Human trafficking in the United States : analyzing demand and demand-reduction strategies

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Human trafficking in the United States : analyzing demand and demand-reduction strategies
Campbell, Kayleen
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Human Trafficking in the United States: Analyzing Demand and Demand-Reduction Strategies
by Kayleen Campbell
An undergraduate thesis submitted in partial completion of the Metropolitan State University of Denver Honors Program
May 2014
Dr. Nicholas Recker
Dr. Jeffrey London
Dr. Megan Hughes-Zarzo Honors Program Director
Primary Advisor
Second Reader

Human Trafficking in the United States: Analyzing Demand and Demand Reduction
Human trafficking is an issue within the United States that continues to plague our society. In order to begin eradicating this crime, it is important to understand why it has prevailed for so long. On a demand-side analysis of the issue, factors such as media bombardment of all age groups with explicit sexual imagery and the normalization of sexism and objectification, pornography, prostitution and pimp culture, the patriarchal society in the United States which condones the objectification and dehumanization of women, and the demand for children are all contributors to the demand for human trafficking in the United States. Demand reduction strategies offered include a call for more funding to better enforce current abolitionist policy, the elimination of pornography, and the implementation by the United States government of the Swedish gender model, which criminalizes the men purchasing commercial sex rather than the prostitutes. However, it is important to realize that policy change will be ineffective without a change in cultural and societal norms.

This paper is intended to address human trafficking in the United States on a demand-level analysis. Unfortunately, it is very difficult to provide statistics outlining the specific number of people who have been trafficked in the United States, due to the fact that human trafficking is an underground crime and victims often go unidentified. Any statistics that exist are minimum figures at best, and are generally not consistent. In the past decade alone, United Nations estimates of trafficked persons have ranged from 600,000 to 27 million (Horning 2012). Rather than attempting to explain the size of the trafficking problem, this paper seeks to provide more information on the demand behind human trafficking in the United States and to suggest future solutions aimed at decreasing demand.
Routine Activities Theory
To better understand the demand behind human trafficking in the United States, this paper will utilize Cohen and Felsons Routine Activities theory. This theory suggests that the ever-changing structure of the routine activities of everyday life influences criminal opportunity (Cohen 1979). This approach is different than other criminological theories because it focuses on the circumstances during which crime takes place rather than solely focusing on the criminal offender. Specifically, Routine Activities theory focuses on the circumstances around which direct-contact predatory violations occur. Direct-contact predatory violations are "illegal acts in which someone definitely and intentionally takes or damages the person or property of another (Cohen 1979). The specificity of direct-contact predatory violations is part of what links Routine Activities theory to human trafficking: offenders both take and damage the people involved. Cohen and Felson also specify the circumstances around which most of these offenses take place: the convergence

of likely offenders, suitable targets, and the absence of capable guardians against crime (Cohen 1979). The crime of human trafficking satisfies all three of these requirements. Likely offenders are plentiful due to the society that Americans grow up in which consistently objectifies women. Suitable targets are also numerous because human traffickers utilize factors of force, fraud, and coercion to obtain their victims, which allows them to essentially choose victims at will. The absence of capable guardians against crime is also present in the situation of human trafficking, though the absence is more figurative than literal; there is certainly not an absence of law enforcement in America, but they are largely absent in the field of human trafficking due to the underground nature of the crime and the difficulty of identifying victims. Perhaps one of the most relevant aspects of Routine Activities theory is the idea that illegal activities "feed upon the legal activities of everyday life (Cohen 1979). This paper will argue that human trafficking and the demand behind it indeed stem from the legal activities of everyday life, ranging from pornography to the constant objectification of women in the media. Human trafficking is a complicated and multi-faceted issue, but Cohen and Felsons Routine Activities theory is important to keep in mind when examining the demand that fuels human trafficking in the United States.
In order to examine the issue of demand within human trafficking in the United States, this paper will utilize analysis. Specifically, this paper will attempt to explain the phenomenon of the demand behind human trafficking. By looking further into aspects of Routine Activities theory that apply to the demand for human trafficking, this paper will attempt to analyze existing activities and explain why they contribute to demand.
Human Trafficking: A Question of Definitions

Human trafficking is a global issue that has been brought to light increasingly in the recent decades. Although the issue of trafficking in persons has existed for quite some time, there are still questions being raised today in terms of what exactly constitutes human trafficking. Different agencies and laws have formatted the definition of human trafficking differently, resulting in a non-existent universal definition. As of today, there are two broad definitions of human trafficking as well as two sub-definitions that are relevant in the United States.
Perhaps the most prominent definition of human trafficking comes from the United Nations. In its Palermo Protocol, also known as the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress, and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, human trafficking is defined as "the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation, forced labour or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude, or the removal of organs (UN Protocol 2000). This detailed definition encompasses many different types of trafficking, even getting as specific as the removal of organs. The United Nations definition of human trafficking, as seen from the Palermo Protocol, is incredibly comprehensive and detailed. However, this definition does not apply universally when taking into account the fact that the United Nations has no real mechanism of authority over the sovereign nations of the world.
The second major definition of human trafficking can be found in the United States Trafficking in Persons, or TIP, report. This report is published every year by the United

States Department of State. In this report, human trafficking is defined as "the act of recruiting, harboring, transporting, providing, or obtaining a person for compelled labor or commercial sex acts through the use of force, fraud, and coercion (U.S. Department of State 2013). This definition is considerably shorter and less detailed than the United Nations definition, although it is certainly similar. Within this definition there are also two subdefinitions: the differentiation between adults and children. The Trafficking in Persons report maintains that adults who have been trafficked by means of force, fraud, or coercion even after initially consenting are still victims of human trafficking (U.S. Department of State, 2013). This is an important caveat in the definition because it recognizes that often times traffickers will condition their victims for a period of time before actually trafficking them, thus tricking them into agreeing over this period of time. The United States also specifically enumerates that any child under the age of eighteen who has been induced to perform a commercial sex act does not need the aforementioned factors of force, fraud, and coercion to be present in order for it to be a case of human trafficking (U.S. Department of State 2013). Both of these additions to the United States trafficking definition are relevant and important yet absent in the United Nations definition, highlighting the need for a universal definition. An agreement on a universal definition of human trafficking is important to strive for, because without a universal definition it is virtually impossible to compare information and data internationally and domestically (Savona and Stefanizzi 2007).
Modern Day Slavery? Using Caution When Drawing Parallels

When reviewing literature surrounding human trafficking, one theme is almost universal: the interchangeable use of the terms "slavery and "human trafficking (Ngwe and Elechi 2012; Scarpa 2008; Askola 2010; Mohajerin 2006; Sigmon 2008; Shepherd 2013; Perry 2011). While it is not difficult to find some similarities between human trafficking and slavery, the two are not the same thing. There are seven main points that differentiate between slavery and human trafficking (Bales 2005):
Table 1: Old vs. New Slavery
Old Slavery Legal ownership asserted High purchase cost Low profits
Shortage of potential slaves Long-term relationship Slaves maintained Ethnic differences important
New Slavery Legal ownership avoided Very low purchase cost
Very high profits Glut of potential slaves
Short-term relationship
Slaves disposable
Ethnic differences not important
While this chart utilizes the column titles of "Old Slavery and "New Slavery, it is important to acknowledge that by virtue of the fact each of the seven points in the latter column are the complete opposite of each of the seven points in the former column, it is difficult to use the term "slavery in the same capacity today as it was used in history. By drawing parallels between human trafficking and slavery, scholars must be careful of making broad generalizations that pigeonhole the two into the same category.
Factors that Fuel Human Trafficking in the United States

Though the United States has recognized that human trafficking is an issue that occurs both internationally and domestically, there are still several factors that continue to fuel the trade in persons in the United States today, despite laws and procedures against it. The difficulty of prosecuting traffickers and the extremely lucrative nature of human trafficking are two of the most relevant obstacles that continue to block the United States efforts of shutting down the trade in persons.
The difficulty of prosecuting traffickers is a major obstacle in the way of eradicating human trafficking in the United States. Traffickers feel that its a worthwhile risk to take because their chances of being caught and/or prosecuted are very slim. U.S. attorneys decline to prosecute approximately 60% of trafficking cases, compared to only around 25% of all federal criminal cases (Potocky 2010). In many cases this is because it is difficult to get victims to testify against their traffickers, which can make convictions hard to come by. These cases are not cheap, so it stands to reason that the U.S. attorneys would decline prosecution unless they were at least somewhat sure that they would have victim testimony on their side. In fact, efforts to prosecute have largely failed less than ten percent of alleged incidents of trafficking were actually confirmed (Benson, Morreau,
Okech 2012). Until the judicial system of the United States is modified to a system that seeks justice rather than a system that is wary of spending money, it is likely that most trafficking cases will continue to go unprosecuted.
Even if there was a successful system in place to prosecute traffickers, the presence of money is still enough to tempt people into human trafficking. Trafficking in persons is the most lucrative form of trafficking, second only to drugs and arms (Brown 2010). In some cases there are people running drug operations who see that trafficking in persons

allows them to make more money while putting forth less effort, and they decide to change their occupation, so to speak. In fact, human trafficking has been identified as one of the leading criminal enterprises of the early 21st century (UNODC 2006). This can partly be related back to the difficulty of prosecution criminals like their chances of flying under the radar much better when they are dealing with people rather than with drugs or weapons. Human trafficking is recognized as a major source of revenue for transnational organized crime syndicates, who use their established networks for arms and drug trafficking to engage in the trade of people (Chuang 2005). They dont need to create a new client base they already have one. As far as profits go, the estimates are enormous. The International Labor Organization, also known as the ILO, has estimated that sex trafficking makes an astounding $87 million per day (Grant 2013). With profits of that size, already established markets, and a low risk of detection and prosecution, human trafficking is a prime choice for organized crime groups.
Why Human Trafficking Continues to be a Domestic Problem
The policies that are in place in the United States are not sufficient, which is largely why human trafficking continues to be a domestic issue. There are several arguments regarding U.S. policy toward trafficking, but many of them emphasize that U.S. policy is failing (Morehouse 2009; Potocky 2010; Heinrich and Sreeharsha 2013; Lanier and Martin 2011).
One of the large issues within U.S. policy regarding human trafficking is the treatment of non-citizen victims. On one hand, it appears as though services and service providers mostly focus on non-citizen victims of trafficking even though the Trafficking in Persons Report specifically acknowledges that domestic human trafficking is part of the

anti-trafficking policy in the United States (Morehouse 2009: 143). Theoretically this creates an issue because it seems as though citizens of the United States who have been trafficked within their own countrys borders are not being assisted as much as they should be. However, on the other hand, the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 specifically states that "existing laws often fail to protect victims of trafficking, and because victims are often illegal immigrants in the destination country, they are repeatedly punished more harshly than the traffickers themselves (U.S. Department of State 2000). Are non-citizen victims receiving the majority of assistance or are they not being helped at all? It is difficult to determine the answer to this question as shown by the differing perspectives above, it is possible to make the case either way. Perhaps the answer lies somewhere in the middle -the vulnerability of United States citizens to human trafficking and that of non-nationals is asymmetric, which can possibly explain why the United States governments approach to combating human trafficking at home is not as meticulous as its approach to combating human trafficking internationally (Morehouse 2009: 145). However, this suggestion must be considered in context, because the international problem dwarfs the domestic problem simply based on the sheer size disparity between the United States and the rest of the world. This size disparity is not a valid excuse for making haphazard efforts to combat human trafficking on a local level. Although the TVPA recognizes the plight of illegal immigrants within the scope of human trafficking, the United States Department of Justice is failing miserably in remedying this plight. The Department of Justice cannot even accurately count the number of human trafficking victims they have assisted major discrepancies have been found between the departments annual and cumulative numbers, numbers reported to Congress and those contained in the departments records, and the

numbers verified by a government audit (Potocky 2010). This amount of government disorganization is astounding. Why have these officials making the discrepancy-ridden reports not been replaced? Until there is a reform of the Department of Justice, it seems impossible for aid to come to victims of human trafficking.
Government disorganization at the federal level is just one problem leading to the continuation of human trafficking in the United States. Unfortunately, the outlook does not improve at the state level. State human trafficking laws are extremely narrow in scope and not comprehensive in their response (Heinrich and Sreeharsha 2013). However, these narrow and incomprehensive state laws are better than nothing. Only 23 of the 50 states and four U.S. territories have anti-human trafficking legislation at all (Lanier and Martin 2011). This lack of state human trafficking laws is a huge issue in the United States. Police departments in states without trafficking laws cannot be expected to identify the problem if and when they see it, because most of the time they have little to no background information on the problem of human trafficking. Until all states adopt comprehensive antitrafficking laws, locating and prosecuting domestic human trafficking will continue to be an insurmountable challenge.
Domestic Demand in the United States
Human trafficking cannot exist without demand. This is why it is becoming increasingly important to understand the demand behind the crime rather than solely focus on the results of the crime though both are clearly important. Demand for human trafficking in the United States is a multidimensional subject with many individual yet interconnecting segments. There are three levels of demand for human trafficking that exist in the United States today (Pearson 2005):

that the media continually bombards all age groups with explicit sexual imagery (Shared Hope International 2007). This imagery, whether it is found in commercials, advertisements, magazines, television shows, movies, or any other venues, is increasingly becoming more pervasive. Children today grow up with these images, which leads to desensitization and normalization. As well as the fact that there is such an immense quantity of sexual imagery put forth by the media, businesses must share responsibility in that they intentionally market sexuality and sex acts to all Americans in a blatant manner (Shared Hope International 2007). This contributes to the objectification of women by placing them in advertisements which have become normalized most people accept the idea that sex sells (Grubman-Black 2003). Though it might seem correct to blame the media as a collective entity for the normalization of sex and the idea that sex sells, it cannot be forgotten that American society is just as much to blame. However, Johns cannot be allowed to escape the consequences of their choices, regardless of what society they live in. If men did not have a sense of sexual entitlement that is, the belief that they have the right to purchase and exploit women and children the human trafficking epidemic would collapse entirely and cease to exist (George 2012).
The Link Between Pornography and Human Trafficking Demand One important subject to address when examining the demand for human trafficking in the United States is pornography. In the United States, it is estimated that pornography is an eight billion dollar industry (George 2012). This estimate is likely on the low end, due to the fact that there are multitudes of pornographic content that can be accessed on the Internet for no charge. Though this number is likely a low estimate, it still demonstrates the magnitude of the business. While some may make the argument that

simply viewing pornography does not necessarily apply to the demand for human trafficking, it is important to consider the nature of pornography itself, as well as the women involved in pornographic media and content. Pornography, at the very least, is "the systemic brutalization and dismantling of the human spirit which gives a platform and voice to rape, prostitution, assault, and abuse of the human body (George 2012). In fact, it has been found that specific instances commonly present in pornography fall under the definition of torture (Farley 2006). These acts of torture in pornography are not obscure, either they are everywhere from Internet websites to newsstands. This leads to the question of why the United States government has illegalized torture yet allows the pornography business to continue under the argument that it falls under the free speech clause in the Constitution. Keeping in mind that pornography is essentially legalized torture, the link between it and human trafficking demand is not a hard concept to grasp. In many instances of pornography, victims are portrayed as voluntarily wanting to be beaten and abused, which causes the men viewing said material to believe that the victims of human trafficking actually desire the treatment they are subject to (George 2012). When men watch too many instances of brutal pornography, it is not unreasonable to expect that they may want to reenact scenes they have viewed online. The sex industry as a whole is driven by pornography men learn to use women by viewing it (Farley 2006). It is this attitude and fetishization of violence against women and children in pornography that links pornography as a very real source of demand for human trafficking in the United States. It is also important to keep in mind the fact that pornography is legal, contributing to Routine Activities theory by perpetuating the claim that legal activities of everyday life contribute to illegal activities.

No Strings Attached and Pimp Culture: The Demand for Prostitution in
The demand for prostitution in the United States is extremely high. In American society, prostitution has a normality attached to it that allows men who purchase sex to escape responsibility for their demand. It is a common attitude that prostitution serves as a necessary outlet for men with an abundance of sexual energy exceeding their monogamous marriage (Serughetti 2012). However, there is certainly still some sort of stigma around men who pay for commercial sex. Unfortunately, this stigma isnt enough to eliminate the demand for prostitution. One of the main draws towards prostitutes is the thought of a sexual relationship sans any kind of attached responsibility (George 2012). Within normal and healthy relationships, especially within marriage, men do not generally have the lack of additional responsibility as they do with prostitution. They must actually care for their wife and her well being, contribute to the finances, and possibly even share the parental responsibility if children are involved. This is why the idea of sex outside the parameters of a healthy relationship and involving absolutely no additional responsibility is such a large draw for many men. This draw illustrates the "likely offender category of Cohen and Felsons Routine Activities theory in that the desire for a sexual relationship without responsibilities outlines the likely offender within the issue of human trafficking. Additionally, demand increases when men feel like their sexual desires, fetishes, and needs are not or cannot be satisfied within the confines of a regular relationship (George 2012). The combination of sex without responsibility and men with unmet sexual desires or fetishes results in an extraordinarily high demand for prostitution, because prostitutes can remedy both of these things. This is why Johns, the common term for men who patronize

and demand human trafficking/prostitution, essentially pay for the right to dehumanize a human being, where the goal of the transaction is purchasing an object rather than a person (George 2012). The massive demand for prostitution has a very real consequence in relation to the demand for human trafficking. Where there is a demand for sexual slaves, there will always be those out there who will be willing to find victims and supply them to the Johns as long as there is an opportunity for economic gain (George 2012). Although it is true that some women partake in prostitution and sex work by their own volition, it is also true that many women involved in prostitution have been trafficked. Without the demand for prostitutes, pimps would not realistically have a chance at making money at the expense of trafficking another human being.
Pimps are usually not what the average person thinks of when picturing a human trafficker. However, pimps are, to the core, traffickers (Bellows 2013; Mir 2013; Parker 2013). They use methods of force, fraud, and coercion, as outlined in the Trafficking Victims Protection Act, to obtain people for commercial sex acts. The reason why this is not common knowledge among the general public is due to the pimp culture present in the United States. Pimps and pimping have become so ingrained in American culture that the concept has become fairly normalized (Shared Hope International 2007). In fact, many young men today consider it a compliment if someone refers to them as a pimp, and the use of the word "pimpin as an adjective has come to be synonymous with the word "cool. College kids even have parties with the theme "Pimps and Hos where the men dress up as pimps and the women dress scantily. There is no concern among these parties regarding the actual role of pimps as traffickers and prostitutes as victims of sex trafficking. Another look into pimp culture can be found in the old MTV series called Pimp My Ride, in which

cars would be vastly improved. This is just another example of how the word "pimp is commonly used with a positive connotation. As well as this, the song "Its Hard Out Here for a Pimp won the Oscar for Best Original Song in 2006 (Milloy 2006). Would any of this be different if the word "pimp was replaced with the word "trafficker? Would the Academy have awarded an Oscar to a song called "Its Hard Out Here for a Trafficker? Nobody can say for sure, but it seems safe to assume that pimp culture in the United States would not be as pervasive if people knew that pimps are human traffickers. Pimping is often glorified across the board in American hip-hop music as well. The examples are numerous, but all examples of pimp normalization lead to the pimp culture that exists in America today. Pimp culture, just like the demand for prostitutes, has a direct link to the demand for human trafficking in the United States. Pimp culture, at its very core, assists in the recruitment of women and young girls into prostitution (Shared Hope International 2007).
Patriarchal Society: The Acceptance of the Objectification of Women
As long as society has existed, there have been patriarchal underpinnings and attitudes that pervade it (Barton 2012; Richards 2013; Smuts 1995). After all, women used to be expected to be a housewife by trade and stay home to tend to the children without any individual autonomy. While it is true that American society as a whole has progressed toward self-determination on behalf of women, including but not limited to the right to vote and movements toward equal pay, it is also true that there are many factors within society that still objectify women and cast them as inferior to men.
Americans live in a culture today where women are objectified and dehumanized on a daily basis (George 2012). Restaurants like the Tilted Kilt, Twin Peaks, and Hooters are all prime examples of this. These restaurants draw people in and make money not because of

their food but because of their waitresses, who wear uniforms that leave little to the imagination. People often look down upon the women who work in these restaurants, but the men who keep these restaurants in business are given a get-out-of-jail-free card. As well as this, commercials and the mass media are partly responsible for the continuing objectification of women. Advertisements often depict women in submissive positions that are designed specifically to send the message of male superiority and domination (George 2012). These tactics must work, because otherwise companies would not continue to utilize them. Perhaps the most troubling aspect of the commercial dehumanization of women is that models in sexually suggestive advertisements have started to look younger and younger. This may partially help to explain the demand for children in human trafficking, specifically accounting for the acceptability of young girls being viewed as sexual objects.
The general environment in society today in which women are commodities and sex sells is essential when trying to understand demand for human trafficking in the United States. Because men view women as a commodity that is available for purchase, it is only reasonable for them to believe that they can exercise temporary control over their purchased commodity essentially they believe that violence against prostitutes is acceptable and permissible, because they have the right to do what they want with the commodity they paid for (Samarasinghe 2009). In this way, the common attitudes that exist

otherwise inconspicuous men, often who have wives, seeking sexual gratification without responsibility. Certainly there are men from all walks of life who make up the demand for human trafficking in the United States, but overwhelmingly the trend leans toward the white middle-aged men. Studies have also shown that there are many more reasons as to why a man might purchase sex other than the aforementioned lack of responsibility. These reasons include cheap and easily available sexual services, the fulfillment of sexual needs, male bonding and socializing, the nature of social relationships, and the role of peer pressure involved in pressuring men to prove their masculinity (Roe-Sepowitz 2012). In other words, many of the men who demand commercial sex are seeking to establish their own masculinity and fit in with their group of friends. It is easy to see that the link behind this group mentality in men stems from the patriarchal environment with which they have grown up in. Factors behind demand seem to be in a vicious cycle, with each factor perpetuating the next.
The Demand for Children
As if the demand for human trafficking wasnt bad enough, there is, of course, the lowest of the low: the demand for children in commercial sexual exploitation. In fact, evidence suggests that children under the age of eighteen now make up the largest group of trafficking victims in the United States (Shared Hope International 2007). Of course this is only an estimation, due to the lack of reliable statistics surrounding the issue of human trafficking, but the data that is available suggests that the demand for children is becoming an ever-increasing issue. But why? The role of pornography in the demand for children is a scary one. It is almost conclusively proven that child pornography is partially responsible for the rise of sexually exploited and trafficked children (Dillon 2008). Just as men learn to

use women by viewing pornography, they also learn to use children by viewing child pornography. They may also believe that viewing children as sexual objects is normal due to the abundance of pornographic material available that depicts children essentially rationalizing that they are in fact part of a community rather than a lone outlier. Although the possession and production of child pornography is illegal, it is difficult to keep up with. Effective policing is almost impossible due to the transjurisdictional nature of the Internet (McCabe 2008). The impossibility for effective policing provides the "absence of a capable guardian requirement of Cohen and Felsons Routine Activities Theory. Although law enforcement does not condone child pornography, it is absent in the sense that it cannot successfully control the issue. The abundance of child pornographic material that is available certainly can help explain the demand for child prostitutes. The average age of entry into prostitution is 11 to 14 (Roe-Sepowitz 2012). This can partially be attributed to the malleability of childrens minds, but also to the culture surrounding child pornography and the normalization of using children as sexual objects. Part of the problem also lies in the weak wills of Johns. A study conducted in the United States found that even though the men in the study werent specifically seeking out children, about half of them said theyd be willing to pay for sex with a young girl even if they knew she was adolescent (Schapiro Group 2010). The demand for children as sexual objects can partially be attributed to the greater culture of American society and partially be attributed to the opportunity of circumstance; either way, the demand for children is crippling and problematic.
Demand Reduction: Why It's Important In the United States, prostitution is currently illegal in 49 out of the 50 states as well as in all four territories. But how many women are we really helping with these laws?

Instead of assisting them and helping them to safety, we criminalize the victims of human trafficking. In no other instance does the United States criminalize the victim more harshly than the perpetrator. Why should human trafficking victims be subject to this kind of treatment? There is absolutely nothing to be gained from prosecuting victims other than the money the criminal justice system receives in fees from them. There is no attempt to fix the problem once a victim has been apprehended often they are warned to quit prostituting and thats the end of the matter. Re-victimization occurs and is perpetrated through our own criminal justice system when women who have been trafficked into prostitution are treated as lowly criminals. The truth of the matter is that victims of human trafficking in theory are often very different from victims of human trafficking in real life. The public perceives young girls, abducted from dark streets and forced into sex slavery. This does occur, but not with the frequency that the American public has come to believe. The fact is that the majority of sex trafficking victims are forced into prostitution, a sector of life that is criminalized and looked down upon by society. Once trafficking victims are forced to become prostitutes, the public views them as hookers with a choice rather than victims with no voice. Decriminalizing the victim and instead focusing on criminalizing the demand is an important step towards attempting to bandage the gaping wound that is human trafficking. Specifically, decriminalizing victims means that women would not have to fear arrest if they seek assistance from law enforcement, and they would likely be more willing to testify against their pimps/traffickers when the case is brought to court (Hughes 1999). This would be monumental and instrumental in decreasing the issue of human trafficking in the United States, because if pimps, traffickers, and Johns feared criminal

prosecution and their victims did not have to worry about being punished for their victimization, the system would be able to prosecute the issue much more effectively. Current Demand Reduction Strategies in the United States
Though they are largely failing, the United States does have some programs and campaigns aimed at reducing demand for human trafficking. Unfortunately these attempts at reducing demand appear to be somewhat half-hearted due to the fact that law enforcement is not actually changing their strategy when it comes to victims of sex trafficking. Demand reduction strategies that are currently in place include educational programs called "John Schools aimed at the buyers of commercial sex, naming and shaming campaigns aimed at alerting the public and stigmatizing purchasers of commercial sex, and media campaigns aimed at educating the public. While these programs are certainly a good start, they do not address the bigger issues of demand such as factors that influence it, nor do they address the need for a change in law enforcement policies.
John Schools are a one-day program often run by volunteers and city officials for men who have attempted to purchase commercial sex from a prostitute (Chen 2009). They are the result of a growing belief that buyers should be educated instead of giving them a slap on the wrist and criminalizing the prostitutes. At the very least, these programs are a decent demonstration of the fact that public attitudes towards purchasing commercial sex are changing. However, the fact that these programs only last for one day seems to eliminate the possibility that Johns will learn their lesson. It is estimated that there are about fifty communities across the United States utilizing John Schools in hopes of getting through to the Johns that prostitution is not a victimless crime (Chen 2009). This is certainly a step in the right direction, but many Johns attend unwillingly and do not have a

wish to learn about how they are contributing to the exploitation of women. Perhaps if these John Schools were month-long programs instead of day-long programs, some of the important attitude-changing information would get through to the demand side of commercial sex. Until then, John Schools will remain a side avenue for unwilling perpetrators to attend so they can get their charges dismissed.
A second demand reduction strategy currently in place in the United States is the naming and shaming campaign. This is based on the idea that offenders should be made to feel guilt and remorse for their actions in an attempt to increase consciousness (Kohm 2009). In regards to naming and shaming buyers of commercial sex, the naming and shaming campaign takes the form This is a website dedicated entirely to naming and shaming purchasers of commercial sex. It includes news articles, photos, and video clips of men from all over the nation in hopes of publicly shaming them as a form of stigmatization. Although this website has the potential to reduce demand, it is not very well known amongst average Americans and many do not even know it exists. Although the idea of naming and shaming Johns seems like it may work in theory, it will not be successful until the general public is made aware of this websites existence.
There are several media campaigns that exist in the United States with the goal of educating the general public and, by doing so hoping to reduce demand. Several of these programs include, but are not limited to, the Not For Sale campaign, the Blue Campaign a movement by the Department of Homeland Security, and the End Child Trafficking campaign by UNICEF. Each of these campaigns is designed to educate the public about the issue of human trafficking domestically. While media campaigns are certainly beneficial in attempting to spread the word about domestic human trafficking, they do not really do

much to address the specific factors of demand that influence human trafficking. However, it should be noted that they cannot necessarily be expected to do so, since addressing demand factors is more the job of law enforcement that awareness campaigns.
Suggested Demand Reduction Strategies and Policies
There are several ways in which the United States could attempt to reduce the demand for human trafficking within its own borders. As it stands today, the United States favors abolitionist policy, but does not enforce it properly. More money needs to be allocated to federal, state, and local law enforcement agencies for the better enforcement of abolitionist policy. Pornography should be included under this policy total elimination may not be feasible, but with the cooperation of internet service providers, the sheer amount of pornography could be decreased, thus making it more difficult to obtain than it is currently. Ultimately, the United States should eliminate all laws and policies criminalizing prostitutes and instead increase sanctions and laws regarding the purchasers of commercial sex, essentially replicating the Swedish model of prostitution law.
Better funding for federal, state, and local law enforcement agencies is needed to properly enforce existing abolitionist policy regarding human trafficking. In theory, the United States laws are on the abolitionist side of the spectrum, but in practice they are not quite there. Other crimes receive more attention by law enforcement because offenses like property crimes and traffic violations are seen as bigger priorities in communities that may not necessarily be aware of the immensity of the human trafficking problem. If the United States were to actually practice its abolitionist stance, there are several components that would be necessary to effectively enforce existing laws. Primarily, more tax dollars should go to prosecution and to allow for high areas of prostitution to be investigated. As it stands

today, police forces do not have the funding to give the proper attention to instances of prostitution. With more funds would come increased prosecution for pimps and johns, which is also necessary to diminishing demand. Along with the increased prosecution for pimps and johns, victims of trafficking should no longer be prosecuted in any capacity. If law enforcement finds them, they should be required to take them to the hospital that can then refer them to an agency that can help them rather than criminalize them. As well as the increase of funds, education would need to be provided to health care providers on victim recognition, which would work in conjunction with the better investigation of trafficking victims by police forces. Ultimately, prostitution should be added into existing anti-trafficking legislation to eliminate the misconception that prostitution is not a common form of trafficking. If the United States was to put into place all of these components, commercial sex and prostitution would ideally no longer be viewed through the lens of choice, and pimps would be viewed as exploitative and criminal rather than glorified heroes.
The attempted elimination of pornography is essential to reducing the demand for human trafficking in the United States. The harm that comes from pornography does not justify the allowance of it under the guise of free speech. Creating abolitionist pornography laws is not extreme when the consequences of pornography are taken into account. Allowing torturous acts to take place that dismantle the human spirit and teach men how to objectify women from adolescence onward is a practice that must not be allowed to continue. Free speech is not an excuse for an act that consistently and systematically brutalizes human beings and proliferates the attitude that women are objects that exist for the sole purpose of satisfying mens needs and desires. Eliminating pornography and not

allowing boys and adolescents to grow up with the mindset that women are inferior is absolutely essential to decreasing the demand for human trafficking in the United States.
The most important aspect of reducing demand for human trafficking in the United States is completely eliminating the criminalization of the victim and instead increasing sanctions and sentences against the Johns. The best way for the United States to go about this would be to follow the Swedish model of prostitution law. This law, which was enacted in January of 1999, "criminalizes only those who buy prostituted persons, not those being bought, and enforces the law with fines or punishment of a prison sentence for up to one year (Waltman 2011). After the enactment of this law, prostitution almost disappeared completely, and is less of a problem than ever before (Waltman 2011). It is entirely possible that threat of up to a year in prison for purchasing commercial sex is responsible for this decrease in prostitution in Sweden. Whatever the reason, the fact is that prostitution has gown down in Sweden ever since they enacted a law specifically penalizing and criminalizing the purchasers of commercial sex rather than the victims. If the United States were to enact, and more importantly enforce, similar legislation to that found in Sweden, there would be nowhere to go but up. In other words, the prostitution problem would become no worse from the enactment of such legislation, so why not at least attempt it?
Data: Limitations
This paper mainly relied on qualitative analysis rather than quantitative analysis. The main reason for this is because it is incredibly difficult to obtain statistics and numbers when dealing with human trafficking. Because human trafficking deals with hidden populations, obtaining accurate statistics is next to impossible. While it is certainly true

that organizations such as the International Labor Organization have attempted to explain the size of the human trafficking issue, it is also true that any estimate made is an extremely low representation of the actual number. Because of the ambiguity of available statistics and the nature of demand, this paper mainly utilized analysis, specifically secondary data analysis. While it is certainly true that data surrounding human trafficking cases in the United States is present in places such as the Bureau of Justice Statistics, it is also true that those numbers and statistics do not necessarily address the subject of demand; rather, they focus on the criminal offenders of known trafficking cases in the United States.
Drawing Conclusions: The Demand for Human Trafficking in the United States Will Not Decrease Without Societal Changes The problem of human trafficking in the United States continues to persist, despite efforts aimed at eliminating it. These efforts to understand and eradicate domestic human trafficking have been unsuccessful largely because they fail to address the demand side of the issue, which continually perpetuates human trafficking. Instead of criminalizing prostitutes and failing to recognize them as victims of human trafficking, the United States must enact and enforce legislation that will reverse the current way that the issue is viewed. However, without cultural and societal changes, it is unlikely that such legislation will pass through into enactment.
Explanations offered by scholars in an attempt to explain the persistence of domestic human trafficking in the United States are various. They include the absence of a universal definition of human trafficking, the misconception of the term "slavery when used to describe human trafficking, the difficulty of prosecuting traffickers, the lucrative nature of trafficking in persons, and insufficient policies. While all of these explanations are

valid and necessary to understand the persistence of human trafficking in the United States, they fail to explain the demand side of the issue and how cultural and societal norms perpetuate the demand for human trafficking in America.
To better explain why human trafficking continues to be a problem in the United States, I focused on demand factors and the role that they play in perpetuating human trafficking. I sought to connect the issue of domestic human trafficking to the broader underpinnings that allow it to continue: media bombardment of all age groups with explicit sexual imagery and the normalization of sexism and objectification, pornography, prostitution and pimp culture, the patriarchal society in the United States which condones the objectification and dehumanization of women, and the demand for children. The research has shown that the attitudes commonly present in the United States toward the overt sexualization and dehumanization of women in all categories, including but not limited to pornography and prostitution, lead to men growing up in environments where sexism and the objectification of women are normal and even rationalized with the old adage "boys will be boys. Constantly being surrounded by a society that dehumanizes women and debases them to outlets of mens sexual energy and frustration explains the demand for human trafficking in the United States.
While the findings of this research are prominent, there are some potential issues that could be examined and clarified with further research. The main issue in this paper is that it focuses entirely on the demand for sex trafficking in the United States, and fails to discuss the demand for labor trafficking, which is also a large domestic issue. This could potentially be problematic because even if the United States took all the necessary steps toward eradicating human trafficking that are suggested in this paper, the issue of labor

trafficking would still exist unaddressed. If this paper were to continue, the next research step would be identifying the demand factors behind labor trafficking in the United States. Next, it would be relevant to suggest demand reduction strategies specific to the demand factors surrounding labor trafficking.
For scholars, this research finding suggests that even if the United States were to implement all suggested methods of demand reduction legislation, the broader social and cultural attitudes towards women must be addressed to gain any real headway in the antitrafficking movement. Until men are brought up in an environment that demonstrate the equality and humanity of women rather than the inequality and objectification of women, the effective implementation of demand reduction strategies will remain out of reach.

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Full Text


Human Trafficking in the United States: Analyzing Demand and Demand Reduction Strategies by Kayleen Campbell An undergraduate thesis submitted in partial completion of the M etropolitan State University of D enver Honors Program May 2014 Dr. Nicholas Recker Dr. Jeffrey London Dr. Megan Hughes Zarzo Primary Advisor Second Reader Honors Program Director


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