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The Solution to pollution is not dilution

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The Solution to pollution is not dilution
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Birt, Brenna
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Denver, Colo.
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Metropolitan State University of Denver
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English

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Full Text
The Solution to Pollution Is NOT Dilution
by Brenna Birt
An undergraduate thesis submitted in partial completion of the Metropolitan State University of Denver Honors Program
May 5, 2017
Garry Farmer Nona Shipman Dr. Megan Hughes-Zarzo
Primary Advisor Second Reader Honors Program Director


Running head: THE SOLUTION TO POLLUTION IS NOT DILUTION
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The Solution to Pollution Is NOT Dilution Brenna Birt
Metropolitan State University of Denver


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Contents
Introduction..................................................................................4
Water Management..............................................................................5
Doctrine of Prior Appropriation............................................................5
Colorado Water Plan........................................................................6
Compacts...................................................................................7
What is Water?...............................................................................10
Lead Leaching in Flint, Michigan.............................................................10
Contaminants of Emerging Concern.............................................................11
Nutrients.................................................................................12
Trace Pharmaceuticals.....................................................................13
Clean Water Act..............................................................................14
National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES)...................................15
Wastewater..............................................................................15
Stormwater..............................................................................16
Treatment Processes.......................................................................17
Drinking Water Treatment................................................................17
Wastewater Treatment....................................................................17
Desalination............................................................................21
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)................................................22
Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA).................23
Love Canal................................................................................23
Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT)........................................................25
Acid Mine Drainage...........................................................................26
Gold King Mine Spill......................................................................26
Historic Mining...........................................................................27
Pourbaix Diagrams.........................................................................28
Bonita Peak Mining District Superfund Site................................................29
Good Samaritan Legislation................................................................30
Possible Treatment Facilities...........................................................30
Clear Creek Superfund Site................................................................31
Total Maximum Daily Loads....................................................................32


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Conclusion.......................................................................33
REFERENCES.......................................................................35
Appendix A........................................................................49
Appendix B........................................................................50
Appendix C........................................................................51
Appendix D........................................................................52


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The Solution to Pollution is NOT Dilution Introduction
Earth is unique as it is the only known planet to have consistent and stable bodies of liquid water on its surface1. Earth is 72% covered with water2, and while this may seem like a substantial amount of water, it doesnt consider the composition of it. Approximately 97% of Earths water is salt water, and the remaining 3% is freshwater. Of this small portion, 2% is locked up in groundwater, glaciers, or ice caps. The remaining 1% is the water available for animal and human consumption3. This is approximately 3,260 million billion gallons4. See Appendix A for a visual representation of the distribution of water on Earth. The average person in the United States uses about 80-100 gallons of water per day5. People often use clean water to dilute contaminated water to create a nontoxic consumable concentration. However, the current method for diluting negatively impacts water practices and the environment. An adaptive legislation can be used to reduce and eventually stop these practices.
There is only a finite amount of water available to recycle itself around the planet this is known as the hydrologic cycle. A detailed diagram of the water cycle can be found in Appendix B. No water is being created or destroyed on Earth. So every drop of water thats here has seen the inside of a cloud, and the inside of a volcano, the inside of a maple leaf, and the inside of a dinosaur kidney, probably many times6. The water cycle ensures reuse through natural or human driven means. One component of the water cycle is precipitation, which falls from the clouds as snow or rain depending upon the temperature. Upon reaching the surface, the water will either infiltrate into the ground or it will runoff/flow over the surface to the lowest point.
The water that infiltrates into the ground becomes groundwater that travels slower than surface water. In some locations, it will eventually emerge and become surface water. The low


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topographical points are where the water collects to forms creeks, streams, rivers, and lakes. The water table is the zone saturated with water that can be exposed as surface water where there is no earth, or earth saturated in water. Surface or groundwater has the potential to be removed by humans and returned to water sources like reservoirs, lakes, and rivers. The water may also evaporate and return to the sky as water vapor. Plants and animals also experience evapotranspiration, where the water returns to the clouds7 until precipitation occurs again.
Water Management
Doctrine of Prior Appropriation
In Colorado, water is managed by the Doctrine of Prior Appropriation. Water rights are based on a first in time, first in right system. Basically, the first to put the water to beneficial use, and receive a court decree, will have the senior water right that must be satisfied before junior water rights are fulfilled8. Beneficial use is the basis, measure and limit of a water right. Colorado law broadly defines beneficial use of water as a lawful appropriation that uses reasonably efficient practices to put water to use without waste9. The commonly accepted beneficial uses of water are municipal, agricultural, industrial, recreational, and environmental. Municipal, agricultural, and industrial water use is oftentimes consumptive10. Many times nonconsumptive uses are for recreational or environmental purposes11. The Colorado Water Conservation Board (CWCB) can appropriate in-stream flows for environmental purposes to maintain the aquatic habitat12. Local governmental agencies can make in-channel diversions for recreational purposes13. The way the prior appropriation system, created in the mid-19th century14, is administered depends entirely on the physical availability of the water. Most of the rivers in Colorado are over-appropriated, so the in-stream and in-channel diversions are a solution to ensure that there is water in the river for environmental and recreational


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nonconsumptive uses.
Colorado Water Plan
In 2013, Governor Hickenlooper issued executive order D 2013-005 that directed the CWCB to commence work on the Colorado Water Plan (CWP). Colorados water policy must reflect its water values15. The final draft of this innovative and adaptive legislation was approved in 2015. The purpose of the plan is to address the looming supply and demand gap from a rapidly growing population. Drought conditions are anticipated to hasten the water supply gap. Additional problems addressed in the plan include removing water from rural communities, interstate water agreements, and issues associated with quality and quantity of the states water16. The plan is unique in its public engagement efforts throughout the drafting process. Thanks to the hard work of the CWCB, the concerns of many stakeholders were incorporated into the plan, and enabled it to become a living document. This is a roadmap that leads to a productive economy, vibrant and sustainable cities, productive agriculture, a strong environment, and a robust recreation industry17. Our legal and physical constraints open a gap between projected supply and demand in each basin. Colorados Water Plan sets an objective to close this gap by 2030, while also addressing the effects of a changing climate on our water resources18. The CWP encourages watershed health and resiliency by promoting water quantity and quality. Watersheds can provide ecosystem services, such as carbon sequestration, water supply, filtration, and purification19. A watershed is an area of land that separates water flowing to different rivers basins.
Often, anthropogenic, or human-induced, activities exacerbate the impacts resulting from fire, flood, and drought20. Successful collaboration amongst the basin roundtables would enable collaborative efforts to increase watershed resiliency and overall health while protecting


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the municipal water supplies. The various basin roundtables have addressed water quality in the Basin Implementation Plans (BIPs) in two major ways: Through quality related basin goals and measurable outcomes, and through identification of projects and methods with a water quality nexus21. Basin roundtables are based off the river basins in Colorado and includes the metro area as a roundtable due to the number of people living there.
Executive Order D 2013-005 recognizes this by stating, Colorados water quantity and quality questions can no longer be thought of separately. Each impacts the other and our state water policy should address them conjunctively 22. In a public survey, Coloradans indicated that the quality of surface and groundwater as a source of drinking water, the water quality of streams and lakes for recreational uses, public health, and wildlife and fish habitat are compelling reasons for improvement of water quality. State and federal statutes that protect instream water quality recognize the importance of protecting water rights while providing the authority to impose water-pollution controls23. Recognizing the inter-relationships between quality and quantity, strategies designed to meet Colorados current and future consumptive, recreational, and environmental water needs will incorporate, as a key objective, the protection and restoration of water quality24. The CWP addresses the quality and quantity issues through source water protection and watershed resiliency to help secure a water supply that meets the demand of a growing population.
Compacts
There is some conflict within the water community, and from the disagreement arises the necessity for compacts and equitable decrees. Compacts are treaties between states with the approval and consent of the federal government setting the terms for sharing the waters of an interstate stream25. These agreements specify how the water supply will be shared among the


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states.
The units of measuring the volume of water in a stream is acre-feet and cubic feet per second. An acre-foot is a volumetric measurement of water ... that will cover an acre of land at a depth of 1 foot, or 325,851 gallons of water26. Imagine a football field including the end zones covered with one foot of water. This is approximately one acre-foot27. Cubic feet per second, or cfs, is a measurement of flow rate of water in a running stream. Water flowing at 1 cubic foot per second will deliver 448.4 gallons per minute or 648,000 gallons per day or approximately 2 acre-feet per day28.
While all the water in Colorado originates here, making it a headwaters state, the interstate agreements require that most of the water flows out of the state. Colorado is party to 9 interstate compacts and two equitable apportionment decrees. The oldest and best known is the Colorado River Compact of 1922. It divides the states containing the Colorado River into upper and lower basins, based on the natural drainage above or below Lee Ferry, Arizona. Since the location to divide the states into upper and lower states is in Arizona, they are technically an upper and lower basin state29, but they are referred to as a lower basin state during negotiations and in Colorado River programs30. The upper basin includes the states of Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming31. The lower basin refers to the states of Arizona, California, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah32. Colorado is allowed to use up to 3.85 million acre feet (MAF), and is obligated to deliver 75 MAF based on a 10-year running average33. The Colorado River Basin has three additional compacts on it. The Upper Colorado River Compact (1948) allocates the water usage between the upper basin states- Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming. The state of Arizona [is allotted] the consumptive use of 50,000 acre-feet of water per annum34. The remaining water is apportioned based on a percentage; Colorado -


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57.75%, Utah 23%, Wyoming 14%, New Mexico 11.25%35. The La Plata River Compact (1922) is between Colorado and New Mexico. Between December 1 and February 15, there is an unrestricted right to use water, but allocates specific flows between February 16 and November 3036. The last compact in the Colorado River Basin is the Animas-La Plata Compact. It provides agreement between Colorado and New Mexico for the Animas-La Plata Project (1968). This also fulfills settlements to the Ute Mountain Tribe and the Southern Ute Indian Tribe, and provides water to the Navajo Nation37. The project will have a transbasin diversion from the Animas River at the Durango Pumping Plant to the La Plata River to supply water to the Navajo nation38. A transbasin diversion occurs when water is removed from its native basin and transferred to a different one39. In addition, this project approves the construction of reservoirs to assist Colorado with water storage required to make up shortages.
In 1923, a compact was established for the South Platte River. This compact is between Colorado and Nebraska. Nebraska has the right to fully use the water in Lodgepole Creek and Colorado has the right to fully use water in the South Platte River between October 15 and April 1. If the mean flow of the South Platte River at Julesburg, CO drops below 120 cfs then Colorado users are required to ensure Nebraska has the water promised for beneficial use40.
The Rio Grande Compact of 1938 establishes Colorados obligation to ensure deliveries of water at the New Mexico state line and New Mexicos obligation to assure deliveries of water at the Elephant Butte Reservoir41.
The Republican River Compact (1942) establishes the rights of Colorado, Nebraska, and Kansas to the water in the Republican River Basin through specific location and amount allocations42. Colorado was allocated specific sources with specified amounts that add to an annual total of 54,100 AF43.


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The Arkansas River Compact of 1948 protects all water users in existence since 1949, and the usage of John Martin Reservoir for Colorado and Kansas storage rights44.
The last compact is the Costilla Creek Compact (1963) and is the equitable division and apportionment of the use of the waters of Costilla Creek45.
The two equitable apportionment decrees that Colorado is involved in are the Laramie River Decree and North Platte River Decree. Wyoming filed litigation against Colorado in 1957 that resulted in the Laramie River Decree. The decree limits Colorado's diversion to 49,375 AF/year in the Laramie River Basin46. The North Platte River Decree originated from a complaint filed by the State of Nebraska against the States of Wyoming and Colorado in 2001. The decree limits total water exports from the North Platte River in Colorado to no more than 60,000 acre-feet during any 10-year period47.
What is Water?
Chemically, water is a colorless liquid, with hints of blue at room temperature, and an extremely polar molecule. Polarity of a molecule occurs when there is an uneven distribution of charge across the molecule resulting in a positive and negative charge on parts of the molecule48. The polarity of water allows it to readily dissolve most substances, including many salts. This makes it very difficult to determine how clean water is based on appearance.
Lead Leaching in Flint, Michigan
An example of this is Flint, Michigan. Citizens in Flint have been receiving tap water that exceeds the National Primary Drinking Water Regulations for lead. There is zero tolerance for lead in drinking water as applied to public water systems49. The potential health effects that have been determined are delayed physical and/or mental development in children and infants. The effects on adults are kidney problems and high blood pressure50. The drinking water problem


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began in 2014 when the citys water source was switched to the Flint River. There were mistakes in treating the corrosive river water that corroded the pipes that began leaching lead into the water. While the lead levels are declining, the residents are still facing their third year of not being able to drink the tap water51. With a zero tolerance of lead in drinking water, there is no amount of dilution that can occur to address the pollution. The solution to this is treatment that has checks and balances to prevent negligence that allowed for this problem to develop. Municipalities in Colorado are working on addressing and preventing this problem through the addition of a liner in old pipes to seal off the lead to prevent leaching.
Flint begins to expose some of the other issues associated with pollutants in the human diet. In Flint, the pollutant comes directly from drinking water supply and introduced excess lead into residents diet. Another way that pollutants can accumulate in the diet is through bioaccumulation. If a pollutant is introduced into the environment, small parts of it will be taken up in all species living there. However, the predators will have a higher concentration than that of the prey. An aquatic ecosystem provides a great example. The phytoplankton, at the bottom of the food chain, may only have one part per billion (ppb) of the micropollutant, but when a small fish consumes 100 of these a day, the small fish now has a concentration of 100 ppb of the pollutant. If a large fish feeds on 10 small fish, then the large fish contains 1,000 ppb of the pollutant52. The species higher up in the food chain are at higher risk for toxic concentrations of the pollutants introduced into the environment. Contaminants have the ability to affect environmental and public health.
Contaminants of Emerging Concern
With modern analytical instrumentation, lower detection levels are possible, and micropollutants or emerging contaminants have been found53. A contaminant of emerging


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concern should be defined as naturally occurring, manufactured or manmade chemicals or materials which have now been discovered or are suspected present in various environmental compartments and whose toxicity or persistence are likely to significantly alter the metabolism of a living being54. Some micropollutants include pharmaceuticals, pesticides, and trace metals. Because of the way water works, of course, that means those substances are also starting to appear in the raw water that utilities rely on to supply our tap water55. When the water flows to the oceans, it contains diluted concentrations of all pollutants the water picks up that isnt treated as its reused. The oceans are really a mirror of human healthif they're sick and dying, then that's the future of mankind as well56.
Most pollutants that enter a waterway generally originate somewhere upstream. With water flowing to the lowest point and its high polarity, it will usually dissolve any substance it encounters and carries it downstream. Ideally, these dissolved substances would be contained within the watershed. This is not always the case due to transbasin diversions. For example, the larger Mississippi River Basin is an abundantly large watershed that when broken into smaller basins, is partially fed by the Arkansas River Basin.
Nutrients
The larger Mississippi River Basin is a good example of the accumulation of pollutants downstream. It drains into the Gulf of Mexico where excess nitrogen and phosphorus can also travel thousands of miles to coastal areas where the effects of the pollution are felt in the form of massive dead zones57. Nitrogen and phosphorus are naturally found in the air and water, but they become a problem when they are in excess. This results in extra food for algae to consume and can experience exponential growth. Significant increases in algae harm water quality, food resources and habitats, and [most importantly] decrease the oxygen that fish and other aquatic


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life need to survive58. When this occurs, it can create dead zones. These dead zones, also referred to as hypoxic zones, are characterized by less than 2 parts per million (ppm) of dissolved
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oxygen .
Strategies to eliminate the problem is the use of fewer fertilizers, adjusted timing of fertilizer application to limit runoff, better control of animal waste, careful monitoring and limiting of nutrient discharges from wastewater treatment and manufacturing facilities60. The increased monitoring and reduction of nutrient discharge from wastewater treatment facilities have helped to reduce the size of dead zones but not completely remove it. A possible solution to the hypoxic zones is the addition of dissolved oxygen concurrently with the reduction of the nitrogen and phosphorus discharged to the ocean.
Trace Pharmaceuticals
In addition to nutrients, a contaminant of emerging concern are trace pharmaceuticals. Tens of millions of people now take maintenance pharmaceuticals every day: antidepressants and cholesterol-lowering medicine join birth control pills and blood-pressure medicine ... The residues of those medicines end up in our urine and in our wastewater61. The amounts of most substances are almost unimaginable tiny, the equivalent... of a single grain of sand in an
Olympic sized swimming pool....The very nature of hormones is that a tiny amount can have a
significant impact62. The Cherry Creek contains enough trace pharmaceuticals that the bacteria are mostly resistant63. Many of these substances are endocrine disruptors, which have the ability to simulate hormones. The effects can be developmental malformations, interference with reproduction, increased cancer risks, and disturbance of the immune and nervous system functions64. Due to the recent discovery of trace amounts of endocrine disrupters in the water, there is very little information available about the long-term adverse effects. However, some


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effects from exposures have been observed. Parts per trillion levels of tributyltin have caused masculinization of female marine molluscs such as the dog whelk and ivory shell65. Tributyltin was a paint for bottoms of boats66, and has been banned from use by the Rotterdam Convention in 199867. Due to the low concentration, around parts per trillion, of the endocrine disrupters, dilution is not able to be a solution. A couple of possible solutions are to become a healthier society or rely more heavily on the usage of reverse osmosis. In becoming a healthier society, the need for the usage of pharmaceuticals will be reduced. Reverse osmosis is an energy intensive process that is not economically feasible to treat all water.
Clean Water Act
The best-known legislature for controlling water pollution is the Clean Water Act. The Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1948 was the first major U.S. Law to address water pollution68, and is administered by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The act was then amended in 1972, and became commonly known as the Clean Water Act (CWA). The amendments to the Clean Water Act accomplished the following items69:
Established the basic structure for regulating pollutant discharges into the waters of the United States.
Gave EPA the authority to implement pollution control programs such as setting wastewater standards for industry.
Maintained existing requirements to set water quality standards for all contaminants in surface water.
Made it unlawful for any person to discharge any pollutant from a point source into navigable waters, unless a permit was obtained under its provisions.
Funded the construction of sewage treatment plants under the construction grants


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program.
Recognized the need for planning to address the critical problems posed by nonpoint source pollution.
Subsequent amendments allowed for the State Water Pollution Control Revolving Fund to address water quality needs while building on EPA partnerships.
National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES)
As part of the amendments to the CWA, the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) was established to limit pollutants being discharged from point and non-point sources. The point source pollution is when all pollutants are conveyed to a specific discharge point. The effluent from a wastewater treatment plant is considered a point source pollution. Non-point source pollution is when contaminants cannot be traced back to a specific discharge point. Common examples of this would be fertilizer runoff, natural chemical weathering of minerals in rocks, leaking car fluids, and pet waste. When a pets owner fails to pick up after their pet, the waste may eventually make its way to the waterway, and add to the suspended solids and bacterial content. In Jefferson County, there have been so many pet owners that failed to pick up their pet waste at the Elk Meadow Dog Park that it has become a point source. The dog park has stream that runs through the middle of it. The park is being closed for major restoration from loss of native vegetation, soil erosion, poor water quality, and degradation of the stream channel70.
Wastewater.
A NPDES permit is required when discharge from a point source enters national waters. There are two types of permits that can be issued- a general and individual permit. A general permit may be issued on many different dischargers for coverage of the same pollutant at varying


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sources. An individual permit is written for unique isolated conditions that will most likely not be duplicated, and as such they are much more difficult to obtain71. The most common general permit for each city would be for wastewater treatment plants. The permitted facilities are required to monitor, sample, and report their point source discharges to the regulatory agency. If there is an exceedance of a pollutant limit, then the permittee is required to notify the regulatory agency of the upset. The NPDES permitting of point sources has helped to improve the nation's water quality by imposing concentration limits for specific pollutants allowed to be discharged.
Stormwater.
While there are pollutants that can be found in the nations water that originate from natural sources these tend to be uncommon. A contributing factor is non-point source pollution from stormwater. Stormwater runoff is generated from rain and snowmelt events that flow over land or impervious surfaces72, and usually does not receive any treatment prior to discharging to the river. The most common pollutants coming from stormwater sources include sediment, pathogens, nutrients, and metals73. The storm drains found throughout the city streets are part of the Municipal Separate Storm Sewer System (MS4) which conveys all stormwater below ground to the nearest waterway. MS4 permits are intended to limit non-point source pollution from entering the waterways and protecting the health of water bodies by enabling municipalities to regular discharges from the storm drains. Runoff picks up pollutants like trash, chemicals, oils, [detergents] and dirt/sediment74 Reducing the non-point source pollution includes addressing illicit discharges of pollutants, and the regulation of best management practices at construction sites. In addition to addressing the physical sources, there are educational components to help the public understand the importance of preventing the discharges to storm drains.


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Treatment Processes
Multiple treatments for water reuse is essential to maintaining good water quality. Water is treated prior to and after its interaction with humans. Tap water is treated at a drinking water treatment facility. The water disposed of down a drain is treated at a wastewater treatment facility. Coastal cities have an option to desalinate seawater to supplement the fresh water supply.
Drinking Water Treatment.
Drinking water treatment facilities supply quality tap water to citizens homes. Each facility has a slight variation on a standard process. A typical facility will have the following stages of treatment: coagulation and flocculation, sedimentation, filtration, and disinfection. In coagulation and flocculation, positively charged chemicals are added to the water to neutralize the negative charge of dissolved particles in the water. The binding with the chemicals forms larger particles called floe. The next step of treatment, sedimentation, allows the floe to settle to the bottom. The clear water at the top then proceeds through filters of varying compositions, like sand, gravel, or charcoal. After filtration, the water is disinfected by chlorine or chloramine to kill any remaining bacteria before being sent to taps75.
The City and County of Denver tap water is supplied by Denver Water. Denver Water proudly serves high-quality water and promotes its efficient use to 1.4 million people in the city of Denver and many surrounding suburbs. ... It is Colorados oldest and largest water utility76.
Wastewater Treatment.
City and County of Denvers wastewater treatment is provided by Metro Wastewater Reclamation District. They are the largest wastewater treatment facility in the Rocky Mountain Region and rated for a max flow of 220 million gallons daily capacity77. They work with 60 local


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governments, including Denver, Arvada, Aurora, Brighton, Lakewood, Thornton, and Westminster .
The construction of wastewater treatment facilities began in the late 19th century and early 20th century79. It used to be that waste was dumped into waterways with little impact. However, that was before human population exceeded the assimilative capacity of the system to treat it. The operation of a typical wastewater treatment facility is not economically feasible for towns with a population size less than 10,000, but they are still required to provide wastewater treatement80. Some options in use include septic tanks or aerated lagoons. Septic tanks are underground wastewater treatment structures, commonly used in rural areas without centralized sewer systems81. All the water from the house drains into a buried water tight container that will hold the wastewater long enough to allow solids to settle to the bottom. The liquid effluent discharges to a drainfield that is shallow and covered with unsaturated soil. The water is biologically treated as it percolates through the soil82. For smaller municipalities, aerated lagoons are more cost effective with lower operation and maintenance costs83. The typical construction is three ponds in series, each with a waterproof liner and aeration84. In the aeration process, the suspended solids do not have enough energy to stay in suspension, so they settle on the bottom. After aeration, disinfection is likely to occur, but not required85. For large urban areas, the typical wastewater treatment facility will have the following treatment stages: debris/grit removal, primary clarifiers, aeration basin, secondary clarifiers, and disinfection. Some of the sludge removed is treated into biosolids.
Water treatment begins with debris and grit removal. The influent, or incoming wastewater, passes through a filter that removes the large particles, that might clog pipes or damage equipment. The grit, composed of sediment, sand, and small stones, is removed using


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centripetal force. The grit settles to the bottom due to the inability to maintain the required velocity to stay in solution86. From here, the wastewater enters a primary clarifier, or sedimentation tank, that holds the wastewater to allow the suspended solids to settle to the bottom. The solids are collected from the bottom of the clarifier to be treated into biosolids. The water continues onto the aeration basin where it is mixed with air and activated sludge, that is laden with microorganism that break down the organic matter into harmless by-products87. The water sludge mixture is transferred to a secondary clarifier. Some of this sludge returns to the beginning of the aeration basin to treat the new sewage, and the remaining is sent for biosolids treatment88. The water from the secondary clarifiers continues to the disinfection stage.
Chlorination, ozonation, and ultraviolet light are the most common forms of disinfection. Chlorine can be supplied in many forms, which include chlorine gas, hypochlorite solutions, and other chlorine compounds in solid or liquid form89. Optimal contact usually occurs in a contact basin where the pathogenic organisms are inactivated or destroyed. The chlorine residual, even at low concentrations, is toxic to aquatic life [and thus] may require dechlorination90. Dechlorination is the process of removing free and combined chlorine residuals91 through the addition of sulfur dioxide, sodium bisulfite, or sodium metabisulfite92. The usage of chlorine products requires additional safety measures for handling, transportation, and storage per the products Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS). Ozonation is the use of ozone, O3, for disinfection, and is just as effective in the deactivation of bacteria as chlorine. It has the benefits of no byproducts and no remaining odors or tastes after treatment. Ozone is extremely unstable and will quickly revert to its diatomic state, O2. Due to this, it must be produced on site, and used immediately93. Ultraviolet light disinfection uses a specific wavelength, known as UV-C, located between 240-280 nanometers (nm) to modify the nuclei of


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the cells to prevent reproduction. An irradiation chamber exposes the fluids to UV-C light, and kills or prevents reproduction of the microbials94 The treated water, or effluent, can now be discharged to the nearest body of water.
The effluent discharge from each wastewater treatment facility requires a general NPDES discharge permit. It has specific standards that are regulated and determined by the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment (CDPHE) Water Quality Control Commission (WQCC)95. Regulation 62 sets the effluent limits96. The numeric limits are for biological oxygen demand (BOD), total suspended solids (TSS), residual chlorine, pH, and oil and grease. BOD, TSS, and residual chlorine have 7-day and 30-day averages to stay under at 45 mg/1 (or 45 ppm) and 30 mg/1 (or 30 ppm) respectively. TSS is a specific measurement of all suspended solids, both organic and inorganic97.The pH is not allowed to exceed 6-9 standard units. Residual chlorine is 0.5 mg/1 (or 0.5 ppm) and oil and grease is no greater than 10 mg/1 (or 10 ppm)98. Wastewater treatment facilities have an 85% minimum pollutant removal requirement99.
The biosolids treatment occurs concurrently to the water treatment. The solids that are removed from the clarifiers and not recycled as activated sludge in the aeration basin are treated into biosolids. The process is thickening, anaerobic digestion, and centrifuge. The sludge is first thickened and dewatered. It can be thickened by the addition of chemicals such as lime, ferric chloric, or polymers to produce larger particles100. Dewatering processes include drying beds, belt filter presses, plate and frame presses, and centrifuges101. The sludge is digested anaerobically under heat. The anaerobic bacteria break the sludge down into simpler and more stable compounds, and a byproduct is methane gas, that can be captured and used as an energy source for the digesters102. Lastly, stabilization of solids may also be accomplished by composting, heat treatments, drying or the addition of lime or other alkaline materials103. The


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biosolids can be disposed of as a fertilizer, incineration, or placed into a landfill. The most beneficial use is land application, because it provides primary and secondary nutrients, increases crop yields, maintains nutrients in the root zone, releases nitrogen throughout the growing season unlike chemical fertilizers, and offers net greenhouse gas benefits by recycling carbon to the soil104
Just like water treatment, there are regulations for the creation and disposal of biosolids. These regulations cover the pollutant loading in the creation of biosolids, the lands they are applied to, and the amount applied. In 1993, EPA issued Part 503 rule to provide land application oversight, and the states could implement complementary programs105. CDPHE developed regulation 64 to regulate metals, pathogens, and land application of biosolids. Nine metals identified by the EPA have high enough risk to require monitoring, and CDPHE has set limits or loading rates on them. The metals include: arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, and zinc106. There are few hazardous chemicals entering the treatment facilities due to the industrial pretreatment programs required under the Clean Water Act107. Trace chemicals that on occasion have been identified in biosolids have not been found in environmentally or toxicologically significant amounts108. As established by the Part 503 rule, the treatment of biosolids to Class B or Class A standards eliminates 99% or more of the pathogens that may exist in sewage sludge109. There has been no scientific data linking biosolid application to illnesses in humans110. There is little risk to public health from the application of biosolids as fertilizer.
Desalination.
Many coastal cities use the ocean to supplement their freshwater supplies. Saltwater can be treated through distillation or reverse osmosis. Distillation is a natural process that mankind


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has adopted for water treatment111. Desalination plants are used to convert seawater to drinking water on ships and in many arid regions of the world, and to treat water in other areas that is fouled by natural and unnatural contaminants112. In desalination, saltwater is heated until it evaporates. The water vapor condenses back to liquid form when it is cooled113.This process most completely reduces the widest range of drinking water contaminants114.
Another extremely effective process of removing water pollutants is reverse osmosis through a membrane. The water is forced through a semipermeable membrane of varying pore sizes for varying filtering capacities. Imagine a bathtub with a semi permeable divider, as the membrane, in the middle. On one side, A, there is a small amount of water and the other side, B, is nearly full. The water from side B will naturally flow to side A until they equilibrate at the same level, which is considered osmotic pressure. In reverse osmosis, the water is forced from side A to side B through the membrane from pressure applied to side A. By forcing the water through the membrane, it removes any dissolved solids too large to pass through the pores115. The treatment process is excellent at removing the pollutants its designed to remove.
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)
There are other pollutants that are extremely hazardous to environmental and human health that must be addressed in a different manner. In response to public concern of industrial companies disposing their toxic wastes in unknown locations, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) was established by Congress in 1976 to grant authority for control of hazardous waste disposal116. This is also known as the cradle-to-grave regulation, where any hazardous material must be managed and contained for the entire process of generation, transportation, treatment, storage, and disposal. There were also two amendments in 1984 and 1986 that enabled the EPA to address issues resulting from underground tanks storing petroleum


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and other hazardous substances, waste minimization, and the phasing out of land disposal for hazardous wastes117. RCRA is a comprehensive framework/system to implement effective programs for hazardous and solid waste oversight. This is helpful in the regulation of pollutants that could otherwise lead to the development of Superfund sites118.
Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA)
Superfund is the common name for Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) that was enacted by Congress in December of 1980. In addition to providing the Federal government the authority to respond directly to threats to public health and environment from potential releases of hazardous substances, this law created a tax on the chemical and petroleum industries119. The collected tax was placed into a trust fund to be used for remediation of abandoned or uncontrolled hazardous waste sites120. The tax on the petroleum industry stopped, and the fund depleted in the 1990s. Superfund was added to the Congressional budget, and will remain through congressional appropriation until a new budget is approved121. There are two kind of response actions the law authorizes, short-term removals and long-term remedial response actions. A short-term removal will address releases or threatened releases requiring prompt response122. A long-term remedial response permanently reduces the associated dangers of releases or threatened releases of hazardous substances that are not immediately life threatening from sites on the National Priorities List (NPL)123.
Love Canal
Several serious environmental problems lead to the development of RCRA and CERCLA. The Love Canal site provided the first of many challenges the EPA would face and exhibits why environmental health is so important. A small block of land on the eastern edge of Niagara Falls, New York was going to be developed into a canal by the owner, William T. Love,


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to connect the upper and lower Niagara Rivers in the early 1900s. The project was never finished due to fluctuations of the economy. In the 1920s, the partial ditch was used as a municipal and industrial chemical dumpsite by the Hooker Chemical Company. The ditch was filled in and sold to the city for one dollar in 1953. The area was subsequently developed to contain homes and a school. After a record amount of rainfall in the 1970s, the waste that had once been buried was exposed. Puddles of hazardous waste were found all around the area and in some backyards degraded and leaking waste-disposal drums could be seen. The Hooker Chemical Company had disposed of 82 different chemical compounds and 11 of these were suspected. Aside from the burns some children suffered after playing outside, there were many miscarriages and birth defects. Some relief was finally to be had, when on August 7th, 1978 New York Governor Hugh Carey announced that the state would purchase the affected homes, and President Carter approved emergency financial aid for the area124. The severity of the Sites contamination ultimately led to the creation of federal legislation to manage the disposal of hazardous waste. This legislation is commonly known as Superfund was officially named the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) (Superfund Law) of 1980125. In 2004, the Love Canal area was determined to no longer pose a threat to human health, and was delisted as a Superfund site. This very public problem brought national attention to local water supplies.
Despite all the hazardous and solid waste management enabled through RCRA, there are still old abandoned dump sites that require remediation. Before events like the Love Canal, there were no regulations governing the disposal of waste from various industrial processes. The superfund program contains site assessment guidance to evaluate potential or confirmed releases of hazardous substances that pose a threat to human health and the environment. Appendix C


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shows a flow diagram outlining the site assessment process. The process is guided by a Hazard Ranking System (HRS), and is administered by the EPA, state, tribal, or other federal agency environmental programs. These entities collect data to identify, evaluate and rank hazardous waste sites based on HRS criteria126. The HRS is a numerically based screening system. As shown in Appendix C, the numerical result from the initial investigation must have a HRS score of 28.5 or greater to be placed on the NPL and qualify as a Superfund site. Only sites on the NPL are eligible for Superfund Trust Fund-financed remedial actions127. Superfund sites received remedial actions until their specified contaminates no longer pose a threat to human health. In time, all sites on the NPL will be addressed as the most dangerous and prioritized for remediation. This is helping to protect future generations from hazardous substances.
Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT)
A historical example of a micropollutant would be Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, or DDT. The discovery of DDT as a pesticide was met with great success until it began having a negative environmental impact. The immediate impact was the elimination of mosquitoes and pests to stop the spread of diseases like malaria but as a result lead to the disappearance of many birds128. Despite the ban on this chemical, the effects can still be felt today. DDT has low solubility in water and is immobile in most soils129. DDT breakdown products have been found in various foods and confirmed in the body of most subjects tested. DDT has also been found in dolphin tissues130. DDT is a detriment to human health because even through low level exposure it has been shown to cause breast and other cancers, male infertility, miscarriages and low birth weight, developmental delay, and nervous system and liver damage131. The insolubility of DDT prevents dilution from being a solution. There is no easy solution available for this historic pesticide. To completely remove the compound and the breakdown products would require


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global treatment.
Acid Mine Drainage
Another current and historical source of metal micropollutants is acid mine drainage from abandoned mines [that] is ... contaminating 40% of headwater streams132. Prior to 1977 there were virtually no laws in the United States requiring that mines be reclaimed when mining was finished133. As a result, Colorado was left with an estimated 23,000 abandoned mine lands (AML)134. The inventory identified physical and environmental hazards associated with mine features such as mine openings, waste rock dumps, tailings dumps, and mine structures. Approximately 18,000 individual mine features were inventoried135. The driving force behind the project was the Federal Facilities Compliance Program, which is designed to bring federal facilities and lands into compliance with federal environmental laws including CERCLA, RCRA, and the CWA136. The waste rock dumps and tailings piles are considered non-point pollution sources, while the mine drainage, openings, and structures are considered point
137
sources
Mine drainage is formed when metal sulfides like pyrite, and iron sulfide, are exposed and react with oxygen in the air and water to form sulfuric acid and dissolved iron138. The acid produced can further dissolve rock and release additional heavy metals139.
Gold King Mine Spill
The Animas River is the poster child for such events. In August 2015, the Gold King Mine spill occurred where an estimated 3 million gallons of acid mine drainage was released directly into Cement Creek turning the river orange140. Cement Creek is one of three tributaries that converge in Silverton to form the Animas River. The other two tributaries are the Upper Animas River, and Mineral Creek. An unfortunate series of events lead to the mine spill. In


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2014, the Colorado Division of Reclamation Mining and Safety (DRMS) asked EPA to stabilize the portal. The remediation of Gold King Mine was postponed until a pond could be constructed to hold the expected water. In 2015, Environmental Restoration141 began excavation above where the water level was predicted to be to find hard rock for drainage pipe installation142. The excavation fractured the plug causing drainage to discharge directly to Cement Creek. The metals confirmed in the waste were lead, arsenic, cadmium, aluminum, and copper. All the appropriate government entities were notified, such as the CDPHE, EPA Region 8, and the U.S. Department of Interior which includes the Fish and Wildlife Service, to alert all water users downstream. When the waste plume had passed Durango, the US Bureau of Reclamation released water from the Navajo Dam to dilute the contaminated water entering the San Juan River from the Animas River143. Most of the metal precipitated out of the solution by the time the orange plume reached Durango due to pH returning to neutral at 7144. Colorado Parks and Wildlife inserted caged trout fingerlings into the plume, and determined that there was no harm to wildlife145. Of the 180-fingerling trout placed in the river during the plume, only one died, and that cannot be correlated with the spill146. The trout test revealed no permanent impact on the river.
Historic Mining
Mining in the area began in the 1860s. For decades, water quality has been impaired. Colorado health officials after 1998 designated some portions of the Animas, below Cement Creek, officially impaired due to toxic metals including lead, iron and aluminum147. The Animas River receives 5.4 million gallons of water from mine drainage every day148. This equates to about 30 Gold King mine spillages each year149. The impact to Durango is minimized due to the dilution that occurs from tributaries between the mine drainage and the town. The


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same cannot be said for Silverton, upstream of Durango. Silverton water quality is severely degraded. In 2005, a water treatment plant on Cement Creek, just to the south of Silverton, was shut off. The effluent was providing water for dilution that allowed for fish populations to thrive, and once the plant was shut off, fish populations deteriorated along the 30-mile stretch through the Animas Gorge. The reliance on dilution for reduction of pollution in the waterways is not sustainable. Dilution has turned into a band aid for the symptom and not a solution to the problem150.
Pourbaix Diagrams
The dilution of the Gold King Mine spillage was beneficial in the precipitation of metals out of solution. Metals will be in different oxidation states depending on the conditions that the elements find themselves in. The two conditions that are used in predicting the oxidation state are pH and reducing potential. These two constraints are typically combined into a visual representation referred to as a Pourbaix (pE/pH) diagram151.
pH is a measure of how acidic or basic the water is. It is a logarithmic measurement of the relative abundance of free hydrogen ions. The typical scale is from 0-14 with 0 being acidic and 14 basic152. Some common acidic compounds are vinegar (acetic acid) and lemon juice, while common basic compounds would be bleach (calcium hypochlorite) and lye/liquid drain cleaner (sodium hydroxide)153. Many metals are much more soluble under acidic conditions.
A reducing potential is the ability to donate or accept electrons in an oxidation-reduction (redox) reaction154. The formation of water from hydrogen (H2) and oxygen gas (02) is a redox reaction that can be considered two coupled processes. The molecular oxygen is the oxidizing agent or gaining electrons, while the molecular hydrogen is the reducing agent or losing electrons to form water (H20). A positive reducing potential indicates that it is an oxidizing


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agent, so a negative reducing potential indicates that it is a reducing agent155. In terms of environmental applicability, a positive reducing potential indicates well aerated or high dissolved oxygen, and a negative reducing potential indicates pollution with organic waste156.
The Pourbaix diagrams are for the metals confirmed in the Gold King mine spillage can be viewed in Appendix D. At a low pH, these metals are in an aqueous form. As the pH returns to neutral, most of them precipitate out of solution, and would settle along the river bottom157. Bonita Peak Mining District Superfund Site
Many of these mines, Gold King included, pose enough hazard to human health that they were classified as a superfund site. The Bonita Peak Mining District (BPMD) was place on the National Priorities List (NPL) on September 9th, 2016 with a hazard ranking of 50.00158. There are currently 48 historic mines or mine related sources that comprise the BPMD Superfund site159. There are four mines of the 48 designated sources that provide at least half of the metal loading into the Animas River160. The rest of the mines are little bleeders, just like the waste tailings piles. Well-intended groups (i.e., third-party entities such as nonprofit organizations, state agencies, watershed groups, etc.) could voluntarily clean up hard rock mine sites161. Majority of the metal loading now occurs from point sources162 that well-intended groups face daunting obstacles because of unrealistic permitting requirements and burdensome liability rules163. Any entity that constructs a treatment system such as a bioreactor becomes liable for the acid mine discharge in perpetuity under the Clean Water Act164. The Good Samaritan legislation, supported by the San Juan Coalition, would provide stronger legal protections from unforeseen lawsuits and long-term liability issues while fixing a shortcoming in the CWA NPDES that was unforeseen when it was enacted. As it currently stands, only the EPA has the jurisdiction to remediate point sources. These are generally superfund sites that are on the NPL


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for high risk to public health. However, the county commissioner must request the superfund cleanup. The request first goes to the governor, and then onto the EPA165. The EPA Superfund remediation process is long and is likely to take at least 10 years166.
Good Samaritan Legislation
The little bleeders are likely not on the EPA radar due to their low risk. However, well-intended groups are willing to conduct the mine reclamation if they have environmental liability protection from CWA NPDES discharge permit and possibly CERCLA167. The Good Samaritan legislation has focused on amendments to section 402 of CWA, and would define what sites and who could be allowed to remediated based on legal and technical expertise168. The sites would be abandoned, or lacking a potentially responsible party (PRP)169. A PRP may have been handed ownership of the mine via a will170. An ideal orphaned mine for the Good Samaritan legislation will have a maximum discharge of 100 gallons per minute (gpm)171. An ideal discharge would be 50-75 gpm172. The discharge from the mines would not result in a permanent NPDES discharge permit with 95% removal requirements, but a permanent facility that could reduce the metal loading by roughly 30%173. This treatment facility would likely be a bioreactor or an engineered wetland174.
Possible Treatment Facilities.
A bioreactor is buried treatment facility that is designed to reduce pollutant loading from the water flowing in175. Permeable bioreactors have gained both research and management attention as viable methods for treating mine runoff waters176. A bioreactor containing a mix of compost, straw, and gravel was used to treat a runoff from a mine in northern Idaho. It was effective at immobile metal reductions despite fluctuating hydraulic retention times, or unregulated runoff flow177. Bioreactors are designed to provide filtration and biological treatment


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that simulates natural treatment systems.
Engineered wetlands also try to simulate the natural treatment processes. As water flows through a wetland, it slows down and many of the suspended solids become trapped by vegetation and settle out. Other pollutants are transformed to less soluble forms taken up by plants or become inactive178. They also facilitate the necessary conditions that microorganisms can thrive in to further reduce the pollutants179. The low operation and maintenance costs makes both treatment facilities viable options to remediate acid mine drainage to reduce some of the metal loading.
Clear Creek Superfund Site
By placing the Bonita Peak Mining District on the NPL, the major sources of metal loading will be addressed in time, and all the little bleeders can be addressed through the help of Good Samaritan legislation. While BPMD is a new Superfund site, the Clear Creek Superfund site has been receiving remediation for some time. This is the probable direction of the BPMD Superfund. Clear Creek was listed in 1983 with a hazard ranking of 51.3 9180. One of the major sources of remediation for this site is the Argo treatment plant. The facility collects the drainage from the Argo mine and treats it for metals before discharging the water back into Clear Creek on the east side of Idaho Springs181.
Despite Clear Creek receiving remediation efforts since 1983, there is still some metal loading that should be addressed. A brown trout from Georgetown Reservoir and Clear Creek area was analyzed for trace metal determination. One of the brown trout caught was pregnant, but it was an opportunity to determine the metals accumulating in the fish eggs, or roe, in comparison to the tissue. Each sample of roe and tissue was dissolved in concentrated trace metal grade nitric acid and digested with alternating heating and time to cool. After filtration through a


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0.2-micron filter, the samples were run on an inductively couple plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) that allowed the calculation of the concentrations in ppb. A second instrument was required for some of the metals because the concentration was on a scale of parts per million instead of parts per billion. The results of the analysis are reported in pg/g per EPA standards. The four metals that were positively tested for were cadmium, copper, manganese, and zinc. The concentration factor is the multiplier for the extra metal found in the eggs over the tissue. For cadmium, the concentration factor is 20 times; for copper is 4.3 times; manganese is 7.6 times; and zinc was 23 times182. It seems unlikely that the roe would have survived with the amount of metal they contained. These results are a great example of how nearly anything that is put into the water will become part of the ecosystem. There are some very specific locations in the Clear Creek Basin that dilution is allowing aquatic life to survive.
Total Maximum Daily Loads
Another component of the Clean Water Act addresses the health of the waterways through Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs). A TMDL is a calculation of maximum allowed concentrations of a pollutant in a waterbody. These have become a starting point for restoration and protection activities in attaining and maintaining water quality in many watersheds. Limitations are established from a list of impaired waters with priority rankings for those that do not meet water quality standards. The impaired waters are prioritized based on the severity of the pollution and the designated use of the waterbody (e.g., fish propagation or human recreation)183. They can be issued for a variety of pollutants that includes bacteria and metals.
The issuance of a TMDL for metal loading could be from anthropogenic sources or the natural composition of the water. One of the metals of concern is Selenium. Approximately one third of TMDLs prioritized by the CDPHE are for Selenium184. The sources are from discharges


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from petroleum refineries, erosion of natural deposits, and discharges from mines. The potential long term effects are hair or fingernail loss, numbness in fingers or toes, and circulatory problems185. TMDLs are designed by CDPHE to allocate the allowable loading from both point and non-point sources186. They are effective in planning and remedial action identification to help manage and reduce pollutants in the nations waters187.
Conclusion
The old saying that dilution is the solution to pollution is not accurate. The population of the Earth has increased to the point that nature is not able to provide the treatment it once did. The evolution of wastewater treatment plants stems from this concept. They exist to treat the waste excreted by humans on a magnified scale of the natural process once the population exceeded natures capacity to treat. With a growing population, water is reused multiple times and in increasing succession that relying on dilution to remove any contaminant is not an option. In the situation of DDT and pharmaceuticals, dilution will not provide a solution, especially when the amount of pharmaceuticals being found is around parts per trillion. In Flint, dilution cannot provide a solution if drinking water standards have zero tolerance for lead. Though in regards to the Gold King Mine spill, dilution was part of the solution. The rest of the solution relies on remediation near the source through the CERCLA legislation. Directing pollutant reduction efforts towards remediation will help prevent environmental contamination and support public health.
Emerging contaminants are being monitored to determine long-term impacts to public and environmental health. Metal pollution can occur naturally or be caused by man, but has occurred for at least 100 years with minimal impact from the dilution that occurs. Trace pharmaceuticals are present in such low concentrations, like parts per trillion, that it is something


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to be aware of, but not worry about. Micropollutants are not major concerns yet due to the low concentration or dilution that occurs, this cannot be the perpetual solution to protect environmental and public health. Treating the pollutants at the source and reducing their contamination of the water, will help protect Earth and future generations. Treat the Earth well, it is not inherited from your parents, it is borrowed from your children188.


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97 Fondriest Environmental, Inc. (2014, June 13). Turbidity, Total Suspended Solids & Water Clarity. Retrieved March 27, 2017, from http://www.fondriest.com/environmental-measurements/parameters/water-qualitv/turbiditv-total-suspended-solids-water-clarity/#Turbid4.
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104 Water Environment Federation. (2010, May). Land Application and Composting of Biosolids [PDF], Water Environment Federation.
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106 Water Quality Control Commission, (n.d.). Biosolids Regulation [PDF], Colorado
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114 [112]
115 Lenntech. (n.d.). Reverse Osmosis. Retrieved March 26, 2017, from http://www.lenntech.com/librarv/reverse-osmosis/whatisro.htm.
116 US EPA. (2016, October 28). Superfund History. Retrieved December 29, 2016, from https://www.epa.uov7 superfund/ superfund-hi story.
117 US EPA. (2016, December 01). Summary of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Retrieved December 27, 2016, from https://www.epa.gov/laws-regulations/summary-resource-conservation-and-recovery-act.
118 US EPA. (2017, February 09). Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Overview. Retrieved December 29, 2016, from https://www.epa.gov/rcra/resource-conservation-and-recovery-act-rcra-overview.
119 US EPA. (2016, August 22). Superfund: CERCLA Overview. Retrieved January 20, 2017, from https://www.epa.gov/superfund/superfund-cercla-overview.
120 [119]
121 Churchwell, T. (2016, March 8). [Personal interview],
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124 Beck, E. C. (1979). The Love Canal Tragedy. EPA Journal. Retrieved December 27,
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125 US EPA. (2016, December 27). Love Canal Superfund Site Profile. Retrieved
December 27, 2016, from https://cumulis.epa.gov/supercpad/cursites/csitinfo.cfm?id=0201290. 126 US EPA. (2016, August 19). Superfund Site Assessment Process. Retrieved January


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Retrieved April 16, 2017, from http://pmep.cce.cornell.edu/profiles/extoxnet/carbaryl-dicrotophos/ddt-ext.html.
130 2015 June: DDT Found in Central Queensland Dolphins. (2015, June 26). Retrieved April 16, 2017, from https://pesticides.australianmap.net/2015-june-ddt-found-in-central-queensland-dolphins/.
131 PAN. (n.d.). The DDT Story. Retrieved May 13, 2016, from
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132 San Juan Clean Water Coalition, (n.d.). Support Outdoor Recreation: San Juan Mountains Clean Water Coalition. Retrieved March 29, 2017, from http://www.saniuancleanwater.org/.
133 Colorado Geological Survey. (2016, December 08). Abandoned Mine Lands. Retrieved March 29, 2017, from http://coloradogeologicalsurvev.org/mineral-resources/abandoned-mine-lands/.
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140 KRQE. (2015, April/May). Story Map: A walk-through the Animas River spill. Retrieved February 07, 2017, from http://krqe.com/storv-map-a-walk-through-the-animas-river-spill/.
141 Farmer, G. (2017, April 10), [Personal interview],
142 Paul, J., & Finley, B. (2015, August 13). Animas River spill: Hurdles remain at Gold King. Denver Post. Retrieved March 17, 2017,
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151
Wulfsberg, G. (1991). Principles of descriptive inorganic chemistry. Sausalito, CA:


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University Science Books.
152 USGS. (2016, December 2). PH Water properties. Retrieved March 29, 2017, from https://water.usgs.gov/edu/ph.html.
153 Science Buddies, (n.d.). Acids, Bases, & the pH Scale. Retrieved March 29, 2017, from http://www.sciencebuddies.org/science-fair-
projects/project ideas/Chem AcidsBasespHScale.shtml.
154 Chaplin, M. (2016, October 19). Water Redox processes. Retrieved March 17, 2017, from http://wwwl.lsbu.ac.uk/water/water redox.html.
155 Chaplin, M. (2016, October 19). Water Redox processes. Retrieved March 17, 2017, from http://wwwl.lsbu.ac.uk/water/water redox.html.
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158 US EPA. (2017, April 05). National Priorities List (NPL) Sites by State. Retrieved April 16, 2017, from https://www.epa.gOv/superfund/national-priorities-list-npl-sites-state#CQ.
159 US EPA. (2016, December 28). Superfund Site: BONITA PEAK MINING DISTRICT, UNINCORPORATED, CO. Retrieved April 12, 2017, from https://cumulis.epa.gov/supercpad/cursites/csitinfo.cfm?id=0802497.
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[161]


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176 D, C., E, W., RL, C., IF, C., & TF, H. (2010, December 14). Heavy metals removal from mine runoff using compost bioreactors (Doctoral dissertation, University of Idaho Department of Biological & Agricultural Engineering, 2010) [Abstract], Environmental Technology, doi: 10.1080/09593331003786277
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178 US EPA. (n.d.). Constructed Treatment Wetlands [PDF], US Environmental Protection Agency.
179
[178]


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48
180 [158]
181 Rudolph, M. (2017, April 10), [Personal interview],
182 Birt, B., & Farmer, G. (n.d.). [Determination of Trace Metals in Fish Tissue], Unpublished raw data.
183 US EPA. (2017, February 13). Impaired Waters and TMDLs: Statute and Regulations. Retrieved December 27, 2016, from https://www.epa.gov/tmdl/impaired-waters-and-tmdls-statute-and-regulations.
184 Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, (n.d.). TMDL prioritization. Retrieved April 16, 2017, from https://www.colorado.gov/pacific/cdphe/tmdl-prioritization.
185 [50]
186 Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, (n.d.). TMDL development. Retrieved April 16, 2017, from https://www.colorado.gov/pacific/cdphe/tmdls-development.
187 US EPA. (n.d.). Water Quality-based Approach of the Clean Water Act. Retrieved December 27, 2016, from https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2015-12/documents/wq approach schematic2.pdf.
188 We Do Not Inherit the Earth from Our Ancestors; We Borrow It from Our Children. (2013, January 22). Retrieved April 10, 2017, from http://quoteinvestigator.com/2013/01/22/borrow-earth/.


THE SOLUTION TO POLLUTION IS NOT DILUTION
49
Appendix A
Where is Earth's Water?
Freshwater 2.5%
Other saline water 0.9%
Oceans
96.5%
Total global water
Surface/other 1 freshwater
Ground-
water
30.1%
Glaciers
and
ice caps 68.7%
Freshwater
Atmosphere Living things
3.0%
Ground ice and permafrost
69.0%
0.26%
Rivers 0.49%
Swamps,
marshes
2.6%
Soil
moisture
3.8%
Surface water and other freshwater
Source: Igor Shiklomanov's chapter "World fresh water resources" in Peter H. Gleick (editor), 1993, Water in Crisis: A Guide to the Worlds Fresh Water Resources.
NOTE: Numbers are rounded, so percent summations may not add to 100.
USGS. (2016, December 2). The World's Water. Retrieved January 28, 2017, from https://water.usgs.gov/edu/earthwherewater.html


THE SOLUTION TO POLLUTION IS NOT DILUTION
50
Appendix B
Volcanic
steam
Atmosphere
Condensation
Sublimation
Ice and snow
Precipitation
Desublimatlon
Evapotranspiration
Evaporation \
Surface
runoff
Snowmelt runoff
Streamflow
Flora and fauna
Spring
Vents and volcanos
U S. Oept. of th Interior
U S Geological Survey John Evan*. Howard Perl
Groundwater storage
http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/watercycle html
USGS. (2016, May 2). The Water Cycle. Retrieved May 11, 2016, from http://water.usgs.gov/edu/watercycle.html


THE SOLUTION TO POLLUTION IS NOT DILUTION
51
Appendix C
US EPA. (2016, August 19). Superfund Site Assessment Process. Retrieved January 25, 2017, from https://www.epa.gov/superfund/superfund-site-assessment-process


THE SOLUTION TO POLLUTION IS NOT DILUTION
52
Appendix D
Cadmium:
Arsenic:
Aluminum:
Copper:
1 j
1 -I?
.5
I
i.u
1.0
s
JO <
I
l< I-
MMMHS
1.0 -L0
Lead:
, A
^PtKOK^] ]
Bl2* V*^0**^ Pb<^
Pb{OHV*q>
Pb(OH),
M Pb -1.0
14
Wulfsberg, G. (1991). Principles of descriptive inorganic chemistry. Sausalito, CA: University
Science Books.


Full Text

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The Solution to Pollution Is NOT Dilution by Brenna Birt An undergraduate thesis submitted in partial completion of the M etropolitan State University of D enver Honors Program May 5, 2017 Garry Farmer Nona Shipman Dr. Megan Hughes Zarzo Primary Advisor Second Reader Honors Program Director

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!"##$#%&'()*+& ,-.&/012,304&,0&50112, 304&3/&40,&6312,304 & & & & & &&&&&&& 7 & & The Solution to Pollution Is NOT Dilution Brenna Birt Metropolitan State University of Denver

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,-.&/012,304&,0&50112,304&3/&40,&6312,304 & & & & & & & &&&&&&&&& 8 & & & & !"#$%#$& Introduction & 99999999999999999999999999999999 99999999999999999999999999999999 99999999999999999999999999999999 99999999999999999999999999999999 999999999999999999 & : & Water Management & 99999999999999999999999999999999 99999999999999999999999999999999 99999999999999999999999999999999 99999999999999999999999999999999 999999 & ; & Doctrine of Prior Appropriation & 99999999999999999999999999999999 99999999999999999999999999999999 99999999999999999999999999999999 999999999999999 & ; & Colorado Water Plan & 99999999999999999999999999999999 99999999999999999999999999999999 99999999999999999999999999999999 99999999999999999999999999999999 & < & Compacts & 99999999999999999999999999999999 99999999999999999999999999999999 99999999999999999999999999999999 99999999999999999999999999999999 999999999999999999 & = & What is Water? & 99999999999999999999999999999999 99999999999999999999999999999999 99999999999999999999999999999999 99999999999999999999999999999999 99999999999 & 7> & Lead Leaching in Flint, Michigan & 99999999999999999999999999999999 99999999999999999999999999999999 99999999999999999999999999999999 99999999999999 & 7> & Contaminants of Emerging Concern & 99999999999999999999999999999999 99999999999999999999999999999999 99999999999999999999999999999999 9999999999 & 77 & Nutrients & 99999999999999999999999999999999 99999999999999999999999999999999 99999999999999999999999999999999 99999999999999999999999999999999 99999999999999999 & 78 & Trace Pharmaceuticals & 99999999999999999999999999999999 99999999999999999999999999999999 99999999999999999999999999999999 9999999999999999999999999999 & 7? & Clean Water Act & 99999999999999999999999999999999 99999999999999999999999999999999 99999999999999999999999999999999 99999999999999999999999999999999 999999999 & 7: & National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) & 99999999999999999999999999999999 99999999999999999999999999999999 9 & 7; & Wastewater. & 99999999999999999999999999999999 99999999999999999999999999999999 99999999999999999999999999999999 99999999999999999999999999999999 99999999 & 7; & Stormwater. & 99999999999999999999999999999999 99999999999999999999999999999999 99999999999999999999999999999999 99999999999999999999999999999999 99999999 & 7< & Treatment Processes & 99999999999999999999999999999999 99999999999999999999999999999999 99999999999999999999999999999999 9999999999999999999999999999999 & 7= & Drinking Water Treatment. & 99999999999999999999999999999999 99999999999999999999999999999999 99999999999999999999999999999999 9999999999999999 & 7= & Wastewater Treatment. & 99999999999999999999999999999999 99999999999999999999999999999999 99999999999999999999999999999999 99999999999999999999999 & 7= & Desalination. & 99999999999999999999999999999999 99999999999999999999999999999999 99999999999999999999999999999999 99999999999999999999999999999999 9999999 & 87 & Resource Conservation and Reco very Act (RCRA) & 99999999999999999999999999999999 99999999999999999999999999999999 9999999999999999999 & 88 & Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) & 999999999999999999999999999 & 8? & Love Canal & 99999999999999999999999999999999 99999999999999999999999999999999 99999999999999999999999999999999 99999999999999999999999999999999 9999999999999 & 8? & Dichlorodiphenyltr ichloroethane (DDT) & 99999999999999999999999999999999 99999999999999999999999999999999 99999999999999999999999999999999 9999 & 8; & Acid Mine Drainage & 99999999999999999999999999999999 99999999999999999999999999999999 99999999999999999999999999999999 99999999999999999999999999999999 999 & 8< & Gold King Mine Spill & 99999999999999999999999999999999 99999999999999999999999999999999 99999999999999999999999999999999 99999999999999999999999999999 & 8< & Historic Mining & 99999999999999999999999999999999 99999999999999999999999999999999 99999999999999999999999999999999 99999999999999999999999999999999 999999 & 8= & Pourbaix Dia grams & 99999999999999999999999999999999 99999999999999999999999999999999 99999999999999999999999999999999 99999999999999999999999999999999 9 & 8@ & Bonita Peak Mining District Superfund Site & 99999999999999999999999999999999 99999999999999999999999999999999 99999999999999999999999999 & 8A & Good Samaritan Legislation & 99999999999999999999999999999999 99999999999999999999999999999999 99999999999999999999999999999999 9999999999999999999 & ?> & Possible Treatment Facilities. & 99999999999999999999999999999999 99999999999999999999999999999999 99999999999999999999999999999999 9999999999999 & ?> & Clear Creek Superfund Site & 99999999999999999999999999999999 99999999999999999999999999999999 99999999999999999999999999999999 99999999999999999999 & ?7 & Total Maximum Daily Loads & 99999999999999999999999999999999 99999999999999999999999999999999 99999999999999999999999999999999 999999999999999999999 & ?8 &

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,-.&/012,304&,0&50112,304&3/&40,&6312,304 & & & & & & & &&&&&&&&& ? & & & & Conclusion & 99999999999999999999999999999999 99999999999999999999999999999999 99999999999999999999999999999999 99999999999999999999999999999999 99999999999999999 & ?? & REFERENCES & 99999999999999999999999999999999 99999999999999999999999999999999 99999999999999999999999999999999 99999999999999999999999999999999 99999999999 & ?; & Appendix A & 99999999999999999999999999999999 99999999999999999999999999999999 99999999999999999999999999999999 99999999999999999999999999999999 9999999999999999 & :A & Appendix B & 99999999999999999999999999999999 99999999999999999999999999999999 99999999999999999999999999999999 99999999999999999999999999999999 9999999999999999 & ;> & Appendix C & 99999999999999999999999999999999 99999999999999999999999999999999 99999999999999999999999999999999 99999999999999999999999999999999 9999999999999999 & ;7 & Appendix D & 99999999999999999999999999999999 99999999999999999999999999999999 99999999999999999999999999999999 99999999999999999999999999999999 9999999999999999 & ;8 & &

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,-.&/012,304&,0&50112,304&3/&40,&6312,304 & & & & & & & &&&&&&&&& : & & & & The Solution to Pollution is NOT Dilution Introduction Earth is unique as it "is the only known planet to have consistent and stable bodies of liquid water on its surface" 1 Earth is 72% covered with water 2 and while this may seem like a substantial amount of water, it doesn't consider the composition of it. Approximately 97% of Earth's water is salt water, and the remaining 3% is freshwater. Of this small portion, 2% is locked up in groundwater, glaciers, or ice caps. The remaining 1% is the water available for animal and human consumption 3 This is approximately 3,260 million billion gallons 4 See Appendix A for a visual representation of the distribution of water on Earth. The average person in the United States uses abou t 80 100 gallons of water per day 5 People often use clean water to dilute contaminated water to create a nontoxic consumable concentration. However, the current method for diluting negatively impacts water practices and the environment. An adaptive legisl ation can be used to reduce and eventually stop these practices. There is only a finite amount of water available to recycle itself around the planet this is known as the hydrologic cycle. A detailed diagram of the water cycle can be found in Appendix B. "No water is being created or destroyed on Earth. So every drop of water that's here has seen the inside of a cloud, and the inside of a volcano, the inside of a maple leaf, and the inside of a dinosaur kidney, probably many times" 6 The water cycle ensur es reuse through natural or human driven means. One component of the water cycle is precipitation, which falls from the clouds as snow or rain depending upon the temperature. Upon reaching the surface, the water will either infiltrate into the ground or it will runoff/flow over the surface to the lowest point. The water that infiltrates into the ground becomes groundwater that travels slower than surface water. In some locations, it will eventually emerge and become surface water. The low

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,-.&/012,304&,0&50112,304&3/&40,&6312,304 & & & & & & & &&&&&&&&& ; & & & & topographical poin ts are where the water collects to forms creeks, streams, rivers, and lakes. The water table is the zone saturated with water that can be exposed as surface water where there is no earth, or earth saturated in water. Surface or groundwater has the potentia l to be removed by humans and returned to water sources like reservoirs, lakes, and rivers. The water may also evaporate and return to the sky as water vapor. Plants and animals also experience evapotranspiration, where the water returns to the clouds 7 unt il precipitation occurs again. Water Management Doctrine of Prior Appropriation In Colorado, water is managed by the Doctrine of Prior Appropriation. Water rights are based on a first in time, first in right system. Basically, the first to put the water to beneficial use, and receive a court decree, will have the senior water right that must be satisfied before junior water rights are fulfilled 8 "Beneficial use is the basis, measure and limit of a water right. Colorado law bro adly defines beneficial use of water as a lawful appropriation that uses reasonably efficient practices to put water to use without waste" 9 The commonly accepted beneficial uses of water are municipal, agricultural, industrial, recreational, and environme ntal. Municipal, agricultural, and industrial wate r use is oftentimes consumptive 10 Many times nonconsumptive uses are for recreational or environmental purposes 11 The Colorado Water Conservation Board (CWCB) can appropriate in stream flows for environme ntal purposes to maintain the aquatic habitat 12 Local governmental agencies can make in channel diversions for recreational purposes 13 The way the prior appropriation system, created in the mid 19th century 14 is administered depends entirely on the phys ical availability of the water. Most of the rivers in Colorado are over appropriated, so the in stream and in channel diversions are a solution to ensure that there is water in the river for environmental and recreational

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,-.&/012,304&,0&50112,304&3/&40,&6312,304 & & & & & & & &&&&&&&&& < & & & & nonconsumptive uses. Colorado Wat er Plan In 2013, Governor Hickenlooper issued executive order D 2013 005 that directed the CWCB to commence work on the Colorado Water Plan (CWP). "Colorado's water policy must reflect its water values" 15 The final draft of this innovative and adaptive le gislation was approved in 2015. The purpose of the plan is to address the looming supply and demand gap from a rapidly growing population. Drought conditions are anticipated to hasten the water supply gap. Additional problems addressed in the plan include removing water from rural communities, interstate water agreements, and issues associated with quality and quantity of the state's water 16 The plan is unique in its public engagement efforts throughout the drafting process. Thanks to the hard work of the CWCB, the concerns of many stakeholders were incorporated into the plan, and enabled it to become a living document. This "is a roadmap that leads to a productive economy, vibrant and sustainable cities, productive agriculture, a strong environment, and a robust recreation industry" 17 "Our legal and physical constraints open a gap between projected supply and demand in each basin. Colorado's Water Plan sets an objective to close this gap by 2030, while also addressing the effects of a changing climate on o ur water resources" 18 The CWP encourages watershed health and resiliency by promoting water quantity and quality. Watersheds can provide "ecosystem services, such as carbon sequestration, water supply, filtration, and purification" 19 A watershed is an area of land that separates wate r flowing to different rivers basins. "Often, anthropogenic, or human induced, activities exacerbate the impacts resulting from fire, flood, and drought" 20 Successful collaboration amongst the basin roundtables would enable collaborative efforts to increase watershed resiliency and overall health while protecting

PAGE 8

,-.&/012,304&,0&50112,304&3/&40,&6312,304 & & & & & & & &&&&&&&&& = & & & & the municipal water supplies. "The various basin roundtables have addressed water quality in the Basin Implementation Plans (BIPs) in two major ways: Through qualit y related basin goals and measurable outcomes, and through identification of projects and methods with a water quality nexus" 21 Basin roundtables are based off the river basins in Colorado and includes the metro area as a roundtable due to the number of p eople living there. "Executive Order D 2013 005 recognizes this by stating, Colorado's water quantity and quality questions can no longer be thought of separately. Each impacts the other and our state water policy should address them conjunctively' 22 In a public survey, Coloradans indicated that the quality of surface and groundwater as a source of drinking water, the water quality of streams and lakes for recreational uses, public health, and wildlife and fish habitat are compelling reasons for improv ement of water quality. "State and federal statutes that protect instream water quality recognize the importance of protecting water rights while providing the authority to impose water pollution controls" 23 "Recognizing the inter relationships between qu ality and quantity, strategies designed to meet Colorado's current and future consumptive, recreational, and environmental water needs will incorporate, as a key objective, the protection and restoration of water quality" 24 The CWP addresses the quality a nd quantity issues through source water protection and watershed resiliency to help secure a water supply that meets the demand of a growing population. Compacts There is some conflict within the water community, and from the disagreement arises the necess ity for compacts and equitable decrees. Compacts are treaties between states with the approval and consent of the federal government setting the terms for sharing the waters of an interstate stream 25 These agreements specify how the water supply will be shared among the

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,-.&/012,304&,0&50112,304&3/&40,&6312,304 & & & & & & & &&&&&&&&& @ & & & & states. The units of measuring the volume of water in a stream is acre feet and cubic feet per second. An acre foot is a "volumetric measurement of water ... that will cover an acre o f land at a depth of 1 foot, or 325,851 gallons of water" 26 Imagine a football field including the end zones covered with one foot of water. This is approximately one acre foot 27 Cubic feet per second, or cfs, is a "measurement of flow rate of water in a running stream. Water flowing at 1 cubic foot per second will deliver 448.4 gallons per minute or 648,000 gallons per day or approximately 2 acre feet per day" 28 While all the water in Colorado originates here, making it a headwaters state, the intersta te agreements require that most of the water flows out of the state. Colorado is party to 9 interstate compacts and two equitable apportionment decrees. The oldest and best known is the Colorado River Compact of 1922. It divides the states containing the C olorado River into upper and lower basins, based on the natural drainage above or below Lee Ferry, Arizona. Since the location to divide the states into upper and lower states is in Arizona, they are technically an upper and lower basin state 29 but they a re referred to as a lower basin state during negotiations and in Colorado River programs 30 The upper basin includes the states of Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming 31 The lower basin refers to the states of Arizona, California, Nevada, New Mexico, a nd Utah 32 Colorado is allowed to use up to 3.85 million acre feet (MAF), and is obligated to deliver 75 MAF based on a 10 year running average 33 The Colorado River Basin has three additional compacts on it. The Upper Colorado River Compact (1948) allocat es the water usage between the upper basin states Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming. "The state of Arizona [is allotted] the consumptive use of 50,000 acre feet of water per annum" 34 The remaining water is apportioned based on a percentage ; Colorado

PAGE 10

,-.&/012,304&,0&50112,304&3/&40,&6312,304 & & & & & & & &&&&&&&&& A & & & & 57.75%, Utah 23%, Wyoming 14%, New Mexico 11.25% 35 The La Plata River Compact (1922) is between Colorado and New Mexico. Between December 1 and February 15, there is an unrestricted right to use water, but allocates specific flows betwee n February 16 and November 30 36 The last compact in the Colorado River Basin is the Animas La Plata Compact. It provides agreement between Colorado and New Mexico for the Animas La Plata Project (1968). This "also fulfills settlements to the Ute Mountain Tribe and the Southern Ute Indian Tribe, and provides water to the Navajo Nation" 37 The project will have a transbasin diversion from the Animas River at the Durango Pumping Plant to the La Plata River to supply water to the Navajo nation 38 A transbasin diversion occurs when water is removed from its native basin and transferred to a different one 39 In addition, this project approves the construction of reservoirs to assist Colorado with water storage required to make up shortages. In 1923, a compact wa s established for the South Platte River. This compact is between Colorado and Nebraska. Nebraska has the right to fully use the water in Lodgepole Creek and Colorado has the right to fully use water in the South Platte River between October 15 and April 1 If the mean flow of the South Platte River at Julesburg, CO drops below 120 cfs then Colorado users are required to ensure Nebraska has the water promised for beneficial use 40 The Rio Grande Compact of 1938 "establishes Colorado's obligation to ensure deliveries of water at the New Mexico state line and New Mexico's obligation to assure deliveries of water at the Elephant Butte Reservoir" 41 The Republican River Compact (1942) establishes the rights of Colorado, Nebraska, and Kansas to the water in the Republican River Basin through specific location and amount allocations 42 Colorado was allocated specific sources with specified amounts that add to an annual total of 54,100 AF 43

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,-.&/012,304&,0&50112,304&3/&40,&6312,304 & & & & & & & &&&&&&&&& 7> & & & & The Arkansas River Compact of 1948 protects all water users in existence since 1949, and the usage of John Martin Reservoir for Colorado and Kansas storage rights 44 The last compact is the Costilla Creek Compact (1963) and is the equitable division and apportionment of the use of the waters of Costilla Creek 45 The two equi table apportionment decrees that Colorado is involved in are the Laramie River Decree and North Platte River Decree. Wyoming filed litigation against Colorado in 1957 that resulted in the Laramie River Decree. The decree limits Colorado's diversion to 49,3 75 AF/year in the Laramie River Basin 46 The North Platte River Decree originated from a complaint filed by the State of Nebraska against the States of Wyoming and Colorado in 2001. The decree "limits total water exports from the North Platte River in Colo rado to no more than 60,000 acre feet during any 10 year period" 47 What is Water? Chemically, water is a colorless liquid, with hints of blue at room temperature, and an extremely polar molecule. Polarity of a molecule occurs when there is an uneven distr ibution of charge across the molecule resulting in a positive and negative charge on parts of the molecule 48 The polarity of water allows it to readily dissolve most substances, including many salts. This makes it very difficult to determine how clean wat er is based on appearance. Lead Leaching in Flint, Michigan An example of this is Flint, Michigan. Citizens in Flint have been receiving tap water that exceeds the National Primary Drinking Water Regulations for lead. There is zero tolerance for lead in d rinking water as applied to public water systems 49 The potential health effects that have been determined are delayed physical and/or mental development in children and infants. The effects on adults are kidney problems and high blood pressure 50 The drin king water problem

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,-.&/012,304&,0&50112,304&3/&40,&6312,304 & & & & & & & &&&&&&&&& 77 & & & & began in 2014 when the city's water source was switched to the Flint River. There were mistakes in treating the corrosive river water that corroded the pipes that began leaching lead into the water. While the lead levels are declining, t he residents are still facing their third year of not being able to drink the tap water 51 With a zero tolerance of lead in drinking water, there is no amount of dilution that can occur to address the pollution. The solution to this is treatment that has c hecks and balances to prevent negligence that allowed for this problem to develop. M unicipalities in Colorado are working on addressing and preventin g this problem through the addition of a liner in old pipes to seal off the lead to prevent leaching. Flin t begins to expose some of the other issues associated with pollutants in the human diet. In Flint, the pollutant comes directly from drinking water supply and introduced excess lead into resident's diet. Another way that pollutants can accumulate in the d iet is through bioaccumulation. If a pollutant is introduced into the environment, small parts of it will be taken up in all species living there. However, the predators will have a higher concentration than that of the prey. An aquatic ecosystem provides a great example. The phytoplankton, at the bottom of the food chain, may only have one part per billion (ppb) of the micropollutant, but when a small fish consumes 100 of these a day, the small fish now has a concentration of 100 ppb of the pollutant. If a large fish feeds on 10 small fish, then the large fish contains 1,000 ppb of the pollutant 52 The species higher up in the food chain are at higher risk for toxic concentrations of the pollutants introduced into the environment. Contaminants have the abil ity to affect environmental and public health. Contaminants of Emerging Concern With modern analytical instrumentation, lower detection levels are possible, and micropollutants or emerging contaminants have been found 53 A contaminant of emerging

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,-.&/012,304&,0&50112,304&3/&40,&6312,304 & & & & & & & &&&&&&&&& 78 & & & & concern should be defined as "naturally occurring, manufactured or manmade chemicals or materials which have now been discovered or are suspected present in various environmental compartments and whose toxicity or persistence are likely to significantly alter the metabolism of a living being" 54 Some micropollutants include pharmaceuticals, pesticides, and trace metals. "Because of the way water works, of course, that means those substances are also starting to appear in the raw water that utilities rely on to supply our tap water" 55 When the water flows to the oceans, it contains diluted concentrations of all p ollutants the water picks up that isn't treated as it's reused. "The oceans are really a mirror of human health if they're sick and dying, then that's the future of mankind as well" 56 Most pollutants that enter a waterway generally originate somewhere ups tream. With water flowing to the lowest point and its high polarity, it will usually dissolve any substance it encounters and carries it downstream. Ideally, these dissolved substances would be contained within the watershed. This is not always the case du e to transbasin diversions. For example, the larger Mississippi River Basin is an abundantly large watershed that when broken into smaller basins, is partially fed by the Arkansas River Basin. Nutrients The larger Mississippi River Basin is a good example of the accumulation of pollutants downstream. It drains into the Gulf of Mexico where "excess nitrogen and phosphorus can also travel thousands of miles to coastal areas where the effects of the pollution are felt in the form of massive dead zones" 57 Nit rogen and p hosphorus are naturally found in the air and water, but they become a problem when they are in excess. This results in extra food for algae to consume and can experience exponential growth. "Significant increases in algae harm water quality, foo d resources and habitats, and [most importantly] decrease the oxygen that fish and other aquatic

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,-.&/012,304&,0&50112,304&3/&40,&6312,304 & & & & & & & &&&&&&&&& 7? & & & & life need to survive" 58 When this occurs, it can crea te dead zones. These dead zones, also referred to as hypoxic zones are characterized by less than 2 part s per million (ppm) of dissolved oxygen 59 Strategies to eliminate the problem is the use of fewer fertilizers adjusted timing of fertilizer application to limit runoff, bet ter control of animal waste, careful monitoring and limiting of nutrient discharg es from wastewater treatment and manufacturing facilities 60 The increased monitoring and reduction of nutrient discharge from wastewater treatment facilities have helped to reduce the size of dead zones but not completely remove it. A possible solution to the hypoxic zones is the addition of dissolved oxygen concurrently with the reduction of the nitrogen and phosphorus discharged to the ocean. Trace Pharmaceuticals In addition to nutrients, a contaminant of emerging concern are trace pharmaceuticals. "Te ns of millions of people now take maintenance pharmaceuticals every day: antidepressants and cholesterol lowering medicine join birth control pills and blood pressure medicine ... The residues of those medicines end up in our urine and in our wastewater" 61 "The amounts of most substances are almost unimaginable tiny, the equivalent ... of a single grain of sand in an Olympic sized swimming pool. .... The very nature of hormones is that a tiny amount can have a significant impact" 62 The Cherry Creek contai ns enough trace pharmaceuticals that the bacteria are mostly resistant 63 Many of these substances are endocrine disruptors, which have the ability to simulate hormones. The effects can be developmental malformations, interference with reproduction, increa sed cancer risks, and disturbance of the immune and nervous system functions 64 Due to the recent discovery of trace amounts of endocrine disrupters in the water, there is very little information available about the long term adverse effects. However, some

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,-.&/012,304&,0&50112,304&3/&40,&6312,304 & & & & & & & &&&&&&&&& 7: & & & & effects from exposures have been observed. "Parts per trillion levels of tributyltin have caused masculinization of female marine molluscs such as the dog whelk and ivory shell" 65 Tributyltin was a paint for bottoms of boats 66 and has been banned from u se by the Rotterdam Convention in 1998 67 Due to the low concentration, around parts per trillion, of the endocrine disrupters, dilution is not able to be a solution. A couple of possible solutions are to become a healthier society or rely more heavily on the usage of reverse osmosis. In becoming a healthier society, the need for the usage of pharmaceuticals will be reduced. Reverse osmosis is an energy intensive process that is not economically feasible to treat all water. Clean Water Act The best known l egislature for controlling water pollution is the Clean Water Act. "The Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1948 was the first major U.S. Law to address water pollution" 68 and is administered by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The act was th en amended in 1972, and became commonly known as the Clean Water Act (CWA). The amendments to the Clean Water Act accomplished the following items 69 : Established the basic structure for regulating pollutant discharges into the waters of the United States. Gave EPA the authority to implement pollution control programs such as setting wastewater standards for industry. Maintained existing requirements to set water quality standards for all contaminants in surface water. Made it unlawful for any person to discharge any pollutant from a point source into navigable waters, unless a permit was obtained under its provisions. Funded the construction of sewage treatment plants under the construction grants

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,-.&/012,304&,0&50112,304&3/&40,&6312,304 & & & & & & & &&&&&&&&& 7; & & & & program. Recognized the need for planning to address the critical problems posed by nonpoint source pollution. Subsequent amendments allowed for the State Water Pollution Control Revolving Fund to address water quality needs while building on EPA partnerships. N a tional P ollutant D ischarge E limination S ystem (NPDES) As part of the amendments to the CWA, the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) was established to limit pollutants being discharged from point and non point sources. The point source pollution is when all pollutants are conveyed to a specific discharge point. The effluent from a wastewater treatment plant is considered a point source pollution. Non point source pollution is when contaminants cannot be traced back to a specific discharge point. Common examples of this would be fertilizer runoff, natural chemical weathering of minerals in rocks, leaking car fluids, and pet waste. When a pet's owner fails to pick up after their pet, the waste may eventually make its way to the waterway, and add to the suspended solids and bacterial content. In Jefferson County, there have been so many pet owners that failed to pick up their pet waste at the Elk Meadow Dog Park that it has become a point source. The dog park has stream that runs through the middle of it. The park is being closed for major restoration from loss of native vegetation, soil erosion, poor water quality, and degradation of the stream channel 70 Wastewater A NPDES permit is required when discharge from a point s ource enters national waters. There are two types of permits that can be issued a general and individual permit. A general permit may be issued on many different dischargers for coverage of the same pollutant at varying

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,-.&/012,304&,0&50112,304&3/&40,&6312,304 & & & & & & & &&&&&&&&& 7< & & & & sources. An individual permit is wr itten for unique isolated conditions that will most likely not be duplicated, and as such they are much more difficult to obtain 71 The most common general permit for each city would be for wastewater treatment plants. The permitted facilities are required to monitor, sample, and report their point source discharges to the regulatory agency. If there is an exceedance of a pollutant limit, then the permittee is required to notify the regulatory agency of the upset. The NPDES permitting of point sources has h elped to improve the nation's' water quality by imposing concentration limits for specific pollutants allowed to be discharged. Stormwater While there are pollutants that can be found in the nation's water that originate from natural sources these tend t o be uncommon. A contributing factor is non point source pollution from stormwater. "Stormwater runoff is generated from rain and snowmelt events that flow over land or impervious surfaces" 72 and usually does not receive any treatment prior to discharging to the river. "The most common pollutants coming from stormwater sources include sediment, pathogens, nutrients, and metals" 73 The storm drains found throughout the city streets are part of the Municipal Separate Storm Sewer System (MS4) which conveys all stormwater below groun d to the nearest waterway. MS4 permits are intended to limit non point source pollution from entering the waterways and protecting the health of water bodies by enabling municipalities to regular discharges from the storm drains. "Runoff picks up pollutants like trash, chemicals, oils, [detergents] and dirt/sediment" 74 Reducing the non point source pollution includes addressing illicit discharges of pollutants, and the regulation of best management practices at construction sites. In addition to addressing the physical sources there are educational components to help the public understand the importance of preventing the discharges to storm drains

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,-.&/012,304&,0&50112,304&3/&40,&6312,304 & & & & & & & &&&&&&&&& 7= & & & & Treatment Processes Multiple treatments for water reuse is essential to maintainin g good water quality. Water is treated prior to and after it's interaction with humans. Tap water is treated at a drinking water treatment facility. The water disposed of down a drain is treated at a wastewater treatment facility. Coastal cities have an op tion to desalinate seawater to supplement the fresh water supply. Drinking Water Treatment Drinking water treatment facilities supply quality tap water to citizen's homes. Each facility has a slight variation on a standard process. A typical facility wil l have the following stages of treatment: coagulation and flocculation, sedimentation, filtration, and disinfection. In coagulation and flocculation, positively charged chemicals are added to the water to neutralize the negative charge of dissolved particl es in the water. The binding with the chemicals forms larger particles called floc. The next step of treatment, sedimentation, allows the floc to settle to the bottom. The clear water at the top then proceeds through filters of varying compositions, like s and, gravel, or charcoal. After filtration, the water is disinfected by chlorine or chlora mine to kill any remaining bacteria before being sent to taps 75 The City and County of Denver tap water is supplied by Denver Water. Denver Water "proudly serves hi gh quality water and promotes its efficient use to 1.4 million people in the city of Denver and many surrounding suburbs. ... It is Colorado's oldest and largest water utility" 76 Wastewater Treatment City and County of Denver's wastewater treatment is provided by Metro Wastewater Reclamation District. They are the largest wastewater treatment facility in the Rocky Mountain Region and rated for a max flow of 220 million gallons daily capacity 77 They work with 60 local

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,-.&/012,304&,0&50112,304&3/&40,&6312,304 & & & & & & & &&&&&&&&& 7@ & & & & governments, including Denver, Arva da, Aurora, Brighton, Lakewood, Thornton, and Westminster 78 The construction of wastewater treatment facilities began in the late 19th century and early 20th century 79 It used to be that waste was dumped into waterways with little impact. However, that w as before human population exceeded the assimilative capacity of the system to treat it. The operation of a typical wastewater treatment facility is not economically feasible for towns with a population size less than 10,000, but they are still required to provide wastewater treatement 80 Some options in use include septic tanks or aerated lagoons. "Septic tanks are underground wastewater treatment structures, commonly used in rural areas without centralized sewer systems" 81 All the water from the house drains into a buried water tight container that will hold the wastewater long enough to allow solids to settle to the bottom. The liquid effluent discharges to a drainfield that is shallow and covered with unsaturated soil T he water is biologically treated as it percolates through the soil 82 For smaller municipalities, aerated lagoons are more cost effective with lower operation and maintenance costs 83 The typical construction is three ponds in series, each with a waterproo f liner and aeration 84 In the aeration process, the suspended solids do not have enough energy to stay in suspension, so they settle on the bottom. After aeration, disinfection is likely to occur, but not required 85 For large urban areas, the typical was tewater treatment facility will have the following treatment stages: debris/grit removal, primary clarifiers, aeration basin, secondary clarifiers, and disinfection. Some of the sludge removed is treated into biosolids. Water treatment begins with debris and grit removal. The influent, or incoming wastewater, passes through a filter that removes the large particles, that might clog pipes or damage equipment. The grit, composed of sediment, sand, and small stones, is removed using

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,-.&/012,304&,0&50112,304&3/&40,&6312,304 & & & & & & & &&&&&&&&& 7A & & & & centripetal force. The gri t settles to the bottom due to the inability to maintain the required velocity to stay in solution 86 From here, the wastewater enters a primary clarifier, or sedimentation tank, that holds the wastewater to allow the suspended solids to settle to the bott om. The solids are collected from the bottom of the clarifier to be treated into biosolids. The water continues onto the aeration basin where it is mixed with air and activated sludge, that is laden with microorganism that "break down the organic matter in to harmless by products" 87 The water sludge mixture is transferred to a secondary clarifier. Some of this sludge returns to the beginning of the aeration basin to treat the new sewage, and the remaining is sent for biosolids treatment 88 The water from th e secondary clarifiers continues to the disinfection stage. Chlorination, ozonation, and ultraviolet light are the most common forms of disinfection. "Chlorine can be supplied in many forms, which include chlorine gas, hypochlorite solutions, and other ch lorine compounds in solid or liquid form" 89 Optimal contact usually occurs in a contact basin where the pathogenic organisms are inactivated or destroyed. "The chlorine residual, even at low concentrations, is toxic to aquatic life [and thus] may require dechlorination" 90 "Dechlorination is the process of removing free and combined chlorine residuals" 91 through the addition of sulfur dioxide, sodium bisulfite, or sodium metabisulfite 92 The usage of chlorine products requires additional safety measures fo r handling, transportation, and storage per the product's Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS). Ozonation is the use of ozone, O 3 for disinfection, and is just as effective in the deactivation of bacteria as chlorine. It has the benefits of no byproducts an d no remaining odors or tastes after treatment. Ozone is extremely unstable and will quickly revert to its diatomic state, O 2 Due to this, it must be produced on site, and used immediately 93 Ultraviolet light disinfection uses a specific wavelength, know n as UV C, located between 240 280 nanometers (nm) to modify the nuclei of

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,-.&/012,304&,0&50112,304&3/&40,&6312,304 & & & & & & & &&&&&&&&& 8> & & & & the cells to prevent reproduction. An irradiation chamber exposes the fluids to UV C light, and kills or prevents reproduction of the microbials 94 The treated water, or effluent, can now be discharged to the nearest body of water. The effluent discharge from each wastewater treatment facility requires a general NPDES discharge permit. It has specific standards that are regulated and determined by the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment (CDPHE) Water Quality Control Commission (WQCC) 95 Regulation 62 sets the effluent limits 96 The numeric limits are for biological oxygen demand (BOD), total suspended solids (TSS), residual chlorine pH, and oil and grease. BOD, TSS, and residual chlorine have 7 day and 30 day averages to stay under at 45 mg/l (or 45 ppm) and 30 mg/l (or 30 ppm) respectively. TSS is a specific measurement of all suspended solids, both organic and inorganic 97 .The pH i s not allowed to exceed 6 9 standard units. Residual chlorine is 0.5 mg/l (or 0.5 ppm) and oil and grease is no greater than 10 mg/l (or 10 ppm) 98 Wastewater treatment facilities have an 85% minimum pollutant removal requirement 99 The biosolids treatmen t occurs concurrently to the water treatment. The solids that are removed from the clarifiers and not recycled as activated sludge in the aeration basin are treated into biosolids. The process is thickening, anaerobic digestion, and centrifuge. The sludge is first thickened and dewatered. It can be thickened by the addition of "chemicals such as lime, ferric chloric, or polymers to produce larger particles" 100 "Dewatering processes include drying beds, belt filter presses, plate and frame presses, and cent rifuges" 101 The sludge is digeste d anaerobically under heat. The anaerobic bacteria break the sludge down into simpler and more stable compounds, and a byproduct is methane gas, that can be captured and used as an energy source for the digesters 102 Lastl y, "stabilization of solids may also be accomplished by composting, heat treatments, drying or the addition of lime or other alkaline materials" 103 The

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,-.&/012,304&,0&50112,304&3/&40,&6312,304 & & & & & & & &&&&&&&&& 87 & & & & biosolids can be disposed of as a fertilizer, incineration, or placed into a landfill. The most benefic ial use is land application, because it provides primary and secondary nutrients, increases crop yields, maintains nutrients in the root zone, releases nitrogen throughout the growing season unlike chemical fertilizers, and offers net greenhouse gas benefi ts by recycling carbon to the soil 104 Just like water treatment, there are regulations for the creation and disposal of biosolids. These regulations cover the pollutant loading in the creation of biosolids, the lands they are applied to, and the amount a pplied. In 1993, EPA issued Part 503 rule to provide land application oversight, and the states could implement complementary programs 105 CDPHE developed regulation 64 to regulate metals, pathogens, and land application of biosolids. Nine metals identifie d by the EPA have high enough risk to require monitoring, and CDPHE has set limits or loading rates on them. The metals include: arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, and zinc 106 There are few hazardous chemicals entering the treatment facilities due to the industrial pretreatment programs required under the Clean Water Act 107 "Trace chemicals that on occasion have been identified in biosolids have not been found in environmentally or toxicologically significant amounts" 10 8 "As established by the Part 503 rule, the treatment of biosolids to Class B or Class A standards eliminates 99% or more of the pathogens that may exist in sewage sludge" 109 There has been no scientific data linking biosolid application to illnesses in humans 110 There is little risk to public health from the application of biosolids as fertilizer. Desalination Many coastal cities use the ocean to supplement their freshwater supplies. Saltwater can be treated through distillation or reverse osmosis. Distillation is a natural process that mankind

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,-.&/012,304&,0&50112,304&3/&40,&6312,304 & & & & & & & &&&&&&&&& 88 & & & & has adopted for water treatment 111 "Desalination plants are used to convert seawater to drinking water on ships and in many arid regions of the world, and to treat water in other areas that is fouled by natural and unnatural contaminants" 112 In desalination, saltwater is heated until it evaporates. The water vapor conden ses back to liquid form when it is cooled 113 .This process "most completely reduces the widest range of drinking water contaminants" 114 An other extremely effective process of removing water pollutants is reverse osmosis through a membrane. The water is for ced through a semipermeable membrane of varying pore sizes for varying filtering capacities. Imagine a bathtub with a semi permeable divider, as the membrane, in the middle. On one side, A, there is a small amount of water and the other side, B, is nearly full. The water from side B will naturally flow to side A until they equilibrate at the same level, which is considered osmotic pressure. In reverse osmosis, the water is forced from side A to side B through the membrane from pressure applied to side A. By forcing the water through the membrane, it removes any dissolved solids too large to pass through the pores 115 The treatment process is excellent at removing the pollutants it's designed to remove. R esource C onservation and R ecovery A ct (RCRA) There are other pollutants that are extremely hazardous to environmental and human health that must be addressed in a different manner. In response to public concern of industrial companies disposing their toxic wastes in unknown locations, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) was established by Congress in 1976 to grant authority for control of hazardous waste disposal 116 This is also known as the "cradle to grave" regulation, where any hazardous material must be managed and contained for the entire pr ocess of generation, transportation, treatment, storage, and disposal. There were also two amendments in 1984 and 1986 that enabled the EPA to address issues resulting from underground tanks storing petroleum

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,-.&/012,304&,0&50112,304&3/&40,&6312,304 & & & & & & & &&&&&&&&& 8? & & & & and other hazardous substances, waste minimizat ion, and the phasing out of land disposal for hazardous wastes 117 RCRA is a comprehensive framework/system to implement effective programs for hazardous and solid waste oversight. This is helpful in the regulation of pollutants that could otherwise lead t o the development of Superfund sites 118 C omprehensive E nvironmental R esponse C ompensation and L iability A ct (CERCLA) Superfund is the common name for Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) that was enacted by Congre ss in December of 1980. In addition to providing the Federal government the authority to respond directly to threats to public health and environment from potential releases of hazardous substances, "this law created a tax on the chemical and petroleum ind ustries" 119 The collected tax was placed into a trust fund to be used for remediation of abandoned or uncontrolled hazardous waste sites 120 The tax on the petroleum industry stopped, and the fund depleted in the 1990s. Superfund was added to the Congress ional budget, and will remain through congressional appropriation until a new budget is approved 121 There are two kind of response actions the law authorizes, short term removals and long term remedial response actions. A short term removal will "address releases or threatened releases requiring prompt response" 122 A long term remedial response permanently reduces the associated dangers of releases or threatened releases of hazardous substances that are not immediately life threatening from sites on the N ational Priorities List (NPL) 123 Love Canal Several serious environmental problems lead to the development of RCRA and CERCLA. The Love Canal site provided the first of many challenges the EPA would face and exhibits why environmental health is so import ant. A small block of land on the eastern edge of Niagara Falls, New York was going to be developed into a canal by the owner, William T. Love,

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,-.&/012,304&,0&50112,304&3/&40,&6312,304 & & & & & & & &&&&&&&&& 8: & & & & to connect the upper and lower Niagara Rivers in the early 1900's. The project was never finished due to fluctua tions of the economy. In the 1920s, the partial ditch was used as a municipal and industrial chemical dumpsite by the Hooker Chemical Company. The ditch was filled in and sold to the city for one dollar in 1953. The area was subsequently developed to conta in homes and a school. After a record amount of rainfall in the 1970s, the waste that had once been buried was exposed. Puddles of hazardous waste were found all around the area and in some backyards degraded and leaking waste disposal drums could be seen. The Hooker Chemical Company had disposed of 82 different chemical compounds and 11 of the se were suspected Aside from the burns some children suffered after playing outside, there were many miscarriages and birth defects. Some relief was finally to be had, when on August 7 th 1978 New York Governor Hugh Carey announced that the state would purchase the affected homes, and President Carter approved emergency financial aid for the area 124 "The severity of the Site's contamination ultimately led to the cr eation of federal legislation to manage the disposal of hazardous waste. This legislation is commonly known as "Superfund" was officially named the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) (Superfund Law) of 1980" 125 I n 2004, the Love Canal area was determined to no longer pose a threat to human health, and was delisted as a Superfund site. This very public problem brought national attention to local water supplies. Despite all the hazardous and solid waste management enabled through RCRA, there are still old abandoned dump sites that require remediation. Before events like the Love Canal, there were no regulations governing the disposal of waste from various industrial processes. The superfund program contains site ass essment guidance to evaluate potential or confirmed releases of hazardous substances that pose a threat to human health and the environment. Appendix C

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,-.&/012,304&,0&50112,304&3/&40,&6312,304 & & & & & & & &&&&&&&&& 8; & & & & shows a flow diagram outlining the site assessment process. The process is guided by a Hazard Ranking Sy stem (HRS), and is administered by the EPA, state, tribal, or other federal agency environmental programs. These entities "collect data to identify, evaluate and rank hazardous waste sites based on HRS criteria" 126 The HRS is a numerically based screening system. As shown in Appendix C, the numerical result from the initial investigation must have a HRS score of 28.5 or greater to be placed on the NPL and qualify as a Superfund site. "Only sites on the NPL are eligible for Superfund Trust Fund financed rem edial actions" 127 Superfund sites received remedial actions until their specified contaminates no longer pose a threat to human health. In time, all sites on the NPL will be addressed as the most dangerous and prioritized for remediation. This is helping to protect future generations from hazardous substances. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane ( DDT ) A historical example of a micropollutant would be Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, or DDT. The discovery of DDT as a pesticide was met with great success until it began having a negative environmental impact. The immediate impact was the elimination of mosquitoes and pests to stop the spread of diseases like malaria but as a result lead to the disappearance of many birds 128 Despite the ban on this chemical, the effects can still be felt today. DDT has low solubility in water and is immobile in most soils 129 DDT breakdown products have been found in various foods and confirmed in the body of most subjects tested. DDT has also been found in dolphin tissues 130 DD T is a detriment to human health because even through low level exposure it has been shown to cause breast and other cancers, male infertility, miscarriages and low birth weight, developmental delay, and nervous system and liver damage 131 The insolubility of DDT prevents dilution from being a solution. There is no easy solution available for this historic pesticide. To completely remove the compound and the breakdown products would require

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,-.&/012,304&,0&50112,304&3/&40,&6312,304 & & & & & & & &&&&&&&&& 8< & & & & global treatment. Acid Mine Drainage A nother cur rent and historical source of metal micropollutants is "acid mine drainage from abandoned mines [that] is ... contaminating 40% of headwater streams" 132 "Prior to 1977 there were virtually no laws in the United States requiring that mines be reclaimed whe n mining was finished" 133 "As a result, Colorado was left with an estimated 23,000 abandoned mine lands (AML)" 134 "The inventory identified physical and environmental hazards associated with mine features such as mine openings, waste rock dumps, tailings dumps, and mine structures. Approximately 18,000 individual mine features were inventoried" 135 "The driving force behind the project was the Federal Facilities Compliance Program, which is designed to bring federal facilities and lands into compliance wi th federal environmental laws" including CERCLA, RCRA, and the CWA 136 The waste rock dumps and tailings piles are considered non point pollution sources, while the mine drainage, openings, and structures are considered point sources 137 Mine drainage is formed when metal sulfides like pyrite, and iron sulfide, are exposed and react with oxygen in the air and water to form sulfuric acid and dissolved iron 138 The acid produced can further dissolve rock and release additional heavy metals 139 Gold King Min e Spill The Animas River is the poster child for such events. In August 2015, the Gold King Mine spill occurred where an estimated 3 million gallons of acid mine drainage was released directly into Cement Creek turning the river orange 140 Cement Creek is one of three tributaries that converge in Silverton to form the Animas River. The other two tributaries are the Upper Animas River, and Mineral Creek. An unfortunate series of events lead to the mine spill. In

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,-.&/012,304&,0&50112,304&3/&40,&6312,304 & & & & & & & &&&&&&&&& 8= & & & & 2014, the Colorado Division of Reclamation Min ing and Safety (DRMS) asked EPA to stabilize the portal. The remediation of Gold King Mine was postponed until a pond could be constructed to hold the expected water. In 2015, Environmental Restoration 141 began excavation above where the water level was pr edicted to be to find hard rock for drainage pipe installation 142 The excavation fractured the plug causing drainage to discharge directly to Cement Creek. The metals confirmed in the waste were lead, arsenic, cadmium, aluminum, and copper. All the approp riate government entities were notified, such as the CDPHE, EPA Region 8, and the U.S. Department of Interior which includes the Fish and Wildlife Service, to alert all water users downstream. When the waste plume had passed Durango, the US Bureau of Recla mation released water from the Navajo Dam to dilute the contaminated water entering the San Juan River from the Animas River 143 Most of the metal precipitated out of the solution by the time the orange plume reached Durango due to pH returning to neutral at 7 144 Colorado Parks and Wildlife inserted caged trout fingerlings into the plume, and determined that there was no harm to wildlife 145 Of the 180 fingerling trout placed in the river during the plume, only one died, and that cannot be correlated with the spill 146 The trout test revealed no permanent impact on the river. Historic Mining "Mining in the area began in the 1860s. For decades, water quality has been impaired. Colorado health officials after 1998 designated some portions of the Animas, below Cement Creek, officially impaired due to toxic metals including lead, iron and aluminum" 147 The Animas River receives 5.4 million gallons of water from mine drainage every day 148 This equates to about 30 Gold King mine spillages each year 149 The i mpact to Durango is minimized due to the dilution that occurs from tributaries between the mine drainage and the town. The

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,-.&/012,304&,0&50112,304&3/&40,&6312,304 & & & & & & & &&&&&&&&& 8@ & & & & same cannot be said for Silverton, upstream of Durango. Silverton water quality is severely degraded. In 2005, a water treatment plan t on Cement Creek, just to the south of Silverton, was shut off. The effluent was providing water for dilution that allowed for fish populations to thrive, and once the plant was shut off, fish populations deteriorated along the 30 mile stretch through the Animas Gorge. The reliance on dilution for reduction of pollution in the waterways is not sustainable. Dilution has turned into a band aid for the symptom and not a solution to the problem 150 Pourbaix Diagrams The dilution of the Gold King Mine spillage was beneficial in the precipitati on of metals out of solution. Metals will be in different oxidation states depending on the conditions that the elements find themselves in. The two conditions that are used in predicting the oxidation state are pH and red ucing potential. These two constraints are typically combined into a visual representation referred to as a Pourbaix (pE/pH) diagram 151 pH is a measure of how acidic or basic the water is. It is a logarithmic measurement of the relative abundance of free hydrogen ions. The typical scale is from 0 14 with 0 being acidic and 14 basic 152 Some common acidic compounds are vinegar (acetic acid) and lemon juice, while common basic compounds would be bleach (calcium hypochlorite) and lye/liquid drain cleaner (so dium hydroxide) 153 Many metals are much more soluble under acidic conditions. A reducing potential is the ability to donate or accept electrons in an oxidation reduction (redox) reaction 154 The formation of water from hydrogen (H 2 ) and oxygen gas (O 2 ) is a redox reaction that can be considered two coupled processes. The molecular oxygen is the oxidizing agent or gaining electrons, while the molecular hydrogen is the reducing agent or losing electrons to form water (H 2 O). A positive reducing potential in dicates that it is an oxidizing

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,-.&/012,304&,0&50112,304&3/&40,&6312,304 & & & & & & & &&&&&&&&& 8A & & & & agent, so a negative reducing potential indicates that it is a reducing agent 155 In terms of environmental applicability, a positive reducing potential indicates well aerated or high dissolved oxygen, and a negative reducin g potential indicates pollution with organic waste 156 The Pourbaix diagrams are for the metals confirmed in the Gold King mine spillage can be viewed in Appendix D. At a low pH, these metals are in an aqueous form. As the pH returns to neutral, most of t hem precipitate out of solution, and would settle along the river bottom 157 Bonita Peak Mining District Superfund Site Many of these mine s Gold King included, pose enough hazard to human health that they were classified as a superfund site. The Bonita P eak Mining District (BPMD) was place on the National Priorities List (NPL) on September 9th, 2016 with a hazard ranking of 50.00 158 There are currently 48 historic mines or mine related sources that comprise the BPMD Superfund site 159 There are four mine s of the 48 designated sources that provide at least half of the metal loading into the Animas River 160 The rest of the mines are little bleeders just like the waste tailings piles. "Well intended groups (i.e., third party entities such as nonprofit organizations, state agencies, watershed groups, etc.) could voluntarily clean up hard rock mine sites" 161 Majority of the metal loading now occurs f rom point sources 162 that well intended groups "face daunting obstacles because of unrealistic permitting requirements and burdensome liability rules" 163 "Any entity that constructs a treatment system such as a bioreactor becomes liable for the acid mine discharge in perpetuity under the Clean Water Act" 164 The Good Samaritan legislation, supported by the San Juan Coalition, would provide stronger legal protections from unforeseen lawsuits and long term liability issues while fixing a shortcoming in the C WA NPDES that was unforeseen when it was enacted. As it currently stands, only the EPA has the jurisdiction to remediate point sources. These are generally superfund sites that are on the NPL

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,-.&/012,304&,0&50112,304&3/&40,&6312,304 & & & & & & & &&&&&&&&& ?> & & & & for high risk to public health. However, the county commissioner must request the superfund cleanup. The request first goes to the governor, and then onto the EPA 165 The EPA Superfund remediation process is long and is likely to take at least 10 years 166 Good Samaritan Legislation The little bleeders are likely not on the EPA radar due to their low risk. However, well intended groups are willing to conduct the mine reclamation if they have environmental liability protection from CWA NPDES discharge permit and possibly CERCLA 167 The Good Samaritan legislation has foc used on amendments to section 402 of CWA, and would define what sites and who could be allowed to remediated based on legal and technical expertise 168 The sites would be abandoned, or lacking a potentially responsible party (PRP) 169 A PRP may have been h anded ownership of the mine via a will 170 An ideal orphaned mine for the Good Samaritan legislation will have a maximum discharge of 100 gallons per minute (gpm) 171 An ideal discharge would be 50 75 gpm 172 The discharge from the mines would not result i n a permanent NPDES discharge permit with 95% removal requirements, but a permanent facility that could reduce the metal loading by roughly 30% 173 This treatment facility would likely be a bioreactor or an engineered wetland 174 Possible Treatment Facili ties A bioreactor is buried treatment facility that is designed to reduce pollutant loading from the water flowing in 175 "Permeable bioreactors have gained both research and management attention as viable methods for treating mine runoff waters" 176 A b ioreactor containing a mix of compost, straw, and gravel was used to treat a runoff from a mine in northern Idaho. It was effective at immobile metal reductions despite fluctuating hydraulic retention times, or unregulated runoff flow 177 Bioreactors are d esigned to provide filtration and biological treatment

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,-.&/012,304&,0&50112,304&3/&40,&6312,304 & & & & & & & &&&&&&&&& ?7 & & & & that simulates natural treatment systems. Engineered wetlands also try to simulate the natural treatment processes. "As water flows through a wetland, it slows down and many of the suspended solids be come trapped by vegetation and settle out. Other pollutants are transformed to less soluble forms taken up by plants or become inactive" 178 They also facilitate the necessary conditions that microorganisms can thrive in to further reduce the pollutants 179 The low operation and maintenance costs makes both treatment facilities viable options to remediate acid mine drainage to reduce some of the metal loading. Clear Creek Superfund Site By placing the Bonita Peak Mining District on the NPL, the major sourc es of metal loading will be addressed in time, and all the little bleeders can be addressed through the help of Good Samaritan legislation. While BPMD is a new Superfund site, the Clear Creek Superfund site has been receiving remediation for some time. Thi s is the probable direction of the BPMD Superfund. Clear Creek was listed in 1983 with a hazard ranking of 51.39 180 One of the major sources of remediation for this site is the Argo treatment plant. The facility collects the drainage from the Argo mine an d treats it for metals before discharging the water back into Clear Creek on the east side of Idaho Springs 181 Despite Clear Creek receiving remediation efforts since 1983, there is still some metal loading that should be addressed. A brown trout from Ge orgetown Reservoir and Clear Creek area was analyzed for trace metal determination. One of the brown trout caught was pregnant, but it was an opportunity to determine the metals accumulating in the fish eggs, or roe, in comparison to the tissue. Each sampl e of roe and tissue was dissolved in concentrated trace metal grade nitric acid and digested with alternating heating and time to cool. After filtration through a

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,-.&/012,304&,0&50112,304&3/&40,&6312,304 & & & & & & & &&&&&&&&& ?8 & & & & 0.2 micron filter, the samples were run on an inductively couple plasma mass spectrometry (IC P MS) that allowed the calculation of the concentrations in ppb. A second instrument was required for some of the metals because the concentration was on a scale of parts per million instead of parts per billion. The results of the analysis are reported in "g/g per EPA standards. The four metals that were positively tested for were cadmium, copper, manganese, and zinc. The concentration factor is the multiplier for the extra metal found in the eggs over the tissue. For cadmium, the concentration factor is 2 0 times; for copper is 4.3 times; manganese is 7.6 times; and zinc was 23 times 182 It seems unlikely that the roe would have survived with the amount of metal they contained. These results are a great example of how nearly anything that is put into the wa ter will become part of the ecosystem. There are some very specific locations in the Clear Creek Basin that dilution is allowing aquatic life to survive. T otal M aximum D aily L oad s Another component of the Clean Water Act addresses the health of the waterways through Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs). A TMDL is a calculation of maximum allowed concentrations of a pollutant in a waterbody. These have become a starting point for restoration and protection activities in attaining and maintaining water qu ality in many watersheds. Limitations are established from a list of impaired waters with priority rankings for those that do not meet water quality standards. "The impaired waters are prioritized based on the severity of the pollution and the designated u se of the waterbody (e.g., fish propagation or human recreation)" 183 They can be issued for a variety of pollutants that includes bacteria and metals. The issuance of a TMDL for metal loading could be from anthropogenic sources or the natural composition of the water. One of the metals of concern is Selenium. Approximately one third of TMDLs prioritized by the CDPHE are for Selenium 184 The sources are from discharges

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,-.&/012,304&,0&50112,304&3/&40,&6312,304 & & & & & & & &&&&&&&&& ?? & & & & from petroleum refineries, erosion of natural deposits, and discharges from mines. The p otential long term effects are hair or fingernail loss, numbness in fingers or toes, and circulatory problems 185 TMDLs are designed by CDPHE to allocate the allowable loading from both point and non point sources 186 They are effective in planning and rem edial action identification to help manage and reduce pollutants in the nation's waters 187 Conclusion The old saying that dilution is the solution to pollution' is not accurate. The population of the Earth has increased to the point that nature is not able to provide the treatment it once did. The evolution of wastewater treatment plants stems from this concept. They exist to treat the waste excreted by humans on a magnified scale of the natural process once the population exceeded nature's capacity to treat. With a growing population, water is reused multiple times and in increasing succession that relying on dilution to remove any contaminant is not an option. In the situation of DDT and pharmaceuticals, dilution will not provide a solution, especially when the amount of pharmaceuticals being found is around parts per trillion. In Flint, dilution cannot provide a solution if drinking water standards have zero tolerance for lead. Though in regards to the Gold King Mine spill, dilution was part of the sol ution. The rest of the solution relies on remediation near the source through the CERCLA legislation. Directing pollutant reduction efforts towards remediation will help prevent environmental contamination and support public health. Emerging contaminants are being monitored to determine long term impacts to public and environmental health. Metal pollution can occur naturally or be caused by man, but has occurred for at least 100 years with minimal impact from the dilution that occurs. Trace pharmaceuticals are present in such low concentrations, like parts per trillion, that it is something

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,-.&/012,304&,0&50112,304&3/&40,&6312,304 & & & & & & & &&&&&&&&& ?: & & & & to be aware of, but not worry about. Micropollutants are not major concerns yet due to the low concentration or dilution that occurs, this cannot be the perpetual soluti on to protect environmental and public health. Treating the pollutants at the source and reducing their contamination of the water, will help protect Earth and future generations. "Treat the Earth well, it is not inherited from your parents, it is borrowed from your children" 188

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,-.&/012,304&,0&50112,304&3/&40,&6312,304 & & & & & & & &&&&&&&&& ?; & & & & REFERENCES & 1 NOAA. (2015, September 28). Are there oceans on other planets? Retrieved May 11, 2016, from http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/facts/et oceans.html 2 Israel, B. (2010, September 9). How Much Water Is on Earth? Retrieved January 28, 2017, from http://www.livescience.com/29673 how much water on earth.html 3 USGS. (2016, December 2). The World's Water. Retrieved January 28, 2017, from https://water.usgs.gov/edu/earthwherewater.html 4 How Stuff Works. (2000, April 01). How much water is there on Earth? Retrieved March 30, 2017, from http://scie nce.howstuffworks.com/environmental/earth/geophysics/question157.htm 5 USGS. (2016, December 2). Water Questions & Answers How much water does the average person use at home per day? Retrieved February 01, 2017, from https://water.usgs.gov/edu/qa home percapita.html 6 Fishman, C. (2012). The Big Thirst: The Secret Life and Turbulent Future of Water New York: Free Press. 7 USGS. (2016, May 2). The Water Cycle. Retrieved May 11, 2016, from http://water.usgs.gov/edu/watercyc le.html 8 Colorado Division of Natural Resources. (n.d.). Prior Appropriation Law. Retrieved February 02, 2017, from http://water.state.co.us/surfacewater/swrights/pages/priorapprop.aspx 9 Coleman, C. (Ed.). (2016). Citizen's Guide to Colorado's Interstate Compacts (2nd ed.). Colorado Foundati on for Water Education.

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,-.&/012,304&,0&50112,304&3/&40,&6312,304 & & & & & & & &&&&&&&&& ?< & & & & https://www.courts.state.co.us/userfiles/file/Court_Probation/19th_Judicial_District/Court_Hous e_History/cfwe%20Compacts%20Guide%20text% 20as%20published.pdf 10 Jones, P. A., & Cech, T. V. (2009). Colorado Water Law for Non Lawyers University Press of Colorado. 11 Colorado Water Conservation Board. (n.d.). Nonconsumptive Needs. Retrieved February 1, 2017, fro m http://cwcb.state.co.us/environment/non consumptive needs/Pages/main .aspx 12 [9] 13 [12] 14 [10] 15 Exec. Order No. D 2013 005, 3 C.F.R. 4 (2013). 16 [15] 17 CWCB. (2015). Colorado Water Plan (United States of America, Department of Natural Resources, Colorado Water Conservation Board). CO. 18 [17] 19 [18] 20 [19] 21 [20] 22 [21] 23 [22] 24 [23] 25 [13] 26 [25]

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,-.&/012,304&,0&50112,304&3/&40,&6312,304 & & & & & & & &&&&&&&&& ?= & & & & 27 World Land Trust. (n.d.). Area Converter: How Big is an Acre? Retrieved February 25, 2017, from http://www.worldlandtrust.org/education/area converter 28 [26] 29 ¤ 37 61 101 C.R.S. 30 Skeie, E. (2017, March 17). [Personal interview]. 31 [29] 32 [31] 33 Interstate Compacts. (n.d.). Retrieved December 27, 2016, from http://cwcb .state.co.us/legal/Pages/InterstateCompacts.aspx 34 ¤ 37 62 101 C.R.S. 35 [34] 36 [33] 37 Coleman, C. (n.d.). Animas La Plata Project Compact Retrieved February 25, 2017, from https://www.yourwatercolorado.org/cfwe education/water is/history/280 colorado s river compacts topics/579 animas la plata project compact 38 Bureau of Reclamation. (n.d.). Upper Co lorado Region. Retrieved February 25, 2017, from https://www.usbr.gov/uc/progact/animas/index.html 39 [37] 40 ¤ 37 65 101 C.R.S. 41 [36] 42 ¤ 37 67 101 C.R.S. and ¤ 37 65 102 C.R.S. 43 ¤ 37 67 101 C.R.S. 44 [41]

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,-.&/012,304&,0&50112,304&3/&40,&6312,304 & & & & & & & &&&&&&&&& ?@ & & & & 45 ¤ 37 68 101 C.R.S. 46 [44] 47 [46] 48 Kurtus, R. (2016, September 19). Polar and Non Polar Molecules. Retrieved March 30, 2017, from http://www.school for champions.com/chemistry/polar_molecules.htm#.WN5Zm_lVhBd 49 US EPA. (2016, October 04). Table of Regulated Drinking W ater Contaminants. Retrieved February 07, 2017, from https://www.epa.gov/ground water and drinking water/table regulated drinking water contaminants#Inorganic 50 [49] 51 Carmody, S. (2016, December 14). A Year Later, Unfi ltered Flint Tap Water Is Still Unsafe to Drink. NPR. Retrieved February 7, 2017, http://www.npr.org/2016/12/14/505478931/a year later unfiltered flint tap water is still unsafe to drink 52 National Wildlife Federation. (n.d.). Food Webs and Bioaccumulation. Retrieved April 16, 2017, from https://www.nwf.org/Wildlife/Wildlife Conservation/Food Webs.aspx 53 Denver Water. (n.d.). Trace Pharmaceuticals. Retrieved March 17, 2017, from http://www.denverwater.org/WaterQuality/WaterSafety/TracePharmaceutical s/ 54 SauvŽ, S., & Desrosiers, M. (2014, February 26). A review of what is an emerging contaminant. Retrieved February 07, 2017, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3938815/ 55 [6] 56 Halperin, F., & Sudler, J. (2017, February 19). Waterways Threatened with Nuclear

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,-.&/012,304&,0&50112,304&3/&40,&6312,304 & & & & & & & &&&&&&&&& ?A & & & & Waste [Audio blog post]. Retrieved Febr uary 19, 2017, from http://h2oradio.org/twiw_2017.html 57 US EPA. (2016, July 19). Where Nutrient Pollution Occurs. Retrieved Februa ry 01, 2017, from https://www.epa.gov/nutrientpollution/where nutrient polluti on occurs 58 US EPA. (2016, December 05). The Problem. Retrieved February 01, 2017, from https://www.epa.gov/n utrientpollution/problem 59 Carlton College. (2012, October 09). The Gulf of Mexico Dead Zone. Retrieved February 01, 2017, from http://serc.carleton.edu/microbelife/topics/deadzone/index.html 60 [59] 61 [55] 62 [61] 63 Pfeiffer, K. (n.d.). [Bacterial Resistance to Pharmaceuticals in Cherry Creek]. Unpublished raw data. 64 US EPA. (2017, February 22). What is Endocrine Disruption? Retrieved April 01, 2017, from https://www.epa.gov/endocrine disruption/what endocrine disruption 65 [64] 66 Extension Toxicology Network. (1993, Septe mber). Tributyltin. Retrieved April 16, 2017, from http://pmep.cce.cornell.edu/profiles/extoxnet/pyrethrins ziram/tributyltin ext.html 67 Rotterdam Convention. (n.d.). Overview. Retrieved April 16, 2017, from http://www.pic.int/TheConvention/Overview/tabid/1044/language/en US/Default.aspx 68 US EPA. (2016, May 25). Laws & Regula tions: History of the Clean Water Act. Retrieved December 27, 2016, from http://www.epa.gov/laws regulations/history clean water act

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,-.&/012,304&,0&50112,304&3/&40,&6312,304 & & & & & & & &&&&&&&&& :> & & & & 69 [68] 70 R obbins, M. (n.d.). Entire Elk Meadow Park Dog Off leash Area to Close on April 4. Retrieved March 30, 2017, from http://jeffco.us/open s pace/news/2017/entire elk meadow park dog off leash area to close on april 4/ 71 US EPA. (2016, November 29). NPDES Permit Basics. Retrieved December 27, 2016, from https://www.epa.gov/npdes/npdes permit basics 72 US EPA. (2016, November 17). NPDES Stormwater Program. Retrieved February 12, 2017, from https://www.epa.gov/npdes/npdes stormwater program 73 US EPA. (2017, February 13). Impaired Waters and Stormwater. Retrieved December 27, 2 016, from https://www.epa.gov/tmdl/impaired waters and stormwater 74 [72] 75 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2015, January 20). Drinking Water. Retrieved March 17, 2017, from https://www.cdc.gov/healthywater/drinking/public/water_treatment.html 76 Denver Water. (n.d.). About Us. Retrieved March 26, 2017, from http://www.denverwater.org/AboutUs/ 77 Metro Wastewater Reclamation District. (n.d.). Our Facilities. Retrieved March 21, 2017, from http://www.metrowastewater.com/aboutus/Pages/facilities.aspx 78 [77] 79 Nathanson, J. A. (2016). Wastewater Treatment. In Britannica Retrieved March 26, 2017, from https://www.britannica.com/technology/wastewater treatmen t 80 Florida Rural Water Association. (n.d.). Wastewater Treatment Recommendations for Small & Medium Sized Utilities. Retrieved March 28, 2017, from

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,-.&/012,304&,0&50112,304&3/&40,&6312,304 & & & & & & & &&&&&&&&& :7 & & & & http://www.frwa.net/uploads/4/2/3/5/42359811/wwtprecommendationsforbestkind2010.pdf 81 US EPA. (2016, September 23). How You r Septic System Works. Retrieved March 28, 2017, from https://www.epa.gov/septic/how your septic system wo rks 82 [81] 83 US EPA. (n.d.). Wastewater Technology Fact Sheet. Retrieved March 28, 2017, from h ttps://www3.epa.gov/npdes/pubs/apartlag.pdf 84 [83] 85 [84] 86 Hettinger, T. (2012, June). [Personal interview]. 87 US EPA. (1998, May). How Wastewater Treatment Works... The Basics [PDF]. 88 [87] 89 US EPA. (1999, September). Wastewater Technology Fact Sheet: Chlorine Disinfection [PDF]. 90 [89] 91 [90] 92 [91] 93 Lenntech. (n.d.). FAQ's Ozone. Ret rieved March 26, 2017, from http://www.lenntech.com/library/ozone/faq/faqozone.htm 94 Lennte ch. (n.d.). Disinfection by Ultraviolet Light. Retrieved March 26, 2017, from http://www.lenntech.com/library/uv/will1.htm 95 Oeth, T. (2016, March 7). [Personal interview]. 96 Water Quality Control Commission. (n.d.). Regulations for Effluent Limitations [PDF]. Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment.

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,-.&/012,304&,0&50112,304&3/&40,&6312,304 & & & & & & & &&&&&&&&& :8 & & & & 97 Fondriest Environm ental, Inc. (2014, June 13). Turbidity, Total Suspended Solids & Water Clarity. Retrieved March 27, 2017, from http://www.fondriest.com/environmental measurements/parameters/water quality/turbidity total suspended solids water clarity/#Turbid4 98 [96] 99 [98] 100 US EPA. (2004, September). Primer for Municipal Wastewater Tr eatment Systems [PDF]. EPA. 101 [100] 102 City of Greeley. (n.d.). Water Pollution Control Facility [Brochure]. City of Greeley. 103 [101] 104 Water Environment Federation. (2010, May). Land Application and Com posting of Biosolids [PDF]. Water Environment Federation. 105 [104] 106 Water Quality Control Commission. (n.d.). Biosolids Regulation [PDF]. Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment. 107 [105] 108 [1 07] 109 [108] 110 [109] 111 USGS. (2016, December 2). Saline water: Desalination. Retrieved March 31, 2017, from https://water.usgs.gov/edu/drinkseawater.html 112 [111] 113 Distillation. (2009). In Britannica Retrieved March 26, 2017, from

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,-.&/012,304&,0&50112,304&3/&40,&6312,304 & & & & & & & &&&&&&&&& :? & & & & https://www.britannica.com/science/distillation 114 [112] 115 Lenntech. (n.d.). Reverse Osmosis. Retrieved March 26, 2017, from http://www.lenntech.com/library/reverse osmosis/whatisro.htm 116 US EPA. (2016, Octob er 28). Superfund History. Retrieved December 29, 2016, from https://www.epa.gov/superfund/superfund history 117 US EPA. (2016, December 01). Summary of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Retrieved December 27, 2016, from https://www.epa.gov/laws regulations/summary resource conservation and recovery act 118 US EPA. (2017, February 09). Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Overview. Retrieved December 29, 2016, from https://www.epa.gov/rcra/resource conservation and recovery act rcra overview 119 US EPA. (2016, August 22). Superfund: CERCLA Overview. Retrieved January 20, 2017, from https://www.epa.gov/superfund/superfund cercla overview 120 [119] 121 Churchwell, T. (2016, March 8). [Personal interview]. 122 [120] 123 [122] 124 Beck, E. C. (1979). The Love Canal Tragedy. EPA Journal. Retrieved December 27, 2016, from https://archive.epa.gov/epa/aboutepa/love canal tragedy.html 125 US EPA. (2016, December 27). Love Canal Superfund Site Profile. Retrieved December 27, 2016, from https://cumulis.epa.gov/supercpad/cursites/csitinfo.cfm?id=0201290 126 US EPA. (2016, August 19). Superfund Site Assessment Process. R etrieved January

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,-.&/012,304&,0&50112,304&3/&40,&6312,304 & & & & & & & &&&&&&&&& :: & & & & 25, 2017, from https://www.epa.gov/superfund/superfund site assessment process 127 [126] 128 [54] 129 Extension Toxicology Network. (n.d.). DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane). Retrieved April 16, 2017, from http://pmep.cce.cornell.edu/profiles/extoxnet/carbaryl dicrotophos/ddt ext.html 130 2015 June: DDT Found in Central Queensland Dolphins. (2015, June 26). Retr ieved April 16, 2017, from https://pesti cides.australianmap.net/2015 june ddt found in central queensland dolphins/ 131 PAN. (n.d.). The DDT Story. Retrieved May 13, 2016, from http://www.panna.org/resources/ddt story 132 San Juan Clean Water Coalition. (n.d.). Support Outdoor Recreation: San Juan Mountains Clean Water Coalition. Retrieved March 29, 2017, from http://www.sanjuancleanwater.org/ 133 Colorado Geological Survey. (2016, December 08). Abandoned Mine Lands. Retrieved March 29, 2017, from http://coloradogeologicalsurvey.org/mineral resources/abandoned mine lands/ 134 [133] 135 [134] 136 [135] 137 [121] 138 US EPA. (n.d.). What is Acid Mine Drainage [PDF]. US Environmental Protection Agency.

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,-.&/012,304&,0&50112,304&3/&40,&6312,304 & & & & & & & &&&&&&&&& :; & & & & 139 [138] 140 KRQE. (2015, April/May). Story Map: A walk through the Animas River spill. Retrieved February 07, 2017, from http://krqe.com/story map a walk through the animas river spill/ 141 Farmer, G. (2017, April 10), [Personal interview]. 142 Paul, J., & Finley, B. (2015, August 13). Animas River spill: Hurdles remain at Gold King. Denver Post Retrieved March 17, 2017, from http://www.denverpost.com/2015/08/13/animas river spill hurdles remain at gold king/ 143 [140] 144 [137] 145 [143] 146 [144] 147 Finley, B. (2016, September 7). EPA puts Gold King Mine, other Colorado sites on priority list and pegs acid muck flow at 5.4 m gallons a day. Denver Post Retrieved March 17, 2017, from http://www.denverpost.com/2016/09/07/gold king animas mining sites disaster declaration/ 148 [146] 149 [148] 150 Finle y, B. (2016, April 26). Cadmium, lead, copper levels in Animas headwaters exceed Colorado limits. Denver Post. Retrieved March 15, 2017, from http://www.denverpost.com/2016/04/26/cadmium lead copper levels in animas headwaters exceed colorado limits/ 151 Wulfsberg, G. (1991). Principles of descriptive inorganic chemistry Sausalito, CA:

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,-.&/012,304&,0&50112,304&3/&40,&6312,304 & & & & & & & &&&&&&&&& :< & & & & University Science Bo oks. 152 USGS. (2016, December 2). PH -Water properties. Retrieved March 29, 2017, from https://water.usgs.gov/edu/ph.html 153 Science Buddies. (n.d.). Acids, Bases, & amp; the pH Scale. Retrieved March 29, 2017, from http://www.sciencebuddies.org/science fair projects/project_ideas/Chem_AcidsBasespHScale.sht ml 154 Chaplin, M. (2016, October 19). Water Redox processes. Retrieved March 17, 2017, from http://www1.lsbu.ac.uk/water/water_redox.html 155 Chaplin, M. (2016, Octob er 19). Water Redox processes. Retrieved March 17, 2017, from http://www1.lsbu.ac.uk/water/water_redox.html 156 [151] 157 [156] 158 US EPA. (2017, April 05) National Priorities List (NPL) Sites by State. Retrieved April 16, 2017, from https://www.epa.gov/superfund/national priorities list npl sites state#CO 1 59 US EPA. (2016, December 28). Superfund Site: BONITA PEAK MINING DISTRICT, UNINCORPORATED, CO. Retrieved April 12, 2017, from https://cumulis.epa.gov/supercp ad/cursites/csitinfo.cfm?id=0802497 160 [149] 161 San Juan Clean Water Coalition. (n.d.). Support Bipartisan Legislation for Clean Water. Retrieved March 29, 2017, from http://www.sanjuancleanwater.org/support bipartisan legislation for clean water/ 162 [160] 163 [161]

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