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Eating meat L can consumer demand combat corporate marketing

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Eating meat L can consumer demand combat corporate marketing
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Freeman-Gonzales, Sage
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Eating Meat: Can Consumer Demand Combat Corporate Marketing? by Sage Freeman-Gonzales
An undergraduate thesis submitted in partial completion of the Metropolitan State University of Denver Honors Program
May 5, 2017
Dr. Sarah Schliemann
Dr. Sally Baalbaki Dr. Megan Hughes-Zarzo
Primary Advisor
Second Reader
Honors Program Director


Eating Meat: Can Consumer Demand Combat Corporate Marketing?
EATING MEAT: CAN CONSUMER DEMAND COMBAT CORPORATE MARKETING?
Sage Freeman-Gonzales
MSU Denver Honors Program / School of Business


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Eating Meat: Can Consumer Demand Combat Corporate Marketing?
Table of Contents
Abstract.....................................................................................3
Eating Meat: Can Consumer Demand Combat Corporate Marketing?.................................4
Introduction.................................................................................4
Part 1: More Meat............................................................................5
Section 1: Propaganda........................................................................5
History of Meat Marketing.................................................................6
Edward L. Bernays.........................................................................8
Section 2: Corporate Marketing...............................................................9
Role of the US DA........................................................................10
USD A Conflict of Interest...............................................................11
USDA Ties to Meat Industry...............................................................12
Meat Industry Budget.....................................................................13
Section 3: Meat Culture.....................................................................15
Is Meat Male?............................................................................15
Selling Meat as Masculine................................................................16
Part 2: No More Meat........................................................................18
Section 4: Social Media.....................................................................18
The Vegan Comeback.......................................................................20
Consumer Demand..........................................................................20
Tyson.....................................................................................21
Hampton Creek............................................................................23
Elmhurst Dairy...........................................................................24
Section 5: Meat Industry Destruction........................................................25
Pig Lagoons..............................................................................26
Beef in Brazil...........................................................................26
Section 6: Vegan Culture....................................................................28
Loving Animals...........................................................................31
Eating Less Meat.........................................................................31
Fake "Meat"..............................................................................32
Vegan Advertisements.....................................................................34
Conclusion..................................................................................35
References..................................................................................37


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Abstract
In a nation of meat eaters, it is nearly impossible to imagine a growing number of people to go against the status quo and decide to stop consuming animal products. Against all odds, people are realizing that much of our culture of animal consumption is driven by corporate interests and not by our nature of supposed carnivorous instinct. We have been sold an idea of meat consumption as a necessity by companies who are only interested in selling their product. We must ask ourselves if we became omnivores because we are meat eaters by nature, or if this idea was sold to us, like so many of our other values that we forgot were once sales campaigns. Corporate marketing campaigns have been the source of our diets for so long, but consumer demand is the driving force behind our gradual shift towards plant based diets. This paper explores the corporate funded meat and dairy campaigns, and juxtaposes them with more recent consumer demand driven shifts towards
veganism.


Eating Meat: Can Consumer Demand Combat Corporate Marketing?
Eating Meat: Can Consumer Demand Combat Corporate Marketing?
Introduction
America is a country that focuses on meat at every meal, we have bacon and eggs for breakfast, a burger for lunch, and steak for dinner. Our consumption of animal products is higher than almost all other nations, and we are very much under the impression that meat consumption is both normal and necessary.
In our lifetime, whenever we hear that someone does not eat meat, whether it is because of personal beliefs, environmental concern, religious beliefs, health concerns, or any other of the multitude of reasons, it is always considered weird because eating meat is the norm. We tend to think of vegan diets as a first world luxury that has developed recently, and not the way that we developed as a species. We are raised with the assumption that our bodies evolved to eat meat, and that our bodies perform optimally with animal protein in the center of our daily intake.
Despite our current dependency on meat based diets, many people are starting to wonder whether we have an inherent need to consume animals, or whether it is a lifestyle that was marketed and sold to us. Whether or not we choose to believe that our bodies are inherently more functional on a meat based diet or not, it is important to consider what influences we may have as a society
With a history over the past one hundred years of normalizing meat eating and our general negative view on vegans today, it is almost impossible to imagine veganism growing, but somehow this culture is trending and, against all odds, experiencing


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Eating Meat: Can Consumer Demand Combat Corporate Marketing?
incredible growth.
Consumer demand has been to largest driving force behind the vegan movement which creates a stark contrast between the vegan movement and the corporately fueled meat and dairy campaigns. As inform becomes more readily available and easier to share, we are seeing more and more people making the choice to have a plant based diet and lifestyle.
There are also many cultural boundaries that we must overcome to see a shift towards veganism on a large scale. Many people believe that meat eating is the epitome of masculinity and health, and that without meat and dairy, it is impossible to achieve optimal health. These stereotypes are being broken everyday, but it is a slow and gradual process to change the mindset and learned stereotypes of consumers who have been conditioned to believe that meat and dairy are healthy and necessities.
Part 1 of this paper explores how we have been sold an idea of meat and dairy as healthy products, and how it has become a staple of our society. Part 2 looks into how consumer demand can be a driving force that can shift industries, and how by spreading messages and awareness, consumers are able to create large scale change in an economy.
Part 1: More Meat
Section 1: Propaganda
Meat has played a huge role in our culture during our lifetimes. We have been raised seeing commercials that tell us what our diet should be, and what it means about us if we eat a certain way. To eat a diet other than what is accepted by the majority of society, is to risk becoming a social outcast due to the reception of your eating choices by your peers.


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Marketing has been a tool that has been used on us our entire lives, not only to get us to buy certain products, but to get us to life a certain lifestyle and to follow cultural trends. Marketing has a created a society where people who do not eat meat are looked to as outsiders or strange for their eating habits.
History of Meat Marketing
Most of us would like to believe that our choices are our own, and that we are tuned out to the common marketing tactics used on us. We would also like to believe that most businesses are only trying to sell us a product, and not influence our way of living. However, in the interest of scholarly learning and individual awareness, it is important to look at marketing objectively and see what companies have to gain from persuasion techniques. To accurately look at what has happened to our diets, it is important to look back to a time when meat marketing was on the rise, and increasing the amount of expensive meat was all the craze.
In a time when propaganda was the primary way to influence countries that were going to war, Edward Bernays was the leader in influencing the masses, and controlling people's thoughts without their knowledge (Tye, 2002). Edward Bernays, the nephew of Sigmund Freud, was a propagandist during WWI who worked for the American government and influenced many Eastern European nations to take the side of America during the war. Bernays used ideas that he gained from his uncles work in psychoanalysis to better understand how to influence people. Bernays used the idea of democracy being a source of freedom and liberation to their oppressive government. During the war efforts, Bernays began to explore the idea of using war propaganda tactics during peacetime as a


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way to sell products and marketing businesses. He eventually created the term public relations, and modeled it after this idea.
After the war, Edward Bernays was quick to take full action on his plan of manipulation using propaganda during peacetime. Much of his success was due to his vast amount of knowledge of the human psyche thanks to his uncle Sigmund Freud's work. Bernays was well known for his "Torches of Freedom" campaign where he convinced a nation of women, who were in the act of rebelling against a male dominated society, that the best way to rebel against men was to smoke cigarettes. He did this through the media and not through advertisements, a subtle way of convincing people that it wasn't him who was influencing them, but that it was organic news sources that altered their decisions. His plan was to have women smoke Lucky Strike cigarettes during the Easter Day Parade in 1929. These women would receive huge amounts of free publicity during the parade due to the fact that this was a cultural taboo at the time, and definitely something that was unheard of. This worked better than Bernays could have imagined, and the day after the parade, Lucky Strike was on the front page causing quite a stir of awareness.
After convincing women to smoke, Lucky Strike cigarettes had a new problem. In 1934, women smoking had become the popular choice, yet women were choosing cigarettes based only on the package and how well it matched their accessories and outfits. Even though Lucky Strike had been the instigator and main benefactor of the Torches of Freedom campaign, they were now losing to other cigarette companies that had a more stylish package. The CEO of Lucky Strike was advised to change his packaging, but this route was unfeasible since they had already spent millions on marketing the package the


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Eating Meat: Can Consumer Demand Combat Corporate Marketing?
way it was.
Edward Bernays had a solution, instead of changing the packing, why not make the public want the color of the package. Bernays had the idea of putting on a huge fashion event that would celebrate the green color of Lucky Strikes and make green become the "it" color. Bernays reached out to many of his highest connections and created a huge event to celebrate the color green. Some of the most influential people of the time were invited; the top fashion designers created extravagant green outfits, and green meals and marketing materials were created. Green became the color of the year, and no one knew that it was only because Edward Bernays was tasked to sell more cigarettes.
Edward Bernays had a similar campaign relating to the consumption of meat products. In the 1920's Bernays was hired by Beech-Nut packing company to increase the sales of bacon. Before this point bacon was not considered a breakfast item, the average breakfast was a more modest serving of fruit or a bowl of oats. Bernays thought of a way to include bacon in the American diet, and breakfast was his target. His tactic to sell bacon without the use of advertisements was to use the news outlets sharing a story coming from influential doctors who were telling a story of healthy bacon filled breakfast. Bernays' plan was to survey 5,000 doctors and ask them if a large breakfast was healthier than a small breakfast, then in the same news publications run ads that mention how Beech-Nut bacon and eggs is a healthy "All-American" breakfast.
Edward L. Bernays
In the article, The evolution of an idea: Charting the early public relations ideology of Edward L. Bernays from the Journal of Communications, the authors take an in depth look into the


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Eating Meat: Can Consumer Demand Combat Corporate Marketing?
motivations and justification of Edward L. Bernays for his use of public relations and propaganda to manipulate the masses (John, 2011). Bernays used tactics that he discovered in WWI as a propagandist for the United States, to create campaigns that convinced people that they were following news and not marketing campaigns.
Bernays defended his actions and those of these new publicity men of the early 1900s by writing in his book that "publicity men... added value by providing leads and/or contributing to news." Edward Bernays stated that "What the lawyer does for his clients in the court of law, we do for our clients in the court of public opinion through the daily and periodical press" (Bernays, 1920, p. 108).
Many people may consider what Edward Bernays did with his expertise to be immoral due to the fact that he used his knowledge to increase cigarette smoking, but few people have issues with his contribution to eggs and bacon. As a society we have accepted the dangers of smoking, but we are very much in a phase of denial over the health dangers associated with eating meat. It is interesting that Edward Bernays had such a large contribution to both industries, and he himself never saw his actions as immoral or wrong. One day we may look at consumption of meat with the disdain that we now have for cigarettes, and we will then be able to take a more logical look at how meat has been influenced into our diets on many levels.
Section 2: Corporate Marketing
The large meat and dairy industries have focused on marketing an idea of meat as a necessity to life, and they have worked with the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) to make sure that children are taught at a young age that meat and dairy should be


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Eating Meat: Can Consumer Demand Combat Corporate Marketing?
consumed at every meal. We have lived our entire lives in a meat based society where just about every meal is centered around a piece of meat, this has not been our choice, but rather what has been told to us.
Role of the USDA
The USDA was founded with the main purpose to support and promote American agriculture, including produce, meat, dairy. So while the USDA was founded in the interest of promoting and guiding Americans to purchase more meat to support agriculture, there has been another role for the USDA to also promote healthy lifestyles and create dietary guidelines for Americans. There has been a large inconsistency between promoting healthy food, and promoting the foods that are the most profitable. "In Defense of Food" by Michael Pollan discusses the relationship between the USDA, other organizations responsible for public health, and how the meat and dairy industries have pulled their strings to keep meat and dairy on the menu (Pollan, 2010).
During the 1980's there was a gradual shift from foods to food-like products that have a focus on nutrients. While the research that was emerging in the scientific community at the time was all pointing to meat and dairy as the culprit for increasing rates of heart disease, cancer, and general poor health; the meat and dairy industry was not a fan of this research being brought to life. This put the USDA in a situation where they faced a conflict of interest as they are an organization that was created to help agriculture companies in America stay profitable, but were also tasked to protect the health of the American people.
In order to protect the interest of the agribusinesses while still trying to promote


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Eating Meat: Can Consumer Demand Combat Corporate Marketing?
health, found that the best way to tell Americans what to eat would be by talking about nutrients instead of food groups. The scientists of the time did this by telling people to decrease their intake of cholesterol and saturated fats, which was their way of saying eat less meat, without making the meat and dairy industry look bad. This resulted in a societal shift towards focusing on eating certain nutrients and micronutrients, instead of focusing on the the foods themselves.
USDA Conflict of Interest
In an attempt to promote good health and environmental sustainability, the USDA in 2012 sent out a newsletter that focuses on ways to have better eating habits (Harmon, 2012). The newsletter stated that one good way to reduce carbon emissions is to practice meatless Mondays. This recommendation was given with an explanation of how cattle creates large amounts of greenhouse gases, and eating meatless once a week can have a positive impact on health. This was met with an infuriated response from the beef and meat industry. The beef industry was outraged that the USDA would mention anything against them as being positive.
The result of this outrage was the USDA retracting this newsletter and saying that they do not indorse a meatless Monday and that the statement was published without the proper clearance. The USDA has a responsibility to the meat and dairy industry to sell their products and promote agriculture, so it is nearly impossible for them to say anything that goes against the meat and dairy industry, even if their research shows that it could be better for public health or for the environment to eat less meat. This is a great example of the conflict of interest with the USDA being responsible to promote agriculture in the forms


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Eating Meat: Can Consumer Demand Combat Corporate Marketing?
of meat and dairy, but to also create dietary guidelines that should promote public health. USDA Ties to Meat Industry
According to Business Insider (Lewis, 2016), the USDA has removed limits on the amount of cholesterol that should be consumed, and the egg industry focused on removing these limits. The USDA decided to remove these limits due to recommendations set forth by the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee (DGAC), but the Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine, a Washington, D.C.-based nonprofit that promotes a vegan diet, has filed a lawsuit against the USDA because they believe that this decision was based on ties to the egg industry and not in the interest of consumer health. The Physicians committee believes that the USDA has chosen to adopt these guidelines due to research that was largely funded by the meat and egg industries. The DGAC has several ties to the egg industry according to a request that the Physicians Committee filed through the Freedom of Information Act. This request revealed several of the committee members having ties to the egg industry, and funding from the egg industry having an effect on research that influenced the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committees decisions.
It seems that the time has come that it no longer makes sense for the USDA to be in charge of both promotion agriculture and promoting health. Many large companies have leverage over the USDA and the guidelines that they create, and it seems that selling as much food as possible is no longer in the best interest of the American people. The USDA was created to sell more food at a time when people were suffering from many dietary deficiencies, and needed to eat more. We now live in an age where people are dying from overconsumption and the only deficiencies we are seeing are fiber deficiencies. This would


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Eating Meat: Can Consumer Demand Combat Corporate Marketing?
be an opportune time to have the USDA focus on only promoting agriculture, and create a new organization responsible for public health and dietary guidelines.
Meat Industry Budget
It is interesting to consider the annual spending budgets of the meat industry compared to the budgets of organizations committed to animal rights and environmental preservation. If there is to be a truly level playing ground, the spending budgets should be equal in a way that consumers are allowed to make their won choices.
Cargill
$1,792 million
y.
4
' I $ McDonald 768 millic s 1 >n

JBS $1,594 million
KFC Taco Bell Pizza Hut $593 million
$552 million

This graphic shows how one sided the budgets of the pro meat industry are versus the anti-meat industry (Harish, 2012). The larger brown bubbles are meat and diary industries and the companies that they work with who support and profit from this industry. The smaller green bubbles are animal rights groups, environmental groups, and groups that protect public health. This figure was created using the financial statements of the largest meat industry corporations compared to the largest organizations focused on animal welfare and health. Many meat industry representatives are often frustrated with organizations like People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) and how they are


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Eating Meat: Can Consumer Demand Combat Corporate Marketing?
very aggressive to the meat industry, but being able to see the budgets visually help to see how small these organizations are by comparison. This shows how hard animal focused groups work to combat these huge meat and dairy organizations. Also, it is interesting to note that the pro meat industry has everything to gain on the sales of meat, but the antimeat organizations have little to no monetary gain if meat consumption is reduced. This is a possible indication that meat and dairy industry is more interested in profit than public good, and that the animal rights organizations may be more interested in animal welfare and health than simply making profit.
While it is nearly impossible to get an objective truth on any industry, it is possible to analyze motivations and influences that could have caused certain decisions that have had large impacts on society in the past (Burton St. John III, 2011). Looking at the history of meat marketing, it is possible to draw certain conclusions on whether or not profit may have had an influence on how our diets have shifted in the past century. It has largely impacted our diets today, and has influenced our society to have certain beliefs about certain foods. Whether or not a person believes that the meat industry is manipulating them, the meat industry as a whole spends billions of dollars every year convincing consumers that we are in fact carnivorous beings. With that much money being spent to convince us that we need animal protein, it becomes completely justifiable to speculate as to whether profit may be an ulterior motive to these ad campaigns. Despite this, we seem have a hard time believing that the government would mislead us on meat consumption, even though many people are very untrusting of the government in regards to many other
issues.


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Section 3: Meat Culture
Culture has played a huge part in the meat versus no meat battle. Our culture has embraced our meat based society, and for most Americans, it is difficult to imagine going a day, or even a meal, without eating some form of animal products. Our culture has raised us to believe that men eating steak is normal and any man who doesnt partake in that is strange. Meat has been assigned gender roles, and to go against that is to go against our culture. It can be difficult to be a male who refuses to eat meat since meat consumption is so strongly related to masculinity in ur society.
Many children grow up loving animals and not wanting to hurt them, which is why the origin of meat based products is usually hidden from children, but when children find out where meat comes from there is usually fear or disgust associated with eating animal. Our society normalizes the behavior and teaches children that eating meat is what is normal and what is expected.
Is Meat Male?
Is Meat Male? A Quantitative Multi-method Framework to Establish Metaphoric Relationships" covers six studies and their quantitative results in an effort to validate a hypothesis that meat is often metaphorically considered to be male in human culture across different societies (Rozin, Hormes, Faith, & Wansink, 2012). After looking into these six studies, the authors analyze what this can mean for consumers and brands that are aiming to study psychographics. The paper reaches the conclusions that certain foods are archetype as either masculine of feminine, red meat being the most masculine, and avoiding meat seen as a more feminine trait.


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Eating Meat: Can Consumer Demand Combat Corporate Marketing?
One study that the paper analyzed was done on 20 different languages and how they characterized meat and animal products in those languages. This study was conducted in order to look into what gender pronouns were used to describe food items in different societies, and if there was a trend that related meat items to masculine words. The results of the study showed that not only do the meat words generally have male pronouns associated with them, but even female animal products (ie. milk, eggs, cheese) were assigned male gendered pronouns 65% of the time.
The six studies all came back with similar results that showed a definite correlation between meat items and masculinity. When looking at the results of this study from marketing perspective, a marketing firm trying to sell non-meat products could make their products appear more like meat in order to appeal to a masculine target market. It makes sense that many fake meat companies are starting to make their products look more and more like cuts of meat with grill marks and the appearance of seared flesh even though it is processed and refined plant stuff.
Selling Meat as Masculine
This article, Beasts, Burgers, and Hummers: Meat and the Crisis of Masculinity in Contemporary Television Advertisements, from the journal of Environmental Communication focuses on meat advertisements, and how they portray meat consumption through television commercials (Rogers, 2008). The article explores three television commercials and the stereotypes displayed, as well the relationship to masculinity.
One commercial that is analyzed is a Hummer commercial in which two males are in the checkout line at a grocery store and how they interact with each other based on their


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Eating Meat: Can Consumer Demand Combat Corporate Marketing?
purchases. The first male has several veggies and a package of organic tofu. The second male has nothing but meat in several different forms. The first male is shown to be horribly embarrassed when the tofu is rung up by the cashier, and immediately after leaving the store to go purchase a Hummer. Purchasing the Hummer is apparently the first males attempt to regain his masculinity after buying the tofu and feeling emasculated. The author of this article explains the relation to meat and masculinity portrayed in the advertisement.
Tofu is an alternative to meat, and insofar as the consumption of meat is linked to masculinity, the consumption of tofu is coded as emasculating and feminizing... This advertisements narrative articulates a crisis in masculinity. Tofu symbolizes feminization; the presence of the meat, combined with obvious indications of shame and inferiority, clarifies that it also symbolizes emasculation. Why the first customer is buying tofu and veggies is not made clear; presumably, it could be due to animal rights, environmental ethics, or health reasons. Regardless of the reason, the effect is emasculation, the inability to claim the identity of real man, and public humiliation. (Rogers, 2008)
The next advertisement explored is Burger Kings "Manthem" commercial. This commercial focuses on a parody of the "I am Woman" song by Helen Reddy, where the singer starts off by singing "I am man, hear me roar." This contrast of the song being a parody of "I am Woman" is an intentional notion to disregard the empowerment of women by focusing on "manly" behavior, specifically eating meat. The commercial opens with a man and woman eating at a restaurant that appears to be very fancy. The food arrives and it is a small portion of something that appears to be tofu with sauce. The man reaches a breaking point and rejects the food in an apparent attempt to regain his manhood. The


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Eating Meat: Can Consumer Demand Combat Corporate Marketing?
camera follows this man as he tosses his food aside and joins other males as they partake in stereotypically masculine activities including punching each other, lifting things, and eating meat. The commercial follows them as they partake in these activities and sing the parody to "I am Woman" up until the conclusion of the males destroying a minivan and getting the Burger King burger that is being advertised.
This article explains the advertisements and why they focus on masculinity associated with meat consumption. Although gender has nothing to do with eating meat, as of 2015, 79% of vegans in the US identify as female, and only 21% identify as male (Bolen, 2015). This is a very significant difference that can be explained by the heavily marketed idea that meat is a masculine, and to avoid eating meat is a feminine trait. With commercials like this being played at times when children and young adults are watching TV, it does more than just sell the products shown, it normalizes the behavior and sticks the gendered stereotypes in the mind of the viewer. This makes it difficult to stop eating meat as many males may feel that they may become emasculated or looked down on by society for not choosing the socially accepted choice.
Part 2: No More Meat
Section 4: Social Media
Social media may be a tool to make it easier to communicate with one another, but it has also become a tool of disruption. Wells Fargo received more negative criticism than they had expected with their overly aggressive sales initiative going viral. More recently United Airlines has received a ton of negative criticism from forcibly removing a customer from a plane to make room for necessary staff. This is a story that may have gone relatively


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Eating Meat: Can Consumer Demand Combat Corporate Marketing?
unheard of by the masses just a few short years ago, but today people can take videos of the incident from many different angles, post it on social media, and in a few hours hundreds or thousands of people could have seen this incident.
Social media takes customer service to a new level as businesses are starting to find that they are very much at the mercy of the customers they do business with, as one situation can turn into millions of dollars lost, lowered stock prices, and consumers who are less likely to do business with them. United Airlines happened to be especially unlucky as the passenger they removed was a doctor of Asian descent, and they have been attempting to do business with China (Petroff, 2017). The Chinese market has expressed disinterest in working with United Airlines due to the incident, and the airline may find something that could have been rectified by offering a larger incentive for a customer to volunteer their seat, can now end up costing the company millions in the long run.
Social media has an unprecedented ability to get a message to thousands or more people without the use of any large budget, and it can get there without the influence of any of the major companies that control much of the traditional news media. While stories that go viral on social media may have bias, they will be shared based on content.
When videos and articles related to businesses are shared based on content, they usually arent the advertisements that social media users choose to share, it is usually the worst side of businesses that they hope would not be seen. Social media has leveled the playing field against the billions of dollars owned by meat and dairy, as the power of sharing content can give much more awareness to the living situations of the animals on factory farms, and to the environmental damage caused by the animal product industries.


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Eating Meat: Can Consumer Demand Combat Corporate Marketing?
The easy access to social media also makes it easier to share videos of animal abuse on factory farms, and makes it much more difficult to keep mistreatment of animals hidden. Given that people often react very emotionally to footage of animals being abused, many people are very likely to share the content and make many more people aware of the violence.
The Vegan Comeback
Veganism (the choice to live a lifestyle without the inclusion of animal product) is growing in our society, and it is a large upset to a very meat dominated culture. Many people have strong feeling about veganism whether or not they fully understand it. The meat marketers goal has been to sell people the idea that they need meat for optimal health, but the contrary idea is starting to present itself, forcing the meat industry to change their tactics.
One of the most interesting aspects of this vegan trend is that the meat industry is so large and powerful that they can destroy any anti meat organizations financially, and yet they are starting to lose the battle due to strong demand from consumers. (Koba, 2015).
Another way this movement is growing is the dedication and energy of animal activists who believe that animals should be allowed basic rights including the right to live. This creates an incredibly loyal consumer basis that will buy almost any product to use their spending power as votes to influence our food system.
Consumer Demand
There has been a stark contrast between the persuasive marketing techniques used


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Eating Meat: Can Consumer Demand Combat Corporate Marketing?
by big businesses, and the gradual shift in the industry brought on by consumer demand. Consumer demand has been the driving force behind much of what has created the recent shift towards mainstream vegan products. Many traditionally non-vegan brands are choosing to adopt vegan brands or products of their own.
Ben & Jerrys is a brand that traditionally makes ice cream out of dairy milk, but has recently caught on to the vegan trend. Ben & Jerrys decided to give dairy free products a try and released four vegan flavors in 2015 (Malcom, 2016). Ben & Jerrys put a lot of effort into making sure that these new flavors were marketing well and released with mass appeal. They decided to not brand them as vegan and instead focus on them being dairy free and how they are made from almond milk. These flavors have worked so well for them that they have decided to release three additional vegan flavors less than two years after the initial release.
Tyson
Another company that has made a surprising business venture in vegan products is Tyson. Tyson is the largest meat producer and processor in America, and against all odds, they have decided to invest in Beyond Burger (Kirschner, 2016). Beyond Burger is a vegan company that is focused on replacing animal protein in meats with plant products. This company makes completely vegan products that rival the taste and texture of animal products. Tyson has a reputation of being a huge conglomerate that has no interest in employee welfare or ethical treatment of animals, and they have made a turn to try to change their image.
Tyson had an unusually tough year in 2016 as sales declined, Tyson lost a class


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Eating Meat: Can Consumer Demand Combat Corporate Marketing?
action lawsuit from failure to pay employees (Fisher, 2016), many employees came forward with claims of unethical working conditions (Chuck, 2016), videos were released of horrid abuse of animals by employees, and the CEO, Donnie Smith, resigned after working there since 1980. Employees have claimed that they were unable to use the restrooms due to long lines and punishments from supervisors, so they have had no choice but to urinate on themselves or wear adult diapers to work. One employee claimed that she would refrain from drinking water even though she is diabetic to avoid having to use the restroom.
Although 2016 was unusually difficult for the company, it was not unwarranted given their track record of animal abuse and mistreatment of employees. It looks as though Donnie Smiths resignation may not have been as voluntary as Tyson would like everyone to believe, as it came at such a tough time for the company. This information coming to the light creates a very negative image for the company, which is a likely reason for their investment in plant based businesses.
Tyson is looking to change their image in the mind of the consumers going forward. Tyson, under the leadership of their new CEO Tom Heyes, has unveiled their new plan looking forward that will focus on sustainability, animal welfare, stopping the use of antibiotics for chicken, and creating safer working conditions for workers (Tyson Foods, 2017). As consumers become more and more aware of the mistreatment of animals and workers in these conditions, it has become clear that consumers do not want to support these business practices. It is interesting to see that not even a powerhouse like Tyson that is worth more than 3 billion dollars (Tyson), cant escape the public eye and the effect of


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Eating Meat: Can Consumer Demand Combat Corporate Marketing?
consumer demand when consumers become aware of poor business practices. The fact that Tyson is investing in plant based businesses is a sign that the meat industry is realizing that they will never be able to fight to growing vegan food industry, and actually may try to be a part of it as it continues to grow.
Hampton Creek
One of the most publicized battles of this war between veganism and meat and dairy industry control was the legal battle between Hampton Creek and Unilever (Kowitt, 2016). Hampton Creek is an up and coming startup company that has experienced incredible growth since their start in 2011 in San Francisco. Hampton Creek and their flagship product "Just Mayo" have been experiencing such large growth that it caught the attention of Unilever and their Heilman's mayo products. The vegan startup has grown in a way that is not typical of vegan and health food companies, but it grew out of the natural food sections and into the main storefronts. Unilever felt that Hampton Creek was taking up too much of the market share, so they filed a suit against them by claiming that Hampton Creek was misusing the word mayo as the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) definition of mayonnaise required eggs as an ingredient.
In filing this suit against Hampton Creek, Unilever did mention that they were concerned with Hampton Creek taking up some of the market share. Unilever did try to downplay this and make it more about the eggs, but the public saw through this immediately. Media coverage took off and the public saw this as a "David and Goliath" story of a huge corporate force trying to destroy the startup company. This lawsuit, despite being started as a means to take ownership back over a certain market, ended up doing great


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things for veganism. The lawsuit created huge amounts of free publicity for Hampton Creek describing how they are the good guys going up against a giant and powerful enemy. Headlines including: "Big Tobacco, Big Oil, now Big Mayo?" "Giant Corporation Generates Huge Quantities of Free Advertising and Brand Equity for Tiny Rival by Suing It," and "Unilevers Bullying Backfires, Boosts Hampton Creek," came out from several different news sources creating tons of free publicity to the fight between the up and coming vegan company versus the food giant.
Hampton Creek capitalized on this legal battle and was able to create huge amounts of free pubilicty where they focused on the commitment to sustainability and the healthful mission of the company (Simon, 2014). The attack from Unilever was quickly dropped as it created so much negative press for them. The FDA picked up this case against Hampton Creek, but they too dropped the lawsuit quickly after Hampton Creek agreed to make their packaging more transparent in regards to the fact that it does not contain eggs. In the ultimate show of defeat, Unilever came out with their own vegan mayonnaise spread called "Carefully Crafted Dressing and Sandwich Spread." Unilever had been trying to force Hampton Creek to change their name to one less recognizable, but in the end they backed themselves into that corner while Hampton Creek was able to blow up beyond their wildest expectations.
Elmhurst Dairy
Elmhurst Diary is perhaps the most extreme example of the effect of the growing vegan industry and the effect of demand. Elmhurst Dairy, which was founded in 1925, almost met its end in 2016 (Barron, 2016). In 2016 the President Henry Schwartz came to


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the conclusion that it would be impossible to keep his New York plant going without suffering from ongoing losses. Instead of putting his 237 employees on the streets however, he decided to give plant based milks a venture. Henry was able to keep his plant open by converting it to a plant that produces only plant based milk derived from almonds, cashews, walnuts, and hazelnuts. This is not only great news for his employees, but great news for plant based milk consumers in general, as the growing demand is causing more companies to get into this industry, and the competition will push these companies to create tastier, healthier, and more sustainable products. This is amazing due to the amount of animals that will never need to take part in the dairy industry, and the focus on plant based milks create a more sustainable industry.
Section 5: Meat Industry Destruction
Of any idea that can be shared, the destruction of our environment and health has been one of the fastest growing public interests and the destruction caused by meat and dairy is not going unnoticed. Many people are starting to understand the huge impact that animal agriculture has, especially as the human population continues to increase. More than ten billion land animals are slaughtered each year to be fed to people who pay into this industry.
Animal agriculture has historically been a very environmentally damaging practice (Philpott, 2016), and as we have increased our population, we have also increased our intake of animal products. Many different practices of cultivating meat have been very damaging to our environment, and there has been much more backlash due to social media making it easier to share this information with everyone.


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Pig Lagoons
There was a recent outcry against pork farms since the pigs create a large amount of waste that is usually unseen. Due to people being able to use drones to fly into restricted areas, and share the video content of what the drone can see, city dwellers are finding out what goes on on factory farms. The publicity of these lagoons has caused an uproar against meat and dairy.
Salmonella and other types of poisoning and tainted meat have also released huge amounts of negative publicity for meat and dairy (Weise, E., & Schmit, ]., 2007). There have been several massive recalls that have pushed the consumers away from heavy meat and dairy. In 2006 five people died and two hundred and five more were subjected a life threatening E. coli outbreak. E. coli is a common contaminant from cow manure, so it is suspected that these E. coli outbreaks all came from livestock feces getting into the spinach fields. This is especially troubling since the meat and dairy industry is harming people through foods besides meat and dairy.
During this E. coli outbreak, it was not only a certain brand of spinach, but it could have been spinach from any brand in any form since many companies get their spinach from the same farms. This resulted in a countrywide ban on spinach that left many people terrified of the product.
Beef in Brazil
Another facet of environmental destruction is the clearing of forests to make room for cattle production. Brazil is the largest producer of beef in the world, and they got that


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way from clearing huge amounts of forest every day to raise more cattle (Torres, 2017). As American consumers demand beef at cheaper prices, more of this starts to come from countries like Brazil where there are much less strict environmental laws that govern their operations. Deforestations rates have risen to an all-time high as more farmers are extending their cattle lands out further to create more profit.
Many organizations in Brazil are fighting the deforestation, but the government has not taken a strong stance on this issue until recently (Torres, 2017). The Brazilian Forest Code was created to protect rain forests from deforestation, but as Brazil joins the developed world, the rain forest has become a resource for profit. According to the Wood Hole Research Center, the Forest Code is a necessity to protect the rain forest.
The Brazilian Forest Code is the largest single protector of forests on private properties, which contain over half of Brazils remaining forests and savannahs. Though championed by conservationists, the law has proved challenging to enforce. As global demand for beef and animal feed increased in the early 2000s, annual deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon surged to more than 20,000 km2 per year prompting global outrage and a redoubling of efforts to improve enforcement. These pressures inspired a backlash from agribusiness interests, who lobbied to reduce the burden put on landowners to conserve and restore forests. (Untangling, 2014)
The new Brazilian Forest Code, signed into action in 2012, has made deforestation a relatively much easier process. The 2012 Forest Code has made the once lengthy and difficult process of clearing forest into a process that only takes a few weeks and one permit from the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture (Torres, 2017).


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The lack of strict laws on this industry in Brazil have had other ill effect. It has recently been discovered that a substantial amount of the beef coming from Brazil is rotten (Brazil meat-packing, 2017). Three meat processing plants have been closed from the discovery of rotten beef exports, and 21 more are under scrutiny. Federal police carried out raids on more than 194 locations discovering that many processing plants have been using carcinogenic chemicals to cover up the rotten beef for export. The Minister of Agriculture Blairo Maggi has met with foreign diplomats to convince them to not order sanctions on the Brazilian Beef. This is not surprising however, since Blairo Maggi has been one of the leading enablers of the deforestation by the hands of the agriculture industry since taking office (Geromel, 2013). His stake in the agriculture industry has made him a billionaire after being born into one of the richest families in Brazil.
Section 6: Vegan Culture
Although culture has played a huge role in the formation of our meat dominant society, culture can be one of the strongest tools to get us moving in the opposite direction towards a plant based society. Celebrities and role models who adopt a plant based diet are instrumental in using their notability to lead the way and normalize a meat free lifestyle. As more people choose to adopt a vegan lifestyle the behavior will become more widely accepted and will work its way into our culture.
Much of the strength of the vegan movement comes from the willingness of many celebrities and people of importance to take a stand and volunteer their time and efforts to fight against large animal agriculture businesses. Celebrities like Ariana Grande, Wacka Flocka, Miley Cyrus, Ellen DeGeneres, and Andre 3000 have all chosen to take a stance


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against the animal agriculture business, and are using their fame to persuade their fans to take an interest in this movement. Actor Liam Hemsworth went vegan after being influenced by Hunger Games co-star Woody Harrelson (Adams, 2015). Woody has been a vegan for over 10 years and shared his journey with Liam about his plant based diet. Liam explained in an interview that the longer he goes without eating meat, the harder it is for him to imagine ever eating it again.
There are also many social media celebrities with thousands or millions of followers who follow a vegan lifestyle. Katya Elise Henry has over three million followers, and she uses her platform as a fitness model to advocate for veganism and plant based lifestyles. Frank Medrano is another famous Instagram user with over 900,000 followers. Frank says that his fitness goals have been made more attainable by the vegan lifestyle that he has adopted. Both of these fitness role models have shown their followers that any body type is possible while living on a plant based lifestyle.
There has also been a recent rise of the vegan athletes. There have been many accomplishments of vegan athletes that are not only groundbreaking for the defense of the healthiness of someone with this diet, but it is also helping to break the meat is masculine stereotype. Vegan NFL players have shaken things up recently by succeeding in the NFL while maintaining a vegan diet (Wenzlaff, 2015). David Carter grew up on traditional diets, but due to numerous health problems while playing football competitively decided to look into plant-based diets. In 2014, Carter, who had been in the NFL since 2012, was experiencing major health problems with high blood pressure, nerve damage, and intense tendinitis. Although he was taking several pain killers he was struggling to make a fist or do


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a pushup, but after watching a documentary on health and veganism, he decided his health was more important. He switched to a vegan diet and saw all of his health problems vanish while he was able to keep his mass around 300 lbs. Carter said that he realized many of the biggest and strongest animals on the planet ate no meat, so he was confident that he would be able to keep his weight up. As a linebacker his job is to stay big to be unmovable, and by doing that on a vegan diet he is proving that it is possible to have mass without getting any protein from animal sources.
Another athlete to give veganism a try is Jermain Defoe, who plays for the National England Soccer team, (Fitfield, 2017). He is 35 years old and will be 36 by the time of the 2018 Worlds Cup in Moscow, Russia. He has adopted a vegan lifestyle because he has found it is the only way his body can take the fatigue of the sport and allow him to keep competing against the younger players. His being a part of the Worlds Cup is a testament to how well athletes can compete and recover while following a plant based diet.
Outside of the NFL, vegan athletes are popping up everywhere to break the protein myths. Rich Roll completed a day long iron man as the fastest American and sixth overall in 2009, Mac Danzig won several MMA matches after going vegan, Patrick Baboumian became the strongest man in Germany in 2011 from winning the German Strongman competition, Tia Blanco won the gold medal in the International Surfing Association (ISA) Open Women's World Surfing Championship 2015 and again in 2016, she is planning on competing in the Olympics in 2020. Vegan athletes often say that not only does veganism not hold them back in their sports, but it is actually a key to their success as an athlete as the plants fuel their body and help them to recover more quickly.


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Loving Animals
Another interesting facet to our culture is that people can love one animal while contributing to the suffering of other animals. To cater to the demand of consumers who love their pets, Nissan has recently created a "Rogue Dogue" concept vehicle that focuses on the comfort of the drivers canine companion animal (Gluckman, 2017). The vehicle features a heated area in the back for your pet with a retractable dog ramp, spill proof food bowls, a dog shower and blow dryer, and many other dog owner themed features. This vehicle is aimed at consumers that love a certain species of animal.
This level of love and support for companion animals would be inspiring if it werent for the fact that many of the consumers who would pay for a vehicle like this werent also paying for the raising and slaughtering of farm animals. It is hard to understand how consumers can care so much about one animal while remaining oblivious to the mistreatment and abuse imposed on other animal directly as a result of their spending and eating habits. Fortunately, it seems that many Americans are making this connection and starting to experiment with diets that contain less meat.
Eating Less Meat
The article Americans Ate 19% Less Beef From '05 to '14, Report Says from the New York Times is an analysis of a report that has tracked the intake of beef and other products from 2005 to 2014 (Strom, 2017). The research in the article correlates the decreased consumption of beef to the amount of carbon emissions that is reduced from the decreased production of cattle. The article points to the petroleum-based fertilizers used the cultivation of cattle feed, the methane produced by the cattle digestive system, and the


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feces that is produced as part of the carbon footprint of cattle. This ignores many of the resources used to transport, feed, and process the cattle for consumption, but still is shown to have a huge impact on the environment. The article cites the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) measuring the difference in the 19% reduced consumption of cattle, as having a similar effect to removing 57 million vehicles from the streets. The article features a rebuttal from the beef industry who believe that demand has not decreased, but instead exporting of beef has increased as well as prices have risen due to increased costs of production from feed and other inputs. The cattle industry expects a speedy recovery in the next few years in consumer purchases of beef.
Fake "Meat"
The article Fake meat sales are growing, but is it really better for you? states that the demand for meat alternatives has increased by 8% from 2010 to 2012 (Koba, 2015). The sale of meat alternatives has seen tremendous growth over the same period of time that meat consumption has been seeing sharp declines. This trend is explained in the article as a response to consumers who are focused on gradual shifts to healthier products that have a decreased environmental impact.
Because "fake" meat is a product made to look like animal products, much like soy milk or almond milk having a likeness to dairy milk, many people wonder why vegans would want products that look like the animal products that they have given up. Meat alternatives may seem confusing, but they are a great stepping stone to helping our society get over an intense meat addiction.
Meat alternatives are instrumental in the cultural shift that takes place when


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someone following a standard American diet switches to a vegan diet, because it makes the transition much easier and smoother. When someone goes vegan, if the veggie burgers and veggie hot dogs are not an option, then going vegan is a transition that focuses on giving food up. However, with the veggie meat options, it becomes a much simpler process of switching from a burger made of animal to a burger made of tofu or veggies.
A similar societal transition happened when the Roman empire converted to Christianity as the main religion under emperor Constantine during the fourth century (McLachlan, 2010). Constantine decided to convert to Christianity, which influenced many of the people in leadership positions to follow his lead to stay in his good grace. This in turn eventually led to the entire empire making the transition to the Christian faith as citizens followed those in power.
When the Roman empire converted to Christianity, they were very resistant to change, so instead of changing everything entirely, many Pagan holidays and practices were converted to Christian holidays and traditions (McDougal, 2010). Easter is a great example of a pagan holiday that was converted into a Christian holiday. Easter follows the story of Jesus as he died on Good Friday and was resurrected on Easter Sunday, but it also includes the Easter Bunny and Easter Eggs, both of which are originally from the pagan holiday.
The Roman Empire is a great example of how a culture can make gradual shifts, but making the changes easier is the most effective way to make it possible for a large society. Meat alternatives are a way that vegan products can help people to get away from meat products without making it such a tough process. Vegan advertisements can also be a way


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to normalize the vegan lifestyle and get more people to get on board with the plant-based movement.
Vegan Advertisements
As the vegan industry grows, they will be able to afford more advertising and ways of reaching consumers. Some advertisements for Silk brand plant based milks have been appearing recently, and they may be the start of a new type of advertising that embraces and normalizes plant based diets.
The new Silk commercials are fairly simple, a milkman is shown going around to houses delivering milk, while the new "Silkman" is going around and delivering almond milk. The two have an apparent rivalry as they stare each other down when they first pass each other. This leads to the "Silkman" offering Silk brand almond milk with 50% more calcium to the milkman, who refuses to try it. The milkman eventually agrees to try the almond milk in secret, and hides behind a bush as he enjoys the product, and is visually frustrated by how good the product is.
This commercial is very simple, but it can be the start of marketing to normalize not eating meat and consuming dairy. Marketing materials have been focused on a certain way of life for so long, and there will definitely be tons of pushback from the meat and dairy industries who make billions as they have their way of life threatened. Despite this pushback, protecting an industry that is destructive to both our health and our environment, is not a path that will lead to a sustainable future.
Marketing may have been what has gotten us into this problem, but marketing could also be a way to get us out and on track. The future could hold commercials that empower


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people to eat healthful and nonviolent plant based diets that use celebrities like David Carter or Liam Hemsworth to normalize the behavior. There are so many options in the future for plant based commercials, and as these industries grow it will be interesting to see how they can compete against our meat dominated society.
Conclusion
Edward Bernays manipulated the masses, but now the masses are manipulating the industry. Consumers are striking back against meat and dairy and are taking on more social responsibility in their diets and in their lifestyles. Consumer demand is definitely a force that is growing in power as corporations are realizing that people have many options, and when price is not a factor, they will go with the one that they identify with and feel does their best to have ethical business practices. The meat industry no longer has the luxury of keeping a uniformed public from seeing the mistreatment of animals and the destruction created from their factory farming practices.
Given the environment of food marketing today, it is interesting to see how the world of meat and anti-meat has grown to two very different juxtaposed sides who are battling with each other. Fortunately for our future, many people are demanding products be made more ethically, and with plants instead of animals. Meat and dairy seem to have a decision to either join the plant based foods market, or to eventually be defeated by it.
It will be interesting to see how the marketing will continue to change as the fake meat sector continues to advertise to a larger target market of consumers, and how they will appeal to the consumers that meat is masculine or that meat is a necessary component


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of a healthful diet. Hopefully someday commercials are made to influence viewers to eat healthier and more plant based, and the vegan foods industry is ready to keep growing at a rapid pace. As consumers become more aware of the benefits of plant based options, the demand will create better and more affordable options that will be more available and on more menus.
If there were to be a green ball today, instead of the extravagant and fashionable take that Edward Bernays took, I would imagine a society of people that are taking on social responsibility to create a greener and healthier planet for our society to thrive in. The world is ready for the antithesis of Edward Bernays to step up and create a culture around plant based food options, and healthier and more sustainable living. As we head forward towards the information age of civilization, we should become more aware of the issues facing our society, and work together to progress forward in a way of living that will help our species to survive in harmony with our planet. We must get rid of our preconceived notions about health and animal products that have been sold to us our
entire lives.


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Eating Meat: Can Consumer Demand Combat Corporate Marketing? by Sage Freeman Gonzales An undergraduate thesis submitted in partial completion of the M etropolitan State University of D enver Honors Program May 5, 2017 Dr. Sarah Schliemann Dr. Sally Baalbaki Dr. Megan Hughes Zarzo Primary Advisor Second Reader Honors Program Director

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