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Appealing to student interest through popular culture in Chaucer's Canterbury Tales

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Appealing to student interest through popular culture in Chaucer's Canterbury Tales
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Finley, Brittney
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Denver, Colo.
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Metropolitan State University of Denver
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Appealing to Student Interest through Popular Culture in Chaucers Canterbury Tales
by Brittney Finley
An undergraduate thesis submitted in partial completion of the Metropolitan State University of Denver Honors Program
December 8, 2017
Dr. Christina Angel Dr. Kathleen Deakin Dr. Megan Hughes-Zarzo
Primary Advisor
Second Reader
Honors Program Director


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Brittney Finley Dr. Angel Honors Thesis 15 December 2017
Appealing to Student Interest Through Popular Culture in Chaucer's Canterbury Tales
Seizing the opportunity to take advantage of ever-evolving popular culture to guide students in becoming autonomous in their education is essential when considering the future of education. Dale Allender, former Director of NCTE, asserts that "Popular culture has affective and academic value" (Allender 13). Allender is one of many educators who utilizes popular culture in their classroom. As a future educator of secondary English I assert that the employment of popular culture in the classroom is vital when appealing to student context and therefore student's draw. More specifically, I claim that teaching Chaucer's Canterbury Tales lends itself particularly well to teaching via popular culture. Within this study I propose an integrated model for teaching sections of the text alongside popular culture in order to bridge the long held conception of relevancy disparity between the medieval text and contemporary secondary education. I am trying to prove that with using The Simpsons: Tree ho use of Horror, FABLES: "1001 Nights of Snowfall", and Rick and Morty: The Ricks Must Be Crazy I can guide students to apply literary theory such as semiotics, and postmodernism to Geoffrey Chaucer's Canterbury Tales. Specifically, I am using The Simpsons in conjunction with the General Prologue, as well as "1001 Nights of Snowfall" to teach frame narrative. I am using Rick and
Morty season two episode six "The Ricks Must Be Crazy" in conjunction with the "Manciple's


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Tale". I have applied these theories to the texts and found that they are conducive to the conversation I want my students to observe that is occurring with the texts. I demonstrate this by applying the literary theory and then integrated lesson plans for each of the texts.
I am choosing The Simpsons episode "Treehouse of Horror" to hook the students into the Canterbury Tales, demonstrating that the medieval text is relevant today. It is beneficial for students to learn frame narrative because it utilizes literary devices such as voice, and story structure. The Simpsons is a show that is well established within popular culture and has a running time that began in the 90's and continues today. Within the show "We see layer upon layer of satire, double meanings, allusions to high as well as popular culture, sight gags, parody, and self-referential humor." (Irwin, Conard, Skoble 2). Satire, parody, and allusions are the real focus and why I chose to use this episode. In the bigger picture, The Simpsons reflect not only the format of frame narrative in this particular episode (as well as many others), but the pervasive ironic nature that is the comedic style. Carl Matheson concedes to this notion, that shows like The Simpsons "are hyper-ironic: the flavor of the humor offered by today's comedies is colder, bases less on a shared sense of humanity than on a sense of world-weary clever-than-thou-ness." (Matheson para 1). Comprehending irony is part of the common core state standards that public school teachers are beholden to relay to their students. It is a given that popular culture is an effective tool for student engagement and comprehension and with this tool I discuss how "The Treehouse of Horror" and Chaucer's General Prologue converse with one another. The theory I am utilizing with this text is postmodernism and how medieval text and contemporary text interact in similar ways through this lens. Eugene Vodolazkin
corroborates this "Medieval texts are like Lego sets. They can be taken apart, reconfigured, and


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combined." (Vodolazkin 32). He speaks about the nature of the texts that I am discussing and continues by comparing postmodern relations with medieval texts "Nothing within postmodernism's framework impedes textual borrowing. In a certain sense, the postmodern way of thinking frees the text from the burden of being private property" (Vodolazkin 34). In other words, both medieval and postmodern texts retell stories that are already widely known. While this theory guides my unit of instruction I will not be teaching it in a conventional way. I will not be telling the students that we are examining postmodernism but they will be doing it. The hope is that students will recognize that what we were doing in this lesson was discussing postmodernism when they actually learn the term.
I also apply this theory with the graphic novel 1001 Nights of Snowfall and the Canterbury Tales "General Prologue". Recently there has been an increase in the utilization of graphic novels in the secondary classroom as a means of new literacies. New literacies is a term that refers to the contemporary push in education to expand the definition of literature in response to modern technology and forms of the written word, "as the world has changed, the definition of literacy should be broadened accordingly. The New Literacy theory is such an attempt to expand the definition of what literacy consists of." (Sang 16). Students read texts that have been adapted into graphic novel form as a first reading such as The Odyssey. Visual representation is useful for students whose first language is not English, they can more easily decipher the meaning of words when they have drawings to go with them. Paula Griffith compiled data on research about the use of graphic novels in the classroom and discovered that "Crawford (2004) argued graphic novels can benefit English learners (ELs), and MacDonell (2004) found that pleasure reading is critical for ELs, and many select graphic novels for


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pleasure reading." (Griffith 185). The benefit for ELs is only one of many, "1001 Nights of Snowfall" replicates a similar aesthetic to that of the medieval illumination page making the piece more than literary but also visual.
"1001 Nights of Snowfall" by Bill Willingham is a graphic novel published by DC comics ancillary publisher Vertigo as a prequel to the series called FABLES. The series "is a chronicle of a large cast of folktale, fable, and nursery rhyme characters displaced from their respective homelands by a dangerously powerful adversary" (Miller 253). This issue was published in the middle of the series as part of a flashback to when the Arabian Folk tales had not yet been overthrown by the adversary. Snow white ventures to the land in hopes of warning the Sultan as well as asking his assistance of what is coming their way. Instead she is put in the position that Scheherazade of the original 1001 Nights is put. She has to tell stories in order to save her own life from the executioner by distracting the Sultan with stories. In the graphic novel they explain the Sultan's disdain of women, because of his unfaithful wife. The series acts as a pastiche of these fairy tales and I want to use it to demonstrate to the students how Chaucer also used narrative format from antiquity in his own clever way to tell a story. I want my students to understand that in comparing these two texts and their different form of frame narrative, that Chaucer's decision to use different characters to tell the story instead of only one character telling the stories in "1001 Nights of Snowfall" allows for a deeper discussion on voice.
In the Rick and Morty episode "The Ricks Must Be Crazy" I am teaching the students a contemporary form of the Hero's Journey called Dan Harmon's Story Circle. The benefit in
teaching the students this Story Circle is that they can analyze narrative structure as a means to


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aid them in their story-telling comprehension and skill. I am using this episode with this tale not only because both of them follow the Story Circle but also to discuss the use of semiotics with the students. As with postmodernism, I will not be teaching semiotics as a concept, rather it is guiding my lesson. The episode will be used in conjunction with the "Miller's tale" that they will have read for homework the night before. The tale is fairly short and is conducive to being assigned as homework. The symbols in the tale include the white crow, representing truth telling and how that can come at a cost. This story provides a great juxtaposition for the students because we have spent a significant amount of time on story-telling to arrive upon one that warns against it.
These three texts all lead the students to their summative assessment which will be my hard evidence and demonstration, and what I hope the students will come out with this is that there are endless ways to analyze a story and that many stories come from older stories. This assessment asks them to write a prologue and narrative that they will tell orally on a class pilgrimage on the final day of the unit. While it is essential to make a lesson that will engage the students, as public school educators we are still required to provide data of student learning. Engagement and data do not need to be mutually exclusive, therefore the summative assessment aims to achieve both.
Popular culture texts such as these demonstrate the bridge between seemingly unattainable culture and the context of the students. In his article From the Secondary Section: Popular Culture in the Classroom Allender describes his student teaching experience with a peer who was well versed with popular culture in the 90's. He would use his knowledge to "create analogies to characters in novels or short stories the class was reading or to design writing


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prompts for students" (Allender 12). Allender came to see the value of applying popular culture in the classroom and witnessed how "He engaged students in close intertextual and intra-textual reading and analysis. His students explored rudimentary steps of discourse, conversation, and content analysis." (Allender 13). Allender is not the sole educator looking at utilizing popular culture in the classroom. Kathleen Forni has also written extensively on the specific usage of popular culture in teaching Chaucer and his works. Forni claims that "Chaucer's reproduction in popular culture has both pedagogical and critical value." (Forni 190). Within her analysis she discusses the benefits in using contemporary adaptations of his work, conceding that "when read in conjunction with Chaucer's poetry, creative popular responses can provide additional insight into how Chaucer is valued in the larger cultural economy outside the academy" (Forni 192). Forni's theory of the synthesis of adaptations with the actual work is extremely useful because it establishes the conversation of contemporary pedagogy and medieval texts as well as placing the relevancy within the students' grasp.
All of these elements can be linked with Common Core State Standards which are used in most states to measure student achievement and by proxy, teacher effectiveness.
Challenging these ideas is imperative to the context of the students that I teach because they attend school with peers of vastly different backgrounds. The demographic at my host school at the moment, and increasingly over the state, is extremely diverse, not only racially but socioeconomically as well. The school is nestled within a baracade of buildings that are a mix of housing, and industry. Assessing the demographic of the school, I want the students to have access to something that is contended as "out of their reach". In addition to the demographics,
the English proficiency of the school was assessed as less than half of the student body meeting


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the expectations. This data influenced how I designed the unit of instruction and final assessment. While I am teaching more tales than the ones discussed here, I chose these particular popular culture texts to justify, in depth, how they work well and interact with the Canterbury Tales. In full, the unit studies the "General Prologue" the "Knight's Tale", the "Miller's Tale", the "Wife of Bath's Tale", the "Clerk's Tale", the "Manciple's Tale", and the "Pardoner's Tale". Here, the "General Prologue", and the "Manciple's Tale" are analyzed in conjunction with the popular culture texts. As a draw into the Canterbury Tales I use the Simpsons to show relativity to Chaucerian and contemporary texts.
In the model unit, I propose using an episode of The Simpsons to draw students into the concept of a frame narrative and the Canterbury Tales itself. I show this episode on the first day of the unit, students are aware that we are starting a new unit today and that they are going to read the Canterbury Tales. They will have also done a raw reading of the "General Prologue" for homework so that they have some background and insight as to what the text is like.
My essential question for the week is: What is the importance of a story? This episode of The Simpsons, when used in conjunction with with the "General Prologue" aids the students by giving them a visual aesthetic to glean the concept from. As Forni says "animation perhaps offers the visual abstraction and distancing that might render some of Chaucer's adult themes (rape, adultery, murder) more palatable to younger viewers. Students might benefit from a brief primer on animation aesthetics: how color, for instance, can establish tone and mood" (Forni 195). In other words, discussion with the students on the usage of the music in the episode adds to the story telling, or how the siblings shine a flashlight in their faces to add to
the ambiance in telling spooky stories.


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I begin the lesson by telling the students that this text is in an engaging format called a frame narrative. I give the students a handout that has a simple picture of a frame on it, I then draw a similar one on the white board. This graphic activity may seem elementary for juniors and seniors, but the visual is something easy that the students can refer back to when they are unsure, or forget how a frame narrative works. This is not difficult nor is it busy work, and it functions as a foundation on which they can grasp the many concepts that will be presented to them in this unit. My direct instruction script goes as follows: What is a frame Narrative? Well, let's look at the frame, a frame is used as a device to hold on to other content, be it a picture, a poem, or a painting. That's how a frame narrative works, it is a story that "gives cause for" or "holds" several other stories. At the top of your sheet let's write out our definition and then we will look at an example.
After we write a class definition we watch the episode. I usually dim the lights so that it contrasts against the screen and the students can see it better. In the episode, Bart and Lisa are sitting in their treehouse and begin to tell each other scary stories. This is the frame narrative, but the comparison does not end at simply telling stories. Lisa and Bart are competing with one another on who can tell the scarier story. Before the first story is told I pause the episode to discuss with the students.
I turn on the lights and walk over to the image of the frame I have drawn on the board. I ask the students why Lisa and Bart are about to tell stories to one another. Possible answers include: Because it's Halloween, and they're bored. We then write down in the exterior of the frame: Bart and Lisa are competing on who can tell the scarier story. We watch the first three stories and then discuss how both Lisa and Bart tell scary stories. However, the difference


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between them is vast. Bart chooses to tell stories about alien abduction and murder. Lisa on the other hand chooses to read The Raven by Edgar Allan Poe. Both characters remain consistent in their story telling with who they are as people. Bart being the anarchic hyper-boy, and Lisa being the intellectual. This is a great part to discuss how the fact that they are siblings is highly influential on the judgement of one another's stories. Before Lisa even begins to read her tale, Bart laments "Hey that's a school book" and Lisa replies with "Don't worry Bart you won't learn anything" (Simpsons). Every piece of the episode flows with the concept of unique and authentic voice.
After the students have filled out the frame portion of their sheets. We then discuss the different stories that Lisa and Bart tell. We list each within the frame of the graphic to demonstrate how the main story surrounds the other stories. It is important to note with the students however, that the frame story does not solely occur at the beginning and the end of the frame. The frame occurs intermittently as a transition between some tales.
This lesson is the first of the unit, I will have given a pre-test to assess where my students are at in terms of close reading. With this in mind I have designed an initial reading of the first part of the prologue as a class. This strategy is called Text Dependent Questions and they scaffold the students from general understandings to thinking beyond the text.
I hand them the initial reading that is on the front of a page and the questions are on the back so that they are in the same place if the students want to refer back to this exercise. First, I do a cold reading of the text, out loud, so the students can get a clean first run through and feel of the text. Then I tell them to read it to themselves individually. I then ask them a
level one "recall" question. "What happens in April?" and "What is the author doing around


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then?". These questions get the students to recall surface information so that they at least did the reading. They write their answers on the sheet below the question. After I have given them a couple of minutes to write their answer. I then tell them to turn and talk to their neighbor about their thoughts on the answer. This is a technique that allows for collaboration as well as covertly signaling to the students if they had understood the reading. The rest of the questions follow the same pattern but scaffold them to thinking about the text more deeply as the questions progress. The level two question for "skill and concept" is: "why is the author leaving for Canterbury?". As each question increases in level it is a good idea to add questions that were from the previous level. For example, with question two I will accompany it with a couple questions from level one such as: "How is nature described?". This is an effective way to scaffold the students and ease them into deeper reading.
The third level has to do with structure of the text. To get the students thinking about the fact that this text is also one long poem I ask about rhyme scheme, "what is the pattern of rhyme?". This question is activating their prior knowledge on poetry. Together we note that the rhyme scheme is AABBCC. This is a perfect time to discuss with the students why the text was written in poetic format. This discussion will be about how when Chaucer wrote this work the printing press had not yet been invented, therefore, oral story telling was pervasive. The authors needed to remember what their tale was about and used rhyme as a mnemonic device. I also ask the students about the first and second stanza's and how they indicate a switch in what Chaucer is talking about "Note the first indentations of the passage. What does this signify?" "What does the narrator begin to discuss?". I then ask a pointed question regarding specifics but asking the students what it implies for the whole of the text. This question is a


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question about the author's craft. "The author names the pilgrims by their occupations, what does this tell you about each of the characters?" This question guides them through characterization, how titling each of the tales by the occupation of the pilgrim it is a clever way to give authenticity to each of the characters.
The question about the labeling of the pilgrims is focused on Chaucer's craft or his specific choices and the implications of them. Questions such as these get the students to think about the reading in a different way. Swiftly following, a question about Chaucer's purpose, rounds out the thinking: "What is Chaucer saying about societal constructs? How do you know?". With the topic being something that may still be sensitive to teenagers, whether they have occupational obligations or not it is important for the context of the text to have some frontloading on the societal constructs of the time. Each of these questions are available for the students on my teacher website so they have access to them. As a tool for differentiation I have similar questions for each of the readings if the students need future guidance on how to think more deeply about the text. These questions also serve as a way to initiate conversation, a dialogue if you will, among the students. After each question they write their answer and then turn and talk about it with their neighbor. This collaboration is effective whether they enjoy the text or not because either way, it gets them to engage with conversing about the text.
With the students minds fresh on character voice, I bring the discussion back to The Simpsons. I ask the students to speculate on how the stories in The Simpsons episode would be different if the siblings had told each other's stories. For example, if Lisa had told the story about The Bad Dream House there would have been much more order and logic to it instead of
a random porthole in the the wall and in the second story Lisa would not have cost the family a


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utopian future if she had been the teller. The frame narrative device develops characterization and voice that is prominent in Chaucer's works and many Simpsons episodes.
The reception of Chaucer's works acts in a unique way. Forni states "Chaucer is not a creature of mass commercial media, nor does he enjoy the kind of widespread popular reproduction and consumption enjoyed by canonical literary figures such as Shakespeare, Austen, or Dickens." (Teaching Chaucer and Popular Culture Forni 193). In other words, Forni asserts that while Chaucer's works have been adapted, there are not as many of them as other authors. This could be because of the time in which Chaucer wrote his work, less than fifty years before the invention of the printing press. Printed text was preceded by oral tradition and is in part responsible for the dialectical nature of works such as the Canterbury Tales "Skilled oral art forms preceded and in part predetermined the style of the written works which constitute literature in the strict sense." (Ong 1). Analyzing the Canterbury Tales alongside the adaptions and invocations of his work that act in a similar way assist students in better relating to the text and its functions.
Teaching these texts in collaboration with one another elucidates the foundation of postmodern structure. That is, "postmodern thought challenges the high/low culture binary and seeks to reduce the gap between these constructions" (Allender 2004). Allender is affirming that both postmodern texts such as The Simpsons and Chaucerian works such as the Canterbury Tales are not written with the intention to reduce their reader and viewership to the few elite but in fact are written for the masses.
As with Chaucer, The Simpsons lie in a grey area of moral ambiguity at times, and other
times is quite straight forward in its virtuous intent. Matheson states "to support the claim that


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The Simpsons promotes a moral agenda, one usually need look no further than Lisa and Marge." These characters serve consistently as the moral compass of the group, "just consider Lisa's speeches in favor of integrity, freedom from censorship, or any variety of touchy-feely social causes, and you will come away with the opinion that The Simpsons is just another liberal show underneath a somewhat thin but tasty crust of nastiness." (Matheson para 10). We use this to discuss with our students, Chaucer's appeal to the masses, and that we may or may not encounter moral lessons within this text. It is essential to discuss with them however, the use of comedic theme of schadenfreude, and the possibility that there is no moral lesson.
The Simpsons are a perfect example of discussing the meaninglessness that also pervades everyday life. Matheson also says that "However, one can find examples from the show that seem to be denied accommodation within any plausible moral stance." (Matheson para 11). Chaucer's thoughts on the moral standings of church officials is evident and serves as a jumping off point for the students to engage in conversation of whether Chaucer was religious himself or not, or more importantly, why he was religious or not. James Creighton discusses both sides of Chaucer's thoughts on religious hypocrisy and the devout saying "All the internal evidence of the poem indicates his utter contempt for religious who are base and hypocritical just as it indicates his complete appreciation for a religious who is worthy and honest" (Creighton 7). The religious discussion is more of a guiding point for the unit as a way to direct discussion on how moral commentary was discussed then as well as today. This is demonstrated in The Simpsons episode with Marge Simpsons character.
The episode begins with the character Marge, a moral compass, warning the audience
that the episode will be Halloween themed and scary, which she admonishes. She claims her


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kids take little issue with the uncanny nature of these stories foreshadowing their role in the
telling of the tales. Marge's character acts as an apology for the episode and gives an authentic
voice to those who may be opposed to the nature of Halloween or the uncanny. The "General
Prologue" of the Canterbury Tales acts in a similar way where the narrator tells the reader that
he is headed to Canterbury to embark on a pilgrimage, waiting in a hostel he is joined by
twenty-nine others that are there for the same purpose. While Marge removes herself from the
episode and therefore the story-telling, the narrator of the Canterbury Tales owns that he is
one of them "So had I spoken with them, every one, that I was of their fellowship anon"
(Chaucer 4). The narrator then moves to introduce all of the pilgrims and then, like Marge,
apologizes to the audience for the tales:
"But first, I pray you, of your courtesy,
You'll not ascribe it to vulgarity
Though I speak plainly of this matter here,
Retailing you their words and means of cheer;
Nor though I use their very terms, nor lie.
For this thing do you know as well as I:
When one repeats a tale told by a man,
He must report, as nearly as he can,
Every least word, if he remember it,
However rude it be, or how unfit;
Or else he may be telling what's untrue,
Embellishing and fictionizing too."
In other words, the narrator apologizes for any vulgarity or potential offense that may be taken in order to remove himself from any responsibility for the other pilgrim's tales. This allows him to say whatever he desires because he cannot be blamed for the words of others.
The episode then moves into the town of Springfield to the Simpsons' backyard at nighttime where Homer is roaming around and eavesdrops on his kids in their treehouse. Lisa
has just told the end of a story that Bart claims he has heard in the third grade and is not scary.


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Lisa then challenges him to tell a scarier one. Thus the frame is created. Lisa and Bart are competing as to who can tell the scarier story, this competition is not set up with a concrete reward, however, their relationship as siblings is cause enough. Sibling rivalry is sufficient drive to succeed in this competition. In the "General Prologue" the narrator explains how they meet their host who will guide them to Canterbury. The host suggests to pass the time on the way to Canterbury that they all tell tales and whomever tells the tale that is best they will win a prize. When these texts are used together I want my students to begin to understand the benefits and beauty of a frame narrative.
When Bart begins his first story he says the title, Bad Dream House, in a maniacal tone and is followed by a sinister laugh. The story itself is a fusion of Poltergeist, and The Shining. These are movies that are consistent with something that Bart's character would be a fan of.
His second tale of alien abduction is also consistent with his characters' subjectivities. In the end of that tale Lisa is the cause of their inability to join the superior alien race that would have offered them a life of luxury. Had anyone but Bart told that story it would have turned out differently. If Lisa had told it for example, she would not have caused detriment to her family's happiness. The same occurs with the Canterbury Tales. The knight who values chivalry and honor tells an extensive tale about two men that fight one another to win over a maiden's hand in marriage. This is consistent with the priorities of a chivalrous knight at the time. Characters telling tales is a literary device that characterizes in an effective way. The author does not need to say exactly what the character likes and what they value, instead it is shown in the tales they
tell.


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It is these binaries that students must face every day, they are in a space within their learning lives to construct their own meaning and think for themselves instead of appropriating the opinions of others simply because it sounds good, or because they want to be liked.
In the following lesson that I see the students, we will focus on folklore pastiche as intertextuality using "1001 Nights of Snowfall". This is different from both allusion and parody, as allusion is just a mention of the work and parody mocks the work. To clarify to my students that the graphic novel is not the original telling of this story I will engage them in direct instruction about the history and frame narrative of The Arabian Nights and the Canterbury Tales. Placing these lessons next to one another is a way of demonstrating to the students that there are not only many ways to create a frame narrative, but multiple cultures write frame narrative in their literature. Discussing the origin of this graphic novel serves at least three purposes for my students, it shows them a new style of frame narrative, it demonstrates a pastiche, and as previously mentioned it exposes them to literature from different cultures. The Canterbury Tales retells stories just as Arabian Nights does, so they are both pastiche.
I start the lesson by having the students do a Writing into the day which is an activity to get them to practice writing for an extended amount of time. Their prompts for the activity are: When was a time you told a story and what was that story? Who did you tell the story to? Was there a time when something had happened amongst your friends where stories were misinterpreted? To avoid confusion, I give the students an example from my own life such as an embarrassing moment that I told my best friend about because I could confide in her. This activity initiates student thinking about how they tell stories every day and gives them practice for their summative assessment. I then ask the students for volunteers to tell the class their


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example of a time they told a story and what it was. When we are through telling our own stories we then discuss how in the prologue we have already read several stories about each of the pilgrims.
I then explain to the students that telling stories is called oratory and it was the main device when Chaucer wrote the Canterbury Tales. In this part of the unit we are finished with the prologue and know that each pilgrim will tell a story. As a class we discuss that the pilgrims telling the story is a reflection of Chaucer's time because of the lack of print. I discuss with the students that just like with their examples, we all tell stories everyday but we have different formats in receiving stories. In the middle ages they vocalized "Vocalization helped the reader to absorb the full meaning" (Ong 1). As a class we look at the text together, showing them an example of this we turn to the end of the "General Prologue" to read the signifier "Here ends the prologue of this book". I also make them aware of beginnings that talk to the reader and refer to them as "the reader" which to us may feel a bit like the fourth wall being broken.
A brief discussion with the students about the concept of breaking the fourth wall is beneficial because I can show the students a page of the comic Deadpool published by Marvel Comics. The graphic I show them is one large frame of Deadpool surrounded by darkness where he is standing in front of a street sign apparently stranded due to his latest outing. His speech balloon reads: "Hey! You there buying this book!! Can you call me a taxi?". The speech bubble has a background of yellow when, typically speech bubbles use white as a background to make it pop from the page so the reader can see the words clearly. The yellow speech bubble indicates when Deadpool is talking to the reader, breaking the fourth wall. While the reader
may not actually be reading the text out loud the text creates a unique environment of actively


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reading as if Deadpool was actually talking to them. This is a worthy digression because it gets the students thinking and talking about interacting with a text.
I bring the conversation back to Chaucer and "1001 Nights of Snowfall" by discussing how the Grimm's fairy tales that appear in the series were gathered orally and written/adapted by the brothers. This is a foreshadowing of the inherited meaning in the "Clerk's tale" and its retelling in Cinderella. After our discussion the students now have some background knowledge of the text, and I read the text to them.
The graphic novel will be projected using a doc cam to the front of the room. The graphic novel is read in this way as a means to avoid ordering a whole set of books for the entire class. The text will only be for one lesson. Additionally, having the book projected in front of the room ensures that we are all on the same page, literally. When the class does readings from a text that is not a graphic novel I want the students to have control of the text. In other words, I want them to be able to go back or skip ahead. Advanced readers can get bored if we are reading too slow. However, in the case of this reading, I want the students to embrace and analyze the art work that accompanies this piece.
I pass out a KWL chart. This is a graphic organizer comprised of three columns labeled from left to right respectively: Know, Want to know, and Learned. This chart is a reading tool from Doug Beuhl's Classroom strategies for Interactive Learning. I picked this graphic organizer because I wanted them to remember our discussion in the last class. It is also an effective tool so that the students are actively reading along with me. I give the students some time to fill out the Know column. I ask them what they already know about frame narrative, what did we discuss last class? How does a frame narrative function? Recall the graphic of the picture of the


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frame. The first page of "1001 Nights of Snowfall" is projected at the front of the room so that the students will see what we are going to read. The know column activates the student's prior knowledge, while they fill it out they may remember new things, this also informs students who may have been absent the previous class on what we had discussed about frame narrative.
Once the allotted time has ended I wait for all of the students to stop writing and they share out what they have written down. As the students are sharing what they remember I write down their answers on a self-made chart that matches theirs on the white board. I ensure that if the students have not mentioned them to add to our list that frame narratives consist of a story that gives cause for other stories, the Canterbury Tales is written in this way, when some of the tales are told there is a return to the original story, or there is a setup for the next story.
I then have the students fill out the middle column labeled Want to know. This column is engaging a reading and thinking strategy that great readers use. Before reading the text we look at its parts and ask questions about them. I prompt the students to look at the pictures and the title and ask them what makes them curios? If they seem stuck I model for them how I question the text. I point to the picture of Snow White and I ask myself what role she has in the text, and who she is. Why is only the first letter of the text in that fancy script? Is she the "troublesome woman" that is mentioned in the title? Then I give students time to write down their own questions.
I then do the reading. I want to do this myself so that I may emulate vocalization. I want to read the text so the students can hear it in such a way that they can determine the importance of hearing something out loud. When I have read through the whole intro I then ask the students to brainstorm by themselves what they have learned in the final column. While


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they write down their ideas I walk around and check for understanding. If someone seems stuck I ask them to think about what kind of voice I read the text in, and what kind of language that the author used. When they are finished I ask them to each share out one thing that they learned.
Orally telling a story is an art form, a type of literacy "In the European Middle Ages interactions between orality and literacy reached perhaps an all-time high. The Middle Ages had no print, though they prepared the way for it." (Ong 1). The transition of moving from orality to the written word, it is apparent that the writing styles would take on a conversational tone.
I discuss with my students how this oratory nature is why some stories have a conversational nature to them. The stories talk to the readers as a signal for the beginning and end of the story "Preprint manuscripts were, and still are, catalogued normally by their incipits, their first words, which could be typically a conversation-like address to the reader... they end not with a curt label, 'The End' but typically again talking to someone" (Ong 1-2). The same goes for the famous lines "Once upon a time... ". While at first glance it may seem that this is just how a story begins it invokes thoughts of parents reading to their children, or teachers giving a lesson.
Telling of tales and oration is what encompasses the model teaching unit. The synthesis of oral and written formats is pervasive in The Canterbury Tales. This is contested by Marianne Borch "The Canterbury Tales is deeply indebted to an already existing European 'literary canon', but in presenting it as the written record of an oral event, Chaucer successfully capitalizes on his
two traditions. The ease with which Chaucer's texts alternately refer to listening and reading


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might indicate an unproblematic shift between compositional habits." (Borch 132-133). Borch discusses Chaucer's craft as a multi-compositional text, reflective of the period in which it was written, mere decades before the printing press. In regards to the interaction with the reader, the text functions to incite reader participation. Borch continues by saying "the Chaucerian narrator addresses 'thou redere' directly out of the pages (Troilus and Criseyde, c. 1382, Book V. 270); or asks people who do not want to hear the next tale to turn the leaf and choose another (Prologue to the Millers tale, 11. 3176-7). In other words, this historic text does not abide by the linear rigidity of conventional story structure.
The text itself was chosen not only for its interconnectedness with the Canterbury Tales but also in the way that it reads and the language use. Within the introduction Bill Willingham addresses the reader in order to orient them on where the story is "Welcome to the enchanted world of FABLES. For those of you who've read FABLES before, welcome back. I'm always glad to see you here... I'd like to have a quiet word with those who are visiting these lands for the first time." (Willingham 6). This rounds out our discussion on the dialectical nature of the text we are reading and how it appears in other stories and connects the two texts in the way they treat their reader "His (Chaucer) debt to oral composition is clear in his linear plots, structural use of metaphor, and meticulous stage directions... but his texts unquestionably address a reader." (Borch 132). "1001 Nights of Snowfall" also demonstrates to the students that it was not just Europe that employed this format, there is evidence from many cultures that employ frame narrative to speak on multiple issues from many different voices. I will give my students
access to stories from different cultures that also use frame narrative.


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In respect to making social and political commentary to time and place, the Canterbury Tales gives a snapshot of what 1392 England looked like from many different perspectives "Chaucer's frame is constructed as an inclusive discursive platform, allowing a diversity of voices on a variety of topics- gender, race, class, religion, sexuality, ethnicity." (Forni 59). Each pilgrim has something to say, and the structure of placing one pilgrims story next to another juxtaposes their ideas and mannerisms.
The third popular culture text discussed is used in conjunction with "The Manciple's Tale". The lesson proposal starts with me telling the students that we are going to study story elements by watching a show. Instead of telling them immediately, exactly what we are doing, I want them to construct the Dan Harmon Story Circle themselves as a way for them to resonate with it more. Also, this is a way for students to access prior knowledge if they get stuck on remembering the parts of the Story Circle. I then tell them that we are going to watch an episode of Rick and Morty to identify these parts.
Rick and Morty is a television show created by Dan Harmon and Justin Roiland. The show's creator Dan Harmon is the mind behind the Story Circle, a contemporary adaptation of Joseph Campbell's Hero's Journey. The Story Circle consists of eight steps instead of the twelve steps that Campbell identifies. The steps are as follows: 1. You: A character is in a zone of comfort. 2. Need: But they want something 3. Go: They enter an unfamiliar situation 4. Search: Adapt to it 5. Find: Find what they wanted 6. Take: Pay its price 7. Return: and go back to where they started 8. Change: Now capable of change. These steps are put around a circle. The top of the circle represents the "normal" world and the bottom half represents the unfamiliar world. These two "worlds" are put into binaries such as conscious/unconscious, life/death,


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order/disorder. It is with this model that I will be basing this lesson on. The students will have read "The Manciple's Tale" for homework. This will have been a raw reading that is out of order. They are reading it after the "Knight's Tale" and the "Miller's Tale". Assigning the readings out of order demonstrates to the students how medieval texts function "medieval writings are fragmentary in structure, a literature of cut and paste, or "cento."(Vodolazkin). This is consistent with the pastiche and postmodern theory and structures.
A closer look into the three stories "Apollo and Coronis"from Ovid, Pheobus in the "Manciple's Tale", and "The Ricks must be crazy" all are conversing with one another in more than just the Story Circle. It is a given that the "Manciple's Tale" is a retelling of Ovid's "Apollo and Coronis". However, Chaucer chooses to invert the commentary "The medieval commentary tradition evinces the myth's fertility by imaginatively transforming its elements in the process of construing them, thus blurring the distinction between poesis and explication, and investing with further irony the status of the myth as an exemplum against storytelling." (Fumo 355). The Ovidian myth is about the sun god Apollo whom impregnated a mortal woman named Coronis. He assigns his white raven to watch over her, and when the raven notifies Apollo that she has been unfaithful to him he murders her. Through his rage he sends a curse that torches the raven, turning it black. Fumo asserts that "Chaucer's reinvention of the tale as a moralistic fabliau unique in its characterization, tone, and narrative detail." (Fumo 356). In "The Manicple's Tale", Apollo, here named Pheobus is not a god, but is given god-like qualities in that he is a celebrated musician.
"Who, by his singing, walled that great city,
Could never sing one half so well as he"


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However talented Pheobus is he is still an inversion of Apollo "Chaucer depicts an Apollo who bears little resemblance to this luminous deity" (Kensak 143). In the Rick and Morty episode, Rick is the represented Apollo character. He is the creator, and therefore "god", of the mini universe he has created. Once again this version of Apollo is not a virtuous god, but a flaw riddled human. Rick has his prized possession that is his spaceship car that has broken down because his battery has stopped working.
After notifying the students that this is what we will be doing I will be going through the episode of Rick and Morty titled "The Ricks Must Be Crazy". I have previously written down time stamps in which I will stop the episode and ask the students what they notice. On the white board there will be eight columns for the eight times that I stop the clip. Each clip is a moment on the story circle. I will ask the students to copy in their notes the column format so that they can mimic what we do during the exercise. Students answering may take some encouragement at first but when we brainstorm some ideas it will get the ball rolling. Some answers for the first clip may include: rising action, humor, and there's a protagonist. Leaving space for any answer that has anything in relation to stories is encouraged because we will go back and eliminate the answers that do not give cause for the continuation for the story. This models that thinking about the topic in the first place is encouraged because even if you get it wrong that means that you have learned something.
After we have gone through the eight clips we then go back to our answers beginning with one. If we need to re-watch the clip it is easily done and they are never more than forty seconds long. We work as a group to identify the eight steps of the Story Circle. I ask the


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students to do the same thing in their notes. After we have identified the parts of the story I inform them that what they just did was craft their own Story Circle.
Within this episode there is an additional clip that I will stop at and have an extra column for titled myth. The clip occurs right before the last step in the story circle where Morty has gotten fed up with the adventure and leaves to live with the tree people. Rick warns Morty "Just be back before sundown or the tree people will eat you". Morty replies "That's a myth! Why are you trying to start a myth?". To which Rick asserts "It's a prehistoric planet Morty. Someone has to bring a little culture." (Youtube). We then discuss how myth is a pervasive and integral part of cultures and that is why Rick says that in order to become a more advanced being they must begin to create culture.
Once we have identified all of the elements. We then move onto the discussion about the ninth and last column "myth". As with the other columns we go back to the clip and rewatch it (a couple times if necessary). When we re-watch the clip I ask the students what they notice about Rick and Morty's brief conversation. I ask them questions like: How does Morty seem to feel about myth? Why is he upset with Rick? What does Rick say myth is? As a class we write down our answers. Again, this is to activate their knowledge and get them thinking about myth and story structure instead of doing them the disservice of giving them the answer before they have had a chance to construct the meaning themselves.
This is the point at which I tell the students that we had been talking about Joseph Campbell's Hero's Journey. I pull up my power point with the original Hero's Journey in an image on the screen. This is to signify to them, or remind them if they have already learned it,
what the elements are. Next I give some direct instruction on what it was applied to. I tell them


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that really it applied to stories in general but Campbell used it to identify parts of cultural myth's. He found that in doing that cultures from around the world followed the same patterns when telling their stories. I move to the next slide that has many images of myths such as the Odyssey, then images of texts that came later such as Alice and Wonderland. All of which follow the Journey.
After this I then explain that due to the age and increase of stories the creator of Rick and Morty, Dan Harmon created a contemporary adaptation to the Hero's Journey called The Story Circle. I click to the next slide that displays the circle and steps. I then ask the students what they notice are the differences between the two. We come up with our answers that Harmon's circle has less steps and that the circle is divided into two separate parts. Here I give them each two handouts. One has the circle with empty spaces for them to fill in the steps and the inner circle and the other is a graphic organizer that has the steps in a left column and the right column is blank. Going back to the white board we look at the parts we identified in the episode and together we label them accordingly, me on the whiteboard, the students on their circle sheet. This way they have several depictions of the circle and the steps and it serves as differentiation for different learners.
I then tell the students that we are going to apply this to our own text. I tell them that since we are now experts on the parts of a story we can pick any part we want to analyze. For homework they were assigned to read the "Manciple's tale". At this point in the unit we will have already ready several tales so they have been scaffolded. I tell the students that we are going to do what Campbell and Harmon did and become story investigators. On their other
graphic organizer that I have given them, there are three columns. The one to the far left lists


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the Story Circle steps. The one in the middle is titled "Apollo and Coronis" and the third is titled "The Manciple's Tale".
I tell the students that first we are going to to look at an ancient Greek myth called "Apollo and Coronis" and then compare it to last night's reading. There are shortened versions of the story online and I read each section to them and we write down the answers to each. We do the same with the "Manciple's Tale". Filling out this graphic organizer is a great way for the students to visualize the inheritance of meaning side by side. We then have a discussion about how these two stories were written in different times and yet Chaucer chose to pay homage to Ovid. As Jamie C. Fumo puts it the "Manciple's Tale" is "saturated... with the complex thematic concerns of truth-telling, the nature of loyalty, and the volatile correlation between words and things". The importance of this is not solely on the mimicking of stories but retelling them in a way that is uniquely of their time "Chaucer's innovations variously defy the expectations of all of these traditions." (Fumo 355). In other words, Chaucer was ahead of his time by dissenting against the expected constructions of his time.
We discuss how the crow in "The Manciple's Tale" and "Apollo and Coronis" is a symbol for truth telling. Upon discovery of this truth told by the crow. This is where semiotics comes into play, the study of the symbols and meaning construction of truth. Apollo and Phoebus grow violently jealous and angry. As a result, Phoebus destroys everything he loves including his wife's life.
"His bow he bent and set there an arrow,
And in his angry mood his wife did slay.
This is the result; there is no more to say;
For grief of which he ceased his instrelsy,
Broke harp and lute, gittern ad psaltery;"


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Upon hearing the truth of his wife's indiscretions, he destroys what he loves. In the "The Ricks Must Be Crazy" destruction also occurs upon learning the truth. When Rick and Morty enter the miniature universe Rick created and meet the scientist Zeep Xanflorp they discover he has also created a microscopic universe, the third layer where in that universe their scientist discovers that his universe is also a microscopic universe he then commits suicide. When Zeep, Rick, and Morty make it back to Zeep's universe, a slew of destruction occurs when Rick smashes Zeep's universe, then attempts to get back to his own universe destroying virtually everything in his path. Including a parade float of himself, which hearkens back to the "Manciple's Tale".
Phoebus does something similar in "The Manciple's Tale" "Whether Phoebus literally
kills himself at the end of the tale is of less significance than his iconicide.. .By the time
Phoebus wishes that he were dead, he has already destroyed the symbols that represent him in
medieval iconography."(Kensak 149). While Ovid was showing that dishonesty was the fault of
the unfaithful "Coronis' infidelity, writes Arnulf of Orleans, signifies her deviance from true
wisdom; her death signifies wisdom's triumph over folly." (Kensak 145) he is commenting on
the importance of wisdom and fidelity, perhaps as a comment on fidelity to the gods. In the
"Manciple's Tale" the message is profoundly toward the dangers of exposing the truth and the
consequences that follow it. In other words, it is unwise to expose the truth if it will only hurt
your friend and by proxy your relationship.
"You will beware and heed what I shall say Never tell any man, through all your life,
How that another man has humped his wife;
He'll hate you mortally, and that's certain."
In Rick and Morty the message is more that truth entails the message that gods do not
exist and if they do they care nothing for us and the violence and destruction is meaningless.


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Zeep yells at Rick when they are stuck on the microscopic universe that Zeep created: "I hope your god is as big a dick as you." To which Rick replies "My god's the biggest dick that's never existed." (Rick and Morty). This comments on Chaucer's "Manciple's Tale" in that, there may be consequences to knowing the truth but those consequences are meaningless.
To wrap up the class and give it a sense of completion, we return to the Rick and Morty episode and as an exit slip I ask them to write down how the show is paying homage, whether it is positive or negative, to previously told stories. If they need some orientation, I will remind them of the conversation that Rick and Morty have in regards to myth.
Wrapping up each lesson is essential so that the students have a sense of completion. Once the students have completed their handout I will ask the students to share out anything they found interesting or questions they still may have. The students turn in the organizers that have the two stories as an assessment so that I know who understands it, and how much the students will need to go back over the concept.
This is an initial exposure of the Harmon Story Circle, it will guide the students to their summative assessment which is to write their own story that follows this concept. The students will have many options to refer to it if they need to be reminded. This lesson comes in the middle of the integrated four-week unit and the students will have been discussing the importance of story-telling for two weeks before that.
What makes this lesson plan stand out is its use of the show Rick and Morty. Evidence that the students watch the show is all around. There are phone covers, shirts, and even backpacks that display the two traveling through their portal with Rick's portal gun. The show is now in its third season which took longer than the average time to put out. The central


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character "Rick (Justin Roiland) is a genius inventor modelled on Back to the Future's Doc Brown (Zemeckis US 1985), but with misanthropy, alcoholism, indigestion and excess of gas mixed in." and his sidekick "Morty is his grandson, who is supposedly stupid but has a good heart, and spends most of his time clinging desperately to Rick's coattails, whether following his unfair orders, desperately trying to survive whatever mess they have ended up in, or stopping his grandfather from doing something horrific." (Williams 144). The two characters are representative of many people today, torn between intellectual prowess and moral duty.
"The Ricks Must Be Crazy" is an episode where Rick and Morty travel into a miniature universe that Rick has created to power his ships battery. Morty questions Rick's ethics about this and they discover a scientist in that universe has created his own miniature universe to power their own, thus the dead battery. This episode has already been analyzed by a Youtube fan in the way that I do it with my students. Guiding my students through this process with a show they love gives them the tools and the incentive to do it with other things they love such as songs, graphic novels, video games, and other television shows.
A big issue that must be addressed with this lesson would be my contemporaries concerns with the visceral and blatant language, violent imagery, and adult themes such as alcoholism. While I agree that as teachers we do not want to proselytize the use of expletives, violence, or substance abuse I would argue that students deal with these issues whether we want them to or not. This is also an issue when we talk about teaching the Canterbury Tales or Chaucer in general. Understanding that Chaucer wrote for the masses and was in his time popular culture and openly vulgar in regards to the body and the grotesque Andrew Ross notes
"popular culture is far from being a straight forward or unified expression of popular interests.


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It contains elements of disrespect, and even opposition to structures of authority, but it also contains explanations.. .for the maintenance of respect for those structures of authority" (Ross 3). It is the exact reason of using the visceral and shock worthy content that makes these texts so comment worthy. We teach literature to discuss the human condition, and the human condition is not pretty most of the time. Not discussing these topics with students is not preparing them for the future. When students gain the skill of applying that dissidents to something meaningful then as a teacher I have done my job.
All of these assignments scaffold the students for their summative assessment. The summative assessment is the culmination of their studies to a final project that I will use to determine their level of comprehension on the content. The summative assessment I have designed is based off of inquiry and project based learning (PBL). "The importance of inquiry learning... is that it enables students to gain the skills and attitudes that will enable them to become active learners throughout life." (SKW. Chu et al. 237). Inquiry learning gives the responsibility of learning into the hands of the students. Students choose something they care about and inquire about deeper meaning and implications behind it. This falls into my teaching philosophy that puts my role as a teacher into more of a guide than information dispenser.
Each student will produce a narrative at least five pages long. Their narrative will follow the Dan Harmon Story Circle to demonstrate their knowledge on the functions of that story. Requiring them to write their own story instead of identifying the Story Circle steps in another story demonstrates their ability to apply their knowledge of what they learned instead of just recalling the information. I will also require the students to use figurative language such as
metaphor, hyperbole, and simile. This is in emulation of the Canterbury Tales and supplemental


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texts that we have analyzed. Additionally, the students will be required to choose an occupation as a lens to write through just as the pilgrims are identified in the Canterbury Tales. The assignment breaks down as follows:
1. They will write a Prologue
2. They will write a moralistic Narrative
3. They will read their Prologue and Narrative when we go on our class pilgrimage
4. When we return to class after the pilgrimage, they will write a one-page reflection.
In preparation to write their prologue I have the students pick an occupation, they then perform research on that occupation and do this by answering prompts such as: How much does this occupation pay? Is the occupation male or female dominated? Why? What are the specific skills required for this occupation? How likely is it for someone to be successful in this occupation? What are the daily duties of this occupation? The students then demonstrate what they have learned about this occupation by creating a resume for this person.
Having performed this research and created this resume, the students will then do a similar activity for a social cause or injustice that they care about. For the students who will undoubtedly reply with "I don't care about anything" or something of the sort, I will provide a list of things that I will allow that may peak their interest. For example, if they think school is stupid or that they are too cool for it, they can write about that. In other words, together we can find a cause to write about. If that cause is the futility of caring about anything, then so be it. This activity is also research oriented; the students will write a persuasive letter that utilizes
their research in arguing for their cause.


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The resume and persuasive letter activity will help them identify their occupation and the moral they wish to portray in their narrative. They will have both of these activities to assist them with writing their summative assessment. Naturally, the students will have apprehensions of moving from research to narrative writing. I will demonstrate this by showing them an example of my own, because I will never ask them to do something that I would not do myself. I will take my own occupation and moral/cause research and show them how to write a tale. I will provide them with a simplistic template that they can fill out and then expand on which will
look something like: Once upon a time there was a_______who felt very_______and yet still
wanted___________. One day they discovered______. They realized that________. So they set out
to________. When they arrived at_______they were approached by__________. This was very
______, so they______. Finally, they______and learned that_______. When they returned,
nothing was the same because___________.
The students fill in the blanks. As a class we discuss how this follows Dan Harmon's eight step Story Circle. Modeling the process for the students helps them to visualize how they can emulate the steps and piece their assessment together.
The reflection portion of the assignment prompts them by asking questions such as:
How would your narrative have been different if it was told through the lens of someone from another occupation? Give an example. Recall one of your peers' narrative's, what was their message and how did they affectively relay a message through their choice of occupation?
Within the four-week unit the students do an additional characterization activity when we read the "Wife of Bath" they are seeing how each of these occupations are a
characterization tool. This activity will be a class collaboration on filling out a characterization


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worksheet for "Wife of Bath". The worksheet is sectioned off where the students have space to fill in answers to how the character is represented in the categories: Speech, Thoughts, Effect of others towards the character, Actions, and Looks. This worksheet assists students who are reluctant to come up with a meaningful and well written character. The lesson demonstrates how characters are more than what they look like and demonstration of that character is elucidated through the other categories. The pilgrims are mostly unnamed, their titles serve as quick characterization that shows the reader how they are initially intended to perceive the character and then gets the reader to think something different or new about them. Through this lens (of an occupation) they are asked to make a comment about the society in which they live (positive or negative). The occupations can be anything that they aspire to be or find interesting, or even an occupation they want to challenge. Again, writing figurative language in place of simply defining it demonstrates the top tier on Bloom's taxonomy/ hierarchy of learning. "Moving to higher levels of the taxonomy, we next see learning objectives relating to analysis. Here is where the skills that we commonly think of as critical thinking enter." (Adams 1). Adams explains how teachers create objectives for their students with higher order thinking by engaging the verbs in the higher tier including creation and analysis. The students analyze and model what Chaucer has done in his work by engaging the tools that he used. In order for the students to achieve this they will have had to pay attention in class and in their activities. The students will not be able to sufficiently mimic the writing simply by following the Dan Harmon Story Circle because the story will fall flat without engaging the narrative devices that
we went over in class.


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There will be students who dislike the assignment but the portion that asks them to make a comment on their society will assist with disinterest. High Schoolers tend to all be rebels without causes but do not want to be seen as such, the youth has much to say about societal issues. For the ones that do not still have something to say, it's convincing them that school is a place that they can do that is the trick. Many teenagers have strong opinions about things and this assignment asks them to explore those opinions and skillfully weave that into a story.
The narratives and the occupations can be whatever they want, they can be a lawyer, or a rap artist, or a video game designer. The story can be about the zombie apocalypse, a romance, or an action tale. As long as the students are able to justify why they made those choices. As Gary Baughn did with his class, he explained to his students to "be especially aware of how the characters seem to be a type but how Chaucer shows us something that is beyond, underneath, or contrary to the type." (Baughn 62). It is essential for the students to be aware of this because they are asked to do something similar. This move in his composition challenges the idea of social constructions defining people as individuals. I will be guiding my students through the process of achieving this as well. Once they have confirmed their occupation I will ask them questions going step by step in the Dan Harmon Story Circle. You have chosen a lawyer, how are lawyers perceived in our society? You must think of many perceptions positive and negative. Such as, lawyers are sometimes thought of as liars, lawyers are people who defend the innocent, lawyers who make a significant amount of money may have done so by defending rich people. Now think as a lawyer, what message do you want people to hear or
understand? It could be that the lawyer is disillusioned with helping good people because he


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does not make any money at doing it. Then his story could be about capitalism. Then I ask the students to invent a character, put them in a place of comfort in relation to the notion they want to challenge. For the lawyer, perhaps he wants to tell the story of a man who makes massive amounts of money and is pretty comfortable with his life, that would be step one. Step two would be him missing something in his life, perhaps he is lonely. We continue through the steps so that the students have a model to go off of.
In week three the students turn their rough draft to me so that I have some time to give them feedback and they can respond to my comments. Teacher feedback, that is timely, on their work is critical so that they can make adjustments. There are Common Core State Standards on writing that involve editing and revision. This is an essential skill for students to have when they leave high school. When they turn it in I want them to identify each of the eight steps and a brief summary of the message they are trying to convey and why. I will comment on their work accordingly, if they are missing steps I will prompt them with questions on possibilities. If their message is unclear I will ask them what they are really passionate about and how they could implement it in their story.
In addition to writing a narrative, the students will participate in a pilgrimage themselves. They will bring their narratives with them on the day of the pilgrimage and they will be dressed in character of the occupation they have chosen. There will be no formal assessment on the pilgrimage itself except for a participation grade to hold them accountable. I want the students to get a sense of the complexities of movement and story-telling.


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As I am a pre-service teacher I have not had the opportunity to teach this unit. However, I look forward to the day that I will have my own classroom so that I can employ these texts and strategies.


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Baughn, Gary. "Avoid the Edifice Complex and Enjoy Teaching Chaucer." The English Journal, vol. 93, no. 1, 2003, p. 60., doi:10.2307/3650572.
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Forni, Kathleen. Chaucer's Afterlife Adaptations in Recent Popular Culture. McFarland, 2013.
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Fumo, Jamie Claire. "Thinking Upon the Crow: The Manciple's Tale and Ovidian Mythography." The Chaucer Review, vol. 38, no. 4, 2004, pp. 355-375., doi:10.1353/cr.2004.0011.
Griffith, Paula E. "Graphic Novels in the Secondary Classroom and School Libraries." Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, vol. 54, no. 3, 2010, pp. 181-189. JSTOR [JSTOR], doi:10.1598/jaal.54.3.3.
"How Rick and Morty Tells A Story (The Ricks Must Be Crazyj-Wisecrack Edition." Youtube, 20 May 2017, www.youtube.com/watch?v=l c2hqmFBdM&t=361s.
Irwin, William, et al. The Simpsons and Philosophy: The D'oh! of Homer. Open Court, 2008.
Kensak, Michael. "Apollo Exterminans: The God of Poetry in Chaucer's Manciple's Tale." Studies in Philology, XCVIII, no. 2, 2001, pp. 143-157.


Finley 39
Matheson, Carl. "The Simpsons, Hyper-Irony, and the Meaning of Life." The Simpsons Archive: "The Simpsons, Hyper-Irony, and the Meaning of Life", Open Court Publishing, 2001, www.simpsonsarchive.com/other/special/philosophy.html.
Miller, Andrea Nicole. "N/A." Review, pp. 253-255.
Ong, Walter J. "Orality, Literacy, and Medieval Textualization." New Literary History, vol. 16, no. 1, 1984, p. 1., doi: 10.2307/468772.
Ross, Andrew. No Respect: Intellectuals and Popular Culture. Routledge, 2016.
Sang, Yuan. "Expanded Territories of 'Literacy': New Literacies and Multiliteracies." Journal of Education and Practice, vol. 8, no. No. 8, 2017, pp. 16-19.
"The Ricks Must Be Crazy" Rick and Morty, written by Dan Guteman, Directed by Dominic Polcino, 2015.
"Treehouse of Horrors." The Simpsons: Halloween Special, written by John Swartzwelder, Jay kogen, Wallace Wolodarsky, Sam Simon, and Edgar Allan Poe, Directed by Wes Archer, Rich Moore, David Silverman, 1990.
Vodolazkin, Eugene. "The New Middle Ages." First Things, no. 265, 8 Jan. 2016, pp. 31-36.
Williams, Rhys. "DVD Reviews." Review of Rick and Morty: Season 1. Science Fiction and Television, 2016.
Willingham, Bill. 1001 Nights of Snowfall. Vertigo, 2008.


Finley 40
Text Dependent Questions
The. Prolog lie
1-Cere begins the Booh Of the Ta fes of Ca nterbury
When in April with his showers sweet with fruit The drought of March has pierced unto the root And bathed each vein with liquor that has power To generate therein and sire the flower;
When Zephyr also has, with his sweet breath. Quickened again, in every holt and heath.
The tender shoots and buds, and the young sun Into the Ram one half his course has run.
And many little birds make melody That sleep through all the night with open eye (so nature pricks them on to ramp and rage) then do folk long go on pilgrimage, and palmers to go seeking out strange strands, to distant shrines well known in sundry lands. And specially from every shire's end Of England they to Canterbury wend.
The holy blessed martyr there to seek
Who helped them when they lay so ill and weak.
Befell that, in that season, on a day In Southwark, at the Tabard, as I lay Ready to start upon my pilgrimage To Canterbury, full of devout homage.
There came at nightfall to that hostelry Some nine and twenty in a company. .
Pilgrims:
The Knight
The Squire
The Knights Yeoman
The Prioress
The Nun
The Three Priests The Monk The Friar The Merchant The Clerk The Lawyer The Franklin
The Haberdasher and the Carpenter
The Weaver, the Dryer, and the
Arras-Maker
The Cook
The Sailor
The Physician
The Wife of Bath
The Parson
The Plowman
The Miller
The Manciple
The Reeve
The Summoner
The Pardoner
1. What happens in April? What does the author do in April?


Finley 41
2. How is nature described? Why is the author leaving for Canterbury?
3. What is the pattern of rhyme?
4. Note the first indentations of the passage. What does the narrator begin to discuss?
5. The Narrator names the pilgrims by their occupations, what does this tell you about each of the Characters?
6. What is Chaucer saying about the occupational hierarchy of his time?


Finley 42
Marvel Comics Deadpool used for discussion on the fourth wall.


Finley 43
KWL Chart used for "1001 Nights of Snowfall"
K What 1 know W What 1 want to know L What 1 Learned




Story Circle steps Ovid: Apollo and Coronis Chaucer: Manciple's Tale Rick And Morty: The Ricks Must Be Crazy
1. You: In a place of comfort
2. Need: But they want something
3. Go: They enter an unfamiliar situation
4. Search: Adapt to it
5. Find: find what they wanted
6. Take: Pay its price
7. Return: and go back to where they started
8. Change: Now capable of change
n>
<
-P*
-P*
Story Circle Graphic Organizer


Full Text

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by Brittney Finley An undergraduate thesis submitted in partial completion of the M etropolitan State University of D enver Honors Program December 8, 2017 Dr. Christina Angel Dr. Kathleen Deakin Dr. Megan Hughes Zarzo Primary Advisor Second Reader Honors Program Director

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! "#$%&'! ] >*17>+2!D1*!2+?B&$+2M!N.%%&$B& (9P-!.%%&$B&*!6@7&!+1!2&&!+4&!C@%?&!1D!@>>%'#$/!>1>? %@*!6?%+?*&! #$!+4&!6%@22*117!@$B!F#+$&22&B!41F!K0&!&$/@/&B!2+?B&$+2!#$!6%12&!#$+&*+&R+?@%!@$B!#$+*@ E +&R+?@%!*&@B#$/!@$B!@$@%'2#2-!0#2!2+?B&$+2!&R>%1*&B!*?B#7&$+@*'!2+&>2!1D!B#261?*2&G! 61$C&*2@+#1$G!@$B!61$+&$+!@$@%'2#2-M!N.%%&$B&*!(OP! .%%&$B&*!#2!$1+!+4&! 21%&!&B?6@+1*!%11A#$/!@+! ?+#%#=#$/!>1>?%@*!6?%+?*&!#$!+4&!6%@22*117-!a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PAGE 13

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PAGE 14

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PAGE 20

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! "#$%&'! 9( 7#/4+!#$B#6@+&!@$!?$>*18%&7@+#6!24#D+!8&+F&&$!617>12#+#1$@%!4@8#+2-M!N)1*64!(O9 E (OOP-!)1*64! B#26?22&2!I4@?6&*S2!6*@D+!@2!@!7?%+# E 617>12#+#1$@%!+&R+G!*&D%&6+#C&!1D!+4&!>&*#1B!#$!F4#64!#+!F@2! F*#++&$G!7&*&!B&6 @B&2!8&D1*&!+4&!>*#$+#$/!>*&22-!Q$!*&/@*B2!+1!+4&!#$+&*@6+#1$!F#+4!+4&!*&@B&*G! +4&!+&R+!D?$6+#1$2!+1!#$6#+&!*&@B&*!>@*+#6#>@+#1$-!)1*64!61$+#$?&2!8'!2@'#$/!K+4&!I4@?6&*#@$! $@**@+1*!@BB*&22&2!j+41?!*&B&*&S!B#*&6+%'!1?+!1D!+4&!>@/&2!N +&30,(-*"#?*!&0-%)?%5* 6! (O^9G!)11A!Z-! 9;:Ph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! "#$%&'! 9\ 01F&C &*!+@%&$+&B!L4&18?2!#2!4&!#2!2+#%%!@$!#$C&*2#1$!1D!.>1%%1!KI4@?6&*!B&>#6+2!@$!.>1%%1!F41! 8&@*2!%#++%&!*&2&7 8%@$6&!+1!+4#2!%?7#$1?2!B&#+'M! Na&$2@A!(\OP-! Q$!+4&! <0=>*"#?*@3&$)* &>#21B&G! V#6A!#2!+4&!*&>*&2&$+&B!.>1%%1!64@*@6+&*-!0&!#2!+4&!6*&@+1*G!@$B!+4&*&D1* &!K/1BMG!1D!+4&!7#$#! ?$#C&*2&!4&!4@2!6*&@+&B-!e$6&!@/@#$!+4#2!C&*2#1$!1D!.>1%%1!#2!$1+!@!C#*+?1?2!/1BG!8?+!@!D%@F! *#BB%&B!4?7@$-!V#6A!4@2!4#2!>*#=&B!>122&22#1$!+4@+!#2!4#2!2>@6&24#>!6@*!+4@+!4@2!8*1A&$!B1F$! 8&6@?2&!4#2!8@++&*'!4@2!2+1>>&B!F1*A#$/-! .D+&*!$1+#D'#$/!+4&!2+?B&$+2!+4@+!+4#2!#2!F4@+!F&!F#%%!8&!B1#$/!Q!F#%%!8&!/1#$/!+4*1?/4!+4&! &>#21B&!1D! <0=>*"#?*@3&$) +#+%&B!K34&!V#6A2!T?2+!)&!I *@='M-!Q!4@C&!>*&C#1?2%'!F*#++&$!B1F$!+#7&! 2+@7>2!#$!F4#64!Q!F#%%!2+1>!+4&!&>#21B&!@$B!@2A!+4&!2+?B&$+2!F4@+!+4 &'!$1+#6&-!e$!+4&!F4#+&! 81@*B!+4&*&!F#%%!8&!&#/4+!61%?7$2!D1*!+4&!&#/4+!+#7&2!+4@+!Q!2+1>!+4&!6%#>-!J@64!6%#>!#2!@!717&$+! 1$!+4&!2+1*'!6#*6%&-!Q!F#%%!@2A!+4&!2+?B&$+2!+1!61>'!#$!+4&#*!$1+&2!+4&!61%?7$!D1*7@+!21!+4@+!+4&'! 6@$!7#7#6!F4@+!F&!B1!B?*#$/!+4&!&R& *6#2&-!<+?B&$+2!@$2F&*#$/!7@'!+@A&!217&!&$61?*@/&7&$+! @+!D#*2+!8?+!F4&$!F&!8*@#$2+1*7!217&!#B&@2! #+!F#%%!/&+!+4&!8@%%!*1%%#$/-! <17&!@$2F&*2!D1*!+4&!D#*2+! 6%#>!7@'!#$6%?B&b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eC#B-!.2!`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k>1$!B#261C&*'!1D!+4#2!+*?+4!+ 1%B!8'!+4&!6*1F-! 34#2!#2!F4&*&!2&7#1+#62!617&2! #$+1!>%@'G!+4&!2 +?B'!1D!+4&!2'781%2!@$B!7&@$#$/!61$2+*?6+#1$!1D!+*?+4-! .>1%%1!@$B!L41& 8?2! /*1F!C#1%&$+%'!X& @ %1?2!@$B!@$/*'-!.2!@!*&2?%+ G L41& 8?2!B&2+*1'2!&C&*'+4#$/!4&!%1C&2!#$6%?B#$/!4#2! F#D&S2!%#D&! K 0#2!81F!4&!8&$+!@$B!2&+!+4&*&!@$!@**1FG .$B!#$!4#2!@$/*'!711B!4#2!F#D &!B#B!2%@'! 34#2!#2!+4&!*&2?%+h!+4&*&!#2!$1!71*&!+1!2@'h "1*!/*#&D!1D!F4#64!4&!6&@2&B!4#2!#$2+*&%2'G )*1A&!4@*>!@$B!%?+&G!/#++&*$!@B!>2@%+&*'hM

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! "#$%&'! OY T@+4&21$G!I@*%-!K34&!<#7>21$2G!0'>&* E Q*1$'G!@$B!+4&!T&@$#$/!1D![#D&-M!34&!<#7>21$2!.*64#C&b! v34&!<#7>21$2G!0'>&* E Q*1$'G!@$B!+4&!T&@$#$/!1D![#D&vG!e>&$!I1?*+!L?8%#24#$/G!9::(G! FFF-2#7>21$2@*64#C&-617f1+4&*f2>&6#@%f>4#%121>4'-4+7% T#%%&*G!.$B*&@!H#61%&-!KHf.-M! V&C#&F-! >>-!95O p 955! e$/G!U@%+&*!`-!Ke*@%#+'G![#+&*@6'G!@$B!T&B#&C@%!3&R+?@%#=@+#1$-M!H&F![#+&*@*'!0#2+1*'G!C1%-!(]G!$1-! (G!(Y^\G!>-!(G!B1#b(:-9O:;f\]^;;9! V122G!.$B*&F -! H3*<%-2%=$ 4*Q#$%,,%=$(",-*"#?*D32(,"&*!(,$(&% -!V1?+%&B/& G!9:(]! <@$/G!g?@$-!KJR>@$B&B!3&**#+1*#&2!1D!j[#+&*@6'Sb!H&F![#+&*@6#&2!@$B!T?%+#%#+&*@6#&2-M!`1?*$@%!1D! JB?6@+#1$!@$B!L*@6+#6&G!C1%-!^G!$1-!H1-!^G!9:(;G!>>-!(] p (Y! K34&!V#6A2!T?2+!)&!I*@='M! <0=>*"#?*@3&$)5* F*#++&$!8'!,@$!W?+&7@$G!,#*&6+&B!8'!,17#$#6! L1%6#$1G!9:(5! K3*&&41?2&!1D!01**1*2-M! +.%*/012-3#-4*O",,3J%%#*/2%=0",5* F*#++&$!8'!`14$!>-!O( p O]! U#%%#@72G!V4'2-!K,Z,!V&C#&F2-M!V&C#&F!1D!V#6A!@$B!T1*+'b!<&@21$!(-!<6#&$6&!"#6+#1 $!@$B! 3&%&C#2#1$G!9:(]! U#%%#$/4@7G!)#%%-!(::(!H#/4+2!1D!<$1FD@%%-!Z&*+#/1G!9::^! ! !

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! "#$%&'! \: 3&R+!,&>&$B&$+!d?&2+#1$2 The Prologue Here begins the Book Of the Tales of Canterbury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