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using policy in the fight to end human trafficking

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using policy in the fight to end human trafficking
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Tiell, Rebecca
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Denver, Colo.
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Metropolitan State University of Denver
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Using Policy in the Fight to End Human Trafficking By Rebecca Tiell
An undergraduate thesis submitted in partial completion of the Metropolitan State University of Denver Honors Program
May 2016
Dr. Annjanette Alejano-Steele Primary Advisor
Lori Darnel Second Reader
Dr. Megan Hughes-Zarzo Honors Program Director


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Using Policy in the Fight to End Human Trafficking
Rebecca Tiell-Krekeler Honors Thesis


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Running Title: Using Policy in the Fight to End Human Trafficking Abstract
Human trafficking is one of the largest and most controversial crimes of our time. It has recently become more widely publicized, and yet the crime is still widely misunderstood. Since 2000, policy has continued to play a crucial role in the fight to end human trafficking. Recently, a great amount of legislation has been passed both federally and statewide. The federal bill, H.R. 469- Strengthening Child Welfare Response to Human Trafficking Act of 2015, is being considered right now in Congress. This research will analyze the potential effects of this bill on the Child Welfare system and the anti- human trafficking field. Can the Child Welfare system handle the requirements stated by Congress? And if not, will the practical resources and aid be given to Child Welfare to maintain a smooth transition for the system as a whole? How will these policies influence the anti-trafficking field, if at all? The researcher will also provide current news from the anti-trafficking field surrounding upcoming policy and what the future holds for the anti-trafficking
movement.


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Andrew's story Denver, CO
Andrew has been homeless on the streets of Denver since the age of 11. He came into contact with street outreach workers at the age of 14 but was very skeptical of engaging in an on-going relationship with them. Although outreach workers knew that he was younger, he reported various ages to them between 17 and 19 and always used a street name. Outreach workers began to slowly build a relationship with him, but understanding Andrew's story, where he came from and where he was staying currently was a difficult task. Outreach workers began to be concerned about Andrew's safety when older street youth began to express concern about his situation. Through various reports and comments from other youth over the course of three months, outreach workers gathered that he was staying with an older man who often targeted minor boys and offered them a place to stay. Many more boys stayed there than there were beds for and reports of sexual abuse, rooms without doors, showers without shower curtains, and other older men who visited the house alarmed outreach workers. Andrew was unwilling to have a conversation with outreach workers about any of these concerns.
An Outreach worker decided that although there was little identifying information, no information on the older man, and no direct report from Andrew, they should make a report to an outreach police officer.
Three weeks later, other street youth reported to outreach workers that the house where the boys were staying had been shut down" and the man arrested on a warrant he had. The boys who were in the house were either locked out of the house and told to pursue homeless services, or picked up on run warrants or Department of Youth Corrections' warrants.
After spending three months in DYC, Andrew came back to the streets and continues to be homeless. Outreach workers remain in close contact with him.
(Prax(us), 2014).


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INTRODUCTION
What is human trafficking and why should it matter? Human trafficking is a global and domestic issue and that affects millions of men, women, and children. It is often thought that human trafficking is only happening in poorer countries in the world. But this is simply not the case. Human trafficking is happening in our country, in our states, in our cities, in our backyards. Human trafficking is degrading human beings to become good for trade. These human beings could be abused, threatened, raped, living in vile conditions, or struggling to survive. They are shipped all over the world, often not speaking the language or knowing the culture. They are faces that go unseen and voices that go unheard. These are people such as Andrew. They are homeless youth, prostituted young men and women, undocumented immigrants, or abused children. The human trafficking industry is alive and growing each day. Traffickers have created a strong offense by developing a trans-national crime. It is difficult to attack something that is spanning across the globe. For a long time, we have had a difficult time penetrating such an offense. It would take global cooperation to attack something so vast. The anti-trafficking movement has tried coming at it from different angles, divided and small. But with the education of more people and the passion of leaders of the anti-trafficking movement, the anti-trafficking movement is creating a stronger defense to battle this crime.
Human trafficking has only recently become a buzz- word throughout the world. It is a transnational crime that has been happening for thousands of years,


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and still happening today. However, it is only now reaching international attention. Human trafficking is defined as:
...the recruitment, harboring, transportation, provision, or obtaining of a person for labor or services through the use of force, fraud, or coercion for the purpose of subjection to involuntary servitude, peonage, debt bondage or slavery; or sex trafficking in which a commercial sex act is induced by force, fraud, or coercion or in which the person induced to perform such an act has not attained 18 years of age (TVPA, 2000).
This means that if a person is taken for labor or sex services by force, if they are coerced, or fraudulently led, then that person has been trafficked. It also explains that trafficking can take place over international borders or that a person can be trafficked across the street. The distance is not what matters. It is the action of using them against their will for labor or sex services. The definition also stays broad on what trafficking can be considered. For a long time, trafficking has been documented under different crimes such as undocumented immigration, child abuse, or prostitution. Trafficking can be all of these things and more. That is why trafficking is so difficult to comprehend and therefore prevent.
The International Labor Organization, states there is an estimated 20.9 million victims of human trafficking worldwide. In the United States, the National Human Trafficking Resource Center (NHTRC) hotline received reports of 3,598 cases of sex trafficking and 929 labor trafficking cases in 2014. These statistics are considered to be relatively low guesses of the number of trafficking victims international and domestic. There could be multiple reasons for this. Some reasons


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are that with most crimes, victims are afraid to come forward to receive help for fear that their trafficker might find out. Also, many trafficking victims are also victims of a system and therefore they are mistrusting of people trying to help them. In this way, the lack of numbers introduces the magnitude of the issue but is hard to grasp as an international crisis.
The anti-trafficking movement has been led by global and national policy has initiated change. Policy plays an important role in the anti-trafficking movement by providing universal definitions, standards, and most importantly, much needed funding for change.
THESIS
Since the beginning of the anti-trafficking movement in 2000, policy has played an important role in initiating global and national change. Policy will continue to play a drastic role in the movement as more legislation continues to be passed to encourage more and more parts of the movement to become involved. Policy is powerful because it begins the domino effect of change. However, it will be the responsibility of the people in the anti-trafficking movement to take the policy that is given to them and work together to create lasting change.
SUMMARY OF THE ISSUE
Despite the significant history of human trafficking, the movement is a relatively recent one. The momentum began in 2000 when policy began to drastically change how countries needed to respond to the issue. The human trafficking movement is considered new because it has been "disguised and minimized by more sensational labels (Laboratory to Combat Human Trafficking,


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2015). What this means is that prior to a national and international definition of trafficking, the crime was prosecuted under different names such as: prostitution, smuggling, child abuse, domestic violence, etc. Through the prosecuting under different names, this explains the lack of data surrounding the crime of human trafficking. It is impossible to keep track of how many peoples have been trafficked if there is no standard definition of human trafficking or recognition of it as a federal crime. Many victims of trafficking are also often victims of the crimes listed above, yet they were only counted as a victim for one crime.
Statistics. Because of the newness of the movement, the availability of reliable statistics is minimal. Many statistics are simply estimates as to what researchers believe is the relevancy of the issue. Many of these statistics discuss the international issue. This can lead people away from the issue of human trafficking because it is seen as far away. With limited research to show that human trafficking is an issue, it is difficult to encourage people to be on board with the anti-trafficking movement. It is also difficult to combat something that has very little numbers to explain where the root of the problem is. Anti-trafficking work can often feel like a shot in the dark when it comes finding solutions. However, as the movement progresses, more and more statistics are coming to the surface and shining light on the problem.
With the passage of legislation, human trafficking has come into the publics attention as a critical world issue. The history of the anti-trafficking movement shows just how important policy has been in initiating change.


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Palermo Protocol. Policy began to be created in late 2000. The United Nations met in Palermo, Italy for the Convention Against Organized Crime. There, they ratified the Palermo Protocol (Protocol to Prevent, Suppress, and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children, Supplementing the United Nations Convention Against Organized Crime), which sought to create an internationally recognized definition of human trafficking. It also provided a set of recommendations in how countries could combat human trafficking (Alejano-Steele, September 2015). The protocol was agreed upon in 2000 and enforced by 2003 (de Heredia, 2001,1). Through this policy, countries were encouraged to adopt their own policy. The Palermo Protocol was the first universally accepted definition of trafficking. It also began the conversation of what trafficking was and what countries should be doing about it. It was the first instance of collaboration in the anti-trafficking movement.
Even though the Palermo Protocol was monumental in its passage at the time, the definition is now 16 years old, is significantly outdated, and has not since been updated. Some scholars argue the definition is missing the concept of domestic trafficking by focusing too much on the trans-national crime and does not focus enough on the buying and selling component of trafficking (de Heredia, 2001, 2).
Though the protocol was a good step in the right direction, the protocol was flawed and United Nations (U.N.) assistance in countries has arguably caused more harm than good to the anti-trafficking movement (Smith & Smith, 2011). In an article by Smith and Smith, 2011, it was postulated that U.N. peacekeepers have, on multiple occasions, increased the number of prostitutes brought into the country


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they are trying to help because the peacekeeper soldiers increase the demand for prostitutes. Smith and Smith reveal a flawed system of the U.N., especially when trying to combat the vast crime of trafficking.
The passage of the Palermo Protocol was a good first step to take measures against trafficking. It raised international awareness to the crime of trafficking and encouraged countries all over the globe to initiate matters to combat it. However, the definition has been lacking specificity for many years and the U.N. has not taken action to revise the definition. The lack of detail is therefore creating confusion as to what trafficking really is. It is also creating confusion over how countries should combat trafficking. The Palermo Protocol is the first example of how policy is an initiative, not a surefire solution. Policy starts the discussion and encourages people to begin working together for change.
Trafficking Victims Protection Act 2000. In 2000, the United States passed the Trafficking Victims Protection Act (TVPA) to fulfill the recommendations of the Palermo Protocol. This was the first comprehensive law to address human trafficking in the United States. It provided a three-part and three P approach of Prevention, Protection, and Prosecution (U.S. Department of State, 2009; Alejano-Steele, September 2015).
Prevention. The Office to Monitor and Combat Human Trafficking (under the Department of State) was made to reduce the number of trafficking victims and to aid those who are at risk of trafficking. Those who work in the Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking is to report and rank other countries efforts to combat human trafficking (Alejano-Steele, September 2015). This was done through the


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Trafficking In Persons (TIP) Report. The first report was created in 2001, and one has been created each year, including 2015.
Each country is placed on a three-tier system. Tier One is: Governments of countries are in full compliance with the TVPAs minimum standards for the elimination of human trafficking. This tier is made up of 31 countries, including the United States of America, the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Sweden, and others (Tip Report, 2015).
Tier Two is: The governments of countries who do not fully comply with the TVPA minimum standards but are making significant efforts to do so. Tier Two is comprised of 89 countries including Madagascar, Rwanda, South Africa, Mexico, and others (Tip Report, 2015).
Tier Two Watch List is: The government of countries who do not fully comply with the minimum standards of the TVPA but are making significant efforts to do so and 1) the absolute number of victims of severe forms of trafficking is very significant or significantly increasing, 2) there is failure to provide evidence of increasing efforts to combat the trafficking the previous year, and 3) the determination that a country is making significant efforts to bring itself into compliance was based on commitments of the country to do so in the next year. The Watch List is made up of 44 countries including Sudan, Pakistan, China, and others (TIP Report, 2015).
Tier Three is: The governments of countries to not fully comply with the TVPA minimum standards and are not making significant efforts to do so. There are


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23 countries on the Tier 3 list, including Iran, Syria, Russia, North Korea, and others (Trafficking in Persons Report, 2015; Alejano-Steele, September 2015).
While the TIP Report has been highly regarded throughout the world as a way to increase accountability for nations, it is also considered another instance of policy being loose recommendations rather than solid solutions. This is seen in the TIP Reports when interestingly enough, the U.S. places countries whom the government has qualms with on Tier 3. These countries such as Iran and North Korea have tension with the U.S. Therefore, it is questionable whether the TIP Reports are unbiased reports of anti-trafficking efforts throughout the world or perhaps a political statement on behalf of the U.S. to other countries who do not comply with the Palermo Protocol and other international issues.
The Office to Monitor and Combat Human Trafficking was also placed in charge of creating public awareness and information programs. The office has created "Know Your Rights brochures to help victims of trafficking, specifically immigrants. It has also created some PSA campaigns, as well as international economic development programs to assist potential victims. The office then created a federal task force to assist in the full implementation of the 2000 TVPA.
Protection. The TVPA required protection for victims of human trafficking. It provides protection and assistance for foreign and domestic victims. This means that victims are eligible for the Federal Witness Protection Program and they are eligible for the same federal/state benefits as refugees such as social service programs. Victims can gain temporary legal status through the T-visa. The T-visa allows victims to become temporary residents because they can be eligible for


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permanent residency after three years. Further, certain immediate family members can become eligible. This could be a spouse, children, parents, or unmarried siblings under the age of 18. To become eligible for permanent residency with a t-visa, one must be a victim of severe forms of trafficking, be physically present in the U.S. because of the trafficking, assist in the investigation and prosecution of trafficking crimes, and that the victim would suffer severe hardship if he/she were removed from the country (Alejano-Steele, September 2015).
Prosecution. The TVPA made human trafficking a federal crime with severe penalties. This created new crimes for labor trafficking such as: trafficking with respect to peonage, slavery, involuntary servitude, or forced labor (TVPA, 2000; Alejano-Steele, September 2015). It did the same for sex trafficking by creating: sex trafficking by force, fraud or coercion, or sex trafficking of children (TVPA, 2000). The TVPA also mandates that restitution to be paid for victims.
The TVPA has since been updated and modified in 2003, 2005, 2008, and most recently in 2013 with the Title XII of the Violence Against Women Reauthorization Act of 2013 (U.S. Department of State, 2016). Therefore, as more research and understanding of trafficking come to light, the U.S. attempts to adapt. The TVPA has attempted to offer clear definitions and standards for states to adapt to in the fight to end human trafficking.
Partnerships. In 2009, Secretary of State Hilary Clinton introduced a fourth P to create another dynamic to the fight of human trafficking (U.S. Department of State, 2009). The fourth P stands for Partnerships. This P encourages the creation and establishment of organizations across the country that will provide victim


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services. Human trafficking is a multi-dimensional issue that involves multidisciplinary involvement. This spans from law enforcement, health care, victim services, the judicial system, etc.
Through Protection, the efforts of coalitions were recognized and therefore encouraged the creation of coalitions in many states. The Partnership aspect of combating human trafficking is incredibly important but also incredibly difficult to pursue. Collaboration is deeply affected by money and power (Foot, 2016). Also, many times, people in collaborations "...bring their ego values into work settings and perform in ways that are more self promoting than collaborative (Foot, 2016, 109). The anti-trafficking collaborations are no different than any other group setting. There are power struggles, egos, and differences in values that often slow the process of change. However, working together is the key to creating change, especially when battling something as vast as human trafficking.
The 4 P approaches of Prevention, Prosecution, Protection, and Partnership have been instrumental in the anti-trafficking movement by providing a framework to combat trafficking. Policy has shaped the human trafficking movement from the very beginning. In this way, policy continues to play an instrumental role in the future of the movement. To this date, Congress is passing major legislation that will involve more organizations and at a greater magnitude.
FEDERAL LEGISLATION IN RECENT YEARS
Federal legislation is a critical piece to change in the anti-trafficking movement because it offers much needed federal funding. Many organizations attempting to work in the anti-trafficking field by servicing survivors or aiding


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prevention efforts, find that they are limited in how they can act because of the lack of resources (Foot, 2016). There are limited resources to go around for the many organizations that want to help. Without private funding or donations, organizations are extremely constrained by their limited resources. Therefore, with the passage of federal legislation come certain recommendations with the promise of federal funding. With the proposition of funding, organizations work to adhere to the accommodations set up. There have been several bills that have passed encouraging more involvement of organizations to take part in the anti-trafficking efforts with the promise of funding. H.R. 4980 and S. 178 were passed in the last two years and were major advances for the anti-trafficking movement.
H.R. 4980 Preventing Sex Trafficking and Strengthening Families Act passed in 2014. It requires a state plan for foster care and adoption assistance to demonstrate that the agency has developed policies and procedures for identifying, documenting, and determining appropriate services for victims of sex trafficking. The adoption agency or foster care is responsible for placement, care, or supervision of a victim of sex trafficking or severe forms of trafficking in persons.
S. 178 Justice for Victims of Trafficking Act of 2015 made significant changes for the anti trafficking movement. First of all, this legislation formally expanded the definition of child abuse under Child Abuse Act of 1990 to include human trafficking and the production of child pornography. It also classified crimes involving peonage, slavery, and trafficking as crimes of violence under federal criminal code. It requires the Department of Justice (DOJ) to ensure that each anti-trafficking program includes technical training on effective methods for investigating and prosecuting


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criminals of trafficking and facilitating the provision of physical and mental health services to victims (S. 178, 2015).
Federal legislation plays an important role for the entire country. It is basic guidelines that state run programs must follow to receive federal funding. These policies give recommendations that often force large systems to make big changes. How do large systems respond to these big changes? They have to start working together.
To demonstrate how policy forces change on systems and systems have to work together, this research will look at one piece of legislation in particular: HR 469 Strengthening the Child Welfare Response to Human Trafficking Act 2015 to see what kind of affect it could take on systems at the state level.
H.R. 469: Strengthening Child Welfare Response to Trafficking Act of 2015
H.R. 469: Strengthening Child Welfare Response to Trafficking Act of 2015 was introduced in January of 2015, passed in the House of Representatives, and is now in the Senate for revisions (Congress.gov). In summary, this bill aims to increase the responsibilities of Child Welfare to combat human trafficking.
The bill has two major sections. Section 1 amends the Child Abuse Prevention Act to allow eligibility for states to receive a grant for child abuse or neglect prevention and treatment programs that the state has in effect. To receive the grant, the programs must include the ability to 1) identify and assess reports of children who are sex or labor trafficking victims, 2) train representatives of child protective services (CPS) about identifying and assessing child victims of trafficking, and 3) identify services and procedures for appropriate referrals to address the needs of


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the children. Section two requires the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) to report to Congress on the following criteria: 1) the specific type and the prevalence of severe forms of trafficking that children in CPS have been subjected to and who are identified for services under the placement, care, or supervision of state or tribal organization child welfare agencies, 2) the practices and protocols being utilized by states to identify and therefore serve children who are victims of trafficking or who could be at risk for trafficking, and 3) any barriers in the federal policy that may prevent the identification and assessment of child victims of trafficking (Congress.gov).
H.R. 469 is the first bill to explicitly ask child welfare to take part in the movement, which will require immediate action. So, how does Colorados Child Welfare Department prepare for such immediate change? First, it is important to look at human trafficking and prevention efforts taking place in Colorado. REPRECUSSIONS OF H.R. 469
H.R. 469 will begin to take a drastic effect on the child welfare system. First, it is important to take a look at the child welfare system and its role in the antitrafficking movement.
It is the job of child welfare to create a safe and stable environment for children. The child welfare system is under the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS). The federal government oversees policy for DHHS and gives federal funding for programs, but is not in charge of DHHS. Therefore, the state governments are in charge of their own DHHS and their own child welfare system. Each child welfare system is different in every state and often times in every county.


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In the state of Colorado, there are 64 counties that directly administer child welfare programs and services (ICF International, 2014). In 2013, counties in Colorado received more than 83,000 referrals, screened in about 34,400 of the referrals for further assessment, and provided services to about 37,500 children (ICF International, 2014). It is apparent that the system is handling a lot of cases. In the same survey, ICF International recommended that an estimated 574 additional caseworkers and 122 supervisory positions should be added to child welfare to be able to adequately handle the number of cases they receive.
How does child welfare play a role in human trafficking? It is important to take a look at who is most at risk trafficking. According to a Point in Time Survey, conducted by the Metro Denver Homeless Initiative, in 2013 there were 921 youth between the ages of 19 and 24 on the streets of Denver on any given night. Urban Peak, a non-profit in Denver who serves homeless youth, describe many homeless youth as being runaways from an abusive home or being kicked out of their home. Urban Peaks also states that many homeless youth are youth that have aged out of the foster care system and have no place to go. Many are suffering from addictions and/ or emotional or physical wounds from abuse. According to The Colorado Homeless Youth Action Plan, "30% of homeless youth will be actively recruited for purposes of sexual exploitation and other forms of human trafficking with 48 hours of leaving home.
Through the statistics of homeless youth, it is clear to see that many of the children on the streets are under the jurisdiction of the child welfare system. This shows that the child welfare system is failing in some way or another for many


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children and families. It is also relevant that the child welfare system is extremely overworked and overwhelmed with the number of cases they handle every year. It is not the fault of the caseworkers or supervisors in child welfare. It is the fault of a broken system that needs to make changes to be able to live up to its mission of providing a safe and stable environment for children.
THE STATE OF COLORADO
Human Trafficking in Colorado. Colorado has been a unique state because of its high risk for trafficking and its pioneering efforts of the anti-trafficking movement. There are multiple factors that make Colorado a high-risk area for trafficking. First, major highways that run through the state make Colorado an easy spot for traffickers to move people both in and out of the state. Colorado also has six major sports teams, which draw high amounts of people into highly concentrated areas to place people at high risk for trafficking. The state also has ranching and farming areas that are vast and difficult to reach, therefore making labor trafficking very smooth because of the lack of outside contact. Lastly, Colorado is a major tourist destination because of its beautiful Rocky Mountains, hot springs, and ample skiing options. The tourist industry creates risk for trafficking because of the need for many workers for cheap. Because of the high- risk area that Colorado is, there are many anti-trafficking efforts taking place in the state to combat human trafficking.
Efforts to Combat Trafficking. In 2010 through 2013, Colorado led an intensive state survey to collect data on what the state was doing to combat human trafficking. The Embrey Foundation and the Laboratory to Combat Human


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Trafficking (LCHT) spearheaded the survey (LCHT, 2016; Foot, 2016). This type of research had not been done on this kind of scale throughout the entire country. The Colorado Project asked: What would it take to solve the problem of human trafficking in the state of Colorado? (LCHT, 2016; Foot, 2016). Through the Colorado Project, experts on the project were able to make recommendations based on concrete statistics of Colorado. These recommendations are the Colorado Action Plan, currently being put into action by LCHT. The Colorado Project has also played a role in the passage of critical policy for the state.
Within the last two years, two major bills have been passed in the state of Colorado. House Bill 14-1273 was passed in 2014. It states that Human Trafficking is a major problem in the United States and specifically in Colorado. It gave a call to action that the state of Colorado should begin to address the issue of human trafficking. House Bill 14-1273 first defines human trafficking. The bill also offered state funding for the establishment of the Colorado Human Trafficking Council (CHTC) in the department of public safety, the first of its kind in the United States.
House Bill 15-1078 was passed in 2015. The bill requires that the state Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) or a county Department of Health and Human Services or social services must report a youths disappearance to police or to the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children within 24 hours. This means that children in the CPS system or in DHHS must report a runaway youth. This includes children who are in the foster care system or children who have a case open in CPS and run away. Prior to this legislation, CPS was not required to report a runaway youth. Runaway youth are common prey to traffickers.


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Therefore, it is imperative that CPS reports the runaway so they are quickly found before they are trafficked.
Safe Harbor. The policy of Safe Harbor has been in debate throughout the last year in the state of Colorado. Safe Harbor was created to address the inconsistencies of treatment of child victims of prostitution. Without Safe Harbor, victims of trafficking were processed as criminals because they were considered "prostitutes. Instead of receiving the treatment and services they deserved, they were treated as criminals and not given specialized services to address their trauma and experiences. According to Polaris, "Safe harbor laws are intended to address the inconsistent treatment of children, raise awareness about children that have been commercially sexually exploited, and ensure that these victims were provided with services rather than a criminal conviction. Safe Harbor is essentially a two-prong approach to addressing the needs of human trafficking victims. The first prong addresses criminalization of victims and allows for victims of trafficking to not be criminalized as prostitutes. The second prong encourages the need for specialized services for victims of trafficking. This means that victims of trafficking will require specialized service providers that are trauma informed and have experience working with victims of trafficking and their unique needs.
Safe Harbor legislation is passed state by state, meaning that no federal legislation has been passed to encourage states to adopt this policy. According to the National Conference of State Legislators, since 2014 at least 28 states have passed legislation that addresses safe harbor issues. Safe Harbor policy has been the topic of debate of many states because it would encourage a paradigm shift in views of


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what human trafficking could be. However, scholars argue whether or not the policy is effective. Mehlman-Orozco (2015) suggests that the policy will be more symbolic of what would be right, rather than concrete actions. For example, police officers will have to counter their perceptions of prostitution to view them as victims, rather than criminals (Mehlman-Orozco, 2015, 4). On the other hand, trafficking victims are often taught by their traffickers to mistrust the police and trust their trafficker (Mehlman-Orozco, 2015, 4). Therefore, trafficking victims may not cooperate with law enforcement, once again creating a cycle of law enforcement being disenchanted with trafficking victims and seeing them as criminals (Mehlman-Orozco, 2015, 4). The passage of this legislation would require a major paradigm shift for law enforcement and the criminal justice system, which will not be easy to do. The values of law enforcement settle on truth and justice, not necessarily a victim centered approach (Foot, 2016). The Safe Harbor policy requires a refocus on values and worldviews of many in the anti-trafficking movement.
While Colorado has been passing legislation to address human trafficking, the state has yet to pass Safe Harbor policy. In an interview with Amanda Finger, Executive Director of the Laboratory to Combat Human Trafficking (LCHT), Amanda explained that after a years worth of discussion to pass Safe Harbor, there would be no forward motion to create a bill. Amanda Finger sits on the Governors Council. Amanda explained that the Council discussed, researched, and ultimately voted that Safe Harbor legislation would be favorable to Colorado law in addressing human trafficking. However, there will not be a bill to pass, at least within the year of 2016.
HB 16-1224. Even though Safe Harbor was not adopted by the state of


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Colorado, the state government passed HB 16-1224: Treat Trafficking of Children as Child Abuse. This was passed into law on April 15, 2016. The bill requires that children who are victims of human trafficking be treated as victims. This means that they and their families potentially will receive victim services and possible compensation for the crime they have undergone. It also requires a screening tool for law enforcement to create to be able to identify victims of trafficking after they have been victimized. The screening tool is also supposed to identify at risk victims of trafficking.
Although the bill addresses parts of Safe Harbor, the bill does not address specific needs of children who have been trafficked from another country to the state of Colorado. The bill also does not give clear guidelines on how to create the said screening tool for law enforcement, but states that the law must be fulfilled by January 1, 2017. It is going to take collaboration with law enforcement and social services to create this screening tool that is effective.
The Human Trafficking Task Force Group is one of the groups formed to address human trafficking in Colorado that is working on this collaboration piece. DHHS service providers, including child welfare workers, lead this task force.
Human Trafficking Task Force Group (HTTG). The Human Trafficking Task Force Group (HTTG), made up of mostly Department of Health and Human Service (DHHS) providers, is beginning to address the specialized service part of the Safe Harbor policy. The task force is co-chaired by Lynn Johnson (Jefferson County Human Services) and Brian Brant (Division of Child Welfare).


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Representatives from almost every county sit at the table. There are representatives from non-governmental organizations (NGOs) such as Amanda Finger from LCHT and representatives from the District Attorneys Office. There is also at least one representative from the Colorado Human Trafficking Council (CHTC).
The agenda for the meeting that was observed began with Maria Trujillo, a representative from CHTC, explaining the recent publication of the CHTC 2015 Annual Report. This annual report gave updated statistics on what could be gathered of the number of human trafficking victims. It also gave an explanation of where CHTC funds had been spent in the last year of 2015. Lynn Johnson then led a group brainstorm entitled Dream Big. The activity was a story with many moving parts, literally. One person stood in the middle of the room so as to be the "trafficking victim. Then, a new person was asked to stand and hold a string that was attached to the victim. People were asked to come and stand and then sit down (and to drop their string with the victim still holding their end) to show how family members, service providers, law enforcement, case workers, and then eventually a trafficker comes in and out of the victims life. The point was to show how complicated a victims story could be. It was also an attempt to show the role that child welfare played in the victimization of that child.
Many Child Protective Service (CPS) representatives at the table seemed surprised at the issue of human trafficking. They were also frustrated at the role of child welfare in the story of the trafficking victim. Because many of the people at the table were child welfare caseworkers or supervisors, they pointed out many of the


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holes in the story. It was obvious that many felt defensive because they were being told that they were doing a bad job in protecting the children on their caseloads.
This seemed reasonable. These were caseworkers that were honestly trying to do their best with the cases they were given. Some of these people truly loved their job and felt that the system was effective in helping the children that come through their doors. It was difficult for them to swallow that some of the kids that they had helped may not have been helped after all and had become victim to trafficking. Furthermore, the thought of adding more work to their already full plate seemed daunting and frustrating. Many caseworkers were a little disgruntled after the story. However, Ms. Johnson attempted to keep the conversation going by encouraging the group to brainstorm how to make the system better.
The group brainstormed ideas such as communicating more with one another within the system, involving the school in cases, more training for foster parents and families of at-risk youth, and bringing survivor voices to the table.
The meeting that was observed showed that many in the anti-trafficking field are only now starting to think in terms of systems, rather than isolated cases. The crime of human trafficking expands across multiple systems such as education, CPS, the home and family, criminal justice, health and wellness, and public safety. Each case of human trafficking is unique and complex, making this crime difficult to solve. Therefore, it is imperative that systems begin to work together. The anti-trafficking
movement is headed in this direction.


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Collaborating in the Anti-Trafficking Movement. In the book Collaborating Against Human Trafficking by Dr. Kirsten Foot, the challenged and practices of anti-trafficking collaboration work is analyzed. Dr. Foot examined many coalitions and task forces that were together to work to end human trafficking. Her research showed that those who are on the coalition are there for a reason.
The book states:
"People who work on human trafficking approach potential and actual collaborations with both individual and collective or organizational hopes and fears. Overarchingly, everyone who invests time and energy in countering human trafficking (whether or not they are paid for this labor) wants their efforts to be effective. This is true regardless of what type of human trafficking they focus on, which sector they work in, and whether their primary role is identifying victims, bringing perpetrators to justice, or preventing further trafficking in persons. In all cases, the individuals in the organizations, agencies, and businesses who work on human trafficking want to see it end. This shared aim is the motivation and foundation for nearly all attempts at collaboration
This is true of HTTG and their efforts to collaborate against trafficking in Colorado. It was obvious that most of the attendees were there because they wanted to be there. They had high aspirations of working together to create change.
However, as Dr. Foot mentions in her book, working together can be difficult because of value tensions. For example, law enforcement agents are going to see the issue from a different view than a service provider. As stated before, law


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enforcement values are based on truth and justice, whereas service providers have a victim-centered approach. Currently, victim services have been using a trauma informed approach. Trauma informed care is defined as, "...a strengths-based framework that is grounded in an understanding of and responsiveness to the impact of trauma, that emphasizes physical, psychological, and emotional safety for both providers and survivors to rebuild a sense of control and empowerment (Hopper, Bassuk, & Olivet, 2009; Hendricks, Conradi, & Wilson, 2011).
Dr. Foot explains that tension often arises because of the two different approaches to the survivors. Law enforcement wants to protect survivors and bring their perpetrators to justice. With this mindset, they are often unaware of the trauma a trafficking survivor has endured, and therefore their approach often shuts down a survivor and makes the survivor less complacent in an investigation. On the other hand, social services see through the trauma informed approach, which often takes a very long time in therapy and slows down an investigation process. Both values are important. It will be a matter of the two values working together to help the survivor see justice for their perpetrator and by working through their own trauma.
Dr. Foot also examines how there can be tension within an organization. This is a fight for power and for money. In the case of HTTG, there was a lot of observed tension between each county of child welfare because each county serves a different population. Further, there was tension between supervisors and caseworkers trying to work together and share power.
There is also tension between Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and child welfare workers. In an interview with Dr. Annjanette Alejano-Steele and Mary


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Durant from LCHT, both explained how there is often a fight for money and power when it comes to NGOs and government agencies. Most of the time, government agencies are holding the most money in government grants, and therefore hold the most power. In the case of HTTG, there were more representatives from DHHS, a governmental organization, than there were NGOs. This severely limits the voices of NGOs and often silences voices that are too afraid to speak up against the majority. Dr. Alejano-Steele and Ms. Durant explained that in this group setting, so much is at stake when the ones who hold the power are unwilling to listen to anyone else at the table.
Dr. Foot also postulates about power:
"To understand how power dynamics reveal themselves in the practical workings of collaboration is to look at who makes the decision, who sets the direction, who gets the resources-and who gets left out in the process. When people consider collaboration, the commonsense understanding is that it consists of partnership, something that is thought to be characterized by relatively equal distributions of power. The idea that equal distribution is endemic of collaboration, however, is a misconception. Power differences among collaborators, whether in anti-trafficking efforts or anywhere else, are unavoidable given the uneven distribution of power in society at large and organized representatives" differences in resources and authority. Unsurprisingly, power inequities in collaborations are perceived most often and felt most keenly by those who experience themselves as having less power.


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The question for HTTG is who holds the power and are they wiling to share it? Through observations, it seems that much of the power is with Lynn Johnson and Jefferson County Human Services. Johnson is an outspoken leader with a lot of passion for the anti-trafficking movement. However, it will require a lot more than passion to drive the HTTG task force into creating real change.
In the discussion with Dr. Annjanette Alejano-Steele and Mary Durant (LCHT), both stated the importance of humility when it comes to collaboration. For HTTG, this is going to require humility on the part of everyone at the table. CPS workers will have to see that the system is broken and that changes need to be made so that more kids do not fall through the cracks. NGOs will need to see that CPS workers are trying to do the best they can with what they have got and will need to respect the CPS workers who are defensive and resistant to change. Everyone at the table will need to recognize their own faults and see their own strengths. This will require a space of open mindedness, trust, faith, and hope.
Collaboration is going to be key in preparing for the upcoming legislation H.R. 469. While HTTG is making strides in anti-trafficking collaboration, it could still be a difficult road to making actual change. H.R. 469 is going to force change on the group, which could either light a fire of motivation or cause tensions to run too high for the group to work together when they are under pressure.
H.R. 469 AND RECCOMMENDATIONS FOR COLORADO
H.R. 469 is legislation that is going to have tremendous affect on the antitrafficking movement. This bill is going to start to involve DHHS in a very dramatic way. How can Colorado prepare for this legislation?


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Recommendation One. First, Colorado has an advantage because HTTG has already begun these conversations. However, to help these meetings be most effective, it would be important to train HTTG participants on human trafficking. Through observations of an HTTG meeting, it seemed that many participants had limited knowledge of human trafficking and what role child welfare is playing. It would be in the best interest of the task force to initiate training for participants led by experts in human trafficking so that everyone is on the same page. This could aid in task force morale so that participants do not get burnt out. It will also make meetings more efficient if everyone is one the same page. If participants have the knowledge of what they are working towards there might be greater motivation and progress made towards solutions.
Recommendation Two. Second, it will be important to bring other voices to the table of anti-trafficking efforts. In terms of the HTTG, there are only specific voices being heard; i.e. child welfare workers and some particular NGOs. It will be critical for youth survivors of human trafficking to be brought to the table and for them to share their experience and ideas. These survivors would be able to pinpoint locations in the system where youth could be at greater risk for trafficking. The youth might also have ideas on how to strengthen the system in terms of their own experience. Furthermore, it would be beneficial to bring the voices of NGOs who have been actively providing services to trafficking victims. The NGO experiences will be valuable because they can explain services that have been effective or ineffective in working with survivors of trafficking. CPS could possibly incorporate some of these services. Also, in terms of HB 16-1224, law enforcement


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representatives who are trained on trafficking will need to be brought to the table. The more voices at the table, the better. However, it will make collaboration more complicated when there are so many views and values trying to work together. Again, policy has initiated the force of change to address human trafficking. Legislators probably underestimate the amount of work it will take to apply the recommendations of H.R. 469 and other bills both federal and local. The policy cannot be undone. Therefore, to keep moving forward, collaboration is going to be a painful yet effective piece of enacting change in combating human trafficking.
Recommendation Three. One of the main issues that DHHS and the child welfare system often run into is a lack of funding and a lack of manpower to complete these high expectations. A possible solution for this problem is to use college interns. College interns can be effective manpower and do not have to be paid as much as a full time employee. It would be in the departments best interest to utilize college interns for much of these transitions. For example, a college intern could attend training on human trafficking and could report back to their supervisor on what they have learned. This training could count for college credit. This could benefit CPS in that their new hires would be trained in human trafficking (prior to being paid to do so) and these new hires could help to educate current employees.
Recommendation Four. Finally, it would be beneficial to launch a research project in reviewing old child welfare cases on what could have been human trafficking. Before beginning this project, it will be necessary to define the terms of what could be considered human trafficking and how to know. This research project could show holes in the system and it will help DHHS in moving forward in defining


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cases that are human trafficking. It would also show the numbers of youth that possibly are considered human trafficking victims in the state of Colorado. These statistics will also help to earn grant money from the federal government, according to the regulations H.R. 469.
These recommendations are based on the research of the bills, both federal and state that are affecting the human trafficking movement and CPS. They also correspond to recommendations from the Colorado Action Plan based on the research of The Colorado Project.
Prevention. According to The Colorado Action Plan, Prevention efforts would include "Create strategic statewide human trafficking public awareness and prevention campaign(s) targeting populations that may be vulnerable to human trafficking and "Increase the probability of effective prevention efforts (Colorado Action Plan, 2015). All of the recommendations would fall under these efforts because H.R. 469 would force the system to change to increase prevention efforts of trafficking victims. This is because CPS will now have to take measures to protect at risk youth of becoming victims of trafficking. They will also have to create specific services to help survivors of trafficking that end up back in the CPS system to not be re-trafficked.
Protection. According to The Colorado Project, Protection efforts would include "Create a comprehensive and streamlined practice of working together across public and non-public agencies to address trafficking survivor service needs and "Increase education and networking among service providers throughout Colorado and across service areas of expertise to serve human trafficking survivors


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through increased membership in the Colorado Network to End Human Trafficking (CoNEHT), the statewide victim services network (Colorado Action Plan, 2015). Recommendation One and Three would fall under these efforts because it encourages education of those working in the anti-trafficking field. It is noble for people to volunteer to be apart of anti-trafficking efforts. However, if people are not armed with the knowledge of what trafficking is and how to combat it, then their efforts will be for not. Education is key to making change.
Partnership. According to The Colorado Action Plan, Partnership efforts would include, "Encourage collaborative and anti-trafficking and allied efforts at both the local and state levels to set processes for communication and conflict management that cultivate a culture of openness (Colorado Action Plan 2015). All of the recommendations would fall under this effort because anti-trafficking work is all about collaboration. Without collaboration, change will be too slow to combat the vast crime that is human trafficking.
The recommendations for Colorado to prepare for H.R. 469 emphasize education, collaboration, and efficient use of resources. The main challenges surrounding these recommendations will be to have people work together from different agencies and backgrounds. Dr. Kirsten Foot explained that there are both hopes and fears when it comes to collaboration. It is imperative that the antitrafficking movement work together to create change. This will mean being humble, understanding, and knowledgeable when trying to work together.


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CONCLUSION
"It's funny, because we all read history and we think, 'Oh, I would...have risen up, I would have fought, I would have been an abolitionist/And I tell them, 'No you wouldn't have. If you would have, you'd be doing that right now. You know trafficking exists, you've heard of it, but you don't want to look." Tim Ballard (Operation Underground Railroad).
We must show new energy in fighting back an old evil. Nearly two centuries after the abolition of the transatlantic slave trade, and more than a century after slavery was officially ended in its last strongholds, the trade in human beings for any purpose must not be allowed to thrive in our time... The founding documents of the United Nations and the founding documents of America stand in the same tradition. Both assert that human beings should never be reduced to objects of power or commerce, because their dignity is inherent."- President George W. Bush, 2003.
In the past 16 years, policy has forced change upon us as citizens. It has given us a call to action. Policy has told us that we have a problem and it needs to be solved. But how? Human trafficking is such a vast crime, expanding the entire globe! How do we solve such a colossal crisis?
Human trafficking is an enormous crisis and it is expanding the globe. Historically, policy has initiated the fight to end human trafficking by creating universal definitions and standards to adhere by. However, policy can only offer so


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much and go so far. Here is what policy does offer:
1. Policy creates generalized definition of human trafficking
2. Policy lists recommendations for countries or states to follow
3. Policy builds a foundation for change
4. Policy establishes a standard for anti-trafficking efforts and holds countries and states to this standard
5. Policy works to protect victims of trafficking and those at risk for trafficking
6. Policy and its definitions are the basis of prosecuting traffickers for their crimes
7. Policy encourages partnerships of organizations to fight to end human trafficking
Here is what policy does not do:
1. Policy does not tell countries or states specifically what to do
2. Policy does not help people work together
3. Policy does not make change. People do.
Policy is important for all of the things it does do for anti-trafficking work. But policy cannot be the perfect solution for combating human trafficking. It is only an essential tool. Policy has initiated change, it has educated countries and states, and it has been a call to action. It is now up to the people to create solutions, to be the change.
Margaret Mead once said, "Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful, committed citizens can change the world; indeed, it is the only thing that ever has. In this time, policy has set the stage for change to happen. It is now up to the group


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of thoughtful, committed citizens to change the world. This is going to take collaboration from every aspect of the anti-trafficking community. Human trafficking is just too vast a crime for one person to fight on ones own.
There is a place for everyone in the anti-trafficking movement. Now is the time to work together to create lasting change and end human trafficking.


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REFERENCES
A look back: Building a human trafficking legal framework. (2015). The Polaris Project. Retrieved from: http://www.polarisproject.org/.
Banks, D. & Kyckelhahn, T. (2011). Characteristics of suspected human trafficking incidents, 2008-2010. Bureau of Justice Statistics. Web.
Colorado Department of Human Services, Office of Homeless Youth Services, Homeless Youth Action Plan Summary
Colorado House of Representatives. Human Trafficking. (2014). House Bill 14-1273.
Colorado House of Representatives. Reporting Missing Youth in States Legal Custody. House Bill 15-1078.
Colorado House of Representatives. Treat Trafficking of Children as Child Abuse. House Bill 16-1224.
Federal House of Representatives. Strengthening Child Welfare Response to Trafficking Act of 2015. (2015). H.R. 469.
Federal House of Represenatives. Preventing Sex Trafficking and Strengthening Families Act. (2014). H.R. 4980.
Federal Senate. Justice for Victims of Trafficking Act of 2015. (2015). S. 178.
Hendricks, A., Conradi, L., & Wilson, C. (2011). Creating trauma-informed child
welfare systems using a community assessment process. Child Welfare, 90(6), 187-205.
Hopper, E.K., Bassuk, E.L., & Olivet, J. (2009). Shelter from the storm: Trauma-


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informed care in homeless service settings. The Open Health Services and Policy Journal, 2, 131-151.
Foot, K. (2016). Collaborating against human trafficking: Cross-sector challenges and practices. Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield.
Fong, R., & Berger Cardoso, J. (2010). Child human trafficking victims: Challenges for the child welfare system. Evaluation and Program Planning, 33[3), 311-316. doi:10.1016/j.evalprogplan.2009.06.018
ICF International. (2014). Colorado Department of Human Services: Colorado Child Welfare County Workload Study. Retrieved from:
http://www.leg.state.co.us/OSA/coauditorl.nsf/All/E5214710B77C878487
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%20Colorado%20Childrens'%20Welfare%20Workload%20Study%20Repor t%20August%202014.pdf
Iniguez de Heredia, M. (2008). People trafficking: Conceptual issues with the united nations trafficking protocol 2000. Human Rights Review, 9(3), 299-316. doi: 10.1007/sl2142-007-0051-1
Laboratory to Combat Human Trafficking(2015). History of the Movement.. Retrieved from:
http://coloradoproject.combathumantrafficking.org/about/movement Lloyd, R. & Orman, A. (2007) Training Manual on the Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children. CSEC Community Intervention Project, US Department of Justice, Office of Justice and Delinquency Prevention.


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Mehlman-Orozco, K. (2015). Safe harbor policies for juvenile victims of sex
trafficking: A myopic view of improvements in practice. Social Inclusion, 3(1), 52. doi:10.17645/si.v3il.56
Robertson, M. J. & Toro, P. A. (1998). Homeless youth: Research, intervention, and policy. United States Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved June 3, 2005, from http://aspe.hhs.gov/progsys/homeless/symposium/3-Yough.htm.
Safe Harbor Issue Brief. The Polaris Project. Retrieved from: http://www.polarisprojectorg/.
Smith, H. M., & Smith, C. A. (2011). Human trafficking: The unintended effects of united nations intervention. International Political Science Review/Revue Internationale DeScience Politique, 32(2], 125-145. doi: 10.1177/0192 512110371240
(2015) . Human Trafficking in the United States. Polaris Project. Retrieved frormhttp://www.polarisprojectorg/.
(2016) . The Issue. Urban Peak. Retrieved from: http://www.urbanpeak.org/denver/about-us/youth-homelessness/the-issue/
(2015). Trafficking in Persons Report. U.S. Department of State. Retrieved from: http://www.state.gOv/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/2015/index.htm
(2009). Trafficking in Persons Report. U.S. Department of State. Retrieved from: http://www.state.gOv/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/2009/index.htm


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Williams, R. (2014, May 09). Legislative Intent of Safe Harbor Laws. National Conference of State Legislature. Retrieved from:
http://www.ncsl.org/research/civil-and-criminal-justice/human-trafficking-
overview.aspx


Full Text

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Using Policy in the Fight to End Human Trafficking By Rebecca Tiell An undergraduate thesis submitted in partial completion of the M etropolitan State University of D enver Honors Program May 2016 Dr. Annjanette Alejano Steele Lori Darnel Dr. Megan Hughes Zarzo Primary Advisor Second Reader Honors Program Director

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