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Another road home? A critical analysis of Denver's 10 years to end homelessness

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Another road home? A critical analysis of Denver's 10 years to end homelessness
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Banks, Austin
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Metropolitan State University of Denver
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Another Road Home?
A Critical Analysis of Denvers 10 Years to End Homelessness
by Austin Banks
An undergraduate thesis submitted in partial completion of the Metropolitan State University of Denver Honors Program
May 2015
Dr. Jan Perry Evenstad
Dr. Andrew Thangasamy
Dr. Megan Hughes-Zarzo
Primary Advisor
Second Reader
Honors Program Director


Running head: ANOTHER ROAD HOME:
A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF DENVERS 10 YEARS TO END HOMELESSNESS
1
Another Road Home?
A Critical Analysis of Denvers 10 Years to End Homelessness A Thesis Presented to
Dr. Amy Eckert, Dr. Andrew Thangasamy, Dr. Jan Perry-Evenstad
Metropolitan State University of Denver
Submitted by Austin Banks May 15th, 2015


ANOTHER ROAD HOME: Banks 2
A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF DENVERS 10 YEARS TO END HOMELESSNESS
Table of Contents
Chapter 1: Framing the Problem...................................................5
Why does Homelessness Occur....................................................5
Who Does it Impact.............................................................7
Individuals Experiencing Homelessness....................................7
Public..................................................................10
Businesses, Venues and Residents........................................10
Advocates and Providers.................................................12
What Does Each Group Desire...................................................12
Individuals Experiencing Homelessness...................................13
Public..................................................................15
Businesses, Venues and Residents........................................17
Advocates and Providers.................................................17
Closing.......................................................................18
Chapter 2: Establishing the Criteria............................................20
Fulfillment of Needs..........................................................23
Buy In........................................................................24
Feasibility...................................................................25
Security of Funding...........................................................28
Timeliness....................................................................28
Closing.......................................................................29
Chapter 3: Forming the Baseline.................................................30
Denvers Road Home............................................................30
Criteria Ranking........................................................32
Denvers Road Home Summary..............................................34
The Unauthorized Camping Ordinance Urban Camping Ban........................34
Criteria Ranking........................................................36
Unauthorized Camping Ordinance Summary..................................37
Colorado Homeless Bill of Rights/Right to Rest Act of 2015....................38
Criteria Ranking........................................................39
Homeless Bill of Rights Summary.........................................40
The Ballpark Proposal.........................................................41


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Criteria Ranking.....................................................43
Ballpark Summary.....................................................45
Current Programs Summary...................................................46
Chapter 4: Advancing the Goal................................................48
Option A: The Status Quo...................................................48
Projections..........................................................49
Criteria Ranking.....................................................51
Option B: The Utah Solution................................................52
Criteria Ranking.....................................................52
Utah Solution Summary................................................54
Suggestions for a Stronger Denver..........................................54
Closing Remarks..............................................................55
Appendix A: Criteria Models..................................................56
Appendix B: Denvers Road Home Funding Documents.............................57
Appendix C: Legal Resources..................................................59
Appendix D: Transcript from an Interview With Therese Howard Community Coordinator for Denver Homeless Out Loud.....................................60
Works Cited..................................................................62


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ABSTRACT
This paper proposes the question, what can be done regarding Homelessness in the City and County of Denver. This paper establishes the stakeholders within the homeless conversation and the needs of each stakeholder. This paper also establishes the criteria upon which a program will be judged. Through an analysis of current programs within the City and County of Denver, and programs within the continental United States, this paper utilizes the criteria to establish the strongest programs, and finally make suggestions to improve the Denvers Road Home project, and the discourse on homelessness within the City and County of Denver.
This paper utilizes program reports, legal documents, legislation and public opinion documents in the form of newspapers and business articles to create a rounded discussion on the scope of the conversation on homelessness.


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Chapter 1: Framing the Problem
Why does Homelessness Occur
Homelessness is a systemic, socioeconomic issue, created through a number of causes. The causes of homelessness are as varied and complex as the individuals that experience homelessness. That said, there are a few trends that unite the groups that fall within the homeless umbrella. These trends can be described best through the sub groups within homelessness, those without a home due to mental health or substance abuse issues, youth without a home, those without a home long term, and veterans without a home.
Our society touts success, promoting such values as, timeliness, productivity, lucidity, and rationality as avenues to success. For those who have a mental illness maintaining these values can be a barrier both to relationships and to maintaining a job. Often when a person experiences homelessness, it is because both of these factors fell through. Unable to provide for themselves due to a lack of job, there are a variety of options available, people can move back in with their parents, stay with a friend, or find assistance from a variety of sources to pay rent. Unfortunately if these options are not available people often find themselves without a place to stay, and find themselves on the streets. A number of mental illnesses create barriers to timeliness, productivity, lucidity, and rationality.
Youth without a home are often on the streets due to issues at home. For the most part they have either been kicked out of the house, or have left the home due to an abusive or neglectful situation. This is especially true for Lesbian Gay Bisexual Trans* and Queer/Questioning youth (LGBTQ). According to the National Coalition for the Homeless in 2014, 40% of the homeless youth served by agencies identify as LGBTQ (National Coalition for the Homeless, 2014).


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Another main cause of homelessness, is not having a permanent residence or home. Individuals without a home are vulnerable to a number of problems that a home with all the trappings of a bed, bath, entertainment, and a refrigerator, stove, or microwave provides insulation from.
A bed allows people to be well rested. A bath or shower allows people to maintain cleanliness and hygiene which are important to finding and keeping a job, as well as being in good health. Entertainment, in the form of books or television allows for mental stimulation. Food stamps, which many people in poverty depend upon for sustenance and food assistance disallows purchases for prepared meals, candy, snacks, and anything intended for in house consumption, for the most part this only makes available food that requires a refrigerator to store and to avoid spoilage, or a stove or microwave to heat up to an edible temperature.
Individuals without a home, are usually precluded from resting without the paranoia of being robbed or cited for illegal resting, as well as from basic hygiene and suitable food choices. The lack of mental stimulation created by rare and unsatisfactory entertainment, as well as the stress created by the lack of access to basic human needs is one of the main factors behind the correlation between homelessness and substance abuse. In a landmark study on addiction, it was shown that lab rats were more likely to recover from a drug addiction if they had a supportive, stimulating environment. (Alexander, 1980). This study, colloquially known as the Rat Park Study shows a valuable lesson about homelessness, individuals without a home often lack a supportive and stimulating environment, and are therefore at stronger risk of getting involved or maintaining involvement with drugs and alcohol.
Rising costs of housing is another large contributor to Homelessness, especially in a city like Denver which is experiencing an urban boom. Individuals who are priced out of their home


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A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF DENVERS 10 YEARS TO END HOMELESSNESS
often saturate the rental market, driving rental prices up, which leads to individuals unable to
afford rent finding themselves without a home, or at risk of becoming without a home.
While these trends are all very important in the overall understanding of why people experience homelessness, it is imperative to remember that these are merely trends and do not represent the entirety, or indeed, a large subsection of the homeless community. It is important to meet each individual without a home on the same level, and determine what factors brought them to homelessness or the risk of homelessness.
Who Does it Impact
There are a large number of stakeholders in the issue of homelessness. The issue affects not just those without a home, but also the cities where they spend their time, and the businesses and residents with houses or apartments in the area. In the City of Denver for example, the 16th Street mall, a major tourist destination, is also one of the largest locations impacted by homelessness.
Four communities have a stake in homelessness in Denver, the individuals without a home, the City of Denver, Business and Permanent Residents in Denver, and Advocates for Homelessness. Each of these groups have needs that must be addressed before housing and homelessness can be effectively addressed to the maximum benefit of all.
Individuals Experiencing Homelessness
Chronic Homelessness is defined by the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development as an individual or family with a disabling condition who has been continuously homeless for a year or more or has had at least four episodes of homelessness in the past three years (HUD, 2015). This community is generally the first community thought of when one calls to mind homelessness. Having lived on the streets or in shelters for a longer period than other


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individuals experiencing homelessness, these individuals experience a wider range of debilitating circumstances and are often in need of broader and more targeted services. Individuals who have been homeless for a long period are more likely than other members of the homeless community to experience extreme mental distress and are more likely to use substances.
In Denver, this community was first identified and targeted through work done by the Commission for Crime Control and Prevention. This commission undertook a study in 2013 to determine the top criminal charges in the City and County. Their focus was on the top 100 individuals who had the most charges. It was speculated that these individuals were mainly charged with multiple traffic offenses, it was however determined that these individuals were instead receiving charges for offenses such as trespassing, sleeping in public spaces, panhandling, and minor aggressive offenses. Further profiling of these top 100 offenders showed that they were significantly more likely to have multiple emergency room visits or jail stays in a month. Trends held true for the top 150 offenders, as well as a significant portion of the top 200 offenders in the City and County of Denver. (City and County of Denver, 2015)
Veterans without a home have decreased since 2010, as have the number of unsheltered veterans. In 2014 there was a national estimate of 58,000 veterans without a home, 35,000 veterans in a shelter and
KNOW THE FACTS
According to Point in Time data collected by the Metro Denver Homeless Initiative on Monday, January 28, 2013:
. 4,904 men, women and children were experiencing homelessness in Denver
. 34% of respondents were female
.15% were veterans
. 23% were working
.718 individuals were chronically homeless
* The most commonly reported reasons for homelessness are loss of a job, high housing costs and the breakup of a family
*Chronic Homlessness is defined as long-term or repeated
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ANOTHER ROAD HOME: Banks 9
A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF DENVERS 10 YEARS TO END HOMELESSNESS
23,000 without shelter. According to the Metro Denver Homeless Initiative (MDHI) In the Metro
Denver Area there were 437 homeless veterans, 86 of whom lacked shelter. (MDHI, 2015). The Department of Veterans affairs has made it their goal to end veteran homeless by 2016. It is usually thought that Veterans gain a higher priority in terms of gaining housing or job support, however, according to the National Coalition for Homeless Veterans (NCHV), this may not always be the case, they argue that military occupations and training are not always transferable to the civilian workforce, placing some veterans at a disadvantage when competing for employment. (NCHV, 2015).
National trends have shown an increase in families experiencing homelessness since 2009, (MDHI, 2015). This causes children to live without a home, and places additional stress upon the parents, who now, are not only concerned with their own health and safety, but must also contend with the health and safety of their children. Children without a home are at an extreme disadvantage educationally which causes additional difficulty to securing employment or towards escaping homelessness. National data shows that homeless children, are more likely to be enrolled in special education classes than non-homeless children and miss at least one month of school a year. Additionally one fifth of homeless children will repeat a grade, 12 percent are not enrolled in school, or do not attend school regularly, and that 41 percent of homeless children will attend two different schools within a school year. (MDHI, 2015). Education is a major barrier to success, with more employers looking for bachelors degrees on top of finishing high school, and with less universities accepting a GED, absences or the lack of focus caused by being without a home can be very detrimental to students. Additionally, poor social skills that develop as a result of being without a home at that young an aged.


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Public
While the scope of this paper is the issue of homelessness in Denver, it is important to note that the City does not exist in a vacuum, and that any measure enacted by Denver will have an impact on the Metropolitan region and the State of Colorado as a whole. Data for this region is derived from the most recent Point in time Survey, conducted by the Metropolitan Denver Homeless Initiative.
Businesses, Venues and Residents
Denvers public engagement is based on a unique model of Registered Neighborhood Organizations, (RNO) which allow residents within Denver to get involved in City affairs through a localized channel, and the Business Improvement Districts, which allow businesses to impose a tax upon themselves to create organizations that address safety, retail, and business needs within the area they operate.
The Ballpark Neighborhood Association, bounded in the Northwest by the South Platte River, the Northeast by 30th St, The South by Broadway Boulevard and 18th Street, and the South west by 15th Street and Wynkoop Street (CPD 2015), represents residents that live around Union station and Coors Field. Recently in an attempt to curb the negative impacts of homelessness in their region. Two of their main initiatives have been to address panhandling around Coors Field and in the region, as well as manage human waste and public urination.
The Capitol Hill United Neighbors Incorporated, encompasses a number of RNOs in and around Capitol Hill (Cap Hill), its boundaries encompass residents from 1st Ave to 22nd Ave, and Broadway to Colorado (CPD 2015). While this group has not currently led on any initiatives contending with homelessness, the organization has been active on many issues throughout


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Denver. As Capitol Hill is one of the neighborhoods in Denver most affected by homelessness
they are active in the Public restroom process and in the Denvers Road Home revisions.
Visit Denver encompasses all of Denver with the goal of attracting tourism and residents. They promote the Denver Art Museum, Denver Museum of Nature and Science, Denver Zoo, and other local attractions. Individuals experiencing homelessness, are often perceived as unsafe to be around, which acts as a deterrent to tourism.
The Downtown Denver Business Improvement District, a Subsidiary of the Downtown Denver Partnership (DDP) is for the most part focused on the 16th Street Mall, and operates as a smaller version of Visit Denver
The Lower Downtown District (LoDo) is the LoDo equivalent of DDP. Operating in and around Union station, this area has undergone massive transformations in the last couple of years. An extensive amount of money has been poured into the region to develop it from a largely boarded up and blighted area to a rich area of historic value (Urban Land, 2012). The success of this areas transformation is largely due to Historic Denver, a district dedicated to preserving and protecting the historic value of areas within Denver, the revenue generated by distinguishing areas such as Union Station, locations on Blake Street, and the Acme Lofts as Historically significant produced enough revenue to attract new businesses, and redevelop largely abandoned or derelict areas within LoDo. The LoDo District seeks to protect and preserve the historic value of the area, as well as preserve the interests of the businesses attracted to and operating within the area.
Five points is an area with rich historical value, while not blighted as was the case in Lower Downtown, this area has gone through many of its own historical transformations. Since the turn of the century, the African American community has centered on Five Points (Five Points


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Business District, 2015) The home of Denvers first African-American Mayor, Wellington Webb,
this area has known a rich history. Today, Five Points is an emerging multi-cultural entertainment and business district rooted in African-American history and looking to become a destination for arts, culture and entertainment. (Five Points Business District, 2015) However, the years after the suburban migration in the mid 20th century left its marks, this area is currently deeply poor, and meets the criteria for a Food Desert set by the USD A, qualifying as a Low-Income Community, with a poverty rate of 20% or lower, and as a Low-Access Community with supermarkets or large grocery stores more than a mile from census tracts within the area (USDA, 2015).
- Advocates and Providers
There are many organizations that support the rights of individuals experiencing homelessness, however for brevitys sake the organizations that are most important to the scope of this paper include advocacy organizations that propose legislation in the city or the state, and service providers operating within or operated by the City and County of Denver.
Western Region Advocacy Project is currently involved in an initiative across the West to pass Homeless Bill of Rights in each state. They are currently involved in a bill through the Colorado General Assembly known as the Right to Rest Act.
What Does Each Group Desire
Each group impacted by homelessness has a set of needs that must be met in order to maximize the impact of any program designed to solve homelessness. There are also a set of desires that need to be addressed and balanced in order to leave everyone at the table satisfied
and find a viable solution.


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Individuals Experiencing Homelessness
For the individuals experiencing homelessness, there are more needs than desires. Individuals without a home, at first value need homes, however, they also need respect and support in the multitude of needs.
Housing seems like the most logical place to start to end homelessness, however there are a few barriers that need to be addressed in order to maximize the potential of discovering and securing housing for this vulnerable population. Secure and Affordable housing is the type needed in order to assure housing is efficient.
Secure housing is safe housing. Denvers motel voucher system has not always borne fruit because it has not always been a safe option. The motels that will accept individuals without a home are often in areas with a prevalent crime network. For those individuals without a home that may also experience addiction there is the added vulnerability that these motels tend to be in areas with prevalent drug exchanges. Safety and addiction was discussed during an overview of the DRH by the Commission for Crime Control and Prevention. Shelters are also not an ideal location due to insecurities surrounding pick-pocketing and violence.
Housing must also be affordable, it is not enough to find individuals without a home, a place to stay, and then expect them to pay an exorbitant rent. With Denvers housing increase and rent price upscaling it is very common for people to pay upwards of 1000$ a month in rent. For individuals without a home, who often have other expenses, this is far too much to pay.
One of the other problems that individuals without a home run into is that they are not respected as individuals. This can be seen in the housing and the job front where motels or other housing solutions are wary of housing individuals without a home due to concerns about their


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stability or safety, and is also a concern of employers who understandably need someone
working for them who is clean, on-time, and does not drive away business.
Therefore it is also necessary for individuals without a home to be seen as human. Coming out of homelessness requires the self-esteem and a personal pride in ones identity. Without a frame of reference it can be easy to lose oneself within the turmoil and apathy surrounding homelessness.
Coming out of homelessness requires a wide network of support. Individuals without a home need support achieving and sustaining good mental health, in securing a job, in healthcare, and in finding food.
Though not all individuals without a home are without a home due to mental health concerns, there is still an overwhelming need for mental health support for those experiencing and coming out of homelessness. Living without a home is a stressful occurrence and can result in Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), according to the National Alliance to End Homelessness;
Homelessness as a traumatic experience can lead to PTSD in a number of ways.
First, the actual event of becoming homeless can lead to trauma through the loss of (a) stable shelter; and (b) family connections and accustomed social roles and routines. Second, the ongoing condition of homelessness and its attendant stressors, such as the uncertainty of where to find food and safe shelter, can erode a persons coping mechanisms. Third, homelessness might serve as a breaking point for those who have pre-existing behavioral health conditions or a history of traumatization. According to one study, a literature review found consistent and well-documented evidence of high levels of multiple forms of traumatic stress within individuals and families who are homeless. The presence of stress is to be expected in these populations. That it rises to the level of trauma might come as a surprise, but researchers have documented that the rates of traumatic stress are extremely high, and may even be normative, among those experiencing homelessness. This reality is about more than the absence of physical shelter, it is a stress-filled, dehumanizing, dangerous circumstance. (NAEH, 2015)


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Equally important is securing a job that pays enough to afford rent and additional expenses. According to the Consumer Protection Index housing costs rose by 4.9 percent in 2013, and 5.1 percent in 2014 food prices rose in the Denver-Boulder-Greeley area by 3.3 percent, and energy costs rose by 3.2 percent. (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2015). With housing prices soaring, and food and energy following close behind, cost effective employment is above 15$ an hour or 30,000 a year.
Public
The city has its own needs and desires, Denver seeks to provide a safe city for all citizens, Denver also needs to encourage Tourism and increase sales and property tax revenue in order to support infrastructure and job acquisition within the city.
Safety is the most cited reason for ordinances such as the Denver Unauthorized Camping Ordinance, colloquially known as the Urban Camping Ban. Safety is followed by Quality of Life as the most often touted rationale for these and other measures. These concerns, which homeless advocates decry as limiting or marginalizing are nonetheless rooted in genuine needs. For example, the 16th Street Mall, the most popular tourist destination in the City is also the place in Denver where the most crime occurs. While theft is the most common crime on the mall, 383 of the upwards of 1,600 arrests made on the mall, other crimes include drug and alcohol violations, with a combined total of 338 arrests, were the fourth most common violation on the mall (Hamm, 2015). While it cannot be argued that these crimes are committed entirely by individuals without a home, nor does The Denver Post compile data on the housing status of individuals cited or arrested, crimes such as these hurt both safety and tourism in the area.
Interestingly, Denver also employs area bans to prevent individuals from being in certain spaces at any point. These bans have been employed to ban prostitutes along East Colfax


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A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF DENVERS 10 YEARS TO END HOMELESSNESS
Avenue and heroin addicts from the Cherry Creek Trail [and banish] repeat offenders from
downtown, (Brown, 2015). These bans also symbolize the split between safety and marginalization, with Denver arguing that these bans help decrease the revolving door between jails and the 16th Street Mall. Advocates argue that these measures target the homeless and unprivileged disproportionately.
Denver is a tourist city in 2014 and 2013 were both record breaking years. In the fall of 2014 Denver hotels had a 78.2% occupancy rate, (Blevins, 2014), and in 2013 Denver received upwards of 4 billion dollars in revenue from more than 14 million tourists (Sealover, 2014).
Sales taxes and property taxes are the other main forms of revenue for the City and County of Denver. Denver sales tax currently sits at roughly 7.5 cents on the dollar for general sales, 8 cents for food, beverage, and liquor sales, and 21.15 cents for retail marijuana. Denver receives 3.5 cents, 4 cents, and 7 cents respectively. (Denver Treasury Division, a, 2015).
Denver receives property tax based on the following formula assessed value of a property Mill levy where assessed value is determined for residential property by taking 7.69 percent of the actual value, and a business property by taking 29%, and a mill levy is 1$ for 1000$ in assessed value (Denver Treasury Division, b, 2015). The Median home value in the Denver Metro Area is 291,500, meaning that Denver receives around 22,416.35$ per house. Data could not be determined for business properties.
Anything that harms these two revenue sources for the City is detrimental to the City as a whole. While these numbers are not concrete, a low perception of safety in the public eye due to homelessness or the presence of individuals experiencing homelessness has a negative impact on businesses which impacts sales tax revenue.


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A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF DENVERS 10 YEARS TO END HOMELESSNESS
Businesses, Venues and Residents
Many of the values held by businesses, sporting venues and residents are the same as those of the city. Businesses and sporting venues depend heavily on the revenue received by sales and tourism, and safety and cleanliness are important factors of ensuring consumers enter the location and make purchases. Residents desire destinations that are safe and clean. In regards to homelessness, these values are all interlocked between each of the sub-types of shareholder.
- Advocates and Providers
Advocacy projects such as the Western Regional Advocacy Project, Bayaud Enterprises, and Denver Homeless Out Loud (DHOL), as well as service providers such as the St. Francis Center, a city run organization, and The Denver Urban Ministries (DenUM) and Denver Rescue Mission, a faith based organization, desire to ensure the human decency, safety, and the quality of life for individuals who are experiencing homelessness. A common phrase within DHOL is the question Quality of WHOSE life? in reference to the quality of life laws passed through Denver and other cities which DHOL argues are detrimental to the quality of life of those without a home.
Human Decency is the ability for individuals without a home to maintain a life where they are able to exist in public space or obtain basic needs such as housing, employment, and equal protection under the law (Denver Homeless Out Loud, 2015). Harassment due to the Unauthorized Camping Ordinance (UCO) and in general is often cited by DHOL as a major concern for individuals without a home in Denver.
Individuals without a home also need to be safe, the streets are not a safe place to live, exposed to weather, unfortunately this year already 6 individuals without a home have died in Denver due to hypothermia, living on the street also exposes individuals to crime. According to a


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A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF DENVERS 10 YEARS TO END HOMELESSNESS
survey conducted by DHOL in 2013, prior to the UCO the most common reason for sleeping in
along 16th Street Mall or Civic Center Park was that it was safe and well-lit (DHOL & Robinson, 2014, p. 5). Since the passing of the UCO of 2012, 66% of survey respondents stated that they had moved to more hidden or solitary places to sleep (DHOL & Robinson, 2014, p. 5). This move to hidden or solitary spaces, less lit spaces, or spaces removed from the public eye has decreased feelings of safety in individuals without a home. It should also be noted that of those sleeping in public, 37% of survey respondents elected to sleep without a cover in order to circumvent the UCO. (DHOL & Robinson, 2014, p.9). This lack of covering removes a barrier to the elements that is one of the few protections from hypothermia that individuals without a home experience.
According to this survey 53% of respondents say that their feeling of safety has gotten worse, 50% say that their sleep habits have gotten worse, 60% have felt a decrease in their amount of sleep, 62% have decreased access to shelter resources, and 47% have lost access to other resources. (DHOL & Robinson, 2014, p. 9). From this survey, DHOL believes that the quality of life has gone down.
Closing
This chapter addressed the multiple facets of homelessness in the City and County of Denver. By framing the problem of Homelessness as one where Non-profit advocates, public and Non-Government Organizations (NGOs) service providers, and the public and private sector intersect with the individuals facing homelessness the stage is set for the multitude of projects and programs already underway and the curtains are drawn for suggestions.
In this chapter the causes of homelessness were described, and the characters and needs in the story were fleshed out. The needs of the various stakeholders in this issue will become a


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A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF DENVERS 10 YEARS TO END HOMELESSNESS
reoccurring theme as any project or program in operation or to be suggested will be judged first
and foremost on their ability to attend the needs of each group. To summarize, the stakeholders have the following needs.
Individuals Experiencing Homelessness Housing, Respect and Support in the following areas: Mental and Physical Health, Jobs, and Food
City and County of Denver Safety, Tourism, Sales/Property Tax Revenues,
Businesses/Sporting Venues/Residents Safety, Cleanliness, Sales Revenue, Tourism, and Destinations
Advocates and Providers Human Decency, Safety, and Quality of Life
The next chapter will address these needs as a core element of the framework forjudging programs within the City.
Figure 2


ANOTHER ROAD HOME: Banks 20
A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF DENVERS 10 YEARS TO END HOMELESSNESS
Chapter 2: Establishing the Criteria
In Chapter 1 the stakeholders in the question of homelessness were introduced, and their needs defined. In this chapter these needs will be joined by other factors of a strong plan, and it will be determined that the best plans to answer the question of homelessness will be those that meet the needs of each stakeholder, can be brought forward in the political climate of the City and County of Denver and the State of Colorado at this time, solutions that are cost effective, and solutions that are timely.
This chapter will also address the intersections of the stakeholders, viewing them as parts of a connected whole whereas the last chapter saw them as separate pieces. This chapter will establish the scoring framework for the current programs in the City and County of Denver, as well as the proposed programs.


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Fulfillment of Needs
A necessary element of the plans proposed is that they must be negotiable. They must meet the needs of each stakeholder group, meaning that this solution must secure housing for those without housing, must secure respect as an individual, provide access to healthcare, both mental and physical, and must protect individuals against inflation in the housing, food and energy markets. This solution must also secure the desire for safety of the City and Storefronts, without compromising the safety of individuals without a home. This solution must protect the


ANOTHER ROAD HOME: Banks 24
A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF DENVERS 10 YEARS TO END HOMELESSNESS
revenues of businesses and the city, and guard the perceived attractiveness of the city, without
infringing upon the quality of life of individuals without a home.
At first glance many of these need negotiations appear impossible to achieve or navigate, and indeed many of the projects currently in operation have not secured a space in between these stands. However, the success of projects in Utah suggest that there may be a chartable course.
This standard will be broken into categories based upon the number of needs that the program secures.
The percentages of needs met will be established in the following manner. One hundred percent of a need met will mean the full realization of a specific need, meaning that it has been considered and secured for the majority of individuals in the stakeholder group. Twenty-Five to 75 percent of a need met will refer to the partial realization of a specific need. Ten percent will be given to a need that is discussed but has not been realized, and a need will receive zero percent if it cannot be inferred that it is in the focus of a program.
The percentage for each need will then be averaged to determine the overall percentage for that stakeholder group. The overall percentage of needs met will be determined by taking the median of all four stakeholder averages.
Buy In
Equally important to the Fulfillment of Stakeholder Needs, is the Buy-In from Stakeholders. It means little for a project to meet the needs of an organization if these needs are not recognized and accepted by the organization. For example, the Unauthorized Camping Ordinance, which had been framed as a project to address the needs of those without a home long-term has no buy-in from this stakeholder group or from the advocates and providers. This is an issue of outcome and the means in which the program was undertaken.


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A crucial component of buy-in is related to the recognition of met needs, another is the perception of impediment towards more important or closely held goals. For example a program like shelters, which secure a temporary reprieve from the elements impedes upon the safety of those without homes due to the prevalence of crime within these areas, therefore individuals without a home are not likely to buy into shelter programs as readily as they would other programs.
Feasibility
Any program proposed must through the political climate of the City and County of Denver, or the State of Colorado in order to become successful.
In this criterion, scores will be based upon two sub criteria, the ability to become a law, or the ability to be enacted by City agencies. For programs that require a policy element and public enactment the scores will be averaged. For those that only require one element the score will be taken as is. Each sub-criteria will be judged on a ten point scale.
The ability to get through the State House of Representatives, the State Senate, or the City Council will be judged based upon the number of times a bill must be voted upon in order to become a statute or an ordinance, as well as the ability for a bill to receive the signature of the executive for the State or City, at the time of writing this is Governor Hickenlooper or Mayor Hancock respectively. Point structure will vary for the State House or Senate and the City Council due to the difference in number of votes necessary. Points granted based upon the Chambers of the state legislature will only add up to 4.5 due to the need for a bill to pass both houses in order to become a law. Bills will receive points based upon the final action taken upon the bill. A bill killed during the second reading of a bill will receive points where a bill killed in committee would not because the further a bill is able to go gives suggestions on how the bill can


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be re-proposed at a later date with a better success of becoming enacted. For example, a bill that
is not signed by the executive, may require introduction during the administration of another executive, or in the Colorado General Assembly, it may be necessary to propose a bill when both chambers are of one party.
For enactment by city or state agencies points will be assigned based upon the adoption in policy and strategic goals of an agency. Points will also be assigned based upon the infrastructure available for public agencies to come together to achieve the goals of a program.
This criterion is not intended to penalize initiatives that do not require public approval. For example in the instance of a non-profit group securing private funding to establish four hundred extra beds within the confines of the city for the purpose of sheltering individuals without a home. However, on some level the City or the State will be involved in the discussion of the action. This is due either to the need for a policy to be set that addresses or secures the needs of other stakeholders, as is the case for the Homeless Bill of Rights; the infringing upon the needs of the City, as again occurs in the Homeless Bill of Rights as introduced; or in the zoning changes that may be required to fully develop a program, as is the case in the hypothetical provided above. In part or in whole the government must also decide if it will allocate funding to a program, whether traditionally, or in the case of a Social Impact Bond (SIB), if the City and County of Denver decides to enter into a SIB contract.
This criterion also recognizes the changing structure of the political climate. The political climate for each group is subject to change from the writing of this paper, so this section will endeavor to describe the current political climate at the time of writing, as well as make projections for the future climate.


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While the infrastructure in public agencies is not likely to change drastically, changes in the composition of the executive and legislative branches are, and these changes will have impacts on the budget allocation for the various agencies.
In the City and County of Denver, an election for Mayor, Clerk and Recorder, Auditor, and City Council will be completed no later than June of 2015, six members of the council have been term limited and therefore will no longer hold a seat on the council. Denver is largely a Democratic city, however District 2, a largely suburban area near Marston Lake generally votes Republican, Councilwoman Jeanne Faatz, the Current council representative for District 2 is term limited. Other Councilmembers that are term limited include Jeanne Robb and Judy Montero, who are both regular attendees of the Homeless Commission, which oversees the drafting and budgeting of Denvers Road Home. Councilman Albus Brooks, the sponsor for the Unauthorized Camping Ordinance may face a difficult vote due to the candidacy of ardent detractors of the UCO in District 9. Denver has also redistricted, moving the boundaries for district elections from their locations in the past two elections.
At large Councilmembers Robin Kniech and Debbie Ortega, both members of the Homeless Commission, are seeking reelection. Their opponents include Kayvan Khalatbari and Jose Silva. Khalatbari, a major marijuana activist may prove an interesting element due to the alleged link between marijuana and the increase in homelessness in Denver.
In the State of Colorado, elections are held annually in November to determine the composition of the legislature for a term from January to May of the following year. The midterm election saw the Governor reinstated, and saw the Senate go Republican, splitting the chambers from last terms Democrat conjunction. It is uncertain if this trend will be reversed or if the House will also become Republican. However due to the recent failure of the Homeless


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Bill of Rights in the House, there is no knowledge yet if State composition will have a large
impact on what is generally considered a City issue.
Security of Funding
This standard refers either to the current security and projected security of funding for current programs, and the potential security of funding for proposed programs. It will be derived by comparing the funding needed to pull together a proposal versus the funding offered by the joining of non-profit, public, and private entities. As Denver has recently opened a Social Impact Bond program funding security will also be derived by taking into account the ability for a program to secure SIB funding. A Social Impact Bond is a structure that allows private entities to fund innovation in non-profit groups who propose an initiative to solve pressing problems in the City and County of Denver. The City will agree to pay back the investments made towards programs that bear fruit.
For this criterion, elements will be given that create a funding score. Funding score points will be given on the following model.
Timeliness
Timeliness will be judged based upon the ability of a project to arrive within a reasonable time period. In this criterion points will be given and removed based upon the following model.
In this criterion, it is recognized that a good model will take many years to achieve fruition, and that progress cannot be rushed. A timeliness criterion score is not intended to punish programs that take longer, it is proposed in order to establish the urgency of a programs arrival.
A program will be considered as achieving fruition based upon the completion of over 80 percent of the goals established by the program creators.


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Closing
In the upcoming chapters the scoring rubric will be used as a comparison model for programs in the City and County of Denver. Each program will receive a score out of 40 for their overall status as a project. The scores of these programs will then be presented against each other in order to contrast their merits.


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Chapter 3: Forming the Baseline
Denvers Road Home
Set against a backdrop of national policies and municipal agreements, Denvers Road Home (DRH) is an initiative ran by the City and County of Denver, led by Denver Human Services, and the Mayors Commission on Homelessness, this project, marketed as Denvers 10 Year Plan to End Homelessness has been arguably overrepresented. The dialogue from the Citys standpoint is that the program has not failed, it has just not been fully realized. It is important to recognize the inherent truth of this statement, this project has done what none in Denver has, it sparked a dialogue on homelessness within the city and created a framework of the solution that relied upon partners within the City, the Non-Governmental Organizations (NGO) of the city, the foundations and business interests in the city, Mile High United Way, the Homeless Community as a whole, and communities of faith.
Denvers Road Home has also been successful in that every individual who found a home, or received access to services throughout the City is one more individual who would otherwise have been living on the streets.
While the project has ended, it has not been dismantled, Denvers Road Home is undergoing rebranding, reformatting, and restrategizing. This in itself is a victory, because it showcases the commitment to working on the program and towards finding a solution to homelessness within the city.
This project in its most recent inception is based on 8 strategic project outcomes: Housing; the Shelter System; Prevention; Services; Public Safety and Outreach; Education, Employment, and Training; Community Awareness; and Zoning. (Denvers Road Home, 2009,


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For reference, the sub-goal structure for Goal 1: Permanent and Transitional Housing is included here.
1.1 Create 2.080 permanent affordable housing opportunities for homeless individuals. Opportunities should include new construction, expansion of rental subsidies or acquisition and rehabilitation of existing units. Goal Assessment: 1.665 units to date. Yrs HO HUD. 0CD. D0HS. OHA. CHfA, Denver CHDOs, nonprofits, private developers. RID. COOT. SSSS Partially available, cannot be achieved without new revenue
1.2 U) Create 842 permanent supportive housing opportunities for Chronic Homeless. Goal Assessment: Completed 956 units to date. Yrs. HO HUD. 0CD, DDHS. OHA. CHFA. Denver CHDOs, nonprofits. MHCD. private developers. RID. CD0T SSSS Completed
1.2(D) Create 100 'Gateway* transitional housing units for persons to reside in for two months to six months in preparation for living in permanent housing. Goal Assessment: 4) units to date. Recommend capping Gateway units at 40 because of high program cost. Yrs. 1-5 OOHS. private developers, nonprofits SSSS Completed
1.3 Increase the number of transitional housing units with intensive supportive services by 171 units for those classified as episodic Homeless. Goal Assessment: 134 units to date. Yrs. 2-10 HUO, VA.DDHS. 0CD. United Way. transitional housing providers foundations, faith communities. Denver Health SSSS Partially Available cannot be achieved without new revenue
14 Work with Denver Housing Authority to set aside 90 units annually of rental housing (with or without rental assistance) affordable to those homeless with incomes at 0 to 30 percent AMI. Goal Assessment: Ongoing. Yrs. 1-10 HUD. DHA. DDHS. OCD SSSS Available as units/voucher: turn over
1.S Create a program whereby groups (faith communities and others) sponsor a family or individual who is homeless, including housing assistance. Ihese groups will help identify receptive landlords and apartments managers to assist with the program. Goal Assessment: Ongoing. 1,208 families and seniors to date. Yrs. HO DOHS. faith communities, landlords, apartment managers s Available
1.6 The Homeless Commission will sponsor a Housing Ideas Competition to submit architectural and planning concepts for housing people at 0 to 30 percent AMI. Goal Assessment: Completed. Yr.l HUD. DDHS. 0FD. AIA. service providers, faith communities $ Completed
Figure 4 (Denvers Road Home, 2013).
Each structure is framed by the goal and description, the time frame intended for the initiative, the proposed partners, a cost estimate using dollar signs as proportional values, and how much funding had been secured.
Though DRH has closed its first 10 years, data derived from this program will be based upon the values given in 2013. The fifth and final revision of the plan will arrive in June of 2015, too late for the purposes of this paper. Where projections are needed the data will be extrapolated based upon the relationship between the second revision published in 2009, and the fourth revision.


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Criteria Ranking
This project meets the following stakeholder needs. Housing, Respect, Healthcare and Food Support, Safety, Sales/Property Revenues, Cleanliness, Human Decency, Safety, and Quality of Life. However, these programs have not yet achieved full fruition, therefore this program achieves a Category A program for meeting 60% of the stakeholder needs for each group. As this program does not impinge upon the needs of any of the stakeholders, this program receives eight points.
All stakeholders have bought into this program, Denvers Road Home, and the Homeless Commission itself is composed of members of the Homeless Community, the City, Businesses and Residents, and Advocates and Providers. This project receives 10 points for buy-in.
This project was brought into the forefront of Denvers work, during 2009, when Mayor John Hickenlooper held office, as it has already passed through the City Council and appropriate appropriations are continually secured this project receives the full 10 points for the administrative side of the criterion. For the agency side, multiple programs have been mobilized to support this project, Public Works, the St. Francis Center, and Denver Human Services, which houses a number of agencies, including food based, counseling based, and case-work based programs which have all been mobilized by this project, having activated a variety of Denver agencies, this criterion receives 10 points in this category as well. Overall Denvers Road Home receives 10 points for political feasibility.
Security of Funding will be judged based upon the terms set in the DRH plan as of the Fourth Revision, published in 2013. As each sub-goal addresses the amount of money secured the compilation of each secured goal will show the amount of funding secured. It will also show


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which areas of the program had better funding security or worse, which will further inform the
understanding of this program beyond that of the Criteria rank.
Unfortunately due to the data collected by Denvers Road Home, data is pulled together from qualitative and quantitative sources. This disconnect in data, along with a staff change that left the 2011 revision unpublished shows a data set that may have contributed to a lack of funding. Funding Security will be projected from the percentage change from the 2009 and 2013 qualitative data, and the 2011 and 2014 quantitative data, figures for all four years can be found in Appendix B. From 2009 to 2013 the amount of programs funded had a 10 percent increase from 71 percent of programs funded to 79 percent of projects funded; however, from 2011 to 2014 the budget decreased by 17 percent. There are two likely scenarios that could attribute to this data conflict.
A) Spending between 2011 and 2013 got more targeted, or
B) After 2013 the budget saw cuts.
Option B appears the most likely, given that the national discourse surrounding homelessness shifted towards apathy in 2012 and it stands to reason that the extra funding created by the Recovery Act of 2009 had been spent out by 2013.
However, as of 2013 the funded projects had achieved nearly 80 percent of the goal, it is safe to say that in the 2015 revision, Denvers Road Home will have at least 81 percent of projects funded, therefore, Denvers Road Home receives 5 out of the 10 possible points for funding security.
Timeliness, unfortunately this is where the project is less than excellent, as the originally promised time was 10 years which would have placed the project at 6 out of 10 points, however,


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this project loses .3 points due to extending its promised time. The value for 20 years, the current
projection is 4 points, placing the value for timeliness at 3.7. Denvers Road Home Summary
Denver's Road Home
Needs
Timeliness
Funding Security
Before launching into a major discussion on the merits of the Denvers Road Home program or analyzing its shape, it is important to remember that many cities signed onto initiatives targeted towards ending homelessness in 2002 and 2004. Many of these programs, have seen difficulty in creating a program to end homelessness.
With this in mind, the program is strong in fulfilling the needs of the stakeholders, in securing Buy-In and is highly feasible politically, however, it has not shown strong timeliness. Funding security for the program is neither strong nor weak. Overall, this program is very secure and shows long-term stability given the changing political climate of Denver does not change too strongly in the opposite direction.
The Unauthorized Camping Ordinance Urban Camping Ban
This ordinance makes unlawful the following actions, camping upon any private property without the express written consent of the property owner or the owner's agent, and


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only in such locations where camping may be conducted in accordance with any other applicable
city law, and camping upon any public property except in any location where camping has been expressly allowed by the officer or agency having the control, management and supervision of the public property in question (§ 38-86.2 DRMC, §§38-86.2(a)-(b)).
However, this bill has the unfortunate side effect of including language that prohibits shelter from the elements in the form of any tent, tarpaulin, lean-to, sleeping bag, bedroll, blankets, or any form of cover or protection from the elements other than clothing (§ 32-86.2 DRMC, §38-86.2(d)(1)). This definition of shelter excludes the only forms of protection that individuals without a home have, leaving individuals further exposed to issues such as hypothermia and illness.
A common complaint of this bill is that individuals without a home often feel harassed by law enforcement, however, the bill clearly outlines what an officer who encounters someone they feel to be in violation §32-86.2, officers must attempt to ascertain whether the person is in need of medical or human services assistance, including, but not limited, to mental health treatment, drug or alcohol rehabilitation, or homeless services assistance. (§ 32-86.2 DRMC, §38-86.2(b)(2)). This paragraph goes on to further establish how an officer must conduct themselves in the case of an individual who requires assistance of these types.
An amendment had been considered during the 2012 council session which would have strengthened this bill, unfortunately between the first and second reading, this amendment was voted down 7-5, with one abstention. The text would have secured the bill against the second most common complaint: the shelter system is not equipped to address the concerns of this bill, and therefore the sadistic description of sheltering oneself is heavy-handed and further marginalizes, and in fact endangers, individuals without a home. The text is as follows.


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On or after June 1, 2013, this ordinance shall not be enforced at any time when:
(1) There are fewer than 1,100 beds in shelters for the homeless that are permitted under the zoning code in the entire city as certified by the zoning administrator, not including any temporary or emergency shelter beds; or there are fewer than 250 such permitted shelter beds available for use by women; or there are fewer than 50 such permitted shelter beds available for use by persons under the age of 18 years; or
(2) There are fewer than 1,100 beds in shelters for the homeless that are actually operating in the entire city as certified by the manager of the Department of Human Services, not including any temporary or emergency shelter beds; or there are fewer than 250 such operating shelter beds available for use by women; or there are fewer than 50 such operating shelter beds available for use by persons under the age of 18 years; or there does not exist within the city a facility that is open twenty-four hours per day, in which a person without a home may find rest, respite and resources.
(City and County of Denver, 2012)
Criteria Ranking
For this bill, the following needs are secured, the storefronts keep their revenue and cleanliness, due to the lack of persons sleeping on the right of way in front of them, and residents do not need to suffer the presence of individuals without a home within their right of way. The City is able to enjoy the safety, or perception thereof, that comes from removing individuals without a home from public space. However, safety, human decency, housing, support, and the quality of life for individuals without a home is categorically denied. With 50 percent of needs met overall, the Unauthorized Camping Ordinance falls within Category B. However, due to the interference and disregard for the needs of the other two stakeholders, this project receives 4 out of 10 points.
This project has received the support of businesses and the City and County of Denver, receiving five points for the buy-in of two stakeholder groups.


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In terms of funding security, the bill does not require any additional funding. However the indirect impact of this ordinance is that individuals without a home are referred to Detox clinics or hospitals, or are arrested. Detox, hospitals, and prisons are the most expensive options the City has for direct care, creating avoidable expenditures. Due to the major expenses accrued by these functions, and the overall loss of money for the City as a whole, this project receives a -4 out of 10 points for funding security.
As this bill took less than 4 years to become enacted, and has been in effect for a while, this bill receives the full 10 points for a timely project.
Unauthorized Camping Ordinance Summary
Unauthorized Camping Ordinance
Needs
10
/V'
Funding Security Feasibility
An analysis of the shape of this ordinance shows that this bill lacks long term security. Though the project has been fully realized longer than any of the other projects in this section, this is the only area in which the bill excels. The expenditures created by this bill, combined with the lack of buy-in or stakeholder needs met creates a bill with few legs to stand upon. While the project had buy in from many of the Denver programs, there is a clear need for further training


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on the part of the Denver Police Department, so that §38-86.2(d)(1) is recognized and officers
are doing a better job to ensure that solutions are sought prior to a citation or an arrest.
Colorado Homeless Bill of Rights/Right to Rest Act of 2015
This bill was postponed indefinitely at the House Committee on State, Veteran, and Military Affairs by a vote of 8-3. However, the failure of this bill, as well as the text and circumstances of this bill tell their only story. Pushed forward by the Western Regional Advocacy Project and Denver Homeless Out Loud, this project was largely undertaken in response to the Unauthorized Camping Ordinance, and similar bills throughout the Western United States. According to the project coordinators, The Homeless Bill of Rights was geared towards the alleviation of poverty and homelessness while protecting homeless and poor people from unjust laws and ensuring all peoples right to exist in public spaces. (Colorado Homeless Bill of Rights, 2015).
In the State, this bill would have become the Colorado Right to Rest Act, which would establish:
Basic rights for persons experiencing homelessness, including, but not limited to, the right to use and move freely in public spaces without discrimination, to rest in public spaces without discrimination, to eat or accept food in any public space where food is not prohibited, to occupy a legally parked vehicle, and to have a reasonable expectation of privacy of one's property. (HR15-1264, 2015).
Where this bill creates concerns within the City is language that creates a cause to sue the
City, seen within the summary as A person whose rights have been violated may seek
enforcement in a civil action, and a court may award relief and damages as appropriate (HR15-
1264, 2015). Within the text of the bill this language appears as
24-4.5-105. Enforcement relief. A person whose rights have 4 been violated pursuant to this article may seek enforcement of 5 those rights in a civil action.
The court may award appropriate 6 injunctive and declaratory relief, restitution for loss of 7 property, and actual and compensatory damages of up to one 8


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thousand dollars per violation. The court may award 9 reasonable attorney fees and costs to the prevailing party (HR15-1264, 2015)
This text was largely responsible for the opposition to this bill on the part of the City and County of Denver.
Criteria Ranking
In terms of the Fulfillment of Needs, this bill would have directly influenced the following needs of individuals experiencing homelessness, Safety and Food, as well as the ability for individuals to rest. However, this bill would have hurt the Citys revenues through a series of frivolous lawsuits. Businesses, Sporting Venues, and Residents would have been incensed by the increase in people sleeping on the right of way near their storefronts, and Advocates and Providers would see support for their goals of human decency, safety, and Quality of Life. This bill would have achieved 25 percent of the needs for individuals without a home, while meeting none of the needs of the City or the Private sphere, and meeting 75 percent of the needs of the advocates and providers. Overall this bill would achieve 25 percent of stakeholder needs, placing it in category C, however, as the language of the bill directly harms the needs of the City it only receives 1 point on a scale of 0-10.
This bill would have received the buy-in of the Advocates and Providers, and also that of a majority of the individuals experiencing homelessness, however due to the Citys active lobbying against the bill it is clear that the Right to Rest Act would have received no support from the City. The businesses, sporting venues, and residents would also be unlikely to support this bill. With the support of 2 stakeholder groups, this bill would only receive 5 out 10 points.
As the bill failed in committee during the 2015 Colorado General Assembly Session, the Right to Rest Act receives no points for feasibility.


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In terms of Funding Security, the bill itself reflects a simple adjustment of policy the direct impact would not require funding. However, the indirect impact of this bill includes the amount of lawsuits that would occur as a result which would require funding, the induced impact of the City losing money would be felt most strongly in the human services programs, these programs whose scope includes the needs of those experiencing homelessness, both in the front facing programs of Prisons, Shelters, Housing, and Hospitals, would have an overall negative impact upon the individuals experiencing homelessness that this bill seeks to support. In this regard the bill actually loses points, receiving -4 points for the money it would cost.
This bill would have received 10 points for a timely arrival of under four years, however, as the project has either been scrapped or will need significant rewriting to be prepared for the next session, this bill receives 0 points here as well.
Homeless Bill of Rights Summary
Homeless Bill of Rights
Needs
Timeliness
Buy-In
Funding Security
Feasibility
An analysis of this bills shape shows that overall the program was not as secure as advocates and providers would like to believe. The highest value was Buy-in, however, with only two stakeholders in support, this value does not suggest any long-term security. Having


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been scrapped, the project shows no chance of arriving within a reasonable time period, nor does
it secure the feasibility of becoming a viable program. Overall this bill would have become a very expensive project to maintain, and would not have truly advanced the discourse of homelessness, nor does it lend towards the overall vision of ending or mitigating homelessness.
The Ballpark Proposal of 2014
The Ballpark proposal was initiated by residents and businesses near Coors Field, in an attempt to address the concerns of homelessness in the area. The Ballpark neighborhood encompasses an area around the Coors Field, from the South Platte to Curtis Park, and 15th Street to 28th Street.
The Ballpark Proposal represents an intersection of the City and County of Denver and the Business and Residential interests in the area.
This proposal is an informal discussion, enveloping a recent City ordinance to spend 1.8
million on 10 new caps for the Ballpark, LoDo, and 16th street areas, as well as projects in the
public and private sphere to address panhandling, public urination, and sleeping in public.
Denvers Road Home is very critical of BR14-0440. They offer a series of solutions that they
believe are far better ways to address the issues identified by BR14-0440. They offer solutions
on how 1.8 million can be spend to address Panhandling, through job security, how 1.8 Million
could be spent to address Public Urination, through public restrooms, and how 1.8 million could
be spend to address sleeping in public, through the provision of homes. In Chapter 4, these
suggestions will be incorporated as alternate programs are suggested.
If panhandling is a problem, the solution would be for people who are panhandling because they lack money to be offered employment or a disability check that actually meets their needs.


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-58 people could be hired full time at $15 hr for a year for the $1.8 million the City is proposing to spend on police. For example, people could be hired to clean the streets if that is a real issue. (In New York City, San Rafael (CA) and elsewhere, programs successfully employ unhoused people to remove trash, shovel snow and keep downtown business areas clean. SeeAceNewYork.org, doe.organd streetsteam.org.)
If public urination is a problem, the solution would be to have accessible public bathrooms for people to urinate in.
In Seattle it costs $600,000 per year to maintain one Urban Rest Stop which have bathrooms, showers, washing machines, and basic toiletries. Denver could maintain three Urban Rest Stops at that price with the 1.8 million proposed to spend on policing.
(Seehttp://www.urbanreststop.org/ for more information)
In Portland it costs $90,000 to purchase and install one Portland Loo (a solar powered toilet and sink) and $14,400 to maintain it for a year. Denver could buy 17 Portland Loos and maintain them for a year for the $1.8 million. (See https://www.portlandoregon.gov/bes/59293for more information)
Right here in Denvers own Washington Park the city is spending $160,000 for bathrooms (Seehttp://www.westword.com/2014-05-15/news/rangers-in-denver-parks/) Why can the city afford to upkeep and clean the bathrooms in Wash Park and not downtown where people who are homeless have no place to use a restroom?
If sleeping in public places is a problem, the solution would be to offer people housing they can afford.
206 single people could be given a studio apartment for a year for the $1.8 million to be spent policing people sleeping outside. (If someone has no income, rent for a studio apartment would cost the city about $725 per month, including utilities, or $8700 a year)


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360 Tiny Homes could be built at $5,000 a piece (as is done in Madison, Wisconsin) for this 1.8 million
(Denver Homeless Out Loud, 2014)
During a visit in 2013 to the Ballpark Area, 9news referred to the area as a quickly developing area close to Coors Field struggling now more than ever to coexist with the homeless in an area historically devoted to the city's transient population. (Vanderveen, 2013).
This intersection is one of the best examples of a project that represents the needs of half the stakeholders very well, without addressing the needs of the other half of the table. While the Unauthorized Camping Ordinance had a similar impact, the proposals in the Ballpark neighborhood are of interesting note in that they are hard configurations of funding and infrastructure as opposed to a policy.
Criteria Ranking
For needs fulfillment, these programs achieve roughly 30% of stakeholder needs overall, placing it in Category C. The projects that compose the Ballpark Plans address Safety, Tourism, Sales and Property revenue, and they are rooted in Destinations and Cleanliness due to their attendance to public urination and defecation. However, they do not address housing, individual respect, or Mental/Physical Health, jobs or food, nor do they attend to Human Decency, the safety or quality of life for individuals without a home, except that the ramifications of the public urination and defecation discussion has led towards a discussion on public restrooms, which hits the points addressed by Denver Homeless Out Loud in dissent of the 1.8 million in expenditures for new police officers.
In summary, the Ballpark Projects collectively address 5 percent of the needs for individuals without a home, 50 percent of the needs for the City and County of Denver, and


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Businesses and Residents, and 10 percent of the needs of the advocates and providers. For needs
fulfillment, these programs achieve roughly 30% of stakeholder needs overall, placing it in Category C. However, due to the infringement upon Individual and Advocate needs, these proposals receive no points for the fulfillment of needs.
For buy-in, both the businesses and the city have bought into the Ballpark Proposal, the city has enacted CB14-0440, which secures money for new police officers, this vote was voted upon unanimously on a consent agenda, the City has also carried forward the public restrooms discussion generated by the Ballpark Initiatives, the businesses have also interacted with these initiatives, hiring an officer for each block of the mall for 100,000$ and engaging in discussions surrounding the goals of the Ballpark RNO. For engaging 2 stakeholders the proposals receive 5 points.
In the Political Feasibility Criterion, these projects are focused upon the City level. BR14-0440 has passed through the Council and has received the Mayors signature, netting the full 10 points for the administrative side, for the agency side; however, 7 points are received: 5 for the clear introduction of this money to the hiring of police offers, and 2 for infrastructure because this bill only affects one agency, the Denver Police Department. Overall feasibility achieves a total of 8.5.
Funding has been secured for many of the projects, however the public restroom initiative still requires discussions surrounding cost and funding models. Ballpark is also unlikely to receive Social Impact Bond funding, due to the lack of a relationship between the businesses behind these programs and the non-profits that would be requesting the funding. However, it can be reasonably assumed that more than 80% of the funding required for these initiatives have been secured. For this criterion the Ballpark Proposal receives 5 points.


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As the projects formed through the Ballpark proposal have either come to fruition, or are within solutions focused discussions, the public restroom discussion seeking to achieve a pilot program during 2016, and panhandling discussions reaching a conclusion, it is likely that the Ballpark Proposal will be finalized within 3 years from its inception. For this criterion, the Ballpark Proposal receives 10 points.
Ballpark Summary
The Ballpark Proposal
Needs 10 8 6 4 TimalmatA Buy-In
i
Funding Security Feasibility
An analysis of the shape of the Ballpark Proposal shows that the programs leave much to be desired. These initiatives do not meet the needs of the stakeholders in a satisfactory manner, causing lowered buy-in, they are not feasible in the long-term as a mobilization of more agencies will be necessary for the security of this proposal, their funding is also not diverse, showing a lack of overall project security as the values of the funding sources are subject to change. The only area in which this program excels is the area of timeliness, however, the arrival of a bad program is not a positive occurrence.


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Current Programs Summary
Current Program Summary
Denver's Road Home Homeless Bill of Rights
Unauthorized Camping Ordinance The Ballpark Proposal
Needs
10
The Current programs displayed together show their own story. Overall, the current programs are not satisfactory to the needs of the stakeholders, Denvers Road Home is the only program to get more than 50 percent of needs met, the Unauthorized Camping Ordinance is at 4 out of 10 points, due to the fulfillment of city and business needs; however, given the ordinance actively infringes upon the needs of Individuals and Advocates, this ordinance falls along the same wavelength as the Homeless Bill of Rights and the Ballpark Proposal, all three meet the needs of some stakeholders at the detriment of the other groups.
Most projects are only able to secure buy-in from two stakeholder groups, the City and Businesses, or the Advocates and Individuals, Denvers Road Home, securing buy-in from all four groups easily stands apart in this category.
As most of these programs represent projects that have already passed through the legislature in some form or another, the Homeless Bill of Rights, voted down by the House


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Committee on State, Veterans, and Military Affairs during the 2015 session, is the only outlier in
this category.
Funding Security separates the programs into two categories, those that do not qualify for Social Impact Bond (SIB) funding, but are approaching their funding goals, and those whose induced impacts show unanticipated, and detrimental expenditures. These expenditures also create more financial burden on the sponsoring agency than on other stakeholders, in the form of the Homeless Bill of Rights, the lawsuits against the city pull money from the Human Services budget, hurting those in homelessness and at risk of homelessness, in the form of the Unauthorized Camping Ordinance, already overdrawn prisons, hospitals, and rehab clinics are further burdened.
Timeliness creates a spectrum, the Unauthorized Camping Ordinance and the Ballpark Proposal have already been realized. Denvers Road Home is behind its original proposed time, and the Homeless Bill of Rights has been cancelled.
Even when the interactions between programs are considered, the City and County of Denver is no stronger or better off, these projects either set stakeholders against each other, a major obstacle to ending or mitigating homelessness which demands stakeholders come together, or these projects create major financial burdens which pulls funding away from projects that may actually work to end homelessness. Unfortunately, the programs the City needs are behind, and show no chance of arriving in a timely manner, and the programs that hurt the City and other stakeholders have already been enacted.


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Chapter 4: Advancing the Goal
As shown in the last chapter, no current program within the City and County of Denver satisfies all of the criteria for a program that will mitigate the negative impacts of homelessness. In this chapter suggestions are made towards projects that can continue the discourse and aid in a solutions focused model to mitigating homelessness. One that satisfies the most amount of needs for each stakeholder, secures the buy-in from each of the stakeholders, is politically feasible, secures necessary funding, and will be introducible in a reasonable timeframe.
First, the projects for a program that relies upon the continuation of the status quo will be analyzed, followed by a program based around projects occurring within Utah and a program that combines properties of the Utah plan with properties of plans outside of North America and projects the success of such a program within Denver.
Option A: The Status Quo
At first glance the status quo appears heavily reliant upon the programs advanced in Chapter 3. However, this proposed solution is in fact related more towards the character of the current entities within the City and County of Denver. As seen in chapter 1, the stakeholders include Individuals without a home, advocates and providers such as the Western Regional Advocacy Project (WRAP), Denver Homeless Out Loud, The State, the City and County of Denver, the Downtown Denver Partnership, LoDo District, and the Registered Neighborhood Associations.
As seen in Chapter 3, there is a dearth of projects that are able to secure the support and buy-in of all four stakeholders, and many of the projects conducted have a tendency of placing the Advocates, and Individuals without a home, into a combative situation with the City and the Businesses/Venues/Residents. The status quo looks at a projection for the future if Denvers


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Road Home continues to work on their funding projects, the Unauthorized Camping Ordinance
remains on the books, the Western Regional Advocacy Project proposes a revised Homeless Bill of Rights at the 2016 General Assembly, and the Ballpark Proposal continues to gain momentum.
Projections
The Denvers Road Home Project revisions shows a conversation change from eight projects: Housing; the Shelter System; Prevention; Services; Public Safety and Outreach; Education, Employment, and Training; Community Awareness; and Zoning, to four projects: Housing, Supportive Services, Prevention, and Sustainability. This redefinition of project scope shows reprioritization and allows for a smarter budget and better program defense. Given the status of Denvers Road Home as a funding source, a smarter budget allows for a heavier impact in the Non-Profit, Quasi-Govemmental, and City partner organizations.
According to the most recent City Council Election results, Albus Brooks will be retaining his seat. As the sponsor, and an ardent supporter of the Urban Camping Ban, it is likely that the ordinance will remain on the books unamended. Councilman Brooks is joined in the new term by incumbents Lopez, Kniech, Ortega, Susman, and Herndon, the new members of the Council are Rafael Espinoza in District 1, Kendra Black in District 4, and Paul Kashmann in District 6, at the time of writing Districts 2, 7, 10, and 11 have not been determined. Shepherd, Lopez, Montero, Kniech, and Ortega, were the 5 votes in favor of the Ortega amendment to the Unauthorized Camping Ordinance (UCO). Montero voted in favor of the UCO during the final consideration. It is uncertain if Espinoza would be in support of a similar amendment, but given that he has been a strong detractor of Shepherd it is unlikely. With the loss of two of the four


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opponents to the UCO as introduced, and no read on whether new councilmembers will present
opposition, it is unlikely that this bill will be removed.
However, there are a growing number of businesses that are no longer in support of the ordinance, if this trend continues, it is likely that there will be substantial pressure towards amending or repealing the code.
The Homeless Bill of Rights is unlikely to pass through the state legislature, the time spent on this bill is likely to distract from other measures that Denver Homeless Out Loud would normally engage in, this trend further spurred by the Citys current inability to engage this organization in a meaningful way. Due to the continuing, and probable increase of this negative feedback loop, the future does not look to be one in which stakeholder negotiation is possible.
The Ballpark Proposal has an uncertain future at this point. There are a few scenarios,
1) The Ballpark Proposal becomes a one-time set of programs: the 1.8 million remains in the police coffers, Denver Downtown Partnership (DDP) retains their deal with the Denver Police for block officers, and conversations on public restrooms and panhandling continue.
2) The Ballpark Proposal discussions reverse: funding is cut for DPD, DDP pulls out of their contract for block officers, and conversations cease.
3) The Ballpark Proposal becomes larger: further money is sent to DPD, DDP continues to increase 16th street surveillance, the public restroom pilot grows larger in scope, and the panhandling conversation advances.
4) The Ballpark Proposal remains static in some places, increases in others, and
decreases in others.


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Scenario 4 is the most likely scenario, given that the panhandling conversation is unlikely to go further, the public restroom conversation can either become larger, or go the way of Skyline Park, and DDP is likely to continue spending money on surveillance and security. The public restroom conversation and surveillance along the mall are large points of contention between the advocate groups and the public and private sector stakeholders, so the future of these conversations factor into the character of future negotiations and projects.
Criteria Ranking
Given the nature of this project, the criteria models need to be adapted slightly. The most important criteria in this model are Buy-In and Needs Fulfillment. Funding Security cannot be determined due to the variances of impact in each program, Political Feasibility is unnavigable due to the unpredictable nature of the upcoming term, and Timeliness is irrelevant due to each of these programs occurring at the present moment.
The nature of Buy-In now reflects the ability for each stakeholder to work together in a discourse advancing manner. Due to the negative feedback loop between the City/Business stakeholders and the Advocate/Individual stakeholders, the future is likely to only activate two stakeholder groups at a time. Buy-In receives a 5 out of 10 points for netting the support of only two stakeholders.
Needs Fulfillment refers to the needs that the future of the City, with no additional programming is likely to secure. In this case, the Needs of Individuals without homes are unmet by any current program, Denvers Road Home (DRH) will continue to pull together housing, mental health and job support, the Unauthorized Camping Ordinance (UCO) and the Ballpark Proposal do not cancel these projects out, however they harm the need for safety and respect as an individual. In this case Individuals only have 10 percent of their overall needs secured.


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The City and County, and Business see 100 percent of their needs met, due to the nature of the Ballpark Proposal and the UCO, which secure and advance storefronts, tourism, and sales and property revenue, Advocate needs are unmet, Safety, Quality of Life, and Decency are all infringed upon, with the exception of the Public restroom conversation within the Ballpark Proposal. Advocate needs are met at 10 percent. Overall 55% of stakeholder needs are secured, placing the status quo within Category B, however, due to the needs left both unmet, and contravened, this project loses 1 point for each need infringed upon, placing it at 2 out of 10 points, as Human Decency, Safety, Quality of Life, and Individual Respect are harmed overall by the status quo.
Option B: The Utah Solution
As the 10 year plans reach their conclusion across the nation, a redefining of the overall plan is necessary. In 2010, President Barack Obama announced a plan to address chronic and veteran homelessness within 5 years, and family homelessness within 10 years. In 2005, Utah enacted state plans that have brought real, affirmative change to the chronically homeless platform.
Their model, Housing First, allows individuals without homes to have and keep permanent housing, and then gives access to supportive programming in the form of healthcare support, job programming, and substance abuse counseling. This program recalls a simple fact of Maslows Hierarchy, that people need food, shelter, water, and safety before they can move forwards in their progression.
Criteria Ranking
This is a strong project, it secures the needs of the homeless individuals, Housing, Jobs, and Healthcare support, it secures the public need for Safety, Tourism, and Tax Revenues, it also


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secures the Business needs of Safety and Cleanliness, finally, advocate needs are secured in the
form of human decency, safety, and Quality of life. This project addresses and secures these needs for a majority of the stakeholder group, achieving 90 percent of stakeholder needs overall, therefore falling into Category S, as this project does not contravene the needs of any other stakeholder it receives the full 10 points.
This project has the buy-in of all four stakeholder groups, receiving the full 10 points for stakeholder buy-in.
As the Utah plan has already passed through the state legislature and has activated multiple state agencies, this program again receives the full 10 points for political feasibility.
Funding Security, as Social Impact Bonds (SIB) are irrelevant in this discussion, the 6 points maximum available for a non-SIB program will be counted as proportional to 10 points. Given that this program has secured the necessary funding to achieve the goal of ending Chronic Homelessness, it will receive a full 10 out of 10 points.
This program has achieved its goals within the 10 years it was set for receiving 6 out of 10 points for timeliness.


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Utah Solution Summary
The Utah Plan
Needs
10 yx.
/ 6
Timeliness / 4 X j Buy-In
r 2 'sill
0 /
Funding Security Feasibility
This solution is a very strong program, one that stands on many legs, the only issue with this project is that it is only focused on one population in the Homeless community. Programs of this nature could very well be achieved to move forwards the goals of other populations within the homeless nexus.
Suggestions for a Stronger Denver
Denver would strongly benefit from folding the programs occuring in Utah into its current protocol. By securing solutions for a more advanced housing discussion in the City, Denver allows the most powerful aspect of a Social Impact Bond scenario to occur, through housing for people, regardless of status, the problem of homelessness is truly addressed.
The Shelter system needs to be made far safer and more pleasant to be involved in, encouraging stronger coordination with the programs, and there needs to be more funding in conjunction with the shelter system.


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The Unauthorized Camping Ordinance would be a more suitable legislation if it did not contain sadistic definitions on shelter, and if the Ortega amendment is included in the program.
Denvers Road Home would benefit by a more targeted and strategized way of presenting projects, as well as more coordinated and organized model of control.
Denver Homeless Out Loud, needs to become engaged in a process that creates constructive conversation surrounding the state of Homelessness in the City and County of Denver, and allows the movement a better focal point.
Closing Remarks
Homelessness can come to a fully realized solution, despite a growth of homelessness in the City and County of Denver, National Homelessness is on the decrease. This process requires stewardship, and does not allow rest. In 2012, projections showed a quickly drawing future where homelessness was no longer issues, unfortunately, complacency and a societal unconcern with homelessness threw this trajectory off course.
With better targeted funding towards houses, and a more communal focus on ending homelessness and providing services, the most vulnerable members of the United States can see a future where their right to live and rest is secured.


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Appendix A: Criteria Models
Criteria Category Points Available
Needs Fulfillment: Out of 10 Category S 9-10
Category A 7-8
Category B 5-6
Category C 3-4
Category D 0-2
Buy-In: Out of 10 All four Stakeholders 10
Three Stakeholders 8
Two Stakeholders 5
One Stakeholder 3
Feasibility: Out of 10 Take the Average of Both SubCriteria 10
Legislative 10
Agency 10
Security of Funding: Out of Secures SIB Funding 4
10 Sliding Scale based on percent of funding secured 1-6
Timeliness: Out of 10 Less than four years 10
Five years 8
10 years 6
20 years 4
30 years 2
Cancelled or in need of extensive revisions 0
Overextends originally promised timeframe -5% of original points


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Appendix B: Denvers Road Home Funding Documents
2009 Unfunded Partial Funding Available Funding Total Total Programs
1 2 4 5 7 11
2 2 3 7 8.5 12
3 4 2 1 2 7
4 4 5 4 6.5 13
5 1 3 9 10.5 13
6 0 3 6 7.5 9
7 0 2 13 14 15
8 1 6 6 7
14 22 51 62 87
2013 Unfunded Partial Funding Available Funding Total Total Programs
1 0 4 8 10 12
2 0 8 4 8 12
3 1 2 3 4 6
4 2 5 6 8.5 13
5 1 1 11 11.5 13
6 4 1 7 7.5 12
7 0 12 12 12
8 0 7 7 7
8 21 58 68.5 87
Treatment and Services
Emergency Shelter / Motels / Family Services
Housing and Transitional Housing
Staff
Street Outreach Prevention
2011 Funding


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DRH Funding 2014
1665800, 24%
1722260, 25%
400000, 6%
157740,
2%
Treatment and Services
Emergency Shelter / Motels / Family Services
Housing and Transitional Housing
Staff
Street Outreach
Prevention
Employment


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Appendix C: Legal Resources
The Unauthorized Camping Ordinance of 2012:
§38-86.2 Municode
(a) It shall be unlawful for any person to camp upon any private property without the express written consent of the property owner or the owner's agent, and only in such locations where camping may be conducted in accordance with any other applicable city law.
(b) It shall be unlawful for any person to camp upon any public property except in any location where camping has been expressly allowed by the officer or agency having the control, management and supervision of the public property in question.
(c) No law enforcement officer shall issue a citation, make an arrest or otherwise enforce this section against any person unless:
(1) The officer orally requests or orders the person to refrain from the alleged violation of this section and, if the person fails to comply after receiving the oral request or order, the officer tenders a written request or order to the person warning that if the person fails to comply the person may be cited or arrested for a violation of this section; and
(2) The officer attempts to ascertain whether the person is in need of medical or human services assistance, including, but not limited, to mental health treatment, drug or alcohol rehabilitation, or homeless services assistance.
If the officer determines that the person may be in need of medical or human services assistance, the officer shall make reasonable efforts to contact and obtain the assistance of a designated human service outreach worker, who in turn shall assess the needs of the person and, if warranted, direct the person to an appropriate provider of medical or human services assistance in lieu of the person being cited or arrested for a violation of this section. If the officer is unable to obtain the assistance of a human services outreach worker, if the human services outreach worker determines that the person is not in need of medical or human services assistance, or if the person refuses to cooperate with the direction of the human services outreach worker, the officer may proceed to cite or arrest the person for a violation of this section so long as the warnings required by paragraph (1) of this subsection have been previously given.
(d) For purposes of this section:
(1) "Camp" means to reside or dwell temporarily in a place, with shelter. The term "shelter" includes, without limitation, any tent, tarpaulin, lean-to, sleeping bag, bedroll, blankets, or any form of cover or protection from the elements other than clothing. The term "reside or dwell" includes, without limitation, conducting such activities as eating, sleeping, or the storage of personal possessions.
(2) "Designated human service outreach worker" shall mean any person designated in writing by the manager of the Denver Department of Human Services to assist law enforcement officers as provided in subsection (c), regardless of whether the person is an employee of the department of human services.
(3) "Public property" means, byway of illustration, any street, alley, sidewalk, pedestrian or transit mall, bike path, greenway, or any other structure or area encompassed within the public right-of-way; any park, parkway, mountain park, or other recreation facility; or any other grounds, buildings, or other facilities owned or leased by the city or by any other public owner, regardless of whether such public property is vacant or occupied and actively used for any public purpose.
(Ord. No. 255-12, § 1, 5-14-12)
The Colorado Right to Rest Act of 2015: HB15-1264 Colorado General Assembly


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Appendix D: Transcript from an Interview With Therese Howard Community Coordinator for Denver Homeless Out Loud
Austin: Therese: What do you feel isn't working in the "homeless industry," Focusing federal funds on specific populations, and not housing for people Mckinley Veto homeless act funds for homeless not funds for housing 60's and 70's significant money for housing now there's a lower level Fighting over a small scrap of money, having to be qualified as the most homeless/most vulnerable Focus on needs "housing, mental health, etc." not homelessness, If you're trying to end homelessness but have an industry that requires individuals to be homeless the system won't work. Reagan. 77% reduction in funding for housing. 40% of homeless youth in Denver are LGBTQ More homes than homeless- "For sale, not rent causes issues," Location of homes and size of homes Research to be done on vacant/derelict homes. -1% vacancy rate- Foreclosure -> Renting Market -> Rental Unit market saturation -> Homelessness
Austin: Therese: When have you felt listened to by the City? The main answer is 1 have to think hard, but no we don't feel listened to by the city. After the camping ban, survey of 500 people affected by the camping ban, turned it into a report, Prof. Tony Robinson. Ignored, press conference not very well received, homeless commission and health and safety deviated to how many shelter beds there are, and whether or not there's been an increase in shelter beds.
Austin: Therese: When have you felt listened to by the State? People in the ranks that have been helpful "Susan Shepherd," "Ean Tafoya," State has been a lot easier met with 20 senators and representatives
Austin: Do you think that is because the city's perspective is out of sight out of mind, and the state sees that this can't be that simple.
Therese: That's probably an unconscious assumption. Clear from the camping ban that it a state wide concern.
Austin: Therese: What would it take to make individuals feel that the city, state, etc. actually is listening. Do what we're asking be done Repeal these laws Put in restrooms Public hearings regarding the public restrooms. Public comment the ability to speak makes us feel a little heard. Put money towards housing New police officers for the downtown area, DHOL opposed, proposal came up in regards to complaints from the ballpark etc. regarding homeless individuals 1.8 million dollars on 10 police officers, why not spend that money on housing, restrooms, and jobs.
Austin: Why would you say DRH did not meet its goals.


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Therese:
Austin:
Therese:
Austin:
Therese:
"The approach to ending homelessness, based on populations and not basic needs, foundational reasons why it didn't work," More homeless than when they started. They're not going to end homelessness by putting small pockets of money to small scale projects, look at it from a larger scale, and the dollars aren't there.
Federal funding stream, HUD has money all set in specific definitions of homelessness. Business Partnerships
Massive decrease of business funding during the time period of the 10 year plan. Funding is dependent on business liking what they do.
How do you feel about IHO? The Inclusionary Housing Ordinance AMI should be lower, 40% versus the 80%
Change the state constitution to apply to rental units as well as for-sale-units
What are the Priorities, Solutions and Action steps that you feel are important steps? (make them what people who have or are experienced will be beneficial)
If any real changes are going to happen in regards to making this society one where people have housing and can exist in public space, is really fundamental and requires a commitment by those with powerto listen to that. And it requires a reshaping of the perspective of how human homeless people are and removing the stigmas, to really see this as people who are lacking housing and are experts in the situation. To not approach in a tokenizing way.


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City and County of Denver, (January 6, 2015). Housing Opportunity: Chronically Homeless Individuals: Using Social Impact Bond to Support a Broader City Homelessness Strategy. Retrieved from:
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Colorado Homeless Bill of Rights. (January 1st, 2015). Our Work. Retrieved from: http://coloradohomelessbillofrights.org/
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Retrieved from:
http://www.leg.state.co.us/clics/clics2015a/csl.nsf/fsbillcont/82156A746BE2EC4D8725 7DDC0057124D?Open&file= 1264_01 .pdf Denver Homeless Out Loud, (January 1st, 2015). Our Work. Retrieved from: http://coloradohomelessbillofrights.org/
Denver Homeless Out Loud, Robinson, T. (April 3rd, 2013). The Denver Camping Ban: A Report from the Street. Retrieved from: http://issuu.com/denverhomelessoutloud/docs/pocketeport-web Denver Homeless Out Loud. (June 16th, 2014). Ten More Cops for What? Tell City Council to Vote No to more Policing and Yes to more Homes and Bathrooms. Retrieved from: http://denverhomelessoutloud.org/2014/06/
Denver Revised Municipal Code, (May 14th, 2012). Unauthorized Camping on Public or Private Property Prohibited. DRMC § 38-86.2. Retrieved from: https://library.municode.eom/HTML/10257/level4/TITIIREMUCO_CH38OFMIPR_AR TIVOFAGPUORSA_DIVlGE.html. Municode.
Denver Treasury Division, (January 1st, 2015). Denver Combined Tax Rates. Retrieved from:
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Denvers Road Home. (July 1st, 2013). Year 8, Fourth Revision. Retrieved from: http://www.denversroadhome.org/files/DRH_Report_FinalFINAL.pdf Five Points Business District, (January 1st, 2015). History & Culture. Retrieved from: http://www.fivepointsbiz.org/history-culture
Hamm, K., (February 19th, 2009). Arrests on Denver's 16th Street Mall: Interactive. The Denver Post. Retrieved from: http://www.denverpost.com/data/ci_27558501/crime-denvers-16th-street-mall-interactive
Harrell, B., (March 24th, 2014). Denvers Controversial Urban Camping Ban Could Increase Vulnerability to Trafficking. Denver Homeless Out Loud. Retrieved from: http://denverhomelessoutloud.org/2014/03/24/denvers-controversial-urban-camping-ban-could-increase-vulnerability-to-trafficking/
Housing and Urban Development, (January 1, 2015). Resources for Chronic Homelessness.
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Metro Denver Homeless Initiative, (2015). 2014 State of Homelessness Report. Print National Alliance to End Homelessness, (2015). Addressing Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Caused by Homelessness. Retrieved from: http://b. 3cdn.net/naeh/973478e833747853ce_alm6bx81p.pdf National Coalition for Homeless Veterans, (January 1st, 2015). FAQ About Homeless Veterans.
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A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF DENVERS 10 YEARS TO END HOMELESSNESS
attracting-64-6.html?page=all
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Another Road Home? by Austin Banks An undergraduate thesis submitted in partial completion of the M etropolitan State University of D enver Honors Program May 2015 Dr. Jan Perry Evenstad Dr. Andrew Thangasamy Dr. Megan Hughes Zarzo Primary Advisor Second Reader Honors Program Director

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Running head: ANOTHER ROAD HOME: 1 A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF DENVER'S 10 YEARS TO END HOMELESSNESS Another Road Home? A Critical Analysis of Denver's 10 Years to End Homelessness A Thesis Presented to Dr. Amy Eckert, Dr. Andrew Thangasamy, Dr. Jan Perry Evenstad Metropolitan State University of Denver Submitted by Austin Banks May 15 th 2015

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ANOTHER ROAD HOME: Banks 2 A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF DENVER'S 10 YEARS TO END HOMELESSNESS Table of Contents Chapter 1: Framing the Problem ................................ ................................ ................................ 5 Why does Homelessnes s Occur ................................ ................................ ................................ 5 Who Does it Impact ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 7 Individuals Experiencing Homelessness ................................ ................................ ....... 7 Public ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 10 Businesses, Venues and Residents ................................ ................................ ............... 10 Advocates and Providers ................................ ................................ ............................. 12 What Does Each Group Desire ................................ ................................ .............................. 12 Individuals Experiencing Homelessness ................................ ................................ ..... 13 Public ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 15 Businesses, Venues and Residents ................................ ................................ ............... 17 Advocates and Providers ................................ ................................ ............................. 17 Cl osing ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 18 Chapter 2: Establishing the Criteria ................................ ................................ ......................... 20 Fulfillment of Needs ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 23 Buy In ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 24 Feasibility ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 25 Security of Fund ing ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 28 Timeliness ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 28 Closing ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 29 Chapter 3: Forming the Baseline ................................ ................................ ............................... 30 Denver's Road Home ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 30 Criteria Ranking ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 32 Denver's Road Home Summary ................................ ................................ ................. 34 The Unauthorized Camping Ordinance "Urban Camping Ban" ................................ ....... 34 Criteria Ranking ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 36 Unauthor ized Camping Ordinance Summary ................................ .......................... 37 Colorado Homeless Bill of Rights/Right to Rest Act of 2015 ................................ .............. 38 Criteria Ranking ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 39 Homeless Bill of Rights Summary ................................ ................................ .............. 40 The Ballpark Proposal ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 41

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ANOTHER ROAD HOME: Banks 3 A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF DENVER'S 10 YEARS TO END HOMELESSNESS Criteria Ranking ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 43 Ballpark Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 45 Current Programs Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ 46 Chap ter 4: Advancing the Goal ................................ ................................ ................................ 48 Option A: The Status Quo ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 48 Projections ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 49 Criteria Ranking ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 51 Option B: The Utah Solution ................................ ................................ ................................ 52 Criteria Ranking ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 52 Utah Solution Summary ................................ ................................ .............................. 54 Suggestions for a Stronger Denver ................................ ................................ ........................ 54 Closing Remarks ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 55 Appendix A: Criteria Models ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 56 Appendix B: Denver's Road Home Funding Documents ................................ ........................ 57 Appendix C: Legal Resources ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 59 Appendix D: Transcript from an Interview With Therese Howard Community Coordinator for Denver Homeless Out Loud ................................ ................................ ........... 60 Works Cited ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 62

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ANOTHER ROAD HOME: Banks 4 A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF DENVER'S 10 YEARS TO END HOMELESSNESS ABSTRACT This paper proposes the question, what can be done regarding Homelessness in the City and County of Denver. This paper establishes the stakeholders within the homeless conversation and the needs of each stakeholder. This paper also establishes the criteria upon which a program will be judged. Through an analysis of current programs within the City and County of Denver, and programs within the continental United States, this paper utilizes the criteria to establish the strongest programs, and finally make su ggestions to improve the Denver's Road Home project, and the discourse on homelessness within the City and County of Denver. This paper utilizes program reports, legal documents, legislation and public opinion documents in the form of newspapers and busin ess articles to create a rounded discussion on the scope of the conversation on homelessness.

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ANOTHER ROAD HOME: Banks 5 A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF DENVER'S 10 YEARS TO END HOMELESSNESS Chapter 1: Framing the Problem Why does Homelessness Occur Homelessness is a systemic, socioeconomic issue, created through a number of causes. The causes of homelessness are as varied and complex as the individuals that experience homelessness. That said, there are a few trends that unite the groups that fall wit hin the homeless umbrella. These trends can be described best through the sub groups within homelessness, those without a home due to mental health or substance abuse issues, youth without a home, those without a home long term, and veterans without a home Our society touts success, promoting such values as, timeliness, productivity, lucidity, and rationality as avenues to success. For those who have a mental illness maintaining these values can be a barrier both to relationships and to maintaining a job. Often when a person experiences homelessness, it is because both of these factors fell through. Unable to provide for themselves due to a lack of job, there are a variety of options available, people can move back in with their parents, stay with a friend or find assistance from a variety of sources to pay rent. Unfortunately if these options are not available people often find themselves without a place to stay, and find themselves on the streets. A number of mental illnesses create barriers to timelines s, productivity, lucidity, and rationality. Youth without a home are often on the streets due to issues at home. For the most part they have either been kicked out of the house, or have left the home due to an abusive or neglectful situation. This is espe cially true for L esbian G ay B isexual T rans* and Q ueer/Questioning youth (LGBTQ) According to the National Coalition for the Homeless in 2014, 40% of the homeless youth served by agencies identify as LGBT Q (National Coalition for the Homeless, 2014).

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ANOTHER ROAD HOME: Banks 6 A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF DENVER'S 10 YEARS TO END HOMELESSNESS An other main cause of homelessness, is not having a permanent residence or home Individuals without a home are vulnerable to a number of problems that a home with all the trappings of a bed, bath, entertainment, and a refrigerator, stove, or microwave provi des insulation from. A bed allows people to be well rested. A bath or shower allows people to maintain cleanliness and hygiene which are important to finding and keeping a job, as well as being in good health. Entertainment, in the form of books or televi sion allows for mental stimulation. Food stamps, which many people in poverty depend upon for sustenance and food assistance disallows purchases for prepared meals, candy, snacks, and anything intended for in house consumption, for the most part this only makes available food that requires a refrigerator to store and to avoid spoilage, or a stove or microwave to heat up to an edible temperature. Individuals without a home, are usually precluded from resting without the paranoia of being robbed or cited for illegal resting, as well as from basic hygiene and suitable food choices. The lack of mental stimulation created by rare and unsatisfactory entertainment, as well as the stress created by the lack of access to basic human needs is one of the main factors behind the correlation between homelessness and substance abuse. In a landmark study on addiction, it was shown that lab rats were more likely to recover from a drug addiction if they had a supportive, stimulating environment. (Alexander, 1980). This study colloquially known as the "Rat Park Study" shows a valuable lesson about homelessness, individuals without a home often lack a supportive and stimulating environment, and are therefore at stronger risk of getting involved or maintaining involvement with drugs and alcohol. Rising costs of housing is another large contributor to Homelessness, especially in a city like Denver which is experiencing an urban boom. Individuals who are priced out of their home

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ANOTHER ROAD HOME: Banks 7 A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF DENVER'S 10 YEARS TO END HOMELESSNESS often saturate the rental market, driving rental pr ices up, which leads to individuals unable to afford rent finding themselves without a home, or at risk of becoming without a home. While these trends are all very important in the overall understanding of why people experience homelessness, it is imperat ive to remember that these are merely trends and do not represent the entirety, or indeed, a large subsection of the homeless community. It is important to meet each individual without a home on the same level, and determine what factors brought them to ho melessness or the risk of homelessness. Who Does it Impact There are a large number of stakeholders in the issue of homelessness. The issue affects not just those without a home, but also the cities where they spend their time, and the businesses and resi dents with houses or apartments in the area. In the City of Denver for example, the 16 th Street mall, a major tourist destination, is also one of the largest locations impacted by homelessness. Four communities have a stake in homelessness in Denver, the individuals without a home, the City of Denver, Business and Permanent Residents in Denver, and Advocates for Homelessness. Each of these groups have needs that must be addressed before housing and homelessness can be effectively addressed to the maximum b enefit of all. Individuals Experiencing Homelessness Chronic Homelessness is defined by the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development as an individual or family with a disabling condition who has been continuously homeless for a year or m ore or has had at least four episodes of homelessness in the past three years" (HUD, 2015). T his community is generally the first community thought of when one calls to mind homelessness. Having lived on the streets or in shelters for a longer period than other

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ANOTHER ROAD HOME: Banks 8 A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF DENVER'S 10 YEARS TO END HOMELESSNESS individuals experiencing homelessness, these individuals experience a wider range of de bilitating circumstances and are often in need of broader and more targeted services. Individuals who have been homeless for a long period are more likely than other members of the homeless community to experience extreme mental distress and are more likel y to use substances. In Denver, this community was first identified and targeted through work done by the Commission for Crime Control and Prevention. This commission undertook a study in 2013 to determine the top criminal charges in the City and County. Their focus was on the top 100 individuals who had the most charges. It was speculated that these individuals were mainly charged with multiple traffic offenses, it was however determined that these individuals were instead receiving charges for offenses s uch as trespassing, sleeping in public spaces, panhandling, and minor aggressive offenses. Further profiling of these top 100 offenders showed that they were significantly more likely to have multiple emergency room visits or jail stays in a month. Trends held true for the top 150 offenders, as well as a significant portion of the top 200 offenders in the City and County of Denver. (City and County of Denver, 2015) Veterans without a home have decreased sinc e 2010, as have the number of unsheltered veterans. In 2014 there was a national estimate of 58,000 v eterans without a home, 35,000 veterans in a shelter and Figure 1 MDHI (as Cited in DRH 2013)

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ANOTHER ROAD HOME: Banks 9 A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF DENVER'S 10 YEARS TO END HOMELESSNESS 23,000 without shelter. According to the Metro Denver Homeless Initiative (MDHI) In the Metro Denv er Area there were 437 homeless veterans, 86 of whom lacked shelter. ( MDHI 2015). The Department of Veteran's affairs has made it their goal to end veteran homeless by 2016. It is usually thought that Veterans gain a higher priority in terms of gaining ho using or job support, however, according to the National Coalition for Homeless Veterans (NCHV) this may not always be the case, they argue that military occupations and training are not always transferable to the civilian workforce, placing some veteran s at a disadvantage when competing for employment." (NCHV, 2015). National trends have shown an increase in families experiencing homelessness since 2009, (MDHI, 2015). This causes children to live without a home, and places additional stress upon the parents, who now, are not only concerned with their own health and safety, but must also contend with the health and safety of their children. Children without a home are at an extreme disadvantage educationally which causes additional difficulty to securi ng employment or towards escaping homelessness. National data shows that homeless children, are more likely to be enrolled in special education classes than non homeless children and miss at least one month of school a year. Additionally one fifth of homel ess children will repeat a grade, 12 percent are not enrolled in school, or do not attend school regularly, and that 41 percent of homeless children will attend two different schools within a school year (MDHI, 2015). Education is a major barrier to succe ss, with more employers looking for bachelor's degrees on top of finishing high school, and with less universities accepting a GED, absences or the lack of focus caused by being without a home can be very detrimental to students. Additionally, poor social skills that develop as a result of being without a home at that young an aged.

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ANOTHER ROAD HOME: Banks 10 A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF DENVER'S 10 YEARS TO END HOMELESSNESS Public While the scope of this paper is the issue of homelessness in Denver, it is important to note that the City does not exist in a vacuum, and that any measure enacted by Denver will have an impact on the Metropolitan region and the State of Colorado as a who le. Data for this region is derived from the most recent Point in time Survey, conducted by the Metropolitan Denver Homeless Initiative. Businesses, Venues and Reside nts Denver's public engagement is based on a unique model of Registered Neighborhood Organizations, (RNO) which allow residents within Denver to get involved in City affairs through a localized channel, and the Business Improvement Districts, which allow b usinesses to impose a tax upon themselves to create organizations that address safety, retail, and business needs within the area they operate. The Ballpark Neighborhood Association, bounded in the Northwest by the South Platte River, the Northeast by 30 th St, The South by Broadway Boulevard and 18 th Street, and the South west by 15 th Street and Wynkoop Street (CPD 2015), represents residents that live around Union station and Coors Field. Recently in an attempt to curb the negative impacts of homelessnes s in their region. Two of their main initiatives have been to address panhandling around Coors Field and in the region, as well as manage human waste and public urination. The Capitol Hill United Neighbors Incorporated, encompasses a number of RNOs in and around Capitol Hill (Cap Hill), its boundaries encompass residents from 1 st Ave to 22 nd Ave, and Broadway to Colorado (CPD 2015). While this group has not currently led on any initiatives contending with homelessness, the organization has been active on ma ny issues throughout

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ANOTHER ROAD HOME: Banks 11 A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF DENVER'S 10 YEARS TO END HOMELESSNESS Denver. As Cap itol Hill is one of the neighborhoods in Denver most affected by homelessness they are active in the Public restroom process and in the Denver's Road Home revisions. Visit Denver encompasses all of Denver with the goal o f attracting tourism and residents. They promote the Denver Art Museum, Denver Museum of Nature and Science, Denver Zoo, and other local attractions. Individuals experiencing homelessness, are often perceived as unsafe to be around, which acts as a deterre nt to tourism. The Downtown Denver Business Improvement District, a Subsidiary of t he Downtown Denver Partnership (DDP) is for the most part focused on the 16 th Street Mall, and operates as a smaller version of Visit Denver The Lo wer Do wntown District (Lo Do) is the LoDo equivalent of DDP. Operating in and around Union station, this area has undergone massive transformations in the last couple of years. An extensive amount of money has been poured into the region to develop it from a largely boarded up and blighted area to a rich area of historic value (Urban Land, 2012). The success of this area's transformation is largely due to Historic Denver, a district dedicated to preserving and protecting the historic value of areas within Denver, the revenue generat ed by distinguishing areas such as Union Station, locations on Blake Street, and the Acme Lofts as Historically significant produced enough revenue to attract new businesses, and redevelop largely abandoned or derelict areas within LoDo. The LoDo District seeks to protect and preserve the historic value of the area, as well as preserve the interests of the businesses attracted to and operating within the area. Five points is an area with rich historical value, while not blighted as was the case in Lower Do wntown, this area has gone through many of its own historical transformations. S ince the turn of the century, the African American community has centered on Five Points (Five Points

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ANOTHER ROAD HOME: Banks 12 A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF DENVER'S 10 YEARS TO END HOMELESSNESS Business District, 2015) The home of Denver's first African American Mayor, Wellington Webb, this area has known a rich history. Today, Five Points is an emerging multi cultural entertainment and business district rooted in African American history and lo oking to become a destination for arts, culture and entertainment (Five Points Business District, 2015) However, the years after the suburban migration in the mid 20 th century left its marks, this area is currently deeply poor, and meets the criteria for a Food Desert set by the USDA, qualifying as a "Low Income Community, with a poverty rate of 20% or lower, and as a "Low Access Community" with supermarkets or large grocery stores more than a mile from census tracts within the area (USDA, 2015). Advocat es and Providers There are many organizations that support the rights of individuals experiencing homelessness, however for brevity's sake the organizations that are most important to the scope of this paper include advocacy organizations that propose legi slation in the city or the state, and service providers operating within or operated by the City and County of Denver. Western Region Advocacy Project is currently involved in an initiative across the West to pass Homeless Bill of Rights in each state. The y are currently involved in a bill through the Colorado General Assembly known as the Right to Rest Act. What Does Each Group Desire Each group impacted by homelessness has a set of needs that must be met in order to maximize the impact of any program des igned to solve homelessness. There are also a set of desires that need to be addressed and balanced in order to leave everyone at the table satisfied and find a viable solution.

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ANOTHER ROAD HOME: Banks 13 A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF DENVER'S 10 YEARS TO END HOMELESSNESS Individuals Experiencing Homelessness For the individuals experiencing homel essness, there are more needs than desires. Individuals without a home, at first value need homes, however, they also need respect and support in the multitude of needs. Housing seems like the most logical place to start to end homelessness, however ther e are a few barriers that need to be addressed in order to maximize the potential of discovering and securing housing for this vulnerable population. Secure and Affordable housing is the type needed in order to assure housing is efficient. Secure housing is safe housing. Denver's motel voucher system has not always borne fruit because it has not always been a safe option. The motels that will accept individuals without a home are often in areas with a prevalent crime network. For those ind ividuals without a home that may also experience addiction there is the added vulnerability that these motels tend to be in areas with prevalent drug exchanges. Safety and addiction was discussed during an overview of the DRH by the Commission for Crime Control and Prevent ion. Shelters are also not an ideal location due to insecurities surrounding pick pocketing and violence. Housing must also be affordable, it is not enough to find individuals without a home, a place to stay, and then expect them to pay an exorbitant rent With Denver's housing increase and rent price upscaling it is very common for people to pay upwards of 1000$ a month in rent. For individuals without a home, who often have other expenses, this is far too much to pay. One of the other problems that indi viduals without a home run into is that they are not respected as individuals. This can be seen in the housing and the job front where motels or other housing solutions are wary of housing individuals without a home due to concerns about their

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ANOTHER ROAD HOME: Banks 14 A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF DENVER'S 10 YEARS TO END HOMELESSNESS stability or safety, and is also a concern of employers who understandably need someone working for them who is clean, on time, and does not drive away business. Therefore it is also necessary for individuals withou t a home to be seen as human. Coming out of homeless ness requires the self esteem and a personal pride in one's identity. Without a frame of reference it can be easy to lose oneself within the turmoil and apathy surrounding homelessness. Coming out of homelessness requires a wide network of support. Individuals without a home need support achieving and sustaining good mental health, in securing a job, in healthcare, and in finding food. Though not all individuals without a home are without a home due to mental health concerns, there is still an overwhelming need for mental health support for those experiencing and coming out of homelessness. Living without a home is a stressful occurrence and can result in Post T raumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) according to the National Alliance to End Homelessness ; Homelessness as a traumatic experience can lead to PTSD in a number of ways. First, the actual event of becoming homeless can lead to trauma through the loss of (a) stable shelter; and (b) family connections and accustomed social roles and routines. Second, the ongoing condition of homelessness and its attendant stressors, such as the uncertainty of where to find food and safe shelter, can erod e a person's coping mechanisms. Third, homelessness might serve as a breaking point for those who have pre existing behavioral health conditions or a history of traumatization. According to one study, "a literature review found consistent and well document ed evidence of high levels of multiple forms of traumatic stress within individuals and families who are homeless." The presence of stress is to be expected in these populations. That it rises to the level of trauma might come as a surprise, but "researche rs have documented that the rates of traumatic stress are extremely high, and may even be normative, among those experiencing homelessness." This reality is about "more than the absence of physical shelter, it is a stress filled, dehumanizing, dangerous ci rcumstance. (NAEH, 2015)

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ANOTHER ROAD HOME: Banks 15 A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF DENVER'S 10 YEARS TO END HOMELESSNESS Equally important is securing a job that pays enough to afford rent and additional expenses. According to the Consumer Protection Index housing costs rose by 4.9 percent in 2013, and 5.1 percent in 2014 food prices rose in the De nver Boulder Greeley area by 3.3 percent, and energy costs rose by 3.2 percent. (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2015). With housing prices soaring, and food and energy following close behind, cost effective employment is above 15$ an hour or 30,000 a year. Public The city has its own needs and desires, Denver seeks to provide a safe city for all citizens, Denver also needs to encourage Tourism and increase sales and property tax revenue in order to support infrastructure and job acquisition within the city. Safety is the most cited reason for ordinances such as the Denver Unauthorized Camping Ordinance, colloquially known as the Urban Camping Ban. Safety is followed by "Quality of Life" as the most often touted rationale for these and other measures. These c oncerns, which homeless advocates decry as limiting or marginalizing are nonetheless rooted in genuine needs. For example, the 16 th Street Mall, the most popular tourist destination in the City is also the place in Denver where the most crime occurs. While theft is the most common crime on the mall, 383 of the upwards of 1,600 arrests made on the mall, other crimes include drug and alcohol violations, with a combined total of 338 arrests, were the fourth most common violation on the mall (Hamm, 2015). While it cannot be argued that these crimes are committed entirely by individuals without a home, nor does The Denver Post compile data on the housing status of individuals cited or arrested, crimes such as these hurt both safety and tourism in the area. Inte restingly, Denver also employs area bans to prevent individuals from being in certain spaces at any point. These bans have been em ployed to ban prostitutes along East Colfax

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ANOTHER ROAD HOME: Banks 16 A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF DENVER'S 10 YEARS TO END HOMELESSNESS Avenue and heroin addict s from the Cherry Creek Trail [and banish] repeat offende rs from downtown ," (Brown, 2015). These bans also symbolize the split between safety and marginalization, with Denver arguing that these bans help decrease the revolving door between jails and the 16 th Street Mall. Advocates argue that these measures targe t the homeless and unprivileged disproportionately. Denver is a tourist city in 2014 and 2013 were both record breaking years. In the fall of 2014 Denver hotels had a 78.2% occupancy rate, (Blevins, 2014), and in 2013 Denver received upwards of 4 billion dollars in revenue from more than 14 million tourists (Sealover, 2014). Sales taxes and property taxes are the other main forms of revenue for the City and County of Denver. Denver sales tax currently sits at roughly 7.5 cents on the dollar for general sa les, 8 cents for food, beverage, and liquor sales, and 21.15 cents for retail marijuana. Denver receives 3.5 cents, 4 cents, and 7 cents respectively. (Denver Treasury Division, a, 2015). Denver receives property tax based on the following formula assess ed value of a property Mill levy where assessed value is determined for residential property by taking 7.69 percent of the actual value, and a business property by taking 29%, and a mill levy is 1$ for 1000$ in assessed value (Denver Treasury Division, b, 2015). The Median home value in t he Denver Metro Area is 291,500, meaning that Denver receives around 22 416.35 $ per house. Data could not be determined for business properties. Anything that harms these two revenue sources for the City is detrimental to the City as a whole. While these numbers are not concrete, a low perception of safety in the public eye due to homelessness or the presence of individuals experiencing homelessness has a negative impact on businesses which impacts sales tax revenue.

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ANOTHER ROAD HOME: Banks 17 A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF DENVER'S 10 YEARS TO END HOMELESSNESS Businesses, Venues and Residents Many of the values held by businesses, sporting venues and residents are the same as those of the city. Businesses and sporting venues depend heavily on the revenue received by sales and tourism, and safety and cleanliness are important factors of ensuring cons umers enter the location and make purchases. Residents desire destinations that are safe and clean. In regards to homelessness, these values are all interlocked between each of the sub types of shareholder. Advocates and Providers Advocacy projects such as the Western Regional Advocacy Project, Bayaud Enterprises, and Denver Homeless Out Loud (DHOL) as well as service providers such as the St. Francis Center, a city run organization, and The Denver Urban Ministries (DenUM) and Denver Rescue Mission, a fa ith based organization, desire to ensure the human decency, safety, and the quality of life for individuals who are experiencing homelessness. A common phrase within DHOL is the question "Quality of WHOSE life?" in reference to the quality of life laws pas sed through Denver and other cities which DHOL argues are detrimental to the quality of life of those without a home. Human Decency is the ability for individuals without a home to maintain a life where they are able to exist in publ ic space or obtain b asic needs such as housing, employment, and equal protection under the law (Denver Homeless Out Loud, 2015). Harassment due to the Unauthorized Camping Ordinance (UCO) and in general is often cited by DHOL as a major concern for individuals without a home in Denver. Individuals without a home also need to be safe, the streets are not a safe place to live, exposed to weather, unfortunately this year already 6 individuals without a home have died in Denver due to hypothermia, living on the street also exp oses individuals to crime. According to a

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ANOTHER ROAD HOME: Banks 18 A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF DENVER'S 10 YEARS TO END HOMELESSNESS survey conducted by DHOL in 2013 prior to the UCO the most common reason for sleeping in along 16 th Street Mall or Civic Center Park was that it was safe and well lit (DHOL & Robinson, 2014, p. 5). Since the passi ng of the UCO of 2012, 66% of survey respondents stated that they had moved to more hidden or solitary places to sleep (DHOL & Robinson, 2014, p. 5). This move to hidden or solitary spaces, less lit spaces, or spaces removed from the public eye has decreas ed feelings of safety in individuals without a home. It should also be noted that of those sleeping in public, 37% of survey respondents elected to sleep without a cover in order to circumvent the UCO. (DHOL & Robinson, 2014, p.9). This lack of covering re moves a barrier to the elements that is one of the few protections from hypothermia that individuals without a home experience. According to this survey 53% of respondents say that their feeling of safety has gotten worse, 50% say that their sleep habits have gotten worse, 60% have felt a decrease in their amount of sleep, 62% have decreased access to shelter resources, and 47% have lost access to other r esources. (DHOL & Robinson, 2014, p. 9). From this survey, DHOL believes that the quality of life has gone down. Closing This chapter addressed the multiple facets of homelessness in the City and County of Denver. By framing the problem of Homelessness a s one where Non profit advocates, public and N on G overnment O rganizations (NGOs) service providers, and the public and private sector intersect with the individuals facing homelessness the stage is set for the multitude of projects and programs already und erway and the curtains are drawn for suggestions. In this chapter the causes of homelessness were described, and the characters and needs in the story were fleshed out. The needs of the various stakeholders in this issue will become a

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ANOTHER ROAD HOME: Banks 19 A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF DENVER'S 10 YEARS TO END HOMELESSNESS Figure 2 reoccurring theme a s any project or program in operation or to be suggested will be judged first and foremost on their ability to attend the needs of each group. To summarize, the stakeholders have the following needs. Individuals Experiencing Homelessness Housing, Respect and Support in the following areas: Mental and Physical Health, Jobs, and Food City and County of Denver Safety, Tourism, Sales/Property Tax Revenues, Businesses/Sporting Venues/Residents Safety, Cleanliness, Sales Revenue, Tourism, and Destinations Advocates and Providers Human Decency, Safety, and Quality of Life The next chapter will address these needs as a core element of the framework for judging programs within the City.

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ANOTHER ROAD HOME: Banks 20 A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF DENVER'S 10 YEARS TO END HOMELESSNESS Chapter 2 : Establishing the Criteria In Chapter 1 the stakeholders in the question of homelessness were introduced, and their needs defined. In this chapter these needs will be joined by other factors of a strong plan, and it will be determined that the best plans to answer the question of homelessness wi ll be those that meet the needs of each stakeholder, can be brought forward in the political climate of the City and County of Denver and the State of Colorado at this time, solutions that are cost effective, and solutions that are timely. This chapter wil l also address the intersections of the stakeholders, viewing them as parts of a connected whole whereas the last chapter saw them as separate pieces. This chapter will establish the scoring framework for the current programs in the City and County of Denv er, as well as the proposed programs.

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ANOTHER ROAD HOME: Banks 21 A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF DENVER'S 10 YEARS TO END HOMELESSNESS !"#$%"#& !"#$%&'(&)* +,-./%&("%&)* 0"1(&4"56786.69:+,-./%&("%&)*63;;%"##"#6'%)<"$(#6=&(:636-&226)%6 %">"%"*;,?6$)?')*"*(@6A%)1%3?#6%"$"&4"6')&*(#6&*6(:+,-. /%&("%&)*6>)%6(:"6#(31"6)>6(:"62"1(&4"6'%)$"##6(:"B6%"3$:@6 +CD6E,*;&*156F6.69:+,-./%&("%&)*63;;%"##"#6(:"63-&2&(B6)>636'%)1%3?6 ()6#"$,%"6+)$&326C?'3$(6D)*;6E,*;#@ 9:/%&("%&)*63;;%"##"#6(:"63-&2&(B636'%)1%3?6:3#6()6#"$,%"6(:"6-,B. &*6)>6(:"6#(3G":)2;"%#@6A)&*(#63%"63##"##";6>)%6"3$:6#(3G":)2;"%6 (:3(6#,'')%(#636'%)1%3?@6 H)(.I''2&$3-2" H)(.I''2&$3-2" J4"%3226E,*;&*16+"$,%&(B56K6.69:+,-./%&("%&)*63;;%"##"#6(:"6 3?),*(6)>6>,*;&*1636'%)1%3?6:3#@6A)&*(#63%"63##"##";6)*636 '"%$"*(31"6-3#&#@6 9:/%&("%&)*63;;%"##"#6(:"6>,*;&*16#(3-&2&(B6)>6(:"6'%)1%3?L6')&*(#6 3%"63##"##";6-3#";6)*636'%)1%3?#63-&2&(B6()6#"$,%"6+CD6>,*;&*163*;6 (:"6)4"%3226'"%$"*(31"6)>6'%)1%3?#6>,*;";@6 9:/%&("%&)*63;;%"##"#636'%)<"$(#6(&?"2B63%%&432@6E)%636$)?'2"(";6 '%)1%3?6')&*(#63%"63##"##";6-3#";6)*6(:"6(&?"6>%3?"6&*6=:&$:6 (:"B6="%"6$)?'2"(";L6>)%6&*$)?'2"("6'%)<"$(#6')&*(#63%"63##"##";6 -3#";6,')*6(:"6'%)?&#";6(&?">%3?"@6 H)(.I''2&$3-2" 9:$%&("%&)*63;;%"##"#6(:"6'%)1%"##636'%)1%3?6:3#6?3;"6(:%),1:6 (:"6/&(B63*;6/),*(B6)>6!"*4"%6C*>%3#(%,$(,%"@69:#$)%"6=&226-"6 ;"%&4";6-B6(3G&*16(:"634"%31"6)>6(:"6+$)%"6>)%60"1(&)*63*;6>)%6 (:"6I1"*$B@6 I1"*$B56786.69:+,-./%&("%&)*63;;%"##"#6'%)<"$(#6(:3(63$(&43("6 31"*$&"#6=&(:&*6(:"6+(3("6)>6/)2)%3;)6)%6(:"6/&(B63*;6/),*(B6)>6 !"*4"%@6A%)<"$(#6%"$"&4"6')&*(#6-3#";6)*6(:"63?),*(6)>631"*$&"#6 $322";6()6=)%G6)*6361&4"*6'%)1%3?@6 '%%()*+,-.#--/%0$1*2,$*3.*45 6,78901*2,$*3.*45 :#/%-#0%))1*2,$*3.*45 ;%<,"#$7*3.*+,0(#0=1*2,$*3.*45 +%&)#>#-#$71*2,$*3.*45 9:$%&("%&)*63;;%"##"#636'%)1%3?#63-&2&(B6()63$:&"4"6(:"6*"";#6)>6 (:"6#(3G":)2;"%#L6')&*(#63%"63##"##";6"&(:"%6-B63*6)4"%3226 '"%$"*(31"6)%6-B63*634"%31"6)>6(:"6#(3G":)2;"%6*"";#6?"(@6

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ANOTHER ROAD HOME: Banks 22 A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF DENVER'S 10 YEARS TO END HOMELESSNESS !"#$"%&'(# )*+#$"%&'(# ,*-#$"%&'(# ./&'#'"#0&#%11/2/3020&'#4"55%''//#"1#6"('6"&/7#%&7/8%&%'/39#:%';%&# 4"55%''// < < !"#6"%&'(#:%33#=/#0((%>&/7#%8#%&%'%0'%2/(#01/#&"'#0771/((/7#%&#';/# 6"3%49#"8#1/3/20&'#0>/&4%/( ?&%'%0'%2/(#01/#5%&%50339#0771/((/7#%�>/&49#6"3%49# "1#('10'/>%4#6"3%49#"@'4"5/(A#B#$"%&'( C@33#07"6'%"&#=9#0�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ANOTHER ROAD HOME: Banks 23 A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF DENVER'S 10 YEARS TO END HOMELESSNESS Fulfillment of Needs A necessary element of the plans proposed is that they must be negotiable. They must meet the needs of each stakeholder group, meaning that this solution must secure housing for those withou t housing, must secure respect as an individual, provide access to healthcare, both mental and physical, and must protect individuals against inflation in the housing, food and energy markets. This solution must also secure the desire for safety of the Cit y and Storefronts, without compromising the safety of individuals without a home. This solution must protect the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ANOTHER ROAD HOME: Banks 24 A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF DENVER'S 10 YEARS TO END HOMELESSNESS revenues of businesses and the city, and guard the perceived attractiveness of the city, without infringing upon the quality of life of individ uals without a home. At first glance many of these need negotiations appear impossible to achieve or navigate, and indeed many of the projects currently in operation have not secured a space in between these stands. However, the success of projects in Uta h suggest that there may be a chartable course. This standard will be broken into categories based upon the number of needs that the program secures. The percentages of needs met will be establis hed in the following manner. One hundred percent of a need met will mean the full realization of a specific need, meaning that it has been considered and secured for the majority of individuals in the stakeholder gr oup. Twenty Five to 75 percent of a need met will refer to the partial re alization of a specific nee d. Ten percent will be given to a need that is discussed but has not been realized, and a need will receive zero percent if it cannot be inferred that it is in the focus of a program. The percentage for each need will then be averaged to determine the ove rall percentage for that stakeholder group. The overall percentage of needs met will be determined by taking the median of all four stakeholder averages. Buy In Equally important to the Fulfillment of Stakeholder Needs, is the Buy In from Stakeholders. It means little for a project to meet the needs of an organization if these needs are not recognized and accepted by the organization. For example, the Unauthorized Camping Ordinance, which had been framed as a project to address the needs of those without a home long term has no buy in from this stakeholder group or from the advocates and providers. This is an issue of outcome and the means in which the program was undertaken.

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ANOTHER ROAD HOME: Banks 25 A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF DENVER'S 10 YEARS TO END HOMELESSNESS A crucial component of buy in is related to the recognition of met needs, anothe r is the perception of impediment towards more important or closely held goals. For example a program like shelters, which secure a temporary reprieve from the elements impedes upon the safety of those without homes due to the prevalence of crime within th ese areas, therefore individuals without a home are not likely to buy into shelter programs as readily as they would other programs. Feasibility Any program proposed must through the political climate of the City and County of Denver, or the State of Colorado in order to become successful. In this criterion, scores will be based upon two sub criteria, the ability to become a law, or the ability to be enacted by City agencies. For programs that require a policy element and public enactment the scores will be averaged. For those that only require one element the score will be taken as is. Each sub criteria will be judged on a ten point scale. The abi lity to get through the State House of Representatives, the State Senate, or the City Council will be judged based upon the number of times a bill must be voted upon in order to become a statute or an ordinance, as well as the ability for a bill to receive the signature of the executive for the State or City, at the time of writing this is Governor Hickenlooper or Mayor Hancock respectively. Point structure will vary for the State House or Senate and the City Council due to the difference in number of votes necessary. Points granted based upon the Chambers of the state legislature will only add up to 4.5 due to the need for a bill to pass both houses in order to become a law. Bills will receive points based upon the final action taken upon the bill. A bill k illed during the second reading of a bill will receive points where a bill killed in committee would not because the further a bill is able to go gives suggestions on how the bill can

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ANOTHER ROAD HOME: Banks 26 A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF DENVER'S 10 YEARS TO END HOMELESSNESS be re proposed at a later date with a better success of becoming enacted For example, a bill that is not signed by the executive, may require introduction during the administration of another executive, or in the Colorado General Assembly, it may be necessary to propose a bill when both chambers are of one party. For enactme nt by city or state agencies points will be assigned based upon the adoption in policy and strategic goals of an agency. Points will also be assigned based upon the infrastructure available for public agencies to come together to achieve the goals of a pro gram. This criterion is not intended to penalize initiatives that do not require public approval. For example in the instance of a non profit group securing private funding to establish four hundred extra beds within the confines of the city for the purpose of sheltering individuals without a home. However, on some level the City or the State will be involved in the discussion of the action. This is due either to the need for a policy to be set that addresses or secures the needs of other stakeholders as is the case for the Homeless Bill of Rights; the infringing upon the needs of the City, as again occurs in the Homeless Bill of Rights as introduced; or in the zoning changes that may be required to fully develop a program, as is the case in the hypot hetical provided above. In part or in whole the government must also decide if it will allocate funding to a program, whether traditionally, or in the case of a Social Impact Bond (SIB) if the City and County of Denver decides to enter into a SIB contract This criterion also recognizes the changing structure of the political climate. The political climate for each group is subject to change from the writing of this paper, so this section will endeavor to describe the current political climate at the time of writing, as well as make projections for the future climate.

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ANOTHER ROAD HOME: Banks 27 A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF DENVER'S 10 YEARS TO END HOMELESSNESS While the infrastructure in public agencies is not likely to change drastically, changes in the composition of the executive and legislative branches are, and these changes will have impacts on the budget allocation for the various agencies. In the City and County of Denver, an election for Mayor, Clerk and Recorder, Auditor, and City Council will be completed no later than June of 2015, six members of the council have been term limited and t herefore will no longer hold a seat on the council. Denver is largely a Democratic city, however District 2, a largely suburban area near Marston Lake generally votes Republican, Councilwoman Jeanne Faatz, the Current council representative for District 2 is term limited. Other Councilmembers that are term limited include Jeanne Robb and Judy Montero, who are both regular attendees of the Homeless Commission, which oversees the drafting and budgeting of Denver's Road Home. Councilman Albus Brooks, the spons or for the Unauthorized Camping Ordinance may face a difficult vote due to the candidacy of ardent detractors of the UCO in District 9. Denver has also redistricted, moving the boundaries for district elections from their locations in the past two election s. At large Councilmembers Robin Kniech and Debbie Ortega, both members of the Homeless Commission, are seeking reelection. Their opponents include Kayvan Khalatbari and Jose Silva. Khalatbari, a major marijuana activist may prove an interesting element d ue to the alleged link between marijuana and the increase in homelessness in Denver. In the State of Colorado, elections are held annually in November to determine the composition of the legislature for a term from January to May of the following year. Th e midterm election saw the Governor reinstated, and saw the Senate go Republican, splitting the chambers from last term's Democrat conjunction. It is uncertain if this trend will be reversed or if the House will also become Republican. However due to the r ecent failure of the Homeless

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ANOTHER ROAD HOME: Banks 28 A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF DENVER'S 10 YEARS TO END HOMELESSNESS Bill of Rights in the House, there is no knowledge yet if State composition will have a large impact on what is generally considered a City issue. Security of Funding This standard refers either to the current security and pr ojected security of funding for current programs, and the potential security of funding for proposed programs. It will be derived by comparing the funding needed to pull together a proposal versus the funding offered by the joining of non profit, public, a nd private entities. As Denver has recently opened a Social Impact Bond program funding security will also be derived by taking into account the ability for a program to secure SIB funding. A Social Impact Bond is a structure that allows private entities t o fund innovation in non profit groups who propose an initiative to solve pressing problems in the City and County of Denver. The City will agree to pay back the investments made towards programs that bear fruit. For this criterion, elements will be given that create a funding score. Funding score points will be given on the following model. Timelines s Timeliness will be judged based upon the ability of a project to arrive within a reasonable time period. In this criterion points will be given and removed based upon the following model. In this criterion, it is recognized that a good model will take many years to achieve fruition, and that progress cannot be rushed. A timeliness criterion score is not intended to punish programs that take longer, it is pro posed in order to establish the urgency of a programs arrival. A program will be considered as achieving fruition based upon the completion of over 80 percent of the goals established by the program creators.

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ANOTHER ROAD HOME: Banks 29 A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF DENVER'S 10 YEARS TO END HOMELESSNESS Closing In the upcoming chapters the scoring rubric will be used as a comparison model for programs in the City and County of Denver. Each program will receive a score out of 40 for their overall status as a project. The scores of these programs will then be presented against each other in order to c ontrast their merits.

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ANOTHER ROAD HOME: Banks 30 A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF DENVER'S 10 YEARS TO END HOMELESSNESS Chapter 3 : Forming the Baseline D enver's Road Home Set against a backdrop of national policies and municipal agreements, Denver's Road Home (DRH) is an initiative ran by the City and County of Denver, led by Denver Human Services, and the Mayor's Commission on Homelessness, this project, marketed as Denver's "10 Year Plan to End Homelessness" has been arguably overrepresented T he dialogue from the City's standpoint is that the program has not failed, it has just not been fully realized. It is important to recognize the inherent truth of this statement, this project has done what none in Denver has, it sparked a dialogue on homelessness within the c ity and created a framework of the solution that relied upon partners within the City, the Non Governmental Organizations (NGO) of the city, the foundations and business interests in the city, Mile High United W ay, the Homeless Community as a whole, and co mmunities of faith. D enver's R oad H ome has also been successful in that every individual who found a home, or received access to services throughout the City is one more individual who would otherwise have been living on the streets. While the project has ended, it has not been dismantled, D enver's R oad H ome is undergoing rebranding, reformatting, and restrategizing. This in itself is a victory, because it showcases the commitment to working on the program and towards finding a solution to homelessness wit hin the city. This project in its most recent inception is based on 8 strategic project outcomes: Housing; the Shelter System; Prevention; Services; Public Safety and Outreach; Education, Employment, and Training; Community Awareness; and Zoning. (Denver' s Road Home, 2009, p. 8).

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ANOTHER ROAD HOME: Banks 31 A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF DENVER'S 10 YEARS TO END HOMELESSNESS For reference, the sub goal structure for Goal 1: Permanent and Transitional Housing is included here. Figure 4 (Denver's Road Home, 2013). Each structure is framed by the goal and description, the time frame intended for the initiative, the proposed partners, a cost estimate using dollar signs as proportional values, and how much funding had been secured. Though DRH has closed its first 10 y ears, data derived from this program will be based upon the values given in 2013. The fifth and final revision of the plan will arrive in June of 2015, too late for the purposes of this paper. Where projections are needed the data will be extrapolated base d upon the relationship between the second revision published in 2009, and the fourth revision.

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ANOTHER ROAD HOME: Banks 32 A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF DENVER'S 10 YEARS TO END HOMELESSNESS Criteria Ranking This project meets the following stakeholder needs. Housing, Respect, Healthcare and Food Support, Safety, Sales/Property Revenues, Cleanliness, Human Decency, Safety, and Quality of Life. However, these programs have not yet achieved full fruition, theref ore this program achieves a Category A program for meeting 60% of the stakeholder needs for each group. As this program does not impinge upon the needs of any of the stakeholders, this program receives eight points. All stakeholders have bought into this program, Denver's Road Home, and the Homeless Commission itself is composed of members of the Homeless Community, the City, Businesses and Residents, and Advocates and Providers. This project receives 10 points for buy in. This project was brought into t he forefront of Denver's work, during 2009, when Mayor John Hickenlooper held office, as it has already passed through the City Council and appropriate appropriations are continually secured this project receives the full 10 points for the administrative s ide of the criterion. For the agency side, multiple programs have been mobilized to support this project, Public Works, the St. Francis Center, and Denver Human Services, which houses a number of agencies, including food based, counseling based, and case w ork based programs which have all been mobilized by this project, having activated a variety of Denver agencies, this criterion receives 10 points in this category as well. Overall Denver's Road Home receives 10 points for political feasibility. Security of Funding will be judged based upon the terms set in the DRH plan as of the Fourth Revision, published in 2013. As each sub goal addresses the amount of money secured the compilation of each secured goal will show the amount of funding secured. It will al so show

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ANOTHER ROAD HOME: Banks 33 A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF DENVER'S 10 YEARS TO END HOMELESSNESS which areas of the program had better funding security or worse, which will further inform the understanding of this program beyond that of the Criteria rank. Unfortunately due to the data collected by Denver's Road Home, data is pulled together f rom qualitative and quantitative sources. This disconnect in data, along with a staff change that left the 2011 revisio n unpublished shows a data set that may have contributed to a lack of funding. Funding Security will be projected from the percentage cha nge from the 2009 and 2013 qualitative data, and the 2011 and 2014 quantitative data, figures for all four years can be found in Appendix B. From 2009 to 2013 the amount of programs funded had a 10 percent increase from 71 percent of programs funded to 79 percent of projects funded; however, from 2011 to 2014 the budget decreased by 17 percent. There are two likely scenarios that could attribute to this data conflict. A) S pending between 2011 and 2013 got more targeted, or B) A fter 2013 the budget saw cut s. Option B appears the most likely, given that the national discourse surrounding homelessness shifted towards apathy in 2012 and it stands to reason that the extra funding created by the Recovery Act of 2009 had been spent out by 2013. However, as of 2 013 the funded projects had achieved nearly 80 percent of the goal, it is safe to say that in the 2015 revision, Denver's Road Home will have at least 81 percent of projects funded, therefore, Denver's Road Home receives 5 out of the 10 possible points for funding security. Timeliness, unfortunately this is where the project is less than excellent, as the originally promised time was 10 years which would have placed the project at 6 out of 10 points, however,

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ANOTHER ROAD HOME: Banks 34 A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF DENVER'S 10 YEARS TO END HOMELESSNESS this project loses .3 points due to extending i ts promised time. The value for 20 years, the current projection is 4 points, placing the value for timeliness at 3.7. Denver's Road Home Summary Before launching into a major discussion on the merits of the Denver's Road Home program or analyzing its s hape, it is important to remember that many cities signed onto initiatives targeted towards ending homelessness in 2002 and 2004. Many of these programs, have seen difficulty in creating a program to end homelessness. With this in mind, the program is st rong in fulfilling the needs of the stakeholders, in securing Buy In and is highly feasible politically, however, it has not shown strong timeliness. Funding security for the program is neither strong nor weak. Overall, this program is very secure and show s long term stability given the changing political climate of Denver does not change too strongly in the opposite direction. The Unauthorized Camping Ordinance "Urban Camping Ban" This ordinance makes unlawful the following actions, camping "upon any pr ivate property without the express written consent of the property owner or the owner's agent, and "! #! $! %! &! '"! ())*+! ,-./01! 2)3+454647.! 2-1*418!9):-;47.! <4=)641)++! >)1?);@+!AB3*!CB=)!

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ANOTHER ROAD HOME: Banks 35 A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF DENVER'S 10 YEARS TO END HOMELESSNESS only in such locations where camping may be conducted in accordance with any other applicable city law," and camping "upon any public property except in any location where camping has been expressly allowed by the officer or agency having the control, management and supervision of the public property in question" (¤ 38 86.2 DRMC, ¤¤38 86.2(a) (b)). However, this bill has the unfortunate side effect of includi ng language that prohibits shelter from the elements in the form of any tent, tarpaulin, lean to, sleeping bag, bedroll, blankets, or any form of cover or protection from t he elements other than clothing" (¤ 32 86.2 DRMC, ¤38 86.2(d)(1)). This definition of shelter excludes the only forms of protection that individuals without a home have, leaving individuals further exposed to issues such as hypothermia and illness. A common complaint of this bill is that individuals without a home often feel harassed by law enforcement, however, the bill clearly out lines what an officer who encounters someone they feel to be in violation ¤32 86.2, officers must attempt to ascertain whether the person is in need of medical or human services assistance, including, but not limited, to mental health treatment, drug or alcohol rehabilitation, or homeless services assistance." (¤ 32 86.2 DRMC, ¤38 86.2(b)(2)). This paragraph goes on to further establish how an officer must conduct themselves in the case of an individual who re quires assistance of these types. An amendment had been considered during the 2012 council session which would have strengthened this bill, unfortunately between the first and second reading, this amendment was voted down 7 5, with one abstention. The text would have secured the bill against the second most common complaint: the shelter system is not equipped to address the concerns of this bill, and therefore the sadistic description of sheltering oneself is heavy handed and further marginalizes, and in fa ct endangers, individuals without a home. The text is as follows.

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ANOTHER ROAD HOME: Banks 36 A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF DENVER'S 10 YEARS TO END HOMELESSNESS On or after June 1, 2013, this ordinance shall not be enforced at any time when: (1) There are fewer than 1,100 beds in shelters for the homeless that are permitted under the zoning code in the entire city as certified by the zoning administrator, not including any temporary or emergency shelter beds; or there are fewer than 250 such permitted shelter beds available for use by women; or there are fewer than 50 such permitted shelter beds available for use by persons under the age of 18 years; or (2) There are fewer than 1,100 beds in shelters for the homeless that are actually operating in the entire city as certified by the manager of the Department of Human Services, not including any temporary or emergency shelter beds; or there are fewer than 250 such operating shelter beds available for use by women; or there are fewer than 50 such operating shelter beds available for use by persons under the age of 18 years; or there does not exist within the city a facility that is open twenty four hours per day, in which a person without a home may find rest, respite and resources (City and County of Denver, 2012) Criteria Ranking For this bill, the following needs are secured, the storefronts ke ep their revenue and cleanliness, due to the lack of persons sleeping on the right of way in front of them, and residents do not need to suffer the presence of individuals without a home within their right of way. The City is able to enjoy the safety, or p erception thereof, that comes from removing individuals without a home from public space. However, safety, human decency, housing, support, and the quality of life for individuals without a home is categorically denied. With 50 percent of needs met overall the Unauthorized Camping Ordinance falls within Category B. However, due to the interference and disregard for the needs of the other two stakeholders, this project receives 4 out of 10 points. This project has received the support of businesses and the City and County of Denver, receiving five points for the buy in of two stakeholder groups.

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ANOTHER ROAD HOME: Banks 37 A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF DENVER'S 10 YEARS TO END HOMELESSNESS In terms of funding security, the bill does not require any additional funding. However the indirect impact of this ordinance is that individuals without a home ar e referred to Detox clinics or hospitals, or are arrested. Detox, hospitals, and prisons are the most expensive options the City has for direct care, creating avoidable expenditures. Due to the major expenses accrued by these functions, and the overall los s of money for the City as a whole, this project receives a 4 out of 10 points for funding security. As this bill took less than 4 years to become enacted, and has been in effect for a while, this bill receives the full 10 points for a timely project. Unauthorized Camping Ordinance Summary An analysis of the shape of this ordinance shows that this bill lacks long term security. Though the project has been fully realized longer than any of the other projects in this section, this is the only area in wh ich the bill excels. The expenditures created by this bill, combined with the lack of buy in or stakeholder needs met creates a bill with few legs to stand upon. While the project had buy in from many of the Denver programs, there is a clear need for furth er training /$! /#! "! #! $! %! &! '"! ())*+! ,-./01! 2)3+454647.! 2-1*418!9):-;47.! <4=)641)++! D13-7EB;4F)*!G3=H418!I;*4131:)!

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ANOTHER ROAD HOME: Banks 38 A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF DENVER'S 10 YEARS TO END HOMELESSNESS on the part of the Denver Police Department, so that ¤38 86.2(d)(1) is recognized and officers are doing a better job to ensure that solutions are sought prior to a citation or an arrest. Colorado H omeless B ill o f R ights /Right to Rest Act of 2015 This bill was postponed indefinitely at the House Committee on State, Veteran, and Military Affairs by a vote of 8 3. However, the failure of this bill, as well as the text and circumstances of this bill tell their only story. Pushed forward by t he Western Regional Advocacy Project and Denver Homeless Out Loud, this project was largely undertaken in response to the Unauthorized Camping Ordinance, and similar bills throughout the Western United States. According to the project coordinators, The H om eless B ill of R ights was geared towards the alleviation of "poverty and homelessness while protecting homeless and poor people from unjust laws and ensuring all people's right to exist in public spaces." (Colorado Homeless Bill of Rights, 2015). In the St ate, this bill would have become the Colorado Right to Rest Act, which would establish : Basic rights for persons experiencing homelessness, including, but not limited to, the right to use and move freely in public spaces without discrimination, to rest in public spaces without discrimination, to eat or accept food in any public space where fo od is not prohibited, to occupy a legally parked vehicle, and to have a reasonable expectation of privacy of one's property. (HR15 1264, 2015). Where this bill creates concerns within the City is language that creates a cause to sue the City, seen within the summary as A person whose rights have been violated may seek enforcement in a civil action, and a court may award relief and damages as appropriate" (HR15 1264, 2015). Within the text of the bill this language appears as 24 4.5 105. Enforcemen t relief A person whose rights have 4 been violated pursuant to this article may seek enforcement of 5 those rights in a civil action. The court may award appropriate 6 injunctive and declaratory relief, restitution for loss of 7 property, and actual an d compensatory damages of up to one 8

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ANOTHER ROAD HOME: Banks 39 A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF DENVER'S 10 YEARS TO END HOMELESSNESS thousand dollars per violation. The court may award 9 reasonable attorney fees and costs to the prevailing party (HR15 1264, 2015) This text was largely responsible for the opposition to this bill on the part of the C ity and County of Denver. Criteria Ranking In terms of the Fulfillment of Needs, this bill would have directly influenced the following needs of individuals experiencing homelessness, Safety and Food, as well as the ability for individuals to rest. However this bill would have hurt the City's revenues through a series of frivolous lawsuits. Businesses, Sporting Venues, and Residents would have been incensed by the increase in people sleeping on the right of way near their storefronts, and Advocates and Pro viders would see support for their goals of human decency, safety, and Quality of Life. This bill would have achieved 25 percent of the needs for individuals without a home, while meeting none of the needs of the City or the Private sphere, and meeting 75 percent of the needs of the advocates and providers. Overall this bill would achieve 25 percent of stakeholder needs, placing it in category C, however, as the language of the bill directly harms the needs of the City it only receives 1 point on a scale of 0 10. This bill would have received the buy in of the Advocates and Providers, and also that of a majority of the individuals experiencing homelessness, however due to the City's active lobbying against the bill it is clear that the Right to Rest Act woul d have received no support from the City. The businesses, sporting venues, and residents would also be unlikely to support this bill. With the support of 2 stakeholder groups, this bi ll would only receive 5 out 10 points. As the bill failed in committee d uring the 2015 Colorado General Assembly Session, the Right to Rest Act receives no points for feasibility.

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ANOTHER ROAD HOME: Banks 40 A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF DENVER'S 10 YEARS TO END HOMELESSNESS In terms of Funding Security, the bill itself reflects a simple adjustment of policy the direct impact would not require funding. However, the indi rect impact of this bill includes the amount of lawsuits that would occur as a result which would require funding, the induced impact of the City losing money would be felt most strongly in the human services programs, these programs whose scope includes t he needs of those experiencing homelessness, both in the front facing programs of Prisons, Shelters, Housing, and Hospitals, would have an overall negative impact upon the individuals experiencing homelessness that this bill seeks to support. In this regar d the bill actually loses points, receiving 4 points for the money it would cost. This bill would have received 10 points for a timely arrival of under four years, however, as the project has either been scrapped or will need significant rewriting to be prepared for the next session, this bill receives 0 points here as well. Homeless Bill of Rights Summary An analysis of this bill's shape shows that overall the program was not as secure as advocates and providers would like to believe. The highest val ue was Buy in, however, with only two stakeholders in support, this value does not suggest any long term security. Having /$! /#! "! #! $! %! ())*+! ,-./01! 2)3+454647.! 2-1*418!9):-;47.! <4=)641)++! CB=)6)++!,466!BJ!A48E7+!

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ANOTHER ROAD HOME: Banks 41 A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF DENVER'S 10 YEARS TO END HOMELESSNESS been scrapped, the project shows no chance of arriving within a reasonable time period, nor does it secure the feasibility of becoming a viable program. Overall this bill would have become a very expensive project to maintain, and would not have truly advanced the discourse of homelessness, nor does it lend towards the overall vision of ending or mitigating homelessness. The Ballpark Pr oposal of 2014 The Ballpark proposal was initiated by residents and businesses near Coors Field, in an attempt to address the concerns of homelessness in the area. The Ballpark neighborhood encompasses an area around the Coors Field, from the South Platte to Curtis Park, and 15 th Street to 28 th Street. The Ballpark Proposal represents an intersection of the City and County of Denver and the Business and Residential interests in the area. This proposal is an informal discussion, enveloping a recent City o rdinance to spend 1.8 million on 10 new caps for the Ballpark, LoDo, and 16 th street areas, as well as projects in the public and private sphere to address panhandling, public urination, and sleeping in public. Denver's Road Home is very critical of BR14 0 440. They offer a series of solutions that they believe are far better ways to address the issues identified by BR14 0440. They offer solutions on how 1.8 million can be spend to address Panhandling, through job security, how 1.8 Million could be spent to address Public Urination, through public restrooms, and how 1.8 million could be spend to address sleeping in public, through the provision of homes. In Chapter 4, these suggestions will be incorporated as alternate programs are suggested. If panhandling is a problem, the solution would be for people who are panhandling because they lack money to be offered employment or a disability check that actually meets their needs.

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ANOTHER ROAD HOME: Banks 42 A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF DENVER'S 10 YEARS TO END HOMELESSNESS 58 people could be hired full time at $15 hr for a year for the $1.8 million the Cit y is proposing to spend on police. For example, people could be hired to clean the streets if that is a real issue. (In New York City, San Rafael (CA) and elsewhere, programs successfully employ unhoused people to remove trash, shovel snow and keep downtow n business areas clean. See AceNewYork.org doe.org and streetsteam.org .) If public urination is a problem, the solution would be to have accessible public bathr ooms for people to urinate in. In Seattle it costs $600,000 per year to maintain one "Urban Rest Stop" which have bathrooms, showers, washing machines, and basic toiletries. Denver could maintain three "Urban Rest Stops" at that price with the 1.8 million proposed to spend on policing. (See http://www.urbanreststop.org/ for more information) In Portland it costs $90,000 to purchase and install one Portland Loo (a solar powered toilet and sink) and $14,400 to maintain it for a year. Denver could buy 17 Portland Loos and maintain them for a year for the $1.8 million. (See https://www.portlandoregon.gov/bes/59293 for more information) Right here in Denver's own Washington Park the city is spending $160,000 for bathrooms (See http://www.westword.com/2014 05 15/news/rangers in denver parks/ ) Why can the city afford to upkeep and cle an the bathrooms in Wash Park and not downtown where people who are homeless have no place to use a restroom? If sleeping in public places is a problem, the solution would be to offer people housing they can afford. 206 single people could be given a stud io apartment for a year for the $1.8 million to be spent policing people sleeping outside. (If someone has no income, rent for a studio apartment would cost the city about $725 per month, including utilities, or $8700 a year)

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ANOTHER ROAD HOME: Banks 43 A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF DENVER'S 10 YEARS TO END HOMELESSNESS 360 "Tiny Homes" could be bui lt at $5,000 a piece (as is done in Madison, Wisconsin) for this 1.8 million (Denver Homeless Out Loud, 2014) During a visit in 2013 to the Ballpark Area, 9news referred to the area as a quickly developing area close to Coors Field struggling now more than ever to coexist with the homeless in an area historically devoted to the city's transient population." (Vanderveen 2013 ). This intersection is one of the best examples of a project that represents the needs of half the stakeholders very well, witho ut addressing the needs of the other half of the table. While the Unauthorized Camping Ordinance had a similar impact, the proposals in the Ballpark neighborhood are of interesting note in that they are hard configurations of funding and infrastructure as opposed to a policy. Criteria Ranking For needs fulfillment, these programs achieve roughly 30% of stakeholder needs overall, placing it in Category C. The projects that compose the Ballpark Plans address Safety, Tourism, Sales and Property revenue, and they are rooted in Destinations and Clea nliness due to their attendance to public urination and defecation. However, they do not address housing, individual respect, or Mental/Physical Health, jobs or food, nor do they attend to Human Decency, the safety or quality of life for individuals withou t a home, except that the ramifications of the public urination and defecation discussion has led towards a discussion on public restrooms, which hits the points addressed by Denver Homeless Out Loud in dissent of the 1.8 million in expenditures for new po lice officers. In summary, the Ballpark Projects collectively address 5 percent of the needs for individuals without a home, 50 percent of the needs for the City and County of Denver, and

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ANOTHER ROAD HOME: Banks 44 A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF DENVER'S 10 YEARS TO END HOMELESSNESS Businesses and Residents, and 10 percent of the needs of the advoca tes and providers. For needs fulfillment, these programs achieve roughly 30% of stakeholder needs overall, placing it in Category C. However, due to the infringement upon Individual and Advocate needs, these proposals receive no points for the fulfillment of needs. For buy in, both the businesses and the city have bought into the Ballpark Proposal, the city has enacted CB14 0440, which secures money for new police officers, this vote was voted upon unanimously on a consent agenda, the City has also carried forward th e public restrooms discussion generated by the Ballpark Initiatives, the businesses have also interacted with these initiatives, hiring an officer for each block of the mall for 100,000$ and engaging in discussions surrounding the goals of the Ballpark RNO For engaging 2 stakeholders the proposals receive 5 points. In the Political Feasibility Criterion, these projects are focused upon the City level. BR14 0440 has passed through the Council and has received the Mayor's signature, netting the full 10 poi nts for the administrative side, for the agency side; however, 7 points are received: 5 for the clear introduction of this money to the hiring of police offers, and 2 for infrastructure because this bill only affects one agency, the Denver Police Departmen t. Overall feasibility achieves a total of 8.5. Funding has been secured for many of the projects, however the public restroom initiative still requires discussions surrounding cost and funding models. Ballpark is also unlikely to receive Social Impact Bon d funding, due to the lack of a relationship between the businesses behind these programs and the non profits that would be requesting the funding. However, it can be reasonably assumed that more than 80% of the funding required for these initiatives have been secured. For this criterion the Ballpark Proposal receives 5 points.

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ANOTHER ROAD HOME: Banks 45 A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF DENVER'S 10 YEARS TO END HOMELESSNESS As the projects formed through the Ballpark proposal have either come to fruition, or are within solutions focused discussions, the public restroom discussion seeking to achieve a pi lot program during 2016, and panhandling discussions reaching a conclusion, it is likely that the Ballpark Proposal will be finalized within 3 years from its inception. For this criterion, the Ballpark Proposal receives 10 points. Ballpark Summary An a nalysis of the shape of the Ballpark Proposal shows that the programs leave much to be desired. These initiatives do not meet the needs of the stakeholders in a satisfactory manner, causing lowered buy in, they are not feasible in the long term as a mobili zation of more agencies will be necessary for the security of this proposal, their funding is also not diverse, showing a lack of overall project security as the values of the funding sources are subject to change. The only area in which this program excel s is the area of timeliness, however, the arrival of a bad program is not a positive occurrence. "! #! $! %! &! '"! ())*+! ,-./01! 2)3+454647.! 2-1*418!9):-;47.! <4=)641)++!
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ANOTHER ROAD HOME: Banks 46 A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF DENVER'S 10 YEARS TO END HOMELESSNESS Current Programs Summary The Current programs displayed together show their own story. Overall, the current programs are not satisfactory to the needs of th e stakeholders, Denver's Road Home is the only program to get more than 50 percent of needs met, the Unauthorized Camping Ordinance is at 4 out of 10 points, due to the fulfillment of city and business needs; however, given the ordinance actively infringes upon the needs of Individuals and Advocates, this ordinance falls along the same wavelength as the Homeless Bill of Rights and the Ballpark Proposal, all three meet the needs of some stakeholders at the detriment of the other groups. Most projects are on ly able to secure buy in from two stakeholder groups, the City and Businesses, or the Advocates and Individuals, Denver's Road Home, securing buy in from all four groups easily stands apart in this category. As most of these programs represent projects th at have already passed through the legislature in some form or another, the Homeless Bill of Rights, voted down by the House /$! /#! "! #! $! %! &! '"! ())*+! ,-./01! 2)3+454647.! 2-1*418!9):-;47.! <4=)641)++! G-;;)17!L;B8;3=!9-==3;.! >)1?);@+!AB3*!CB=)! D13-7EB;4F)*!G3=H418!I;*4131:)! CB=)6)++!,466!BJ!A48E7+!
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ANOTHER ROAD HOME: Banks 47 A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF DENVER'S 10 YEARS TO END HOMELESSNESS Committee on State, Veterans, and Military Affairs during the 2015 session, is the only outlier in this category. Funding Security separates the programs into two categories, those that do not qualify for Social Impact Bond (SIB) funding, but are approaching their funding goals, and those whose induced impacts show unanticipated, and detrimental expenditures. These expenditures also create more financial burden on the sponsoring agency than on other stakeholders, in the form of the Homeless Bill of Rights, the lawsuits against the city pull money from the Human Services budget, hurting those in homelessness and at risk of homelessness in the form of the Unauthorized Camping Ordinance, already overdrawn prisons, hospitals, and rehab clinics are further burdened. Timeliness creates a spectrum, the Unauthorized Camping Ordinance and the Ballpark Proposal have already been realized. Denv er's Road Home is behind its original proposed time, and the Homeless Bill of Rights has been cancelled. Even when the interactions between programs are considered, the City and County of Denver is no stronger or better off, these projects either set stak eholders against each other, a major obstacle to ending or mitigating homelessness which demands stakeholders come together, or these projects create major financial burdens which pulls funding away from projects that may actually work to end homelessness. Unfortunately, the programs the City needs are behind, and show no chance of arriving in a timely manner, and the programs that hurt the City and other stakeholders have already been enacted.

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ANOTHER ROAD HOME: Banks 48 A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF DENVER'S 10 YEARS TO END HOMELESSNESS Chapter 4: Advancing the Goal As shown in the last chapter, no current program within the City and County of Denver satisfies all of the criteria for a program that will mitigate the negative impacts of homelessness. In this chapter suggestions are made towards projects that can contin ue the discourse and aid in a solutions focused model to mitigating homelessness. One that satisfies the most amount of needs for each stakeholder, secures the buy in from each of the stakeholders, is politically feasible, secures necessary funding, and wi ll be introducible in a reasonable timeframe. First, the projects for a program that relies upon the continuation of the status quo will be analyzed, followed by a program based around projects occurring within Utah and a program that combines properti es of the Utah plan with properties of plans outside of North America and projects the success of such a program within Denver. Option A: The Status Quo At first glance the status quo appears heavily reliant upon the programs advanced in Chapter 3. However, this proposed solution is in fact related more towards the character of the current entities within the City and County of Denver. As seen in chapter 1, the stakeholders include Individuals without a home, advocates and providers such as the Weste rn Regional Advocacy Project (WRAP) Denver Homeless Out Loud, The State, the City and County of Denver, the Downtown Denver Partnership, LoDo District, and the Registered Neighborhood Associations. As seen in Chapter 3, there is a dearth of projects that are able to secure the support and buy in of all four stakeholders, and many of the projects conducted have a tendency of placing the Advocates, and Individuals without a home, into a combative situation with the City and the Businesses/Venues/Residents. The status quo looks at a projection for the future if D enver's

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ANOTHER ROAD HOME: Banks 49 A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF DENVER'S 10 YEARS TO END HOMELESSNESS R oad H ome continues to work on their funding projects, the U nauthorized C amping O rdinance remains on the books, the W estern R egional A dvocacy P roject proposes a revised Homeless Bill of Rights at the 2016 General Assembly, and the Ballpark Proposal continues to gain momentum. Projections The Denver's Road Home Project revisions shows a conversation change from eight projects: Housing; the Shelter Sys tem; Prevention; Services; Public Safety and Outreach; Education, Employment, and Training; Community Awareness; and Zoning, to four projects: Housing, Supportive Services, Prevention, and Sustainability. This redefinition of project scope shows reprioriti zation and allows for a smarter budget and better program defense. Given the status of Denver's Road Home as a funding source, a smarter budget allows for a heavier impact in the Non Profit, Quasi Governmental, and City partner organizations. According to the most recent City Council Election results, Albus Brooks will be retaining his seat. As the sponsor, and an ardent supporter of the Urban Camping Ban, it is likely that the ordinance will remain on the books unamended. Councilman Brooks is joined in th e new term by incumbents Lopez, Kniech, Ortega, Susman, and Herndon, the new members of the Council are Rafael Espinoza in District 1, Kendra Black in District 4, and Paul Kashmann in District 6, at the time of writing Districts 2, 7, 10, and 11 have not b een determined. Shepherd, Lopez, Montero, Kniech, and Ortega, were the 5 votes in favor of the Ortega amendment to the Unauthorized Camping Ordinance (UCO) Montero voted in favor of the UCO during the final consideration. It is uncertain if Espinoza would be in support of a similar amendment, but given that he has been a strong detractor of Shepherd it is unlikely. With the loss of two of the four

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ANOTHER ROAD HOME: Banks 50 A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF DENVER'S 10 YEARS TO END HOMELESSNESS opponents to the UCO as introduced, and no read on whether new councilmembers will present opposition, it is u nlikely that this bill will be removed. However, there are a growing number of businesses that are no longer in support of the ordinance, if this trend continues, it is likely that there will be substantial pressure towards amending or repealing the code. The Homeless Bill of Rights is unlikely to pass through the state legislature, the time spent on this bill is likely to distract from other measures that Denver Homeless Out Loud would normally engage in, this trend further spurred by the City's current i nability to engage this organization in a meaningful way. Due to the continuing, and probable increase of this negative feedback loop, the future does not look to be one in which stakeholder negotiation is possible. The Ballpark Proposal has an uncertain f uture at this point. There are a few scenarios, 1) The Ballpark Proposal becomes a one time set of programs: the 1.8 million remains in the police coffers, Denver Downtown Partnership (DDP) retains their deal with the Denver Police for block officers, and co nversations on public restrooms and panhandling continue. 2) The Ballpark Proposal discussions reverse: funding is cut for DPD, DDP pulls out of their contract for block officers, and conversations cease. 3) The Ballpark Proposal becomes larger: further money is sent to DPD, DDP continues to increase 16 th street surveillance, the public restroom pilot grows larger in scope, and the panhandling conversation advances. 4) The Ballpark Proposal remains static in some places, increases in others, and decreases in oth ers.

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ANOTHER ROAD HOME: Banks 51 A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF DENVER'S 10 YEARS TO END HOMELESSNESS Scenario 4 is the most likely scenario, given that the panhandling conversation is unlikely to go further, the public restroom conversation can either become larger, or go the way of Skyline Park, and DDP is likely to continue spending money on surve illance and security. The public restroom conversation and surveillance along the mall are large points of contention between the advocate groups and the public and private sector stakeholders, so the future of these conversations factor into the character of future negotiations and projects. Criteria Ranking Given the nature of this project, the criteria models need to be adapted slightly. The most important criteria in this model are Buy In and Needs Fulfillment. Funding Security cannot be determined due to the variances of impact in each program, Political Feasibility is unnavigable due to the unpredictable nature of the upcoming term, and Timeliness is irrelevant due to each of these programs occurring at the present moment. The nature of Buy In now ref lects the ability for each stakeholder to work together in a discourse advancing manner. Due to the negative feedback loop between the City/Business stakeholders and the Advocate/Individual stakeholders, the future is likely to only activate two stakehold er groups at a time. Buy In receives a 5 out of 10 points for netting the support of only two stakeholders. Needs Fulfillment refers to the needs that the future of the City, with no additional programming is likely to secure. In this case, the Needs of I ndividuals without homes are unmet by any current program, Denver's Road Home (DRH) will continue to pull together housing, mental health and job support, the Unauthorized Camping Ordinance (UCO) and the Ballpark Proposal do not cancel these projects out, however they harm the need for safety and respect as an individual. In this case Individuals only have 10 percent of their overall needs secured.

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ANOTHER ROAD HOME: Banks 52 A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF DENVER'S 10 YEARS TO END HOMELESSNESS The City and County, and Business see 100 percent of their needs met, due to the nature of the Ballpark Propo sal and the UCO, which secure and advance storefronts, tourism, and sales and property revenue, Advocate needs are unmet, Safety, Quality of Life, and Decency are all infringed upon, with the exception of the Public restroom conversation within the Ballpar k Proposal. Advocate needs are met at 10 percent. Overall 55% of stakeholder needs are secured, placing the status quo within Category B, however, due to the needs left both unmet, and contravened, this project loses 1 point for each need infringed upon, p lacing it at 2 out of 10 points, as Human Decency, Safety, Quality of Life, and Individual Respect are harmed overall by the status quo. Option B : The Utah Solution As the 10 year plans reach their conclusion across the nation, a redefining of the overa ll plan is necessary. In 2010, President Barack Obama announced a plan to address chronic and veteran homelessness within 5 years, and family homelessness within 10 years. In 2005, Utah enacted state plans that have brought real, affirmative change to the chronically homeless platform. Their model, Housing First, allows individuals without homes to have and keep permanent housing, and then gives access to supportive programming in the form of healthcare support, job programming, and substance abuse counsel ing. This program recalls a simple fact of Maslow's Hierarchy, that people need food, shelter, water, and safety before they can move forwards in their progression. Criteria Ranking This is a strong project, it secures the needs of the homeless individuals, Housing, Jobs, and Healthcare support, it secures the public need for Safety, Tourism, and Tax Revenues, it also

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ANOTHER ROAD HOME: Banks 53 A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF DENVER'S 10 YEARS TO END HOMELESSNESS secures the Business needs of Safety and Cleanliness, finally, advo cate needs are secured in the form of human decency, safety, and Quality of life. This project addresses and secures these needs for a majority of the stakeholder group, achieving 90 percent of stakeholder needs overall, therefore falling into Category S, as this project does not contravene the needs of any other stakeholder it receives the full 10 points. This project has the buy in of all four stakeholder groups, receiving the full 10 points for stakeholder buy in. As the Utah plan has already passed th rough the state legislature and has activated multiple state agencies, this program again receives the full 10 points for political feasibility. Funding S ecurity, as Social Impact Bonds (SIB) are irrelevant in this discussion, the 6 poi nts maximum availab le for a non SIB program will be counted as proportional to 10 points. Given that this program has secured the necessary funding to achieve the goal of ending Chronic Homelessness, it will receive a full 10 out of 10 points. This program has achieved its goals within the 10 years it was set for receiving 6 out of 10 points for timeliness.

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ANOTHER ROAD HOME: Banks 54 A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF DENVER'S 10 YEARS TO END HOMELESSNESS Utah Solution Summary This solution is a very strong program, one that stands on many legs, the only issue with this project is that it i s only focused on one population in the Homeless community. Programs of this nature could very well be achieved to move forwards the goals of other populations within the homeless nexus. Suggestions for a Stronger Denver Denver would strongly benefit fro m folding the programs occuring in Utah into its current protocol. By securing solutions for a more advanced housing discussion in the City, Denver allows the most powerful aspect of a Social Impact Bond scenario to occur, through housing for people, regar dless of status, the problem of homelessness is truly addressed. The Shelter system needs to be made far safer and more pleasant to be involved in, encouraging stronger coordination with the programs, and there needs to be more funding in conjunction with the shelter system. "! #! $! %! &! '"! ())*+! ,-./01! 2)3+454647.! 2-1*418!9):-;47.! <4=)641)++!
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ANOTHER ROAD HOME: Banks 55 A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF DENVER'S 10 YEARS TO END HOMELESSNESS The Unauthorized Camping Ordinance would be a more suitable legislation if it did not contain sadistic definitions on shelter, and if the Ortega amendment is included in the program. Denver's Road Home would benefit by a more targete d and strategized way of presenting projects, as well as more coordinated and organized model of control. Denver Homeless Out Loud, needs to become engaged in a process that creates constructive conversation surrounding the state of Homelessness in the Ci ty and County of Denver, and allows the movement a better focal point. Closing Remarks Homelessness can come to a fully realized solution, despite a growth of homelessness in the City and County of Denver, National Homelessness is on the decrease. This p rocess requires stewardship, and does not allow rest. In 2012, projections showed a quickly drawing future where homelessness was no longer issues, unfortunately, complacency and a societal unconcern with homelessness threw this trajectory off course. Wit h better targeted funding towards houses, and a more communal focus on ending homelessness and providing services, the most vulnerable members of the United States can see a future where their right to live and rest is secured.

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ANOTHER ROAD HOME: Banks 56 A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF DENVER'S 10 YEARS TO END HOMELESSNESS Appendix A: Criteria Mode ls !"#$%"#& G37)8B;. LB417+!M?346356) (%%)*'+,-.#--/%0$1'2,$'3.'45 G37)8B;.!9 N / '" G37)8B;.!M O / & G37)8B;.!, P / % G37)8B;.!G Q / $ G37)8B;.!> / # 6,7 8 901'2,$'3.'45 M66!JB-;!973K)EB6*);+ '" #/%-#0%**1'2,$'3.'45 S)++!7E31!JB-;! .)3;+ '" 24?)!.)3;+ & '"!.)3;+ % #"!.)3;+ $ Q"!.)3;+ # G31:)66)*!B;!41!1))*!BJ!)T7)1+4?)!;)?4+4B1+ I?);)T7)1*+!B;4841366.!H;B=4+)*!74=)J;3=) / PU!BJ!B;484136!HB417+

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ANOTHER ROAD HOME: Banks 57 A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF DENVER'S 10 YEARS TO END HOMELESSNESS Appendix B: Denver's Road Home Funding Documents #""N D1J-1*)* L3;7436! 2-1*418 M?346356)!2-1*418!
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ANOTHER ROAD HOME: Banks 59 A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF DENVER'S 10 YEARS TO END HOMELESSNESS Appendix C: Legal Resources The Unauthorized Camping Ordinance of 2012 : ¤ 38 86.2 Municode (a) It shall be unlawful for any person to camp upon any private property without the express written consent of the property owner or the owner's agent, and only in such locations where camping may be conducted in accordance with any other applicable city law. ( b) It shall be unlawful for any person to camp upon any public property except in any location where camping has been expressly allowed by the officer or agency having the control, management and supervision of the public property in question. (c) No law e nforcement officer shall issue a citation, make an arrest or otherwise enforce this section against any person unless: (1) The officer orally requests or orders the person to refrain from the alleged violation of this section and, if the person fails to co mply after receiving the oral request or order, the officer tenders a written request or order to the person warning that if the person fails to comply the person may be cited or arrested for a violation of this section; and (2) The officer attempts to asc ertain whether the person is in need of medical or human services assistance, including, but not limited, to mental health treatment, drug or alcohol rehabilitation, or homeless services assistance. If the officer determines that the person may be in need of medical or human services assistance, the officer shall make reasonable efforts to contact and obtain the assistance of a designated human service outreach worker, who in turn shall assess the needs of the person and, if warranted, direct the person to an appropriate provider of medical or human services assistance in lieu of the person being cited or arrested for a violation of this section. If the officer is unable to obtain the assistance of a human services outreach worker, if the human services outr each worker determines that the person is not in need of medical or human services assistance, or if the person refuses to cooperate with the direction of the human services outreach worker, the officer may proceed to cite or arrest the person for a violat ion of this section so long as the warnings required by paragraph (1) of this subsection have been previously given. (d) For purposes of this section: (1) "Camp" means to reside or dwell temporarily in a place, with shelter. The term "shelter" includes, wi thout limitation, any tent, tarpaulin, lean to, sleeping bag, bedroll, blankets, or any form of cover or protection from the elements other than clothing. The term "reside or dwell" includes, without limitation, conducting such activities as eating, sleepi ng, or the storage of personal possessions. (2) "Designated human service outreach worker" shall mean any person designated in writing by the manager of the Denver Department of Human Services to assist law enforcement officers as provided in subsection (c ), regardless of whether the person is an employee of the department of human services. (3) "Public property" means, by way of illustration, any street, alley, sidewalk, pedestrian or transit mall, bike path, greenway, or any other structure or area encomp assed within the public right of way; any park, parkway, mountain park, or other recreation facility; or any other grounds, buildings, or other facilities owned or leased by the city or by any other public owner, regardless of whether such public property is vacant or occupied and actively used for any public purpose. (Ord. No. 255 12, ¤ 1, 5 14 12) The Colorado Right to Rest Act of 2015: HB15 1264 Colorado General Assembly

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ANOTHER ROAD HOME: Banks 62 A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF DENVER'S 10 YEARS TO END HOMELESSNESS Works Cited Alexander, B. K., (1980). The Myth of Drug Induced Addiction. Retrieved from: http://www.parl.gc.ca/Content/SEN/Committee/371/ille/presentation/alexender e.htm Blevins, J. (November 4 th 2014). Stats set 2014 as a new summer tourism benchmark in Colorado. The Denver Post. Retrieved from: http://www.denverpost.com/business/ci_26857944/stats set 2014 new summer tourism benchmark colorado Brown, J., (February 22 nd 2015). Banned from 16 th Street: Dozens Ordered by Court to Stay Away. The Denver Post. Retrieved from: http://www.denverpost.com/news/ci_27575680/banned from 16th street dozens ordered by court City and County of Denver, (April 30 th 2012). An amendment to SB12 0241. Retrieved from: http://www.denvergov.org/citycouncil/DenverCityCouncil/LegislationDocument s/tabid/ 436354/Default.aspx City and County of Denver, (January 6, 2015). Housing Opportunity: Chronically Homeless Individuals: Using Social Impact Bond to Support a Broader City Homelessness Strategy. Retrieved from: http://www.denvergov.org/sirepub/cac he/2/gu1ccb0v5ef11dey2xmwo1iy/692348042720 15021213251.PDF Colorado Homeless Bill of Rights. (January 1 st 2015). Our Work. Retrieved from: http://coloradohomelessbillofrights.org/ Colorado Right to Rest Act of 2015, HR15 1264, Seventieth General Assembly (2014).

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ANOTHER ROAD HOME: Banks 63 A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF DENVER'S 10 YEARS TO END HOMELESSNESS Retrieved from: http://www.leg.state.co.us/clics/clics2015a/csl.nsf/fsbillcont/82156A746BE2EC4D8725 7DDC0057124D?Open&file=1264_01.pdf Denver Homeless Out Loud, (January 1 st 2015). Our Work. Retrieved from: http://coloradohomelessbillofrights.org / Denver Homeless Out Loud, Robinson, T. (April 3 rd 2013). The Denver Camping Ban: A Report from the Street. Retrieved from: http://issuu.com/denverhomelessoutloud/docs/pocketeport web Denver Homeless Out Loud. (June 16 th 2014). Ten More Cops for What? Tell City Council to Vote No to more Policing and Yes to more Homes and Bathrooms. Retrieved from: http://denverhomelessoutloud.org/2014/06/ Denver Revised Municipal Code, (May 14 th 2012). Unauthorized Camping on Public or Private Property Prohibited. DRMC ¤ 38 86.2. Retrieved from: https://library.municode.com/HTML/10257/level4/TITIIREMUCO_CH38OFMIPR_AR TIVOFAGPUORSA_DIV1GE.html. Municode. Denver Treasury Division, (January 1 st 2015). Denver Combined Tax Rates. Retrieved from: http://www.denvergov.org/Portals/571/documents/Denver_Combined_Tax_Rates_2015. pdf Denver Treasury Division, (January 1 st 2015). Denver Property Tax Information. Retrieved from: https://www.denvergov.org/treasury/TreasuryDivision/Property Taxes/tabid/440407/Def ault.aspx Denver's Road Home. (July 1 st 2009). July 1 Update Second Revision 2009. Print

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ANOTHER ROAD HOME: Banks 64 A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF DENVER'S 10 YEARS TO END HOMELESSNESS Denver's Road Home. (July 1 st 2013). Year 8, Fourth Revision. Retrieved from: http://www.denversroadhome.org/files/DRH_Report_FinalFINAL.pd f Five Points Business District, (January 1 st 2015). History & Culture Retrieved from: http://www.fivepointsbiz.org/history culture Hamm, K., (February 19 th 2009). Arrests on Denver's 16th Street Mall: Interactive The Denver Post. Retrieved from: htt p://www.denverpost.com/data/ci_27558501/crime denvers 16th street mall interactive Harrell, B., (March 24 th 2014). Denver's Controversial Urban Camping Ban Could Increase Vulnerability to Trafficking. Denver Homeless Out Loud. Retrieved from: http://denverhomelessoutloud.org/2014/03/24/denvers controversial urban camping ban could increase vulnerability to trafficking/ Housing and Urban Development, (January 1, 2015). Resources for Chronic Homelessness. Retrieved from: https:/ /www.hudexchange.info/homelessness assistance/resources for chronic homelessness/ Metro Denver Homeless Initiative, (2015). 2014 State of Homelessness Report Print National Alliance to End Homelessness, (2015). Addressing Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Caused by Homelessness. Retrieved from: http://b.3cdn.net/naeh/973478e833747853ce_a1m6bx81p.pdf National Coalition for Homeless Veterans, (January 1 st 2015). FAQ About Homeless Veterans. Retrieved from: http://nchv.org/index.php/news/media/background_an d_statistics/ Sealover, E. (July 29 th 2014). Colorado sets tourism record, attracting 64.6 million visitors in 2013. Denver Business Journal. Retrieved from: http://www.bizjournals.com/denver/news/2014/07/29/colorado sets tourism record

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ANOTHER ROAD HOME: Banks 65 A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF DENVER'S 10 YEARS TO END HOMELESSNESS attracting 64 6.h tml?page=all UrbanLand, (October 11, 2012). From Skid Row to LoDo: Historic Preservation's Role in Denver's Revitalization. Retrieved from: http://urbanland.uli.org/development business/from skid row to lodo historic preservation s role in denver s revitalization/ USDA, (January 1 st 2015). Agricultural Marketing Service Creating Access to Healthy, Affordable Food. Retrieve d from: http://apps.ams.usda.gov/fooddeserts/fooddeserts.aspx Vanderveen. () Homelessness Still a Significant Issue in Denver, KUSA, Retrieved from: http://www.9news.com/story/news/investigations/2014/11/26/ballpark neighborhood homelessness/19546823/