification and execution of international treaties. In relation to human trafficking, the UNODC helps governments across the world react to the consequences of smuggling and trafficking human beings between countries and continents. It offers practical help to states with drafting laws, creating comprehensive national anti-trafficking strategies, and assisting with resources to implement them.
In effort to combat trafficking in persons, Congress passed the Trafficking Victims Protection Act (TVPA 2000) with bipartisan support, which was signed by President Clinton on October 28, 2000. The issue of trafficking in persons included those trafficked into sex trade, slavery, and forced labor. The TVPA 2000 was created to, ensure just and effective punishment of traffickers, and to protect their victims (TVPA, 2000.) In particular, there were three main components of the TVPA, commonly called the three Ps: Protection, Prosecution and Prevention. The protection aspect refers to the U.S. Governments increased efforts to protect trafficked foreign national victims by providing assistance to victims of trafficking whom were


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not previously eligible for government assistance; and provide a non-immigrant status for victims of trafficking if they cooperated in the investigation and prosecution of traffickers (TVPA 2000.)
The prosecution aspect of the TVPA authorized the U.S. Government to strengthen efforts regarding the prosecution of traffickers. This was achieved by adding a series of new crimes on trafficking, forced labor, and document servitude that supplemented existing limited crimes related to slavery and involuntary servitude (TVPA 2000.) The prevention aspect of the TVPA allowed for increased measures to prevent possible future instances of trafficking in persons. This piece of the legislation allowed the U.S. Government to aid foreign countries with their efforts to combat trafficking, as well as addressing trafficking within the U.S. through research and awareness-raising; and providing foreign countries with assistance in drafting laws to prosecute trafficking, creating programs for trafficking victims, and assistance with implementing effective means of investigation (TVPA 2000.) There was later identified a fourth P, partnership, in 2009 which referred to the effort of organizations and agencies coming together in attempt to share information and work on the issue of human trafficking in a collaborative effort (TVPA 2000.)
Since the TVPA has been passed, it has undergone several reauthorizations to increase its effectiveness, including a new civil action that allows victims of trafficking to sue for restitution from their traffickers in a federal court. The Attorney General is also now required to report annually on trafficking efforts. Additional measures to protect U.S. citizen survivors were also later implemented. These provisions included grant programs to assist state and local law enforcement efforts in combating trafficking in persons and to expand victim assistance


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programs to U.S. citizens or resident aliens subjected to trafficking. The TVPA continues to undergo reauthorizations in effort to more effectively combat trafficking in persons. This thesis, as well as the Colorado Project, utilizes the 4Ps as defined by the TVPA to get an understanding of what resources are available for victims of human trafficking.
Methodology
In order to gain a comprehensive illustration of what resources in the 4P paradigm are available; and what unique vulnerabilities exist within each Colorado county, data were extracted from research papers then compiled and cataloged. The information that has been cataloged is research found by students in previous human trafficking classes. Each of the three classes from which data were being extracted, cover different information regarding a specific county in Colorado. These papers include information regarding industries, services available in terms of the 4P model and unique vulnerabilities in each Colorado district.
In the Winterim 2013 human trafficking class, students were instructed to provide information regarding a specific assigned county within Colorado. In these papers, students explained unique features of the county they were researching and what specifically could make their district vulnerable to human trafficking. The papers included information about geographical features that made their assigned district vulnerable to human trafficking (secluded mountainous regions, proximity to an airport, etc.) as well as, populations within their county which may be vulnerable to human trafficking (homeless youth, LGBTQ population, etc.) Industries which make a region vulnerable to human trafficking were also discussed (tourism, agriculture, etc.) Finally, students in the 2013 Winterim class provided information regarding what resources were available (within the 4P framework) in their specific county.


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Students from the Fall 2013 human trafficking class were instructed to create fact sheets which provided specific information regarding industries and vulnerable populations. These fact sheets provided a brief, bulleted overview of what features could make their assigned county potentially vulnerable to human trafficking. Students discussed vulnerability statistics which included information regarding vulnerable populations (child abuse victims, individuals living in poverty, etc.); and main industries within their assigned county (mining, construction, etc.). The purpose of the fact sheets was to briefly demonstrate what aspects of each county within Colorado may make it susceptible to human trafficking.
Finally, in the Winterim 2014 research papers, students were instructed to create an annotated bibliography which included scholarly articles specific to human trafficking. These students were also asked to research and describe different resources (within the 4p model) available within their assigned county to understand what resources exist. These papers included an extensive list of what these specific resources within each county could provide for human trafficking victims. Students from this class were able to provide insight through their research regarding what districts have sufficient resources available and which counties still have many gaps which need to be filled in order to support victims of trafficking.
Papers from these three human trafficking classes were compiled and organized numerically by each of the 22 Colorado Judicial Counties. Some counties had all three of the papers and some were missing one or two components; other counties were missing all papers. Specific data from these papers regarding vulnerable populations (Native Americans, homeless population, etc.); industries (agriculture, construction, etc.); aspects from the 4P model and geographical vulnerability (proximity to international airport, highways, etc.) were extracted and


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then cataloged and organized in a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet. Data that are missing from the papers were collected in order to fill in missing information. When completed the spreadsheet illustrates what resources are available and what makes particular communities vulnerable. From this illustration, conclusions can be drawn regarding which counties are lacking the proper services to support victims and which counties are sufficient in combating trafficking; and what efforts should be replicated in other areas.
Geographical Map of Colorado: This map illustrates the geographical features of Colorado; its evident that Colorado is a largely mountainous and rural state.


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Colorado State Patrol Map: This map illustrates how data for this thesis is divided by region to categorize unique features of each area in Colorado.
District 1
Geographical Communities
State Patrol District One is located in east central Colorado. This area has access to the major interstates which run through Colorado, including 1-25 and 1-70, and 1-76. The Denver International Airport is located within this district. Traffickers often transport their victims using interstate highways and airports (U.S. Census Bureau, 2011.) Since Colorado is a source, transit, and destination area for human trafficking victims, it is likely that victims are regularly brought into and through Colorado using these interstates and airports; making the surrounding areas an incubator for trafficking to occur. Within District One; there are also mountainous and secluded regions, where trafficking victims exploitation can be hidden from the general public. Prominent


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cities within this district include Denver and Boulder, both of which contain a large population (U.S. Census Bureau, 2011.)
Industries
Agriculture is a prominent industry within District One, many county economys within this district depend on agriculture to thrive (U.S. Census Bureau, 2011.) Agriculture is an industry likely to take advantage of cheap labor due to the extensive and back breaking work involved. Industrial manufacturing is another prominent industry within district one (Denver Urbanism, 2010.) There are also several ski resorts and tourist attractions within district one. Many people come to Colorado to visit Denver which is located within this district. Denver is home to many sporting and convention events which bring people from all over the country (Denver Urbanism, 2010.) When tourism is a prominent industry within a district, it is important to take note of who is serving the tourists within the hospitality and food service industries. Denver and Boulder are also home to several retail and recreation attractions.
Since the legalization of recreational marijuana, tourists have come from all over the country to buy marijuana from the many establishments within Denver and Boulder. Unfortunately, the law making recreational marijuana legal also takes resources from the already understaffed VICE unit within this district, as the VICE unit is now responsible for monitoring the use of another substance besides alcohol and tobacco. District one is also home to several prominent universities including, University of Colorado Boulder, University of Colorado Denver, Denver University, etc. (U.S. Census Bureau, 2011.) These colleges bring students from all over the world into District One, increasing the youth population in this district. Gilpin county is another prominent county within district one that features attractions such as Central City and


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Black Hawk Casino; gaming is another prominent industry within this district (U.S. Census Bureau, 2011.)
Vulnerable Communities
There is a large homeless population within this district predominantly within cites of Denver and Boulder, both of which have the highest rates of homelessness within the state (MDHI, 2013.) Due to the many universities within this district, particularly within the Denver Metro area and Boulder, there is also a relatively high youthful population within this district.
District 2
Geographical Communities
Regions of Colorado State patrol district two borders New Mexico, Kansas and Oklahoma (Colorado Government, 2013.) Areas which border other states are especially vulnerable to human trafficking as traffickers will typically transport their victims over state lines. Any region that borders another state is likely to have some victims of trafficking (LCHT, 2013.) Within this district lie the Las Animas airport and two major correctional facilities in Bent County. District two also has access to the major interstates that run through Colorado (1-25,1-70, etc.) There are several mountainous and secluded regions within this district (Colorado Government, 2013.)
Industries
Agriculture and construction are prominent industries within this district (U.S. Census Bureau, 2011.) Because this area is largely rural, forestry, fishing and mining are also prominent industries within district two (U.S. Census Bureau, 2011.) Colorado Springs is an important city


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within this district; and is home to five different military installations, the most of any county within the United States (U.S. Census Bureau, 2011.) The military is a prominent industry within this district. Colorado Springs is also home to many tourist attractions including Garden of the Gods (Colorado Government, 2013.) People from all over the country come to this region to see these exotic rock formations. Commercial shopping and manufacturing are also prominent industries within this district (U.S. Census Bureau, 2011.) Within Pueblo County are the Mission Foods and Lowes Homebuilders manufacturing plants; Pueblo is also home to tourist attractions such as the San Isabel National Forest (Colorado Government, 2013.)
Vulnerable Communities
The Comanche National Grassland Reservation is located within district two (U.S.
Census Bureau, 2011.) Reservations are particularly important to note when investigating vulnerability within a community because Native Americans are more at risk to become victims of trafficking. The Hispanic population within district two is also higher than the national and state average (U.S. Census Bureau, 2011.) Minority individuals are more vulnerable to discrimination. A large Hispanic population presents the possibility of a large immigrant population who could potentially lack the documents to work legally within the U.S. There may also be less fluency of English within this district. Traffickers often take advantage of individuals who have less understanding of the language and legal system (LCHT, 2013.) Within this district are areas in which sexual assault and violent crime rates are higher than the national and state average (U.S. Census Bureau, 2011.) Within this district, there are also high rates of poverty and unemployment (U.S. Census Bureau, 2011.)
District Three


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Geographical Vulnerabilities
There are several geographical features which makes district three vulnerable to human trafficking. District three has access to the major interstates within Colorado; there is also a municipal airport located within this district; in the county of Kit Carson (Colorado Government, 2013.) There are regions of this district that border Wyoming and Nebraska. Similar to the other districts, district three has various secluded and mountainous regions. Adams County is a prominent county within this district that is located near the Denver International Airport. Larimer County is also home to Colorado State University (Colorado Government, 2013.)
Industries
Agriculture, manufacturing, tourism, and construction are the most prominent industries within district three (U.S. Census Bureau, 2011.) Kit Carson County produces the states largest livestock supply and is also known for com and wheat production (U.S. Census Bureau, 2011.) Within Larimer County there is a huge restaurant industry. Larimer is also home to manufacturing plants, such as Agilent Technologies, Anheuser-Busch, Kodak, Hewlett Packard and Waterpik (Colorado Government, 2013.) Within district three is Morgan County which is home to Erker Grain, one of the largest processors of sunflower seeds in the world. Within Morgan County is also one of the largest meat packing companies within the U.S. The Excel Corporation is also located within Morgan County. Weld County is located within district three and is home to the JBS Meat processor, Lepreno Foods, as well as several manufacturing plants. Weld County is known as the third leading agricultural area within the U.S. (Colorado Government, 2013.)
Vulnerable Communities


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Within this district are several counties that have higher rates of the Hispanic population than the national and state average (U.S. Census Bureau, 2011.)
District Four
Geographical Vulnerabilities
In district four there are several rural and secluded areas which make this region vulnerable to human trafficking. This district also has easy access to major interstates and the airport within Rio Blanco County. Regions of this district also boarder Wyoming and Utah (Colorado Government, 2013.)
Industries
Agriculture is a leading industry within district four (U.S. Census Bureau, 2011.) This district also has a prominent construction, mining and oil drilling industry (U.S. Census Bureau, 2011.) Accommodations and food services are also important industries within district four. Tourism is a major industry; Mesa, Pitkin and Routt Counties all have several ski resorts and other outdoor and recreational activities that bring in tourists from all over the country (Colorado Government, 2013.) Oil shale drilling is also a prominent industry within Mesa County. Gas extraction is an important industry within district four, especially in Rio Blanco County (U.S. Census Bureau, 2011.)
Vulnerable Communities
There is a high minority population within district four; three counties within this district (Garfield County, Rio Blanco County; Pitkin County) have a higher Hispanic population than the national and state average (U.S. Census Bureau, 2011.)


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District 5
Geographical Vulnerabilities
There are Indian reservations within district five. The Southern Ute Indian Reservation spans across Archuleta County and La Plata County; the Ute Mountain Reservation lies within Montezuma County (Colorado Government, 2013.) Within Archuleta County, 14% of the land is tribal land. District five has several regions that boarder New Mexico and Utah. There is also east access to interstate highways and airports. Alamosa, Archuleta, La Plata, San Juan and San Miguel Counties all contain airports. District five contains the region of Colorado that sits in the four comers tourist attraction. Much of this district is rural and contains very secluded areas. In Archuleta County alone, 40% of the land is uninhibited forest. There are also several mountainous regions within district five. Within this district, there are several universities including Adams State University in Alamosa County and Fort Lewis College in La Plata County (Colorado Government, 2013.)
Industries
Agriculture is a prominent industry within district five; Alamosa County is known to be one of the highest counties producing agriculture within the U.S. Gaming is also a huge industry within this district; there are casinos located in Archuleta County, Dolores County, La Plata County, Montezuma County and San Juan County (U.S. Census Bureau, 2011.) The casinos and resorts within this district also have created a large tourist industry within district five. Archuleta, Dolores, Montezuma and San Juan Counties all feature casinos and resorts. Archuleta County features mineral hot springs that draw in tourists from all over the country. The tourist attraction Four Comers is also located within this district (Colorado Government, 2013.) Construction,


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accommodation, and food services are all prominent industries within this district as well (U.S. Census Bureau, 2011.)
Vulnerable Communities
Within this district lies two Indian Reservations; there is a large Native American population within district five. In Alamosa there are high rates of poverty and high crime and child abuse rates relative to the national average (U.S. Census Bureau, 2011.) Costilla County also has high rates of poverty, higher than that of the national and state average (U.S. Census Bureau, 2011.)
Conclusion: How this Research informs statewide anti-trafficking efforts
The state of Colorado has distinct features that make it vulnerable to human trafficking. Largely, Colorado is a rural and mountainous state; therefore, there are several regions within Colorado that are secluded. These secluded areas create potential hiding spots for traffickers to bring victims. Spacious and rural areas provide vast land which facilitates the farming and ranching industries. Agriculture and ranching are the most prominent industries within Colorado; therefore, there is a high demand for cheap, physical labor. The vast mountain regions within Colorado are secluded areas that are home to ski resorts and tourist attractions. Colorado is known for its mountains and ski resorts; people from all over the country and the world come to Colorado to ski and snowboard in the Rocky Mountains. Businesses have created a vast tourist industry within these mountainous regions as well. People come to Colorado not only for the recreational opportunities but also to stay at the decadent spas and resorts that populate these regions. Tourism within Colorado has also created a demand for cheap labor within the hospitality and accommodation industries. With vast tourism comes the need for workers to


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serve the influx of people that may arrive during ski season. Businesses are likely to take advantage of undocumented workers in order to save money when accommodating guests in hotels, resorts, restaurants, etc. (LCHT.)
Although Colorado is a mostly rural and mountainous state, there are several metropolitan regions that are heavily populated. District one in particular is a metropolitan district; it is the most populated in the state. Although secluded areas are vulnerable for trafficking to occur, areas with more people are more prone to experience human trafficking. With a larger population comes a larger community of vulnerable people, higher crime rates and a higher demand for labor and sex trafficking. Metropolitan areas, (such as Denver,) have a large sex industry and are home to several convention centers and sporting events that draw a large influx of people who may be in the market for commercial sex. The Denver International Airport also brings in an influx of tourists as well as trafficking victims from all over the world into Colorado.
Colorados placement within the United States is relevant as it also creates a unique vulnerability for trafficking to occur. Because Colorado is located in the center of the U.S., there are other states bordering each side of this state. Districts that border other states are particularly vulnerable to trafficking, as traffickers will typically bring victims into and through Colorado from other parts of the country via interstates. Because Colorado is centrally located, it is considered a source, destination and transit state for traffickers and their victims. If traffickers do not stay within Colorado, they are likely to transport their victims through it in order to get to their destination. Within this state there are also several prominent universities that bring in young people from all over the world. Traffickers tend to prey on youthful individuals who may be naive to illegitimate job offers. There is also a high rate of Hispanic individuals within this


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state who are more vulnerable to discrimination and trafficking, especially when there is a language barrier; and the legal system is foreign and seems confusing. Traffickers tend to take advantage of individuals who cannot speak the language of the country theyre in.
This state is geographically very different from most states, which creates vulnerabilities that are unique to Colorado. The purpose of gathering this information is to supplement LCHTs Colorado Project Action Plan. The Action Plan found gaps and gave recommendations to improve the efforts of service providers in Colorado within the 4P framework. When addressing human trafficking within a specific region in Colorado, it is important to understand what makes that particular region vulnerable to trafficking; and what vulnerable populations are important to pay attention to in regards to potential and future victims of trafficking. Never before has there been a comprehensive document that illustrates different unique vulnerabilities within specific regions of Colorado. This thesis facilitates service providers understanding of what makes their particular region vulnerable to human trafficking and what populations are vulnerable to trafficking within their district.
The Action Plan was developed by the Colorado Project State Advisory Board Members, focus group participants from various communities throughout the states, State Conference participants and surveys (LCHT, 2013.) This Action Plan is a guiding tool for service providers and community members to help create a collaborative and well-organized response to human trafficking. Each of the recommendations within Action Plan provides a structure for community members to formulate activities that will facilitate the development of an all-inclusive approach to end human trafficking. This plan empowers community members and service providers to organize and work together to support each other and better serve trafficking victims. The Action Plan also works to bridge the gaps between service providers and geographic areas within


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Colorado (LCHT, 2013.) Each of the recommendations were organized into different areas of the 4P framework; supporting the idea that human trafficking efforts can be improved by focusing on prevention, protection, prosecution and partnership efforts.
Prevention efforts increase awareness in order to avert future instances of trafficking from occurring. In order to improve prevention efforts within Colorado, The Action Plan recommends that service providers, create strategic statewide human trafficking public awareness and prevention campaigns targeting populations that may be vulnerable to human trafficking (LCHT, 2013.) Prevention efforts work to eliminate trafficking from happening in the future; protection efforts on the other hand, work to protect individuals who have already been affected by human trafficking. Protection efforts work to provide basic needs for survivors including, health care, legal services, social services, etc. Protection agencies protect survivors and support them in a non-discriminatory way to facilitate a healthy recovery and reincorporation into society. The Action Plan recommends that in order to improve protection efforts, we need to create a cultural shift among and between law enforcement and service providers in anti-human trafficking efforts (LCHT, 2013.) This could be accomplished through regular curriculum based training in human trafficking for both service providers and law enforcement (LCHT, 2013.)
Prosecution efforts work to ensure that the laws in place are properly implemented and carried out to best serve victims and prosecute perpetrators. This aspect of the 4Ps not only relates to law enforcement and criminal prosecution but also to the creation of new legislation. The Action Plan recommends that in order to improve prosecution efforts, it is necessary to, develop system-wide protocols to increase victim-centered and evidence-based cases (LCHT, 2013.) The Action Plan asserts that evidence-based cases that are not dependent upon victim


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testimony will be more successful in the prosecution of traffickers (LCHT, 2013.) One way this can be accomplished is by recruiting investigators and prosecutors to attend trainings that will educate them on new ways to conduct comprehensive investigations to corroborate victim statements; thus supporting victims rather than making them feel as if they are criminals. The Action Plan asserts that if the laws are more supportive to victims, more individuals will be willing to come forward and work to help prosecute their traffickers.
Partnership efforts work to build and strengthen a comprehensive response to trafficking through building bridges and relationships across multiple sectors. The Action Plan recommends in order to improve partnership efforts, its imperative to, cultivate awareness and concern for the issue of human trafficking in communities across the state (LCHT, 2013.) The Action Plan affirms that if human trafficking is shown to be a pressing issue within society, community members will be more inclined to address human trafficking and create a community based response relative to their particular community; thus increasing partnerships between service providers, law enforcement, community members, etc.
These recommendations provide a framework to guide a comprehensive and improved community response; however, different regions within Colorado have unique features and populations that are vulnerable to trafficking. Not only is it important for service providers, law enforcement agencies, etc., to follow the recommendations set forth by The Action Plan to improve efforts within the 4P framework; but it is also important to understand what vulnerable populations are prominent within a particular community and what industries and geographical features make a particular community (district) vulnerable to human trafficking. When service providers are being educated on the crime of human trafficking, its imperative that they understand what makes individuals in particular regions vulnerable.


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Human trafficking looks different in different areas. Depending on the region, populations and industries that exist within a region, trafficking could refer to anything from sex trafficking to labor exploitation. This thesis has set forth information regarding each district in Colorado to help service providers understand not only what actions need to be taken to address trafficking but also what makes their particular district vulnerable to trafficking, so they may tailor a response that is relevant and helpful to combat trafficking within their particular region.


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Appendix A. Example resources organized by 4Ps. Available resources are best understood through the 4p framework; the idea that trafficking can be stopped by increasing efforts in four areas: prevention; protection; prosecution; partnerships. Examining available resources lead insight to which counties are making a sufficient effort to help victims and prosecute traffickers, and which counties need to improve their efforts. The table illustrates different resources available in each Colorado districts within the 4P framework.
Prevention: Resources available that work to prevent future instances of trafficking; this includes programs such as public awareness campaigns and education.
Protection: Agencies advocating and protecting victims, such as social services, counseling, etc.
Prosecution: Resources that work to arrest and persecute traffickers, such as law enforcement and prosecuting attorneys.
Partnerships: Partnerships that work together to facilitate the fight against trafficking (partnerships among community agencies.)
District Prevention Protection Prosecution Partnerships
i Shiloh House (Thorton) (17c).Center for the Study and prevention of Violence, Boulder County Cares. (20c). Jefferson Center for Mental Health, the Senior Reach program, the Veteran's Coalition, the Suicide Awareness and Prevention Task Force. Douglas County Youth Initiative .League of Women Voters in Jefferson County (lc). The Comitis Crisis Center, Inc., Gateway Battered Women's Services, Project Safegard (18c) Human services branch. Gonzales & Gonzales immigration services. (17a). The Link and Alternatives to family violence (17c).The Carriage House Community Table (homeless services) (20b). Victim Assistance Program, Safehouse Progressive Alliance for Nonviolence. Blue Sky Arapahoe County Sheriffs Office, Glendale Police Department, Cherry Hills Village Police Department, Aurora Police Department, Greenwood Village Police Dept., Police Dept., of Littleton (18c).City and county of Broomfeild Police Department, Colorado State Patrol District 1 (17c).Boulder County Sheriff, Boulder Police Sexual Assault Response Team 17th Judicial District Attorney's office (17c).InIt2EndIt: Ending Human Trafficking, Colorado Immigrant Rights Coalition (Longmont). (20c).Clear Creek County Public and Environmental Health (CCCPEH) works in partnership with the Health and Human Services Department (HHS), Office of Emergency Management (OEM) and Emergency Medical Services (EMS) in the county to provide comprehensive, integrated services. A Board of Public Health


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Bridge: Child and Family Advocacy Center, Boulder Shelter for the Homeless (20c). Jefferson Center for Mental Health, Mental Health 24/7 Hotline, Alcoholics Anonymous .Human Services, Adult Protection Services, Child Protection Services, Community of Care Network. Gilpin County Human Services, Health Care Programs for Children with Special Needs, Nurse Family Partnership, First Time Moms Pregnancy Assistance,WIC, Alcoholics Anonymous, Victim Services.The Action Center, The Family Tree,The Emergency Food Assistance Program, PEAK program (lc). Department, Colorado State Patrol District 6. (20c).Clear Creek County Sheriffs Office.Douglas County Sheriffs Office, Parker Police Dept., Colorado State Patrol, Lon Tree Police Dept., Castle Rock Police Dept., Woodland Park Police Dept., (18c).Elbert County Sheriff, Kioawa Police Dept., Limon Police Dept., Simla Police Dept., Elizabeth Police Dept., State Patrol (18c).Gilpin County Sheriffs Office, County Jail. Jefferson County Sheriffs Office, Lakewood Police Dept., Arvada Police Dept., Golden Police Dept., (lc). and a Health Advisory Committee assist CCPEH in addressing the health concerns of the county. Women's Crisis & Family Outreach Center (18c), Partnership of Douglas County Governments, Gilpin County Public Health and Environmental Services. The Community Coalition Against Sexual Assult (lc).
2 4H, Bent County Youth Chamber, Boy Scouts, Bent County Development Foundation (16c).Public Health Agency, Colorado Youth Matter. Kid's campus (16c).Huerfano County Family Recource Center, Huerfano County Youth Services (3a).Las Animas County Resource Center (3a). Las Animus Helping Hands (16c).Pueblo Suicide Provention Center, ACOVA Victim Services (10c). Bent County Social Services (16c). Domestic Safty Resource Center, Dept, of Social Services, Northeast Behavioral Health, Centennial Mental Health Center.Crowley County Emergency Services (16c). Advocates Against Domestic Assault, Domestic Violence Assistance Search, Social Services, Branch of Human Services (3a). Advocates Against Domestic Assault, Domestic Violence Assistance Search, Social Services, Branch of Human Services (3a). Plains Medical Center, Lower Arkansas Valley Area Agency, Domestic Safety Resource Center, Social Services, Colorado Health Networks, Southeast Mental Health Services. West Central Mental Health Center. Domestic Violence Assistance Search, Social Services, Branch of Human Services (3a). The Pueblo Child Advocacy Center, The Colorado Mental Health Instituted at Pueblo, Department's Office of Behavioral Health and Housing, Spanish Peaks Behavioral Health Center, YWCA (10a). Pueblo Colorado Child Welfare, Child Services, Bridges Child Placement Agency, Strong Girls Program, Rape Crisis Center (10c). Bent County Sheriffs Office (16c). Colorado Legal Services, Cheyenne Country Sheriffs Office, Colorado State Patrol.Otero County Sheriffs Office (16c).Pueblo County Sheriffs Office,Pueblo Police Dept., Colorado State Patrol (10c). Arkansas Valley Resource Center, Bent County Health Care Center (16c).Child Welfare and care, Crowley County Department of Human Services (16c).Kiowa County Public Health Agency. County Courthouse,Child Welfare and Core (16c).Human Trafficking Task Force of Southern Colorado,YWCA (10c).


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3 Adams County Youth Initiative, Shilo House, The Link, Alternatives to Family Violence (Thorton) (17c).Colorado Children's Trust Fund, Sexual Violence Prevention Program, The Child Adolescent School Health Unit, and the CYF Division of Human Services (8a). Sexual Assult Victim Advocate Center, Larimer County Child Advocacy Center (8c).Tower 21, Youth and Family Connections (19c). Adams County Food Distribution, Salvation Army (17c). Rocky Mountain Immigrant Advocacy Network (17a).Health Dept, of Larimer County, Human Services, Larimer County Workforce Center (8a). Homeless Gear, The Hub Youth Asessment Center, Sister Mary Alice Murphy Center for Hope, The Matthews House (8c). Guadalupe Community Center and Shelter, Weld Food Bank, Alternative Homes for Youth, North Range Behavioral Health (19c). Weld County Human Services, Colorado Trust, Immigrations and Customs Enforcement, Catholic Charities, A Woman's Place (19a). Adams County Sheriffs Office, City of Arvada Police Dept., City of Brighton Police dept., Northglenn Police Dept., Thorton Police Dept., Westminster Police Dept.,Colorado State Patrol District 3 (17c).Larimer County Sheriffs Department, Fort Collins Police Department, Loveland Police Dept., Colorado State Patrol, FBI Fort Collins Office (8c).Lincoln County Ssheriff, Flagler Marshalls Office, State Patrol, Limon Police Dept., Hugo Police Dept., (18c).Weld County Sheriffs Office,Greeley Police Dept., Windsor Police Dept., Frederick Police Dept., Fort Lupton Police Dept., Lochbuie Police Dept., Colorado State Patrol (19a). Adams County Sheriffs Office Victims Advocacy Program, Sexual Assult Response Team 17th Judicial District Attorney's Office (17c).The U COUNT Campaign, Larimer County Victim/Witness Division (8c). Partners Mentoring Youth, Sexual Assault Victim Advocate Center (19c).
4 Grand County Advocates for a Violence-Free Community(14c).Latimer House, The House (21c.)Response or hotline (9c).Routt County Individual Service and Support Team (14c). Moutain Family Health Center, Youth Zone (9c).Child and Migrant Services, Alpha center for psychological services.(21c.) Mesa County Dept., Human Services, Mind Health Springs (9c). Advocates building peacful communities, Integrated Community (14c). Colorado State Patrol, Garfield County Sheriff, Glenwood Springs Police Dept., Rifle Police Dept., (9c). Colorado Legal Services, Grand County Sheriffs Dept., Grandby Police Dept., Kremmling Police Dept., Fraser/ Winter Park Police Dept., (14c). Mesa County Sheriff,Grand Junction Police Dept., Fruita Police Dept., Human Resources Dept. (21a &c.)Moffatt County Sheriffs Office, Craig Police Dept., (14c). Aspen Police Dept., Pitkin County Sheriffs Office (9c). Meeker Police Dept., Rangely Police Dept., Rio Blanco County Sheriff (9c). Colorado Legal Services, Northwest Rocky Mountian Court Appointed Special Advocates for Children, Routt County Sheriffs Office, Steamboat Springs Police Dept., Hayden Police Dept., Oak Creek Police Dept. (14c.) School to work alliance program, nurse-family partnership (21c.)Aspen Institute (9c).Routt County Youth Services Coatlition, Advocates Building Peaceful Communities (14c).
5 Alamosa County Human Services _Q2£0 La Puente, Tu Casa, Western Mountian Youth Alamosa County Sheriffs Office, San Luis Valley Immigrant Resource Center (12c. )Colorado


Human T rafficking V ulnerability 48
Services, San Luis Communitiy Mental Health Center (12c.)Social Ser (12c.)Conejos County Sheriffs Office (12c.)Costilla County Workforce Center (22a.)Rio Grand Farmers Coalition (12c.)


Full Text

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Observing Vulnerabalitity to Human Trafficking within Regional Districts in the State of Colorado by Charlotte Anderson An undergraduate thesis submitted in partial completion of the M etropolitan State University of D enver Honors Program May 2014 Dr. Annjanette Alejano Steele Jim Smithwick Dr. Megan Hughes Zarzo Primary Advisor Second Reader Honors Program Director

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! Human Trafficking Vulnerability 1 Running Head: Human Trafficking Vulnerability Observing Vulnerability to Human Trafficking within Regional Districts in the S tate of Colorado Charlotte Anderson To Fulfill the Requirements of the Senior Honors Thesis Metropolitan State University

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! Human Trafficking Vulnerability 2 Abstract It is difficult to determine exactly how many individuals are trafficked each year within the United States due, in part, to ongoing challenges of data sharing. In other words, what little data have been collected is not being shared among professionals who typically encounter victims of trafficking. What's more, because there has been little research conducted, most people assume human trafficking is not a problem in the United States. It is difficult for many service providers to identify victims, because so little data are available. It is also difficult to bring attention to this issue because so few people are aware that human trafficking is a problem within the United States Despite the fact that most people are unaware that human trafficking is a problem, s everal cases of human trafficking have been documente d wi thin the state of Colorado (Laboratory to Combat Human Trafficking 2013 ) For example, in 2006 five victims o f labor trafficking won a federal civil suit against Moises and Maria Rodriguez who kept workers in a state of debt bondage while workin g on farms in Northern Colorado. Moises housed the workers in substandard living quarters and carried a firearm on his p erson at all times; his primary means of control was psychological, laborers reported that they lived in fear of Moises. (Cardona & Vaughan, 2009.) There have also been several cases of sex trafficking reported in Colorado as well. For example, in 2010 The Denver District Attorney's Office charged a woman in Denver with keeping a place of prostitution, pimping of a child, contributing to the delinquency of a minor and pandering (Colorado Department of Law, 2011.) The woman was responsible for pimping out bo th her own daughter, as well as another underage girl; primarily to gang members

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! Human Trafficking Vulnerability 3 in exchange for meth, cocaine, or money. In exchange for sex, the girls were rewarded with food, shelter, clothes and drugs (Colorado Department of Law, 2011.) There are indu stries that make human trafficking possible and characterize what traffick ing looks like in a given area Agriculture and construction are prominent Colorado industries which are likely to take advantage of c heap immigrant labor; there is also a lack of ov ersight in these industries as well. Colorado also offers an international airport, which makes it easy for traffickers to bring victims into the United States undetected. Two major US highways also run through Colorado; such as I 70 and I 25, which facilitate easy transportation for traffickers to move their victims. The geography of this state also plays a key role, as the mountains serve as a good hiding plac e for exploited people. Colorado is home to many sporting events, conventions and resorts; all of which may bring an influx of people who have a demand for sex services, an industry where trafficking is known to occur (Smithwick, personal communication, 20 13. ) Fortunately, effort s have been made to lay the foundations to end human trafficking. The Laboratory to Combat Human Trafficking (LCHT), a local, non profit organization dedicated to end human trafficking, began The Colorado Project to comprehensively end human trafficking (Colorado Project) in 2010; a comprehensive research project that was launched to understand what is working to address human trafficking efforts within Colorado by utilizing the "4P" model ( the four key elements essential to effectiv ely fight human trafficking, as stated by the T rafficking V ictims P rotection A ct : prevention, protection, prosecution and partnerships ) to support coordinated community responses to human trafficking.

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! Human Trafficking Vulnerability 4 The purpose of this thesis is to supplement the inform ation that the Colorado Project collected by evaluating information; and then cataloging data which outlines potential vulnerabilities and resources that exist in each county of Colorado. The goal is to compose a comprehensive picture of which districts in Colorado need to improve methods of helping victims and what efforts are sufficient and should be replicated in other districts. This thesis will also outline what makes different counties vulnerable to trafficking; assemble a comprehensive understanding of what resources are available in each Colorado district using the 4P model; and align with trends and patterns that were also found by researchers of The Colorado Project. This catalog of results will help draw conclusions that will illustrate to differe nt communities, what efforts can still be improved upon.

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! Human Trafficking Vulnerability 5

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! Human Trafficking Vulnerability 6 Introduction Human trafficki ng is the recruitment, transportation, harboring or obtaining of an individual through means of force, fraud or coercion for the purposes of commercial sexual exploitation, services or labor exploitation ( Department of State, 2011 ) Human traf ficking is not only a global issue; it is also a national and a statewide issue (LCHT 2013 ) Unfortunately, due to a lack of research and an absence of da ta collection and sharing, the general population knows very little in regards to human trafficking (LCHT 2013 ) Currently researchers, community members and service providers struggle to solve this crime because there aren't enough data available to completely understand the complexities of human trafficking. Consequently, it's difficult for service providers to identify and properly help victims because so little data are available. Community members are al so ill equipped to properly help victims and prevent future instances of trafficking due to a lac k of understanding of what makes individuals vulnerable to exploitation and/or violence Each region within Colorado has unique features that could potentially put it at risk to become an incubator for trafficking to occur. Although s ome work has been done in Colorado to address th e issue of human trafficking, a majority of t he efforts have been centered in the city of Denver C ases of human trafficking have been found throughout the state of Colorado (LCHT 2013.) Although Denver is a good starting point because human trafficking has been found in Denver trafficking happens everywhere; and as such, research efforts should evaluate different regions i n order to und erstand the unique vulnerabilities that threaten each communit y. It i s important to understand the landscape of efforts that exist throughout the entire state of Colorado. Features of a given community which make it vulnerable to tra fficking should be documented and understood along with the current resources available to p otential and current victims. A n all inclusive

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! Human Trafficking Vulnerability 7 documentation would help community members and service providers understand what is currently being done to address trafficking; and what gaps still need to be filled in order to properly facilitate the needs of victims and prosecute traffickers (LCHT 2013 ) Through the Colorado Statewide Action Plan, a comprehensive collection of wh at services and vulnerable population s exist is underway The purpose of this thesis is to outline what specific vulnerabilities exist in different regions in Colorado; and what resources are available in regards to all aspects of the 4P model. When observing what resources are available to victims and potential victims of human trafficking, it is important to look at resources within the "4P model;" the four key aspects, as stated by the Trafficking Victims Protection Act (TVPA) necessary to end human trafficking (TVPA, 2011.) These four as pects include, prevention (public awareness campaigns), protection (social services, mental health advocacy), prosecution (prosecuting attorneys, law enforcement); partnerships (the collaborative efforts of different service providers.) For the purposes of this paper, resources available to victims and potential victims will be observed through the 4P model. Tracking available efforts will provide baseline data to determine what communities need to improve their efforts and which efforts are effective and c ould be used as a model for replication in other areas. Prior to mapping statewide efforts, it is important to note definitions in order to create a framework to understand human trafficking. The Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children was adopted by the United Nations G eneral Assembly in 2000. It entered into force on December 25, 2003. It is the first

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! Human Trafficking Vulnerability 8 international legal document to provide a standardized, agreed upon defin ition on trafficking in persons: "Trafficking in persons shall mean the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or o f a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation. Exploitation shall include, at a minimum, the exploitation of the prostitution of others or other forms of s exual exploitation, forced labo r or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, ser vitude or the removal of organs (" United Nations ," 2000.) The purpose of generating this definition was to create a u niform understanding of human trafficking among the international community, to facilitate cooperation in investigating and prosecuting trafficking in persons cases ("United Nations," 2000.) To combat the crime of trafficking within the U.S., C ongress passed The Trafficking Victim Protection Act (TVPA) in 2000 which defin ed a series of new crimes on trafficking, forced labor and involuntary servitude. Recognizing that modern day slavery takes place in the context of fraud and coercion, as well as force, and is based on new clear definitions for both trafficking into sexual exploitation and labor exploitation: Sex trafficking was defined as, "a commercial sex act that is induced by force, fraud, or coercion, or in which the person induced to perform such an act h as not attained 18 years of age (TVPA 2000.) Labor trafficking was defined as, "the recruitment, harboring, transportation, provision, or obtaining of a person for labor or services, through the use of force, fraud, or coercion for the purpose of subjection to involuntary servitude, pe onage, debt bondage, or slavery (TVPA 2000.) The state of Colorado defines human trafficking as the selling, exchanging, bartering or leasing an adult (16 years old or older) ; or child (person younger than 16), in ex change for money. Trafficking also includes receiving the services of an adult in exchange for money

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! Human Trafficking Vulnerability 9 (SENATE BILL 06 207.) There are obvious differences between the state and national definition of human trafficking. The difference in terminology between s tate and federal legislation make it difficult to prosecute certain individuals who have been convicted of trafficking others because the definitions are so conflicting. Terms like "bartering" and "leasing" which are excluded from the national legislation, are confusing to a jury who needs to decide the verdict of a trafficking case (LCHT, 2013.) Community Vulnerability T o gain a better understanding of how to combat human traf ficking, it's important to look at w hat aspects of a community make it potentially vulnerable to human trafficking. For the purposes of this pape r, vulnerability will be defined as the "d egree to which people are susceptible to harm, degradation, or destru ction on being expose d to a hostile agent or factor" ( Business Dictionary, 2013.) U nderstanding vulnerability provides insight to understand what action (s) communities can take in order to improve the fight against trafficking. Due to unique features of Col orado (mountainous landscape, agriculture, international airport/highways, geographical location within the U.S., etc.) vulnerability looks different in Colorado compared to other states. Vulnerability also looks different within Colorado as it is such a d iverse state, there are discrepancies that exist between different regions that create different vulnerabilities; which is why it is important to look at all areas within the state, to get a more complete picture of what vulnerability looks like throughout Colorado (e.g. vulnerability will look different in Denver then it does in Grand Junction.) Colorado is positioned near the center of the U.S. and is accessible to the rest of the U.S. through the two interstates that run through Colorado, as well as the Denver International Airport

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! Human Trafficking Vulnerability 10 ( Colorado Government, 2014.) Because of its location, Colorado is not only a destination for traffickers to take their victims, but it is also a transit state that whereby victims are moved from one area to a nother (LCHT, 2013. ) A "source" location is the trafficking victim's area of origin, typically the place where the trafficker recruited the victim. A "transit" location is the area traffickers frequently move victims through in order to reach the "destination" location, or t he area that receives the trafficking victim ( Anderson 2003.) Colorado is a source, transit and destination location (LCHT, 2013.) Colorado is known for its mountainous regions and reclusive landscape ( Colorado Government, 2014.) Areas which are hidden away from the general population are attractive to traffickers looking for a place to hide potential victims. Many people who are exploited for their labor are often taken to farms that are hidden from roads and cities where other p eople may report trafficking. Metropolitan areas are also vulnerable to human trafficking. The presence of large sex industries potentially put community members in danger of trafficking (LCHT, 2013 ) This state brings in people all over the country for it s tourist attr actions and destination resorts (Colorado Government, 2014.) ; which makes it possible to transport trafficking victims to and throughout Colorado without being questioned. As previously stated, little research has been conducted to understand vulnerability to trafficking. Although there have been some efforts, most have been centered on the city of Denver because it has one of the highest populations in the state and therefore contains more vulnerable individuals It is important to look at di fferent regions within Colorado in order to unde rstand what could make each region uniquely vulnerable to trafficking. One easy way of dividing up the regions in a state is to divide by district.

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! Human Trafficking Vulnerability 11 Colorado is a diverse state; containing both a major city with an active nightlife, as well as secluded plains and mountain regions ( Colorado Government, 2014.) Some districts are vulnerable because they have a high crime and poverty rate. Pueblo County, for example, had reported one of the highest rates of pover ty and the highest rate of crime in 2009, followed by Denver County (Illescas, 2010.) Others are made vulnerable by agriculture and the demand f or chea p labor. Some districts contain Indian reservations which are more vulnerable to trafficking due to a hi gh rate of crime and poverty (LCHT 2013 ) Different areas in Colorado are so diverse that they should be examined individually (e.g Denver's metropolitan region v s. El Paso County's mountainous landscape) in order to understand what specific steps shoul d be taken by a community in order to best fight human trafficking within their district. It is also important to then look at the resources within a comprehensive framework that are available to victims or potential victims within each region. In understanding vulnerability, it is imperative to examine agencies within the 4P framework to get an understanding of what resources are available to vulnerable and underserved p opulations. Because there are few agencies that specifically help victims of hu man trafficking, agencies from parallel movements that is, movements that also come into contact with potential victims of human trafficking (child abuse, domestic violence, immigrant services, law enforcement, etc.) need to be examined (LCHT, 2013.) Many service providers encounter victims of human traffick ing, sometimes without recognizing it. Therefore, it is important to include an analysis of agencies within movements such as child abuse, domestic violence, immigrant advocacy agencies, etc. to underst and what resources are available to victims of human trafficking (LCHT, 2013.)

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! Human Trafficking Vulnerability 12 Currently, research in the anti human trafficking movement is a landscape of scattered efforts (LCHT, 2013 ) Many communities are pulling together available resources and inform ation to try and understand what is currently being done to combat trafficking and what efforts still need to be improved upon (LCHT 2013 ) Many researchers have only focused on a single component or one aspect within the 4P framework ; as a result, the en tire picture of what vulnerabilities look like and what services are available to victims, is still unclear. Research in only one as pect of the 4P model creates an incomplete picture of what is available to stop trafficking in the future. The Colorado Proj ect to Comprehensively Combat Human T rafficking has sought to understand (using the 4P model) what efforts in Colorado are sufficient in meeting the needs of trafficking victims and where efforts should continue to improve (LCHT 2013 ) Community specific vulnerabilities In order to gain a comprehensive understanding of vulnerability in Colorado, it is important to collect data from each region regarding specific features that could potentially make it an area where trafficking is likely to occur. First of all, it's imperative to understand what types of vulnerable populations exist within each county. Individuals are most productive during the ages of 18 to 30 years old ( Human Trafficking Lecture, 2013 .) Due to the high rate of productivity, this is the age range that people are typically recruited for trafficking purposes; therefore, a youthful population is more at risk to become victims of trafficking (LCHT, 2013 ) Youth are more vulnerable to trafficking no t only because they are physically productive, they are also disproportionately affected by poverty, placing them at risk to engage in risky behavior in order to meet their needs e conomically (LCHT, 2013.) Additionally y outh can be particularly naive to po tentially dangerous situations ( Whitbeck, Hoyt, Yoder, Cauce, & Paradise, 2001 .)

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! Human Trafficking Vulnerability 13 Traffickers will typically take advantage of this naivety and use it to their advantage when recruiting victims. The homeless population is extremely vulnerable to trafficking A Point in Time survey, conducted on January 24, 2012 found a significant number of people experiencing homelessness within Colorado. Within the Denver Metro Area alone, 12,605 people were found experiencing homeles sness; furthermore, 1,228 more people were experiencing homelessness than at the same time in 2011. This study also found that 1,383 people were homeless as result of domestic violence (Metro Denver Homeless Initiative 2012.) Individuals who have no food or shelter are more likely than most to agree to do something potentially exploitative in exchange for their survival (LCHT 2013 ) Homeless, runaway and throwaway (meaning youth that have been kicked out of their homes) youth are particularly vulnerable to traffickers. Youth who are experiencing homelessness are not only in need of food and shelter but are also often engaged in high risk behaviors; in Denver, substance abuse is high among homeless youth, 11% have engaged in "survival sex," and 13% share n eedles for drug use ( Van Leeuwen et al. 20 0 6 ) Traffickers recruit homeless individuals and promise to provide them with money, food, shelter and love if they agree to "work" for them. The homeless population is made up of individuals who are less likely to get hired; working for a stranger off the street may seem like th e only option. The immigrant population is also important to consider when observing vulnerable communities There are approximately 120,000 people who are considered "undocumented immigrants" in the workforce, 107,500 of whom are actively working in the United States (Harris 2011b.) Some immigrants are unable to speak English and do not have a comprehensive

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! Human Trafficking Vulnerability 14 understanding of the U S legal system; and therefore are more susceptible to being coerced into a trafficking situation (LCHT, 2013 ) Som e immigrants also lack the proper documents that are required to gain employment in the U S. Traffickers and some employers are willing to take advantage of undocumented workers, knowing they can treat them poorly, make them work long hours and pay them very little wi thout the threat of a law suit (LCHT, 2013 ) The immigrant population in Colorado is also vulnerable to poverty; 27% of pe ople who were noncitizens live below the poverty line ( Migration Policy Institute 2012a ) Twenty two percent of immigrant children live below the poverty line, twice the rate of poverty for native born children (Anne E. Casey Foundation 2012a.) Some immigrants come over to the U S with the assistance of a coyote who in turn forces them into in dentured servitude in order to pay for the trip to the U S. ( Krissman, Fone r, Rumbaut, & Gold, 2000). Most victims of sex trafficking are survivors of sexual abuse in childhood ; therefore, it is also important to understand children who have been abused both physically and sexually are also more vulnerable to trafficking. Eight children in 1,000 under 18 were abused or neglected in 2011 (Anne E. Casey Foundation 2012a.) Growing up with the understanding that the person who should be protecting you is also exploiting you normalizes abuse. Several cases of human trafficking have also been documented where parents sell their children to people for the purpose of sexual exploitation in exchange for money, drugs, etc. (LCHT, 2013.) It's likely that some childr en who have been sexually abused may have also been victims of trafficking. Survivors and current victims of domestic violence are also at a higher risk to become victims of trafficking. In Colorado during 2012, 13,384 cases of domestic violence were repo rted to Colorado law enforcement agencies ("Colorado Coalition," 2012.) ; one in six house holds in Colorado is affected by domestic violence (Women's Foundation of Colorado 2013.) Many

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! Human Trafficking Vulnerability 15 women who endure abuse on a regular basis are at risk of being trafficked by their significant other. When domestic disturbance is called into the police, many trafficking victims will claim that their pimp is actually their "boyfriend" who they had got into a fight with. Therefore some instances of domestic v iolence can mask case s of human trafficking. The LGBTQ ( lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer) populat ion are even more susceptible to public health risks and are also considered at high risk of becoming victims of trafficking (LCHT, 2013 ) This is largely at tributed to parents kicking their kids out of the house when they come out as LG BTQ As noted earlier, homelessness puts anyone at a higher risk to become a victim of human trafficking. Individuals who identify as "transgender" or "queer" are two to three times more likely to be the target of sexual violence (National Coalition of Anti Violence Programs 2012.) Native Americans are also considered to be a vulnerabl e population in regards to trafficking. Reservations have relatively high crime rates and a large amount of the population living under the poverty line; which make individuals not only susceptible to crime but also desperate for money ( Harvard Project on Americ an Indian Economic Development, 2008 ) Tribal lands have very few resources available to victims and instances of trafficking are dealt w ith by the tribal courts Substance abusers are also an important vulnerable population to consider. Individuals who are addicted to substances are typically more willing to put themselves in dangerous situations in exchange for drugs, alcohol or money that will allow them to get their next fix ( United State Insurgency Council on Homelessness, 2013 ) Substance abusers also make up a large portion of the homele ss population. It is estimated that nearly half of all individuals

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! Human Trafficking Vulnerability 16 experiencing homelessness, and 70 percent of Veterans experiencing homelessness, suffer from substance abuse disorders ( United State Insurgency Council on Homelessness, 2013 .) Typically t raffickers will stake out people who are desperate and in need of something ( e.g. drugs, she lter, food, security, love ) ; and exploit that individual's need for their own personal gain (LCHT, 2013 ) Individuals who are in need of something are particularly vulnerable to human trafficking and should be accounted for when researching vulnerable communities. Und erstanding the numbers of vulnerable populations in these counties/ regions could provide insight as to what makes a specific county vulnerable to human trafficking. Colorado Context : Industries where human trafficking can occur Industries that exist within each Colorado County are also relevant to look at when trying to get a comprehensive understanding of human trafficking. Agriculture for example, is an industry known for the exploitation of undocumented workers. Again, traffickers and employers may take advantage of individuals who don't speak English or have proper documentation to work; this allows them to employ people to do the b ack breaking work required for farming and pay them very little. Anywhere that agriculture is prominent opens up the opportunity for someone to exploit the labor of their workers. Mining, drilling and construction are other industries that have a reputatio n for exploiting cheap immigrant labor. These are prominent industries in Colorado that should be examined when looking at vulnerability. The sex industry is also likely to exploit people for money. Some strippers are forced to strip and sometimes forced to have sex in exchange for money. It's not unlikely that a stripper may fall victim to a pimp and eventually be coerced into trading sex fo r money. Wherever there is a lucrative sex industry, there is likely to be individuals who are forced to work agains t their

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! Human Trafficking Vulnerability 17 will. Maid and nanny services also have the opportunity to exploit individuals who need work and do not have the proper documentation. The manufacturing and restaurant industries are also known to take advantage of immigrant labor and people in nee d. When examining industries, it is not only important to look at what industries may potentially exploit people but also what industries are likely to draw in people who would exploit others or create the demand to exploit others. For example, major sport ing events can draw in large crowds of wealthy men who may be in the market for obtaining someone for the purposes of sex. Ski resorts and tourist attractions are also likely to draw in wealthy people who are willing to exploit others for personal gain. Tr affickers understand where the demand for commercial sex and labor exploitation are within different communities; and use this knowledge to transport individuals to places where they can easily make a profit (Turner & Kelly, 2009.) In addition to vulnerabl e populations and industries, it is also important to examine geographical aspects which could potentially make an area vulnerable to human trafficking. For instance, a county's proximity to a state border makes it more vulnerable to trafficking. Often tra ffickers transport their victims across state lines; so these communities may be at a higher risk for trafficking to occur. The proximity to an interstate (such as I 70 or I 25) and an international airport like the Denver International Airport, could mak e a community vulnerable to human trafficking as well. The U.S. is a destination spot for traffickers to take victims. Some t raffickers take their victims across state or country borders using an international airport or interstate highway. Whether it's fo r transportation or destination purposes, victims and traffickers utilize these modes of transportation; and therefore, put communities near airports and highways, at risk to become areas where human trafficking may occur.

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! Human Trafficking Vulnerability 18 The mountainous regions of Colora do also pose a dan gerous threat to communities. The reclusivity of the mountainous landscape makes it easy for traffickers to hide victims away from plain sight of the community. Many traffickers will take victims to remote locations, far from where their exploitation will be seen. Proximity to large cities is also relevant when examining vulnerability to human tr afficking. Large cit i es have a larger population of people, which typically coincides with a higher crime rate For example, the cities of Denver and Aurora are two of the most populated cities in the state and also have some of the highest cri me rates (Illescas, 2009.) With a large population comes a higher rate of vulnerable communitie s (homeless, LG BTQ, victims of child abuse/domestic violence, etc.); and a higher rate of people willing to exploit others for person al gain. Cities typically ha ve larger commercial sex, hos pitality and restaurant industries that put the surrounding community at higher risk for human trafficking to occur. Exploring the aspects of each county that could potentially make it vulnerable to trafficking is important to understand which counties may be at higher risk. It is also important to look at the resources available in each county in order to determine whethe r a particular county is could meet the needs of victims and potential victims. Available resources are bes t understood through the 4P framework ; the idea that trafficking can be stopped by increasing efforts in four areas: prevention (public awareness campaigns, education, etc.); protection (agencies advocating and protecting victims); prosecution (law enfor cement, prosecuting attorneys ); partnerships (partnerships among community agencies) (LCHT, 2013 ) Examining available res ources provide insight as to which counties are making a sufficient effort to help victims and prosecute traffickers, and which counti es need to improve their efforts. One project that is attempting to

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! Human Trafficking Vulnerability 19 comprehensively support community efforts to combat human trafficking is the Colorado Project to Comprehensively Combat Human Trafficking. Colorado Project 4Ps The Laboratory to Combat Human Trafficking (LCHT), a local, non profit organization dedicated to end human trafficking, began The Colorado Project in 2010; a comprehensive and interdisciplinary research project that was launched to understand what is working to a ddress human traff icking within Colorado by utilizing the "4P" model to support coordinated community based responses to human trafficking. The Colorado Project sought inform ation from service providers working with survivors of human trafficking among others The research created an action plan from which other communities would be able to utilize as a tool in order to fight this crime in their area. Early in the movement's history, efforts to combat human trafficking have been a landscape of scattered efforts. When prev ious research has been conducted, it has primarily only focused on one aspect of the four P's at a time. These scattered efforts have left an incomplete picture of the entire problem; the Colorado Project focused its efforts to evaluate each of the four P' s within Colorado in order to comprehensively understand what is being done to stop human trafficking; what could be improved upon to better serve victims and prosecute traffickers. At a national level, the project sought to create baseline of promising pr actices to fight human trafficking. The Colorado Project can be replicated in other states to help communities understand what efforts are working and which need to still be improved upon. The data collected from the Colorado Project surpasses assumptions of what should happen and guides community action toward common goals. The 4P's were drawn from two instruments:

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! Human Trafficking Vulnerability 20 Trafficking Victims Protection Act and the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Ch ildren which was implemented by United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC ) The UNODC was established in 1997 through unification between the United Nations Drug Control Programme and the Centre for International Crime Prevention. The UNODC is the international leader in the fight against terrorism, crime and illicit drugs; and operates throughout all regions of the world. The objectives of the P's in UNODC are: Field based technical cooperation projects to counteract illicit drugs, crime and terrorism ; and r esea rch and investigative work to expand the evidence base for p olicy regarding crime and illicit drugs; as well as w ork to assist States in the ratification and execution of international treaties. In relation to huma n trafficking, the UNODC helps g overnments across the world react to the consequences of smuggling and trafficking human beings between countries and continents. It offers practical help to states with drafting laws, creating comprehensive national anti trafficking strategies, and assisting with r esources to implement them. In effort to combat trafficking in persons Congress passed the Traffickin g Vic tims Protection Act (TVPA 2000) with bipartisan support, which was signed by President Clinton on Octob er 28, 2000 The issue of trafficking in perso ns in cluded those trafficked into sex trade, slavery, and forced labor. The TVPA 2000 was created to, "ensure just and effective punishment of trafficker s, and to protect their victims (TVPA, 2000.) In particular, there were three main components of the T VPA, commonly called the three P's: Protection, Prosecution and Prevention. The protection aspect refers to the U.S. Government's increased efforts to protect trafficked foreign national victims by providing assistance to victims of trafficking whom were

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! Human Trafficking Vulnerability 21 not previously eligible for government assistance; and provide a non immigrant status for v ictims of trafficking if they cooperated in the investigation and prosecution of traffickers (TVPA 2000 ) The prosecution aspect of the TVPA authorized the U.S. Government to strengthen efforts regarding the prosecution of trafficker s. This was achieved by adding a series of new crimes on trafficking, forced labor, and document servitude that supplemented existing limited crimes related to slavery and involuntary servitude (TVPA 2000 ) The prevention aspect of the TVPA allowed for increased measures to prevent possible future instances of trafficking in persons. This piece of the legislation allowed the U.S. Government to aid foreign countries with their efforts to combat trafficking, as well as addressing trafficking within the U.S. through research and awareness raising; and providing foreign countries with assistance in drafting laws to prosecute trafficking, creating programs for trafficking victims, and assistance with implementing effective means of investigation (TVPA 2000 ) There was later identif ied a fourth P, partnership ," in 2009 which referred to the effort of organizations and agencies coming together in attempt to share information and work on the issue of human traffic king in a collaborative effort (TVPA 2000 .) Since the TVPA has been passed, it has undergone several reauthorizations to increase its effectiveness, including a new civil action that allows victims of trafficking to sue for restitution from their t raffickers in a federal court. The Attorney General is also now required to report annually on trafficking efforts. Additional measures to protect U.S. citizen survivors were also later implemented. These provisions included grant programs to assist state and local law enforcement efforts in combating traff icking in persons and to expand victim assistance

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! Human Trafficking Vulnerability 22 programs to U.S. citizens or resident aliens subjected to trafficking. The TVPA continues to undergo reauthorizations in effort to more effectively combat trafficking in persons. This thesis, as well as the Colorado Project, utilizes the 4P's as defined by the TVPA to get an understanding of what resources are available for victims of human trafficking. Methodology In order to gain a comprehensive illustration o f what resources in the 4P paradigm are availab le ; and what unique vulnerabilities exi st within each Colorado county d ata were extrac ted from research papers then compiled and catalog ed The information that has been cataloged is research found by students in previous human trafficking classes. Each of the three class es from which data were being extracted cover different information regarding a specific county in Colorado. These papers include information regarding industries, services available in terms of the 4P model and unique vulnerabilities in each Colorado district. In the W interim 2013 human trafficking class students were instructed to provide information regarding a specific assigned county within Colorado In these papers, students explained unique features of the county they were resear ching and what specifically could make their district vulnerable to human trafficking. The papers include d information about geographical features that made their assigned district vulnerable to human trafficking (secluded mountainous regions, proximity to an airport, etc.) as well as, p opulations within their county which may be vulnerable to human tr afficking (homeless youth, LGBTQ population, etc.) Industries which make a region vulnerable to human trafficking were also discussed (tourism, a griculture, etc.) Finally, students in the 2013 Winterim class provided information regarding what resources were available (within the 4P framework) in th eir specific county.

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! Human Trafficking Vulnerability 23 Students from the Fall 2013 human trafficking class were instructed to create f act sheets which provided specific information regarding industries and vulnerable populations. These fact sheets provided a brief, bulleted overview of what features co uld make their assigned county potentially vulnerable to human trafficking. Students di scussed vulnerability statistics which included information regarding vulnerable populations (child abuse victims, individual's living in poverty, etc.); and main industrie s within their assigned county (mining, construction, etc.) The purpose of the fact sheets was to briefly demonstra te what aspects of each county within Colorado may make it susceptible to human trafficking. Finally, in the Winterim 2014 research papers students were instructed to create an annotated bibliography which included schol arly articles specific to human trafficking. These students were also asked to research and describe different resources (within the 4p model) available within their assigned county to understand what resources exist. These papers included an extensive lis t of what these specific resources within each county could provide for human trafficking victims. Students from this class were able to provide insight through their research regarding what districts have sufficient resourc es available and which counties still have many gaps which need to be filled in order to support victims of trafficking. Papers from these three human trafficking classes were compiled and organized numerically by each of the 22 Colorado Judicial Counties. Some countie s had all three of the papers and some were missing one o r two components; other countie s were missing all papers. Specific data from these papers regarding vulnerable populations (Native Americans, homeless population, etc.); industries (agricu lture, construction, etc.); a spect s from the 4P model and geographical vulnerability (proximity to international airport, highways, etc.) were extracted and

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! Human Trafficking Vulnerability 24 then cataloged and organized in a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet Data that are missing from the papers were collec ted in order to fill in missing information Whe n completed the spreadsheet illustrate s what resources are available and what makes particular communities vulnerable. From this illus tration, conclusions can be drawn regarding which counties are lacking the proper services to support victims and which counties are sufficient in combating trafficking; and what efforts should be replicated in other areas Geographical Map of Colorado : This ma p illustrates the geographical features of Colorado; it's evident that Colorado is a largely mountainous and rural state.

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! Human Trafficking Vulnerability 25 Colorado State Patrol Map : This map illustrates how data for this thesis is divided by region to categorize unique features of each area in Colorado. District 1 Geographical Communities State P atrol District O ne is located in east central Colorado. This area has access to the major interstates which run through Co lorado, including I 25 and I 70, and I 76. The Denver International Airport is located within this district. Traffickers often transport their victims u sing inter state highways and airports (U.S. Census Bureau, 2011.) Since Colorado is a source, transit and destinatio n area for human trafficking victims, it is likely that victims are regularly brought into and through Colorado using these interstates and airpor ts; making the surrounding area s an incubator fo r trafficking to occur. Within District O ne; there are also mountain ous and secluded r egions, where trafficking victims' exploitation can be hidden from the general public. Prominent

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! Human Trafficking Vulnerability 26 cities within this district include Denver and Boulder, both of which contain a large population (U.S. Census Bureau, 2011.) Industries Agric ulture is a prominent industry within District O ne, many county economy's within this district depend on agriculture to thrive (U.S. Census Bureau, 2011.) Agriculture is an industry likely to take advantage of cheap labor due to the extensive and back brea king work involved. Industrial manufacturing is an other prominent industry within district one (Denver Urbanism, 2010 ) There are also several ski resorts and tourist attractions within district one. Many people come to Colorado to visit Denver which is lo cated within this district. Denver is home to many sporting and convention events which bring people from all over the country (Denver Urbanism, 2010 ) When tourism is a prominent industry within a district, it is important to take note of who is serving the tourists within the hospitality and food service industries. Denver and Boulder are also home to several retail and recreation attractions. Since t he legalization of recreational marijuana, tourists have come from all over the country to buy marijuana from the many establishments with in Denver and Boulder. Unfortunately, the law making recreational marijuana legal also takes resources fr om the alread y understaffed VICE unit within t his district, as the VICE unit is now responsible for monitoring the use of another substance besides alcohol and tobacco. District one is also home to several prominent universities including, University of Colorado Boulde r, University of Colorado Denver, Denver University, etc. (U.S. Census Bureau, 2011.) These colleges bring st udents from all over the world into District One, increasing the youth population in this district. Gilpin county is another prominent county with in district one that features attractions such as Central City and

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! Human Trafficking Vulnerability 27 Black Hawk Casino; gaming is another promin ent industry within this district (U.S. Census Bureau, 2011.) Vulnerable Communities There is a large homeless population within this district pre dominantly within cites of Denver and B oulder both of which have the highest rates of homelessness within the state (MDHI, 2013 ) Due to the many universities within this district, particularly within the Denver Metro area and Boulder, there is also a relatively high youthful population within this district. District 2 Geographical Communities Regions of Colorado State patrol dis trict two borders New Mexico, Kansas and Oklahoma (Colorado Government, 2013 ) Areas which bo rder other states are especially vulnerable to human trafficking as traffickers will typically transport their victims over state lines. Any region that borders another state is likely to have some victims of trafficking (LCHT, 2013 ) Within this district lie the Las Anima s airport and two major correctional facilities in Bent County. District two also has access to the major interstates that run through Colorado (I 25, I 70, etc.) There are several mountainous and seclude d regions within this district (Col orado Government, 2013.) Industries Agriculture and construction are prominent industries within this district (U.S. Census Bureau, 2011.) Because this area is largely rural, forestry, fishing and mining are also prominent industries within district two (U.S. Census Bureau, 2011.) Colorado Springs is an important city

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! Human Trafficking Vulnerability 28 within this district; and is home to five different military installations, the most of any county within the United States (U.S. Census Bureau, 2011.) The mi litary is a prominent industry within this district. Colorado Springs is also home to many tourist attractions including G arde n of the G ods (Colorado Government, 2013 ) People from all over the country come to this region to see these exotic rock formation s. Commercial shopping and manufacturing are also prominent industries within thi s district (U.S. Census Bureau, 2011 ) Within Pueblo County are the Mission Foods and Lowes Ho mebuilders manufacturing plants; Pueblo is also home to tourist attractions such as the San Isabel National Forest (Colorado Government, 2013.) Vulnerable Communities The Comanche National Grassland Reservation is located within district two (U.S. Census Bureau, 2011.) Reservations are particularly important to note when investigatin g vulnerability within a community because Native Americans are more at risk to become victims of trafficking. The Hispanic population within district two is also higher than the national and state average (U.S. Census Bureau, 2011 ) Minority individuals a re more vulnerable to discrimination. A large Hispanic population presents the possibility of a large immigrant population who could potentially lack the documents to work legally within the U.S. There may also be less fluency of English within this district. Traffickers often take advantage of individuals who have less understanding of the language and legal system (LCHT, 2013 ) Within this district are areas in which sexual assault and violent crime rates are higher than the national and state avera ge (U.S. Census Bureau, 2011 ) Within this district, there are also high rat es of poverty and unemployment (U.S. Census Bureau, 2011.) District Three

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! Human Trafficking Vulnerability 29 Geographical Vulnerabilities There are several geographical features which makes district three vulnerabl e to human trafficking. District three has access to the major interstates within Colorado; there is also a municipal airport located within this district ; in the county of Kit Carson (Colorado Government, 2013 ) There are regions of this district that bor der Wyoming and Nebraska. Similar to the other districts, district three has various secluded and mountainous regions. Adams County is a prominent county within this district that is located near the Denver International Airport. Larimer County is also hom e to Colorado State University (Colorado Government, 2013.) Industries Agriculture, manufacturing, tourism, and construction are the most prominent industries within district three (U.S. Census Bureau, 2011.) Kit Carson County produces the state's largest livestock supply and is also know n for corn and wheat production (U.S. Census Bureau, 2011.) Within Larimer County there is a huge restaurant industry. Larimer is also home to manufacturing plants, such as Agilent Technologies, Anheuser Busch, Kodak, Hewlett Packard and Waterpik (Colorado Government, 2013 ) Within district three is Morgan County which is home to Erker Grain, one of the largest processors of sunflower seeds in the world. Within Morgan County is also one of the largest meat packing companies within the U.S. The Excel Corporation is also located within Morgan County. Weld County is l ocated within district three and is home to the JBS Meat processor, Lepreno Foods, as well as several manufacturing plants. Weld County is known as the third leading agricultural area within the U.S. (Colorado Government, 2013.) Vulnerable Communities

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! Human Trafficking Vulnerability 30 Wit hin this district are several counties that have higher rates of the Hispanic population than the national and state average (U.S. Census Bureau, 2011.) District Four Geographical Vulnerabilities In district four there are several rural and secluded areas which make this region vulnerable to human trafficking. This district also has easy access to major interstates and the airport within Rio Blanco County. Regions of this district also boarder Wyoming and Utah (Colorado Government, 2013.) Industries Agriculture is a leading industry within district four (U.S. Census Bureau, 2011.) This district also has a prominent construction, m ining and oil drilling industry (U.S. Census Bureau, 2011.) Accommodations and food services are also important industries withi n district four. Tourism is a major industry; Mesa, Pitkin and Routt Counties all have several ski resorts and other outdoor and recreational activities that bring in tourists from all over the country (Colorado Government, 2013 ) Oil shale drilling i s also a prominent industry within Mesa County. Gas extraction is an important industry within district four, e specially in Rio Blanco County (U.S. Census Bureau, 2011.) Vulnerable Communities There is a high minority population within district four; thre e counties within this district (Garfield County, Rio Blanco County; Pitkin County) have a higher Hispanic population than the national and state average (U.S. Census Bureau, 2011.)

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! Human Trafficking Vulnerability 31 District 5 Geographical Vulnerabilities There are Indian reservations wit hin district five The Southern Ute Indian Reservation spans across Archuleta County and La Pl ata County; the Ute Mountain R eservation lies within Montezuma County (Colorado Government, 2013 ) Within Archuleta County, 14% of the land is tribal land. Distri ct five has several regions that boarder New Mexico and Utah. There is also east access to interstate highways and airports. Alamosa, Archuleta, La Plata, San Juan and San Miguel Counties all contain airports. District five contains the region of Colorado that sits in the four corners tourist attraction. Much of this district is rural and contains very secluded areas. In Archuleta County alone, 40% of the land is uninhibited forest. There are also several mountainous regions within district five. Within thi s district, there are several universities including Adam's State University in Alamosa County and Fort Lewis College in La Plata County (Colorado Government, 2013.) Industries Agriculture is a prominent industry within district five; Alamosa County is known to be one of the highest counties producing agriculture within the U.S. Gaming is also a huge industry within this district; there are casinos located in Archuleta County, Dolores County, La Plata County, Montezuma County a nd San Juan County (U.S. Ce nsus Bureau, 2011 ) The casinos and resorts within this district also have created a large tourist industry within district five. Archuleta, Dolores, Mont e zuma and San Juan Counties all feature casinos and resorts. Archuleta County features mineral hot spr ings that draw in tourists from all over the country. The tourist attraction Four Corners is also located within this district (Colorado Government, 2013 ) Construction,

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! Human Trafficking Vulnerability 32 accommodation, and food services are all prominent industrie s within this district as well (U.S. Census Bureau, 2011.) Vulnerable Communities Within this district l ies two Indi an Reservations; there is a large Native American population within district five. In Alamosa there are high rates of poverty and high crime and child abuse rates r elative to the national average (U.S. Census Bureau, 2011.) Costilla County also has high rates of poverty, higher than that of the national and state average (U.S. Census Bureau, 2011.) Conclusion: How this Research informs statewide anti trafficking ef forts The state of Colorado has distinct features that make it vulnerable to human trafficking. Largely, Colorado is a rural and mountainous state; therefore, there are several regions within Colorado that are secluded. These secluded areas create potenti al hiding spots for traffickers to bring victims. S pacious and rural areas provide vast land which facilitates the farming and ranching industries Agriculture and ranching are the most prominent industries within Colorado; therefore, there is a high deman d for cheap, physical labor. The vast mountain regions within Colorado are secluded areas that are home to ski resorts and tourist attractions. Colorado is known for its mountains and ski resorts; people from all over the country and the world come to Colo rado to ski and snowboard in the Rocky Mountains. Businesses have created a vast tourist industry within these mountainous regions as well People come to Colorado not only for the recreational opportunities but also to stay at the decadent spas and resort s that populate these regions. Tourism within Colorado has also created a demand for cheap labor within the hospitality and accommodation industries. With vast tourism comes the need for workers to

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! Human Trafficking Vulnerability 33 serve the influx of people that may arrive during "ski season." Businesses are likely to take advantage of undocumented workers in order to save money when accommodating guests in hotels, resorts, restaurants, etc. (LCHT.) Although Colorado is a mostly ru ral and mountainous state, there are several metropolitan regions that are heavily populated. District one in particular is a metropolitan district; it is the most populated in the state. Although secluded areas are vulnerable for trafficking to occur, are as with more people are more prone to experience human trafficking. With a larger population comes a larger community of vulnerable people, higher crime rates and a higher demand for labor and sex trafficking. Metropolitan areas, (such as Denver ) have a l arge sex industry and are home to several convention centers and sporting events that draw a large influx of people who may be in the market for commercial sex. The Denver International Airport also brings in an influx of tourists as well as trafficking vi ctims from all over the world into Colorado. Colorado's placement within the United States is relevant as it also creates a unique vulnerability for trafficking to occur. Because Colorado is located in the center of the U.S., there are other states border ing each side o f this state. Districts that bo rder other states are particularly vulnerable to trafficking, as traffickers will typically bring victims into and through Colorado from other parts of the country via interstates. Because Colorado is centrally located it is considered a source destination and transit state for traffickers and their victims. If traffickers do not stay within Colorado, they are likely to transport their victims through it in order to get to their destination. Within this state there are also several prominent universities that bring in young people from all over the world. Traffickers tend to prey on youthful individuals who may be naive to illegitimate job offers. There is also a h igh rate of Hispanic individuals within this

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! Human Trafficking Vulnerability 34 state who are more vulnerable to discrimination and trafficking, especially when there is a language barrier ; and the legal system is foreign and seems confusing. Traffickers tend to take advantage of individual s who cannot speak the language of the country they're in. This state is geographically very different from most states, which creates vulnerabilities that are unique to Colorado. The purpose of gathering this information is to supplement LCHT's Col orado Project Action Plan. The Action P lan found gaps and gave recommendations to improve the efforts of service providers in Colorado within the 4P framework. When addressing human trafficking within a specific region in Colorado, it is important to understand what makes that particular region vulnerable to trafficking; and what vulnerable populations are important to pay attention to in regards to potential and future victims of trafficking. Never before has there been a comprehensive document that illustrates different unique vulnerabilities within specific re gions of Colorado. This thesis facilitate s service providers' understanding of what makes their particular region vulnerable to human trafficking and what populations are vulnerable to trafficking within their district. Th e Action Plan was developed by the Colorado Project State Advisory Board Mem bers, focus group participants from various communities throughout the states, State Conference participants and surveys (LCHT, 2013.) This Action Plan is a guiding tool for service providers and community members to help create a collaborative and well or ganized response to human trafficking. Each o f the recommendations within Action Plan provides a structure for community members to formulate activities that will facilitate the development of an all inclusive approach to end human trafficking. This plan e mpowers community members and service providers to organize and work together to support each other and be tter serve trafficking victims. The Action Plan also works to bridge the gaps between service providers and geographic areas within

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! Human Trafficking Vulnerability 35 Colorado (LCHT, 20 13.) Each of the recommendations were organized into different areas of the 4P framework; supporting the idea that human trafficking efforts can be improved by focusing on prevention, protection, prosecution and partnership efforts. Prevention efforts incr ease awareness in order to avert future instances of trafficking from occurring. In order to improve prevention efforts within Colorado, The Action Plan recommends that service providers, "create strategic statewide human trafficking public awareness and p revention campaigns targeting populations that may be vulnerable to human trafficking" (LCHT, 2013.) Prevention efforts work to eliminate trafficking from happening in the future; protection efforts on the other hand, work to protect individuals who have already been affected by human trafficking. Protection efforts work to provide basic needs for survivors including, health care, legal services, social services, etc. Protection agencies protect survivors and support them i n a non discriminatory way to facilitate a healthy recovery and reincorporation into society. The Action Plan recommends that in order to improve protection efforts, we need to "create a cultural shift among and between law enforcement and service provider s in anti human trafficking efforts" (LCHT, 2013.) This could be accomplished through regular curriculum based training in hum an trafficking for both service providers and law enforcement (LCHT, 2013.) Prosecution efforts work to ensure that the laws in pl ace are properly implemented and carried out to best serve victims and prosecute perpetrators. This aspect of the 4P's not only relates to law enforcement and criminal prosecution but also to the creation of new legislation. The Action Plan recommends that in order to improve prosecution efforts, it is necessary to, "develop system wide protocols to increase victim centered and evidence based cases" (LCHT, 2013.) The Action Plan asserts that evidence based cases that are not dependent upon victim

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! Human Trafficking Vulnerability 36 testimony will be more successful in the prosecution of traffickers (LCHT, 2013 ) One way this can be accomplished is by recruiting investigators and prosecutors to attend trainings that will educate them on new ways to conduct comprehensive investigations to corrob orate victim statements; thus supporting victims rather than making them feel as if they are criminals. The Action Plan asserts that if the laws are more supportive to victims, more individuals will be willing to come forward and work to help prosecute the ir traffickers. Partnership efforts work to build and strengthen a comprehensive response to trafficking through building bridges and relationships across multiple sectors. The Action Plan recommends in order to improve partnership efforts, it's imperativ e to, "cultivate awareness and concern for the issue of human trafficking in communities across the state" (LCHT, 2013.) The Action Plan affirms that if human trafficking is shown to be a pressing issue within society, community members will be more inclin ed to address human trafficking and create a community based response relative to their particular community; thus increasing partnerships between service providers, law enforcement, community members, etc. These recommendations provide a framework to guide a comprehensive and improved community response; however, different regions within Colorado have unique features and populations that are vulnerable to trafficking. Not only is it important for service providers, law enforcement agencies, etc., to fo llow the recommendations set forth by The Action Plan to improve efforts within the 4P framework; but it is also important to understand what vulnerable populations are prominent within a particular community and what industries and geographical features m ake a particular community (district) vulnerable to human trafficking. When service providers are being educated on the crime of human trafficking, it's imperative that they under stand what makes individuals in particular regions vulnerable.

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! Human Trafficking Vulnerability 37 Human traffic king looks different in different areas. Depending on the region, populations and industries that exist within a region, trafficking could refer to anything from sex trafficking to labor exploitation. This thesis has set forth information regarding each di strict in Colorado to help service providers understand not only what actions need to be taken to address trafficking but also what makes their particular district vulnerable to trafficking, so they may tailor a response that is relevant and helpful to com bat trafficking within their particular region.

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! Human Trafficking Vulnerability 39 Reference s Anne E. Casey Foundation. (2013). Kids Count Data Center. Retrieved from, http://datacenter.kidscount.org/ Anne E. Casey Foundation. (2012a). Children in immigrant families in Colorado. Retrieved from,http://www.aecf.org/~/media/Pubs/Topics/Special%20Interest%20Areas/Immigrant s%20and%20Refugees/ChildreninImmigrantFamiliesinColorado/AECF_immigrant_fami lies_brief_colorado.pdf. Attorney General announces eight year pri son sentence for convicted human trafficker. (2011, August 17). Retrieved May 5, 2014, from http://www.coloradoattorneygeneral.gov/press/news/2011/08/16/attorney_general Bankoff, Greg etal. (2004). Mapping Vulnerability: Disasters, Development and Peopl e London: Earth scan. Cardona, F., & Vaughan, K. (2009, May 17). Fields of Fear for Colorado Illegal Farm Laborers The Denver Post. Colorado: The official state web portal (2014). Retrieved from http://www.colorado.gov/ Colorado Coalition against Domestic Violence (2011); and The Domestic Violence Program (2011). Concerning a prohibition against trafficking in humans, and making an appropriation in connection therewith (SENATE BILL 06 207). Retrieved from website: http://www.leg.state.co.us/clics2006a/csl.nsf/billcontainers/A96881CC8ABC9193872571 2300781AB4/$FILE/207_enr.pdf Harris, A. (2011b). Undocumented immigrant workers in Colorado play an important role in the

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! Human Trafficking Vulnerability 40 stat e's economy. Colorado Center on Law and Policy Retrieved from http://www.cclponline.org/uploads/files/CO_undocumented_immigration.pdf. Harvard Project on American Indian Economic Development (2008). The State of Native Nations: Conditions Under U.S. Policies of Self Determination New York: Oxford University Press Illescas, C. (2010, November 24). In crime report, Pueblo ranks highest in Colorado. Retrieved May 5, 2014, from http://www.denverpost.com/ci_16697636 Krissman, F., Foner, N., Rumbaut, R., & Gold, S. (2000). Immigrant labor recruitment: US agribusiness and undocumented migration from Mexico. Immigration research for a new century: Multidisciplinary perspectives 277 300. Laboratory to Combat Human Trafficking (2013). Colorado Project Statewide Data Report .Denver, CO: Laboratory to Combat Human Trafficking. Laboratory to Combat Human Trafficking (2013). Colorado Project National Survey Report .Denver, CO: Laboratory to Comb at Human Trafficking. Metro Denver Homeless Initiative. (2012). Homelessness in the Denver metropolitan area 2012 homeless point in time study. Retrieved from, http://mdhi.org/wpcontent/ uploads/2012/05/2012 Point in Time Report.pdf. Metro D enver Homeless Initiative. (2013 ). Homelessness in t he Denver metropolitan area 2013 homeless point in time study. Retrieved from, http://mdhi.org/wpcontent/

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! Human Trafficking Vulnerability 41 uploads/2012/05/2012 Point in Time Report.pdf. Migration Policy Institute. (2012a). Colorado: Income & Poverty. MPI Data Hub: Migration Facts,Stats, and Maps. Retrieved from, http://migrationinformation.org/datahub/state4.cfm?ID=CO National Coalition of Anti Violence Programs. (2012). Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer and HIV affected intimate partner violence 2011. 2012 Release Edition. Retrieved from, http://www.avp.org/storag e/documents/Reports/2012_NCAVP_2011_IPV_Report.pdf Smithwick, J. (2013, June). Demand for Human Trafficking. Lecture conducted from Metropolitan State University, Denver, CO. State and County quick Facts. (2011, March 25.) Retrieved from U.S. Census Bur eau: http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states Turner, J., & Kelly, L. (2009). Trade Secrets Intersections between Diasporas and Crime Groups in the Constitution of the Human Trafficking Chain. British Journal of Criminology 49 (2), 184 201. UN General Assembly, Protocol to Prevent, Suppress an d Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, Supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, 15 November 2000, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/47 20706c0.html [accessed 10 March 2014]

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! Human Trafficking Vulnerability 42 United States Department of State. (2007). Trafficking in Persons Report. U.S. Dept of State Publication. Office of the Undersecretary for Democracy and Global Affairs and Bureau of Public Affairs. Washington, DC: GTIP Retrieved from http://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/2011/ United States Department of State. (20 11). Trafficking in Persons Report. U.S. Dept of State Publication. Office of the Undersecretar y for Democracy and Global Affairs and Bureau of Public Affairs. Washington, DC: GTIP. Retrieved from http://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/2011/ United State Insuragency Council on Homelessness, (2013). Substance abuse Retrieved from website: http://usich.gov/issue/substance_abuse Anderson, J. (2003.) University of Minnesota. Trafficking in women: Explore the issue Retrieved from http://www1.umn.edu/humanrts/svaw/trafficking/explore/1whatis.htm Van Leeuwen, J.M., Hopfer, C., Hooks, S., White, R., Petersen, J., & Pirkopf, J. (2004). A Snapshot of substance abuse among homeless and runaway youth in Denver, Colorado. J ournal of Community Health, (29) 3, 217. Retrieved from, http://urbanpeak.civicore.com/Admin/Resources/Resources/21.pdf. Van Leeuwen, J. M., Boyle, S., Salomonsen Sautel, S., Baker, D. N., Garcia, J. T., Hoffman, A., & Hopfer, C. J. (2006). Lesbian, gay, and bisexual homeless youth: An eight city public health perspective. Child Welfare New York, 85 (2), 151, Retrieved from

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! Human Trafficking Vulnerability 43 http://urbanpeak.civicore.com/Admin/Resou rces/Resources/97.pdf What is Vulnerability. (2013 ). Retrieved May 5, 2014, from http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/vulnerability.html Whitbeck, L. B., Hoyt, D. R., Yoder, K. A., Cauce, A. M., & Paradise, M. (2001). Deviant behavior and victimization among homeless and runaway adolescents. Journal of Interpersonal Violence 16 (11), 1175 1204. Women's Foundation of Colorado and Institute for Women's Policy Research. (2013). The Status of Women and Girls in Colorado. Denver, CO.

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! Human Trafficking Vulnerability 45 Appendix A. Example resources organized by 4Ps. Available resources are best understood through the 4p framework; the idea that trafficking can be stopped by increasing efforts in four areas: prevention; protection; prosecution; partnerships. Examining available resources lead insight to which counties are making a sufficient effort to help victims and prosecute traffickers, and which counties need to improve their efforts. The table illustrates different resources available in ea ch Colorado districts within the 4P framework. Prevention: Resources available that work to prevent future instances of trafficking; this includes programs such as public awareness campaigns and education. Protection: Agencies advocating and protecting victims, such as social services, counseling, etc. Prosecution: Resources that work to arrest and persecute traffickers, such as law enforcement and prosecuting attorneys. Partnerships: Partnerships that work together to facilitate the fight against traffi cking (partnerships among community agencies.) District Prevention Protection Prosecution Partnerships 1 Shiloh House (Thorton) (17c).Center for the Study and prevention of Violence, Boulder County Cares. (20c). Jefferson Center for Mental Health, the Senior Reach program, the Veteran's Coalition, the Suicide Awareness and Prevention Task Force. Douglas County Youth Initiative .League of Women Voters in Jefferson County (1c). The Comitis Crisis Center, Inc., Gateway Battered Women's Services, Project Sa fegard (18c) Human services branch. Gonzales & Gonzales immigration services. (17a). The Link and Alternatives to family violence (17c).The Carriage House Community Table (homeless services) (20b). Victim Assistance Program, Safehouse Progressive Alliance for Nonviolence. Blue Sky Arapahoe County Sheriff's Office, Glendale Police Department, Cherry Hills Village Police Department, Aurora Police Department, Greenwood Village Police Dept., Police Dept., of Littleton (18c).Ci ty and county of Broomfeild Police Department, Colorado State Patrol District 1 (17c).Boulder County Sheriff, Boulder Police Sexual Assault Response Team 17th Judicial District Attorney's office (17c).InIt2EndIt: Ending Human Trafficking, Colo rado Immigrant Rights Coalition (Longmont). (20c).Clear Creek County Public and Environmental Health (CCCPEH) works in partnership with the Health and Human Services Department (HHS), Office of Emergency Management (OEM) and Emergency Medical Services (EMS ) in the county to provide comprehensive, integrated services. A Board of Public Health

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! Human Trafficking Vulnerability 46 Bridge: Child and Family Advocacy Center, Boulder Shelter for the Homeless (20c).Jefferson Center for Mental Health, Mental Health 24/7 Hotline, Alcoholics Anonymous .Human Services, Adult Protection Services, Child Protection Ser vices, Community of Care Network. Gilpin County Human Services, Health Care Programs for Children with Special Needs, Nurse Family Partnership, First Time Moms Pregnancy Assistance,WIC, Alcoholics Anonymous, Victim Services.The Action Center, The Family Tr ee,The Emergency Food Assistance Program, PEAK program (1c). Department, Colorado State Patrol District 6. (20c).Clear Creek County Sheriff's Office.Douglas County Sheriff's Office, Parker Pol ice Dept., Colorado State Patrol, Lon Tree Police Dept., Castle Rock Police Dept., Woodland Park Police Dept., (18c).Elbert County Sheriff, Kioawa Police Dept., Limon Police Dept., Simla Police Dept., Elizabeth Police Dept., State Patrol (18c).Gilpin Count y Sheriff's Office, County Jail.Jefferson County Sheriff's Office, Lakewood Police Dept., Arvada Police Dept., Golden Police Dept., (1c). and a Health Advisory Committee assist CCPEH in addressing the health concerns of the county. Women's Crisis & Family Outreach Center (18c), Partnership of Douglas Coun ty Governments, Gilpin County Public Health and Environmental Services. The Community Coalition Against Sexual Assult (1c). 2 4H, Bent County Youth Chamber, Boy Scouts, Bent County Development Foundation (16c).Public Health Agency, Colorado Youth Matter.Kid's campus (16c).Huerfano County Family Recource Center, Huerfano County Youth Services (3a).Las Animas County Resource Center (3a). Las Animus Helping Hands (16c).Pueblo Suicide Provention Center, ACOVA Victim Services (10c). Bent County Social S ervices (16c). Domestic Safty Resource Center, Dept. of Social Services, Northeast Behavioral Health, Centennial Mental Health Center.Crowley County Emergency Services (16c).Advocates Against Domestic Assault, Domestic Violence Assistance Search, Social S ervices, Branch of Human Services (3a).Advocates Against Domestic Assault, Domestic Violence Assistance Search, Social Services, Branch of Human Services (3a).Plains Medical Center, Lower Arkansas Valley Area Agency, Domestic Safety Resource Center, Social Services, Colorado Health Networks, Southeast Mental Health Services.West Central Mental Health Center.Domestic Violence Assistance Search, Social Services, Branch of Human Services (3a).The Pueblo Child Advocacy Center, The Colorado Mental Health Institu ted at Pueblo, Department's Office of Behavioral Health and Housing, Spanish Peaks Behavioral Health Center, YWCA (10a). Pueblo Colorado Child Welfare, Child Services, Bridges Child Placement Agency, Strong Girls Program, Rape Crisis Center (10c). Bent Cou nty Sheriff's Office (16c).Colorado Legal Services, Cheyenne Country Sheriffs Office, Colorado State Patrol.Otero County Sheriff's Office (16c).Pueblo County Sheriff's Office,Pueblo Police Dept., Colorado State Patrol (10c). Arkansas Valley Resource Cente r, Bent County Health Care Center (16c).Child Welfare and care, Crowley County Department of Human Services (16c).Kiowa County Public Health Agency.County Courthouse,Child Welfare and Core (16c).Human Trafficking Task Force of Southern Colorado,YWCA (10c).

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! Human Trafficking Vulnerability 47 3 Adams County Youth Initiative, Shilo House, The Link, Alternatives to Family Violence (Thorton) (17c).Colorado Children's Trust Fund, Sexual Violence Prevention Program, The Child Adolescent School Health Unit, and the CYF Division of Human Services (8 a). Sexual Assult Victim Advocate Center, Larimer County Child Advocacy Center (8c).Tower 21, Youth and Family Connections (19c). Adams County Food Distribution, Salvation Army (17c). Rocky Mountain Immigrant Advocacy Network (17a).Health Dept. of Larimer County, Human Services, Larimer County Workforce Center (8a). Homeless Gear, The Hub Youth Asessment Center, Sister Mary Alice Murphy Center for Hope, The Matthews House (8c).Guadalupe Community Center and Shelter, Weld Food Bank, Alternative Homes for You th, North Range Behavioral Health (19c). Weld County Human Services, Colorado Trust, Immigrations and Customs Enforcement, Catholic Charities, A Woman's Place (19a). Adams County Sheriff's Office, City of Arvada Police Dept., City of Brighton Police dept., Northglenn Police Dept., Thorton Police Dept., Westminster Police Dept.,Colorado State Patrol District 3 (17c).Larimer County Sheriff's Department, Fort Collins Police Department, Loveland Police Dept., Colorado State Patrol, FBI Fort Collins Office (8c). Lincoln County Ssheriff, Flagler Marshalls Office, State Patrol, Limon Police Dept., Hugo Police Dept., (18c).Weld County Sheriff's Office,Greeley Police Dept., Windsor Police Dept., Frederick Police Dept., Fort Lupton Police Dept., Lochbuie Police Dept., Colorado State Patrol (19a). Adams County Sheriff's Office Victims Advocacy Program, Sexual Assult Response Team 17th Judicial District Attorney's Office (17c).The U COUNT Campaign, Larimer County Victim/Witness Division (8c).Partners Mentoring Youth, Sexu al Assault Victim Advocate Center (19c). 4 Grand County Advocates for a Violence Free Community(14c).Latimer House, The House (21c.)Response or hotline (9c).Routt County Individual Service and Support Team (14c). Moutain Family Health Center, Youth Zone ( 9c).Child and Migrant Services, Alpha center for psychological services.(21c.) Mesa County Dept., Human Services, Mind Health Springs (9c).Advocates building peacful communities, Integrated Community (14c). Colorado State Patrol, Garfield County Sheriff, G lenwood Springs Police Dept., Rifle Police Dept., (9c).Colorado Legal Services, Grand County Sheriff's Dept., Grandby Police Dept., Kremmling Police Dept., Fraser/ Winter Park Police Dept., (14c). Mesa County Sheriff,Grand Junction Police Dept., Fruita Pol ice Dept., Human Resources Dept. (21a &c.)Moffatt County Sheriff's Office, Craig Police Dept., (14c).Aspen Police Dept., Pitkin County Sheriff's Office (9c).Meeker Police Dept., Rangely Police Dept., Rio Blanco County Sheriff (9c).Colorado Legal Services, Northwest Rocky Mountian Court Appointed Special Advocates for Children, Routt County Sheriff's Office, Steamboat Springs Police Dept., Hayden Police Dept., Oak Creek Police Dept. (14c.) School to work alliance program, nurse family partnership (21c.)Aspe n Institute (9c).Routt County Youth Services Coatlition, Advocates Building Peaceful Communities (14c). 5 Alamosa County Human Services (12c.) La Puente, Tu Casa, Western Mountian Youth Alamosa County Sheriff's Office, San Luis Valley Immigrant Resource Center (12c.)Colorado

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! Human Trafficking Vulnerability 48 Services, San Luis Communitiy Mental Health Center (12c.)Social Ser (12c.)Conejos County Sheriff's Office (12c.)Costilla County Workforce Center (22a.)Rio Grand Farmers Coalition (12c.)