Acoma Street Shops and Residences
Louis W. Anderson Master of Architecture. Thesis University of Colorado at Denver
College of Design and Planning
ACOMA STREET SHOPS AND RESIDENCES
An Architectural Thesis presented to the College of Design and Planning, University of Colorado at Denver in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Architecture
The Thesis of Louis W. Anderson is approved
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The Thesis Project
Historical Background of the Evans School Brief History Recent History
3. SITE ANALYSIS
5. BUILDING CODE
Denver Building Code
HUD Minimum Property Standards
Activity Descriptions and Patterns Program Space Requirements
Spatial Sequences Spatial Adjacencies Functional Relationships
Design Drawings Conclusions
Appendix A Chen Soils Report Appendix B National Register Nomination forms Appendix C Secretary of the Interior's Standards for Rehabilitation
Appendix D As-BuiIt Drawings
"Time present and time past
are both perhaps present in time future
and time future contained in the past."
T. S. Eliot
For all things living, change is inevitable. Change, though unavoidable, is not however, totally undesirable. Implicit in situations where change is absent are associations of monotony, stagnation and atrophy. The turnover rate of cells through the process of homeostasis periodically replenishes organisms with new cells. Miraculously, the appearance of the organism remains throughout this process, and the distinguishing features thereof continue to provide the substance whereby the organism can be identified and differentiated from others of its kind.
Whatever else they are, cities are organisms. Its inhabitants, like cells, are in continual flux, moving into, out of, about and through the entity. This necessitates adaptation to resulting changes in functional requirements, spatial requirements, circulation and aggregation patterns.
Too much change, or too abrupt, can be traumatic. The nature of change is such that if not realized incrementally, the effect can be one of shock, instability and disorientation. The rate at which our present world rushes into the future brings in its wake numerous unforeseen side effects. Specifically, our perception of the places we inhabit is directly influenced.
"The shift toward transience is even manifest in architecture precisely that part of the environment that in the past contributed most heavily to man's sense of permanence.
We are witnessing a historic decline in the significance of place to human life.
We are increasing the rate at which we must form and forget our images of reality."
(Alvin Toffler, Future Shock)
The sudden removal of the architecture of the past with which we
have become accustomed, only to be replaced with frequently unrelated, repetitive development has contributed much to our feelings of environmental disorientation.
"Older buildings ... have usually made their peace with our perceptions."
(Norton Juster, "Questions on True Economy: Some Criteria for Evaluating the Reuse Process")
Host cities have an available stock of old buildings affording prime opportunity to maintain vital and interesting dialogue with the past. They constitute a ready means of providing rapidly changing areas with the necessary but frequently lacking equili-brant: constancy. Revitalization of former buildings has proven itself over time as a valid approach to providing declining urban areas with simultaneous invigorative change along with stabilizing constancy.
The scope of this thesis, then, encompasses revitalization at the scale of the neighborhood, in general, as well as that of the half block site being considered, specifically.
THE THESIS PROJECT
The issues to be addressed by this thesis are:
How can new development relate to its proposed and existing contexts in a manner that is synchronous with the areas rate of change and need for constancy?
This in turn raises the further question:
What is the context?
For the purposes of this project, the context will be assumed to consist of the following:
Present Context to be retained: The Evans School building, Retail and Office functions.
Future Context anticipated: Mixed use development of medium to hi$h density with a concentration of Housing and Retail functions and a minimum of Offices.
The project will seek to balance the respective considerations which attend the two scales in question. Urban scale objectives are:
- develop a medium to high density mixed use project in keeping with proposed densities of development for the Golden Triangle Zone
- adapt to a varied existing context as well as that of the foreseeable future
- contribute to interesting and lively new urban neighborhood fabric
Immediate Site scale objectives are:
- uncover ways of compatible response to the historic Evans School building by a new building in the contemporary idiom
- provide a variety of unit types in the residential component of the project
- create a visually rich project of the half-block parcel having a unified identity
- extend the utility of the Evans School beyond its outlived
usefulness for educational purposes by recycling it for use as residences
The method of investigation to be implemented will be an indue tive one, the aim being to generate general principles of contextual responsiveness inferred by the particular set of condi tions inherent in this situation.
The Acoma St. Shops and Residences occupy a one half block area of 65,000 square feet approximately central to the Golden Triangle in downtown Denver. The Denver CBD is flanked by several .-transition zones, separating the downtown core from the outlying residential areas. The 35-block Golden Triangle is one such transition zone, adjacent to both the Capitol Hill and La Alma/Lincoln Park neighborhoods.
The site is 8 blocks south of the Central Business District and conveniently located with respect to numerous urban amenities:
Civic Center Park 3 blocks N Greenway/Cherry Creek 3 blocks W Sunken Gardens 4 blocks SW Lincoln Park 10 blocks W Cheeseman Park 17 blocks E Confluence Park 2 miles NW Washington Park 3 miles SE
16th Street Mall 6 blocks N
Tabor Center 14 blocks NW
The Tivoli 15 blocks W
Larimer Square 17 blocks NW
Cherry Creek Retail District 4 miles SE
Denver Art Museum 3 blocks N
Museum of Western Art 8 blocks N
Currigan Hall Convention Center 11 blocks NW
0 1 2
4 DENVER AREA MAP
Denver Center for the Performing Arts 12 Denver Zoo and Museum of Natural History Mile High Stadium/McNichols Sports Arena
Denver Public Library 3 blocks N Colorado Institute of Art 5 blocks E Auraria Campus 12 blocks NW Denver University 5 miles SE
City and County building 4 blocks N U.S. Mint 5 blocks NW State Capitol 6 blocks NE Denver Federal Center 6 miles E
blocks NW 1^ miles E 2 miles W
The Acoma St. Shops and Residences are located in an area of unusually easy access. The Golden Triangle is bounded by Colfax Ave. to the north, Speer Blvd. to the west, 8th and 6th Aves. to the south, and the Broadway/Lincoln corridor to the east. These are all major arterials and within 5 blocks of the site, providing direct access to the city.
As previously mentioned, the proximity of the site to numerous amenities makes it ideally suited for pedestrian and bicycle as well as vehicular access. The linkage to the Greenway bikeway is several blocks away.
Major local and express buses operate on the Broadway/Lincoln corridor immediately adjacent the site to the east. The Civic Center and Market St. Stations are located 6 and 18 blocks respectively from the site, the latter also accessible by the 16th St. Mall Shuttle which operates between the 2 stations and is free to the public. The Denver Bus Center is 14 blocks away and 3 blocks away from the 16th St. Mall.
Interstates 25 and 70 are within 2 and 5 miles, respectively, of the Acoma St. Shops and Residences. Stapleton International Airport is 6 miles away to the northeast.
AMTRAK is accessible at Union Station, 20 blocks from the site and 2 blocks from Market St. Station.
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800 1600 GOLDEN TRIANGLE
"When we build, let us think that we build forever." John Ruskin
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE EVANS SCHOOL
Just prior to the opening of the Evans School, The Denver Daily News ran an article captioned: "New Evans School, Finest in the West, Ready for Occupancy March 1." A typical excerpt from the article followed the same thread: "The building cost $130,000 and is said to be the most modem and best equipped school building in the West and one of the finest in the United States. That favorable assessment was made on Christmas Day, 1904. 1
Seventy-eight years passed...and the Monday morning edition of the Rocky Mountain News, July 26, 1982 featured a story about ten Denver area schools that were closed. This time around the title and tenor of the article had shifted decidedly: "Vacant Evans School an eyesore.... Evans School, West 11th Avenue and Acoma Street, often is cited bv planners and community groups as an example of how a vacant building can become a blight on a neighborhood^
Designed by Denver Architect David W. Dryden, the Evans School was contructed at about the same period as the completion of the State Capitol, several blocks to the north. Coincidental with the building of the school was the program of monumental civic construction initiated by Mayor Robert Speer.
Originally, the school was for elementary education; although
junior high students were temporarily instructed there for a portion of the year 1917. A Hearing Conservation Department was established at the school in 1928, and in 1930 a Sight Saving Department. "For many years the school was the only one in the area that served the deaf, blind, or physically handicapped, and it was the only elementary school in Denver open in the summer." ^
For a more complete history of the Evans School, see the "Statement of Significance" section of the National Register nomination forms contained in Appendix B.
In the early 70's, after 69 years of service to the city of Denver, the Evans school was closed, the result of declining enrollment and obsolescence. The building was boarded up and sold. It is presently listed by the Denver Assassor's Office as being the property of Richard and Alan Eber of Littleton.
The site was designated a national landmark in a National Register of Historic Places nomination dated October 3, 1980.
During spring 1985, Barker Rinker Seacat, Architects were consulted for preparing a proposed adaptive reuse of the building as multi-family housing. The firm carried the project as far as the schematic design phase before their services were disengaged.
Denver Civic Ventures, a design arm of The Denver Partnership, proposed the incorporation of the school building into their Downtown Area Plan, prepared in 1986. They foresaw the use of the school as housing also, however, in their scheme, the school was at a crucial junction of streets to be devoted to major pedestrian linkages. 11th Ave. and Acoma were to be closed to vehicular traffic and made pedestrian streets. The block occupied by the Evans School was to become an urban park and the school building converted to housing.
Adaptively reusing the Evans School could conceivably be one ingredient which would contribute to an infusion of vitality into the Golden Triangle, an area which has generally been considered as blighted. The vicinity is characterized by a predominance of parking lots, automobile service and support facilities. Most of the property in the district is controlled in large assemblages
by a few landholders, and could, therefore, undergo rapid transformation. Although the district borders the most active areas of downtown, major arterials at the district boundaries tend to isolate the area, causing relatively low traffic volumes within the circumscribed area. The vicinity in general lacks a positive identity and role in downtown.
Among potentially attractive features possessed by the district which could be capitalized upon with* an aim of asserting a unique identity is the Evans School. The school and its site could foreseeably become a focal element for the entire Golden Triangle.
1 Denver Daily News, Dec. 25, 1904, p. 5, col. 1.
2 Rocky Mountain News, July 26, 1982, p. 105.
3 Statement of Significance, National Register Nomination form, Oct. 3, 1980, p. 5.
4 The Denver Partnership, Downtown Area Plan, 1986, (Draft) Golden Triangle District summary.
"It is the role of design to adjust to the circumstantial." Louis Kahn
"Denver enjoys the mild, sunny, semi-arid climate that prevails over much of the central Rocky Mountain region, without the extremely cold mornings of the high elevations and restricted mountain valleys during the cold part of the year, or the hot afternoons of summer at lower altitudes. Wind is lessened by the proximity of the mountains. Extremely warm or cold weather is usually of short duration.
Airmasses from at least four different sources influence Denver weather: polar air from Canada and the far northwest; moist air from the Gulf of Mexico; warm dry air from Mexico and the south west; and Pacific air modified by its passage overland.
The good climate results largely from Denver*s location on the east slope of the Rocky Mountains in the belt of the prevailing westerlies. During summer afternoons cumulus clouds so shade the City that temperatures of 90 or over are reached on an average of only thirty-five days of the year, and in onlv one year in five does the mercury very briefly reach the 100 mark. These short periods of high temperature occur when the winds aloft carry desert air from the southwest over Denver.
In the cold season the high altitude and the location of the mountains to the west combine to moderate temperatures. Invasions of cold air from the north, intensified by the high altitude, can be abrupt and severe. On the other hand, many of the cold airmasses that spread southward out of Canada over the plains are too shallow to reach Denver's altitude and move off over the lower plains to the east. Surges of cold air from the west are usually moderated in their descent down the east face of the mountains, and Chinooks resulting from some of these westerly flows often raise the temperature far above
that normally to be expected at this latitude in the cold season. These conditions result in a tempering of winter cold to an average temperature above that of other cities situated at the same latitude.
In the spring when the outbreaks of polar air are waning, they are met by moist currents from the Gulf of Mexico. The juxtaposition of these two currents produces the rainy season in Denver, which reaches its peak in May.
Situated a long distance from any moisture source, and separated from the Pacific source by a high mountain barrier, Denver enjoys a low relative humidity, low average precipitation, and considerable clear-sky sunshine.
SPRING is the wettest, cloudiest, and windiest season. Much of the 39 percent of the annual total precipitation that occurs in spring falls as snow during the colder periods of the season. Stormy periods are often interspersed by stretches of mild sunny weather that remove previous snow cover. Severe storms usually arrive from the north with northeasterly winds.
SUMMER precipitation (about 31 percent of the annual total), particularly in July and August, usually falls from scattered local thundershowers during the afternoon and evening. Mornings are usually clear and sunny. Clouds often form during early afternoon and cut off the sunshine at what would otherwise be the hottest part of the day. Many afternoons have a cooling shower.
AUTUMN is the pleasantest season. Local summer thunderstorms
are over and invasions of cold air and severe weather are still infrequent, so that there is less cloudiness and a greater percent of possible sunshine than at any other time of the year. Periods of unpleasant weather are generally brief. Precipitation amounts to about 19 percent of the annual total.
WINTER has less precipitation, only about 11 percent of the annual total and almost all of it snow. There is more cloudiness and the relative humidity averages higher than in the autumn. Weather can be quite severe, but as a general rule the severity doesnt last long. 1
TEMPERATURE DIURNAL SWING DEGREE DAYS
The principal characteristic of temperature which is constant throughout the year is the large diurnal swing occurring in the time period between daily high and low readings. In the summer, this implies available ambient air values which, if stored, would facilitate natural cooling. In the winter, minimizing the loss, over this period, of heat gained during the day would be desirable for purposes of natural heating.
More specific recommendations include the utilization of massive interior and exterior walls, floors, and roof, all having a thermal capacity affording a time lag of at least eight hours.
Heating degree days serve as an index of fuel required for heating. A heating degree day equals each degree of mean temperature below the base figure of 65F. For example, if in a given month the mean temperature is 52 degrees and there are 31 days in the month, a figure of 1612 results. This quantity is subtracted from the base figure of 65 degrees x 31 days, or 2015, yielding a total of 403 degree days. The fuel necessary to maintain an indoor temperature of 65 degrees during a month with 403 degree days will be half that required during an 806 degree day month. For Denver then, heating requirements for the month of January (1088 degree days) are approximately twice that of the month of April (525 degree days).
Cooling degree days serve as an index of air conditioning requirements. In this case, the base figure of 65 degrees is subtracted from the mean temperature to obtain cooling degree day totals. For Denver, the months of July and August each typically demand twice the air conditioning of the month of June and four times the requirement of September. For the remainder
of the year, air conditioning requirements are either negligible or non-existent.
RELATIVE HUMIDITY PRECIPITATION WINDS
Those months of the year in which the majority of snowfall occurs are also the coldest months. The possibility of snow and ice accumulation in shaded areas should be taken into consideration. Roof coverings and slopes which facilitate the shedding of snow are desirable. In the summer, the need for cross ventilation is probably negligible. Therefore, rooms could be double-banked. Windows should be designed to withstand winds that occasionally exceed 50 mph. Openings should be relatively small, between 25 40% of the wall surface area. If north entries cannot be avoided, they should be protected.
SKY COVER SOLAR ANGLES
With the average percent of possible sunshine figuring 70%, opportunities for benefitting from solar-responsive building design are excellent. Window opennings which admit winter sun but shade interiors from summer sun would be ideal, where orientations permit. Buildings should be situated on an east-west axis, the long elevations facing north and south to reduce solar exposure.
TEMPERATURE ( F.)
M0.| MIN. | MAX. | MEAN | D. SWING|HEAT. DEG. DAYS|COOL. DEG,
J 17.4 42.8 30.1 25.4 1088 0
F 20.3 45.2 32.8 24.9 902 0
M 26.1 51.2 38.7 25.1 868 0
A 34.7 60.1 47.4 25.4 525 0
M 43.9 69.5 56.7 25.6 253 0
J 52.7 80.5 66.6 27.8 80 110
J 58.8 86.4 72.6 27.6 0 248
A 57.6 85.0 71.3 27.4 0 208
S 48.4 76.8 62.6 28.4 120 54
0 37.7 65.4 51.6 27.7 408 5
N 26.6 52.6 39.6 26.0 768 0
D 19.7 44.9 32.3 25.2 1004 0
YR. 37.0 63.4 50.2 26.4 6016 625
RELATIVE HUMIDITY PRECIPITATION WINDS
MO. % REL. 5 am | HUM 5 pm RAIN inches SNOW inches PRE. dir. WIND mph FASTEST MI dir. mph
J 62 48 0.55 8.7 S 9.6 NW 41
F 67 43 0.69 8.3 S 9.7 NW 49
M 69 41 1.21 12.6 S 10.3 NW 53
A 69 34 2.11 9.3 s 10.6 NW 56
M 70 37 2.70 1.7 s 9.8 SW 43
J 72 37 1.44 0.0 s 9.3 S 47
J 71 36 1.53 0.0 s 8.7 SW 56
A 69 34 1.28 0.0 s 8.5 SW 42
S 71 36 1.13 1.6 s 8.4 NW 47
0 65 36 1.01 2.9 s 8.3 NW 45
N 69 50 0.69 7.4 s 8.9 W 48
D 66 52 0.47 5.8 s 9.3 NE 51
YR. 68 40 14.81 58.3 s 9.3 SW 56
SKYCOVER (SUNRISE to SUNSET)
MO. | lOths MEAN SKYCOVER CLEAR CLOUDY CLOUDY
J 5.5 10 10 11
F 5.8 8 9 11
M 6.1 8 10 L3
A 6.1 7 10 13
M 6.1 6 13 12
J 5.0 9 13 8
J 4.9 9 16 6
A 4.8 10 14 7
S 4.4 13 10 7
0 4.4 13 10 8
N 5.3 11 9 10
D 5.3 11 10 10
YR. 5.3 115 134 116
% POSS. SUNSHINE
65 68 70
HOURS 1 ALTITUDE AZIMUTH
5 air 7 pm 4.24 117.79
6 6 14.81 108.37
7 5 25.94 99.94
8 4 37.36 90.72
9 3 48.79 80.22
10 2 59.77 65.93
11 1 69.13 42.15
12 73.45 0.00
0 50 100
SOLAR PATH June 22
MAR. 21 SEPT. 24
HOURS 1 ALTITUDE AZIMUTH
6 am 6 pm 0.00 90.00
7 5 11.43 80.24
8 4 22.51 69.66
9 3 32.78 58.10
10 2 41.55 41.48
11 1 47.73 22.67
12 50.00 0.00
SOLAR PATH Mar. 21 & Sept. 24
HOURS 1 ALTITUDE AZIMUTH
8 am 4 pm 5.49 52.97
9 3 13.95 41.97
10 2 20.66 29.38
11 1 25.03 15.21
12 26.55 0.00
0 100 200 TOPOGRAPHY
A. VIEW: EAST TOWARD SITE
VANTAGE POINT: 11th AVE. WEST OF BANNOCK
West 11th Avenue rises gradually up to Bannock and Acoraa Streets, in turn, across Broadway and beyond. Single-story masonry structures line 11th Avenue west of the alley between Bannock and Acoma. East of the alley, the school building makes up a large percentage of the profile meeting the sky.
A multi-story office building on Lincoln Street stands behind the school building's southeast corner making up the remainder of the profile at the sky. Several mature trees line 11th Ave. along the north side, while utility poles bound the street to the south.
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B. VIEW: WEST FROM SITE
VANTAGE POINT: INTERSECTION OF 11th AVE. AND ACOMA
This view, taken from the third floor of an adjacent building, simulates the vista of the mountains across west Denver from a corresponding vertical station point on the site. The view encompasses primarily low and mid-rise structures receding into an area of predominantly residential development. 11th Avenue, lined with utility poles and occasional trees, cuts diagonally across the frame below. The foothills rise behind the city to the west with the Rocky Mountains beyond.
C. VIEW: NORTH TOWARD SITE
VANTAGE POINT: INTERSECTION OF 11th AND ACOMA
Looking north on Acorna, the beginnings of a "streetwall" are apparent, made up of the school building to the left and 2 story brick structures to the right. The wall seems to erode at mid-block where the buildings give way to parking areas reaching to 12th Ave. and beyond. The possibilities offered by Acorna St. as a major axis can be observed.
Civic Center Park's entrance continues the street axis in a sort of gateway to downtown. Denver's tallest building, Republic Plaza, punctuates the whole procession as a point element.
D. VIEW: NORTHWEST TOWARD SITE
VANTAGE POINT: INTERSECTION OF 11th AVE. AND ACOMA
The Evans School building enhances the definition of the comer made by the junction of Acoma and 11th Avenue.
Being .situated on a raised platform, the monumentality of the building is further asserted. Apart from the trees lining 11th and Acoma, there is little else which contributes significantly to this view.
E. VIEW: NORTH ACROSS SITE
VANTAGE POINT: SIDEWALK FRONTING EVANS SCHOOL ON ACOMA
Major elements along the boundary of the site are a row of mature trees, the concrete sidewalk and the two foot high concrete wall and chain link fence surrounding the school. The northern half of the site is presently occupied by a paved asphalt parking lot. The axis of Acoma Street terminates in a formal gateway to Civic Center Park. The backdrop of the entire view is the nearby skyline of downtown Denver.
F. VIEW: SOUTH/SOUTHWEST ACROSS SITE CORNER AND BEYOND
VANTAGE POINT: MIDBLOCK OF ACOMA BETWEEN 11th AND 12th
The profile of the tnidrise Public Service building dominates the skyline. The building has a beige metal panel exterior with horizontal strip windows. One story commercial structures line 11th Ave. to the south. The southeast comer of the site is demarcated by the low boundary wall and chain link fence. Parking meters and mature trees along the concrete sidewalk comprise the foreground.
G. VIEW: SOUTH/SOUTHEAST FROM SITE
VANTAGE POINT: SOUTH OF INTERSECTION OF ACOMA AND 12th AVE.
The Acoma "street wall" from mid-block to the comer is comprised of one and two story brick buildings housing mostly residential and commercial functions. Two fairly large trees occupy the grass strip between sidewalk and curb. The houses are characterized by a pitched roof, flat-arched windows with double-hung sash, masonry corseting and a turret capped 3-sided bay adjacent to the entry. The character of the buildings in general is historic and typically human scaled.
H. VIEW: SOUTHWEST TOWARD SITE
VANTAGE POINT: MIDBLOCK OF ACOMA BETWEEN 11th AND 12th
The dominant feature of this view is the existing school building, situated on a platform elevated roughly two feet above the level of the sidewalk. Advancing in layers from the main facade, and parallel, are the chain link fence which surrounds the school, a concrete sidewalk, a row of mature trees, parking meters and the curb. The sense of edge is thereby defined in varying degrees of permeability.
I. VIEW: NORTH FROM SITE
VANTAGE POINT: PARKING LOT SOUTH OF 12th AVENUE
The foreground is the expanse of asphalt making up two parking lots separated by 12th Ave. One stary commercial buildings line the east side of Acoma. The background commences with the gateway to Civic Center Park at the terminus of Acoma. This is followed by high rise buildings of the downtown area. The most prominent of these, left to right, are the Denver Art Museum, Republic Plaza, and One United Bank Center.
J. VIEW: SOUTH TOWARD SITE
VANTAGE POINT: I2th AVE. NEAR INTERSECTION OF ACOMA
Major elements of this view down Acoma are the axiality of parking meters, street, sidewalk, trees, and short steel pipes lining the parking lot. The existing school building anchors the center of the site to the south and is the most visually prominent feature of the view. One and two story structures and utility poles give definition to the alley bounding the site to the west.
SYNOPSIS OF CHEN AND ASSOCIATES SOILS REPORT
Following is review of the salient points identified in the Soils and Foundation Investigation prepared by Chen and Associates for the ABC Project in June of 1981. Thfe Site under study is situated one block to the south of the Evans School site and is assumed to possess soil characteristics similar to those of the Evans School soils. For the Chen report in its entirety, refer to the appendix A.
* Depth to claystone and sandstone bedrock varies from 45.5-47 ft.
* Depth to free goundwater varies from 12-28 feet below surface.
* Claystone on site has an undrained shear strength ranging from 19.6-23 ksf.
* Testing of samples of fill taken from site indicate inability of fill to support loads without significant settling.
* Testing of natural overburden soils from site indicate suitability thereof for supporting moderate loads.
RECOMMENDATIONS PIER FOUNDATION
* Use of straight-shaft piers drilled into claystone bedrock for support of proposed structures. Columns will bear on piers and building walls on a grade beam supported by a series of piers.
* Design piers for a maximum end bearing pressure of
60,000 psf and a skin friction of 6,000 psf for the portion of the pier in bedrock.
* Piers should penetrate bedrock to a depth equal to at least 3 pier diameters.
* Design piers to resist lateral loads assuming a modulus of horizontal subgrade reaction of 230 tcf in bedrock and a constant of horizontal subgrade reaction in granular soils of 60 tcf. No lateral load should be transferred to areas of fill.
* Minimum pier spacing should be 3 pier diameters center-to-center.
* Minimum pier diameter of 30 inches would facilitate proper cleaning and observation of the pier hole.
RECOMMENDATIONS SPREAD FOOTINGS
* Spread footings should bear on undisturbed natural granular soils, and should be designed for a maximum allowable soil bearing pressure of 4,000 psf.
* Minimum width of footings should be 2 feet for walls and 3 feet for columns.
* Adequate soil cover for frost protection of exterior footings will be 3 feet below grade.
* Lateral resistance of spread footings will be a combination of passive earth pressure against the sides of the footing and the sliding resistance of the footings on the foundation materials. Sliding friction at the bottom of the footings can be taken as 0.4 times the vertical dead load. Passive pressure against the sides of the footings
can be calculated using an equivalent fluid pressure of 175 pcf.
* Continuous foundation walls should be reinforced top and bottom to span an unsupported length of at least 10 feet.
The Evans School building lot is covered with grass and perennial weeds except where paved for sidewalks and previous parking at the southwest comer of the schoolyard. Immediately adjacent the building to the north is a recently paved asphalt parking area which was previously the school playground. A grass strip 8 ft. wide divides 11th Ave. from the sidewalk beside the school. The grass strip along the Acoaa St. frontage is 10 ft. wide.
10 mature Cottonwood trees, 9 of which are approximately centered on the grass strips, line the streets bordering the existing school. The heights are within an estimated range of 35-65 ft. Breast-height girth measurements and canopy diameters taken in the field appear on the accompanying site vegetation inventory.
MO. | (9IPTH
1 5-ou 30*
2 4--on 201
4 s'- o" 45
5 G'-O* 50*
6 B'-O* 40*
7 e>K-cf -4ol
9 4'-&n 35*
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1 Frank E. Bair and James A. Ruffner, The Weather Almanac, p. 385.
2 Bair, pp. 386, 387.
3 Bair, p. 386. (Relative Humidity)
4 NOAA, Climates of the States, p. 909. (Precipitation, Winds)
5 Bair, p. 386.
6 Joseph N. Boaz, AIA, Editor, Architectural Graphic Standards 6th edition, pp. 70-73.
7 D. Stafford Woolard, PhD., recommendations)
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The Acoma St. Shops and Residences are in the B-8 zone. Mixed uses such as commercial, retail and multifamily residential are permitted under existing zoning. The Civic Center Area Analysis and Development Policies and Capitol Hill Neighborhood Plan, assembled by tne Denver Planning Office, both encourage mixec! use development in the Golden Triangle area. Further, master planning workshops including neighborhood groups in addition to local public agencies indicate support by these sources of mixed retail, residential, office and open space development in the vicinity.
Maximum Gross Floor Area
Present zoning permits development to a floor area ratio (FAR) of 4:1. This excludes parking (to be included in the structure), and mechanical space. The zone lot is 65,000 square feet in area. At FAR 4:1, allowable gross floor area would equal
260,000 s.f. Subtracting the 60,000 s.f. contributed by the existing school building, a remaining 200,000 s.f. would be available in net allowable floor area for another building.
Open Space Requirement For Multiple-Unit Dwellings
* 50 s.f. min. unobstructed open space/unit
* can occur on safe, usable roofs, but will not include space required for off-street parking
Outside Area of Window Exposure
* rain, outside exposure for windows of habitable rooms, unobstructed by walls, buildings, etc., as shown in the accompanying illustration.
Off-Street Parking Requirements
* Screen adequately so as not to disturb occupants of adjacent structures.
* Locate entrances and exits to minimize traffic congestion.
* Provide wheel or bumper guards so parked vehicles do not extend over property line.
* 8.5 ft. min. width for parking spaces within structure and
9.0 ft. elsewhere.
* Provide 1 parking space per 200 s.f. of Class 4 Parking (Commercial) and 1.5 parking spaces per dwelling unit.
* Credit for Class 7 Parking is 10 offstreet spaces + 1 space per classroom in the existing school building. Total is 30 parking spaces credited for the new use of the school building.
Off-Street Loading Requirements
For a gross floor area between 40,000 and 100,000 s.f., provide 2 berths at a minimum of 10 ft. wide by 14 ft. high by 35 ft. long.
"Creation is a patient search." Le Corbusier
APPLICABLE CODE NAME: Building Code of the City and County of
DATE: 1979 1982
Table 5-A ch. 13 ch. 11 ch. 12
ch. 20 ch. 19
III. Groups F2, H2/exist. bldg. "
5. Maximum allowable floor area: Table 5-C
F2 Type II Construction (new)
basic allowable floor area 18,000 s.f. "
separation allowance +1007# 18,000 506 (b) 3
fire zone 3 +33V3% 12,000 Table 5-C
sprinkler allowance +100% 48,000 506 (d)
TOTAL 96,000 s.f.
G3 Type I Construction (new)
unlimited for Type I Construction
1. Fire Zone: 3
2. Occupancy Classification:
Principal occupancy: Multi-family Housing (H2) Others: Retail Shops (F2)
Automobile Parking Garage (G3)
3. Occupancy Separations required:
F2 to H2 1 hours F2 to G3 1 hours G3 to H2 2 hours
4. Construction type: I. Group G3
II. Groups F2, H2/New Const.
H2 Type II Construction (new) basic allowable floor area separation allowance +100%
fire zone 3 +33V3%
24.000 s.f. Table 5-C
24.000 506 (b) 3
16.000 Table 5-C
H2 Type III Construction (existing building)
basic allowable floor area separation allowance +100%
fire zone 3 +33V3%
27,200 54,400 s.f.
Maximum allowable height:
F2 G3 H2/II H2/III Feet: 75 unlim. 75 65
Stories: 6 unlim. 6 6
Fire resistance of exterior wall:
4 hr non-combustible (Types I-III)
2 hr where openings are permitted
506 (b) 3 Table 5-C 506 (d)
2003 (a) 3
Openings in exterior walls:
* no openings less than 5 ft. from adjacent 1707 (b) property line or center line of alley or street
* protected by 3/4 hr fire resist, rating 1701 (c)
Minimum ceiling heights in rooms:
H2 7 ft. for 50% of area; no less than 5 ft. 1305 (b) for remainder
F2 for a Type III bldg., a 20* setback Table 17-C
requires protection of openings in exterior walls (see sec. 1707)
H3 for a Type III bldg., a 5 setback
requires protection of openings in exterior walls (see sec. 1707)
Fire resistive requirements > Table
I II III
exterior bearing walls 4 4 4 hours 1803,
interior bearing walls 3 2 1 hours M
exterior non-bearing walls 4 4 4 hours H
structural frame 3 2 1 hours
permanent partitions 1 1 1 hours
vertical opening enclosures2 2 1 hours
floors 2 1 1 hours
roofs 2 1 1 hours
exit doors to corridors 3/4 3/4 3/4 hours
doors to exit enclosures 1. 5 1. 3 1.5 hours
mezzanine floors (area allowed) N.A. 1713
boiler room enclosure 1 hours 1716
door to boiler room enclosure 1 hour, If
1 II III
framework 3 2 1 hours 2002
floors 2 1 1 hours If
roofs 2 1 1 hours ft
partitions 1 1 1 hours ft
stairs: reinforced concrete or structural steel
Occupancy load basis (square feet/occupant)
3320, 3322 3301 (d)
Occupancy type Basis 2 or more exits when load exceeds:
H2 Apartments 200 s.f. 10
F2 Stores (ground) 30 s.f. 30
(upper) 50 s.f. 10
Number of exits required:
not less than 2 exits per floor 3302 (a)
Minimum width of exits in feet: 3302 (j)
total occupant load served divided by 50... divided equally among total number of exits
Exit separation arrangement: 3302 (k)
H2 "Exits shall be arranged so that the total length of an individual dwelling unit shall not exceed 50 feet or traverse more than one flight of stairs."
Maximum allowable travel distance to exit:
F2: 150 ft. 3320 (c) G3: 150 ft. 3321 (b) H2: 100 ft. (entrance door to exit) 3322 (b) with sprinklers:
F2: 200 ft. 3320 (c) G3: 200 ft. 3321 (b) H2: 150 ft. (entrance door to exit) 3322 (b)
Allowable exit sequence: 3302 (k)
H2 "arranged so that the total length of an individual dwelling unit shall not exceed 50 feet or traverse more than one flight of stairs."
Minimum width: 3 ft. 3303 (d)
Minimum height: 6 ft. 8 in. "
Maximum leaf width:
Minimum allowable width: 44 in. 3304 (b)
Minimum allowable height: 7 ft. 3304 (c)
Required to have exit at each end of
Yes, where more than 2 exits are required, excepting dead end corridors.
Dead end corridors allowed? Yes 3304 (f^
Maximum length 20 ft.
Wall fire resistance required: 1 hr 3304 (g)
minimum width- 44 in. occ load of greater 3305 (b)
36 in. occ load of 50 or less M
30 in. occ load of less than 10 "
maximum riser allowed- 7.5 in. 3305 (c)
minimum tread allowed- 10 in. "
Are winders allowed? Yes 3305 (d)
minimum size- stairway width 3305 (g)
maximum size required- 5 ft. when stair is
straight run "
maximum vertical distance between landings-
12 ft. 6 in.
required height of rails- greater than 30 in.
and less than 34 in. above tread nosing 3305 (i)
required at each side- Yes 3305 (i)
intermediate rails required at stairs- "
only for stairways greater than 88 in. wide
maximum width between int. rails- equi- 3305 (i) spaced within entire stairways width exceptions applicable- "stairways 44 3305 (i)
inches or less in width and stairways serving one individual dwelling unit in Group H or I occupancies may have one handrail..."
height above nosing- 30-34 in. 3305 (i)
handrails return to wall at ends- Yes, or 3305 (i) 1 terminating in posts or safety terminals handrails extend beyond stair- 6 in. beyond
top and bottom riser 3305 (i) 1
Stair to roof required? Only if building is "
freater than 4 stories and roof pitch is ess than 4/12
Stair to basement restrictions- barrier to 3305 (h)
prevent persons from continuing unobstructed into the basement or cellar.
Stair enclosure required? Yes 3308 (a)
Horizontal exit requirements- "all openings 3307 (b; in a wall which provides a horizontal exit shall be protected by a self-closing fire assembly having a fire-resistive rating of at least one hour.
Ramps: same width as required for stairs 3306 (b)
maximum slope- 1:12 first floor to grade 3306 (c)
1:8 all other ramps
handrails required- yes, on at least one 3306 (e) side at least 32 in. above ramp surface and extending at least one foot beyond top and bottom of ramp
exit signs required- yes, at every required3312 (b) exit doorway
balusters or intermediate rails required- no
. Toilet room requirements:
Group F2 fixture count requirements:
lavatories 1/30 509
water closets 1/30 If
urinals 1/10 fl
lavatories 1/30 509
water closets 1/10 tl
Group H2 fixture count requirements:
water closets 1/unit
bathtub or shower 1/unit
kitchen sink with garbage disposal 1/unit
15. Residential laundry requirements:
"In buildings with 3 or more dwelling units or apartments, provide one laundry tray and one automatic washer for the first 10 units or apartments. In excess of 10 units, provide one automatic washer for each additional 15 units. This equipment shall be accessible to all units."
16. Restrictions on marquees, canopies, etc.:
HUD MINIMUM PROPERTY STANDARDS FOR MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING
Minimum distance from building wall to lot line:
Primary wall: 6 ft. + 2 ft. for each story in height + 1 ft. for each 10 ft. of length.
Secondary wall: 2 ft. + 1 ft. for each story in height +
1 ft. for each 10 ft. of length, but no less than 5 ft.
Maximum distance from parking space to main entry:
Non-elderly: 250 ft.
Elderly: 150 ft.
Guests: 150 ft.
Minimum room sizes:
Efficiency: Kitchen/Dining % 100 s.f.
Living/Sleeping Â£ 250 s.f.
Bathroom k 35 s.f.
Storage k 21 s.f.
(Kitchen 11.25 L .F. total min.)
1-BR Unit: Kitchen/Dining k 120 s.f.
Living Room k 160 s.f.
Bedroom \ 120 s.f.
Bathroom \ 35 s.f.
Storage \ 31 s.f.
(Kitchen = 13 L.F. total min.)
*2-BR Unit: Kitchen/Dining \ 120 s.f.
Living Room \ 160 s.f.
Bedroom 1 \ 120 s.f.
Bedroom 2 \ 80 s.f.
Bathroom \ 35 s.f.
Storage k 42 s.f.
(Kitchen 14.75 L.F. total min.)
Kitchen/Dining Living Room Bedroom 1 Bedroom 2 Bedroom 3 Bathroom 1 Bathroom 2 Storage
(Kitchen 16.5 L.
140 s.f. 170 s.f. 120 s.f. k 80 s.f. k 80 s.f. k 35 s.f. k 35 s.f. i 56 s.f. total min.)
REQUIREMENTS FOR HANDICAPPED PERSONS
ITEM: Group F2
"Where public facilities are provided, 510 (a) at least one water closet and one lavatory shall be provided for the use of handicapped persons. They shall be fully accessible by each sex."
"Group H2 occupancies containing 8 or 510 (b) more units shall have one unit for each 7 units which is fully accessible and complies with all the requirements applicable to handicapped facilities.
All doors in each handicapped unit shall be at least 32 inches nominal width, except doors leading into areas that are not habitable. All common elements used in connection with the exists shall be fully accessible to the handicapped."
Ramp Requirements 510 (d)
"Every building housing Group F2, and H2 occupancies shall provide an access ramp for the handicapped to the first floor. This ramp shall not exceed a slope of 1 in 12 (8-V3%)."
3305 (g) 2
Stair Landing Requirements
"On all floors above the first floor a space at least 25 inches by 42 inches shall be provided for one wheel chair in each stairway enclosure as an area of refuge for handicapped persons confined to wheelchairs where exits useable by the handicapped persons are not provided. This refuge area shall be required only in buildings with elevators to upper floors."
site considerations parking
Parking spaces for handicapped persons must be 12'-6" wide to allow opening of doors fully for loading and unloading wheelchairs, and must have above ground sign [^designating the space for the handicapped only.
A painted sign on the pavement is also recommended in addition to the above ground
Parallel parking may also be used, provided at least 4'-0" clear space to side is available af same level as the parking space. Some such spaces should be on the drivers side and some on the passenger side.
In existing parking lots, it may be less costly to sacrifice two regular parking spaces to make one handicapped space.
install pipe or sign or curb to prevent entry of second vehicle into space
ffftit wfi niftier ytfin route of trouel
Route of travel from parking spaces to buildings should provide:
1. Curb ramps at points of pedestrian flow.
2. Smooth, hard, clean, slip-resistant surface with no abrupt change in level of more than
3. 4'-0" minimum width.
4. No hazards such as low chains, posts, or low overhanging objects such as signs.
5. Gradual slopes, if any.
6. Handrails at steep slopes.
7. Places to rest where distances are great.
entrance approam ramps
Ramps must have 5'-0" x 5'-0" level platforms at top and bottom, must be at least 4'-0" wide, must not exceed 1 in 12 slope, must have handrails on both sides that are 2'-8 high and extend 1-6" [*] beyond top and bottom of ramp
Surfaces of ramps must be slip-resistant materials.
See tables on page 13 for space requirements for ramps of known floor elevation (R) above ground. For additional information on ramps, see pp. 32-33.
Earthwork can be used to provide smooth, gradually sloping approaches to entrance floor levels.
rtEn*,nI flrfP OI1-
When distance from main floor to ground is greater than distance from ground level to basement floor, it may be more economical to put ramps in below ground level to provide access to lower level. Building must have means of vertical transportation such as elevators.
Ramps below ground can have exactly the same configurations as ramps above ground level. See page 13.
Entrance doors and platforms below ground level must meet all requirements for entrances and must have adequate provisions for drainage.
entrance approach space requirements for ramps
SWITCH BACK RAMP L-SHAPE
3' level space when X or Y exceeds 30 long
5' X 5
L-X +10 .t-
R r 2' 3' 4' 5' 6'
X 12' 24' 39' 51' 63' 75'
L 22' 34' 49' 61' 73' 85
Note: Tables assume flat sites and 1 in 12 slopes.
Sites which slope may require longer or shorter ramps depending on direction of ramp and slope of site. Ramps should be oriented to minimize their length.
R 1' 2' 3' 4' 5 6'
X 6 12' 18' 24' 30' 39
L 16' 22' 28' 34' 40' 49'
Wherever possible the length of the slope of ramps should be evenly divided.
L = total length of ramp R = rise
X and Y = length of the slope
R 1' 2' 3' 4' 5' 6'
X + Y 12' 24' 36' 48' 60' w
IP wrX//. w
Whenever either X or Y exceeds 30 add 3' for rest area.
Accessible exists should be remotely located from each other.
rro fire ewiti
Buildings modified for accessibility should provide at least two remotely located accessible entrances for exit in case of emergencies.
Emergency exit from upper floors of multistory buildings by severely disabled persons who are dependent upon elevators for vertical transport is a serious concern because elevators usually cannot be used during a fire.
Accessibility should, however, be provided to all floors if possible, and measures taken for fire prevention. Early detection and control of fire and a plan for emergency rescue should be developed.
clear opening will permit
I difficult passage of
! 4" f
average-size adult wheelchair but will still prohibit passage of larger sizes.
Existing doors which provide a clear opening of at least 2'-4" as shown, can be negotiated with difficulty by people in average adult wheelchairs if adequate clear and level space is available each side of the door to allow chair to enter and leave the door opening at 90 to the wall. This will require about 5'-0" each side of door.
Double door vestibules with less than 6'-6" between the consecutive doors should be modified. See illustration page 37.
Clear space is required on the pull side of doors on the handle side. Space should be maximum with 18" minimum]*]- Furnishings, movable equipment, and walls if possible should be moved back to provide this space. Where walls cannot be moved, doors should have very light pressure closers or preferably no closer. Doors without closers should have auxiliary handles as shown on page 24.
If X exceeds Vi threshold should be modified. [*]
wood or other
hardware & thresholds
Doors which have automatic closers should have 10" high smooth kick plate at bottom on push side.
Rooms should be marked by large, raised lettering in sharply contrasting colors located on the wall to the side of the door on the handle side.
Thresholds with abrupt changes in level of more than Vi" can block wheelchairs and walking aids and trip walking people. Such thresholds are usually found at toilet rooms which have tile floors. Thresholds with such rises should be replaced with low or sloped thresholds which blend with floor levels or have maximum Vi "-Vi" vertical rise.
toilet rooms entrances
PRIVACY SCREENS AND VESTIBULES
Often existing privacy screens in toilet rooms are so close to door as to make it impossible for a wheelchair to make the necessary turn. Such screens must be removed or relocated to allow at least 3 -6" clear.
Very often existing toilet room doors are narrower than other doors. Doors must provide 32" clear opening with door in its 90 open position. See page 21.
privacy screen or wall
Remove one door.
Swing both doors out.
il ri ii
Double door vestibules on toilet rooms are often inescapable traps for persons in wheelchairs.
This problem is best corrected by removing one door.
Where two doors are deemed necessary they should both be made to swing out of the vestibule.
toilet rooms dear floor space
Turning space for wheelchairs is an important consideration in toilet rooms. The N.C. Building Code requires a 5'-0" X 5'-0 clear floor space for this purpose.
The illustration on this page demonstrates the need for this 5'-0" X 5'-0" space to 10"[*| above floor, at which height clear turning space may reduce to approximately 4'-0".
Above 2'6", the clear space could be further reduced to approximately 3'-0.
5'-0" X 5'-0" clear from floor to ceiling is desirable. Where space is limited, fixtures may overhang the 5'-0" X 5'-0" floor space as shown.
Protruding wall-hung objects should be located where they will not be a hazard to the blind.
toilet rooms dear floor space
Clear floor space is necessary in toilet rooms to allow wheelchair persons to maneuver to approach the various fixtures, and to allow a 180 turn to exit a room without having to back out.
Where 5'-0'' X 5'-0" space cannot reasonably be accomplished in existing toilet rooms, space as shown will allow a maneuvering 180 turn.
Such space must not be obstructed by fixtures, waste receptacles, or other items.
toilet rooms tronsfer
The two methods of wheelchair to water closet transfer shown are used by most handicapped people and are the methods usually used in homes.
Minimum space required for these transfer methods is 5 -0'' X5-0".
Proper grab bars are essential and should be 1 V2" diameter with 1V2" clearance from wall. Grab bars should be mounted 13" above toilet seat.
Approaches water closet from side. Removes arm rest. Places one hand on grab bar, other hand on chair.
motion, shifts torso onto water closet seat
90 TRANSFER METHOD
Backs chair in parallel to water closet. Removes arm rest on chair. With one hand on water closet seat, other on chair,
i I i
lifts and slides onto seat. Maintains balance by using grab bar and wheelchair.
new grab bar 13" above seat remove existing water closet
remove existing partitions and doors
new partition and door
5'-0" X 5'-0" STALL
toilet rooms Approach to water closet
Standard toilet stalls in existing toilet rooms may be 2'-6" wide by 4-8" or 5'-0 deep.
In such rooms with multiple fixtures, necessary 5'-0" x 5'-0" space for approach to water closet can easily be provided by removing one water closet and partitions as shown and installing one new partition panel with 2'-10 wide outswinging door and grab bar.
In toilet rooms where one water closet cannot be sacrificed or where space is extremely limited a 3'-0 x 6'-0 deep stall can be installed with two 4'-6" long grab bars. However this stall cannot be used by many handicapped people and will cost more due to necessity of two grab bars and more new partitions.
3'-0" width is essential for this type of stall and will not fit readily into existing group stalls which are usually 2'-6 wide.
Note: Other possible toilet room configurations are contained in the Illustrated Handbook.
toilet rooms small spaces
Where space is extremely limited and 5'-0" X 5'-0" space cannot be provided, a minimal 3' X 6' enclosed space as shown could provide limited but accessible toilet facilities.
Door must swing out, lavatory must be located outside of enclosed space.
Minimum size toilet room with out-swinging door and 5'-0" X 5'-0" floor space. 6" of floor space may be under front edge of water closet.
X = 5'-0" + depth of water closet minus 6".
Lavatories must be located as close as possible to side wall and must have 2'-6 (*] clear spa (low cl'irt.
Minimum size toilet room with in-swinging door.
Door may overlap 5'-0" X 5'-0" floor space so long as there is at least 4'-0" clear space beyond edge of door in its 90 position.
THE IVIl FI 101
IN A VHEELCHAIR.
(a)THE AVENGE UNIL^TECM VERTICAL REACH IS GO*.
(MTHE AVERAGE HORIZONTAL WORKING REACH IS 30 6".
(c) THE BILATERAL HORIZONTAL REACH(BOTH ARMS EXTENDED TO SIDE SHOULDER HIGH)AVERACES 645'.
(d) THE DIAGONAL REACH, AS FOR WALL MOUNTED PHONE, IS 46" FROM THE FLOOR.
4) THE INDIVIDUAL FUNCTIONING ON CRUTCHES^ WALKERS.
la) INDIVIDUALS 5-6' TALL REQUIRE 31" BETWEEN CRUTCH TIPS.
lb) INDIVIDUALS 6*O' TALL REQUIRE 32.5" BETWEEN CRUTCH TIPS.
"I sit down; I try to imagine the wildest of things. Its a process of madness."
The Acoma St. Shops and Residences is a mixed-use development occupying a half-block area of the Civic Center District in downtown Denver. Sixty residential units and ten shops are proposed for the project, also involving the adaptive reuse of the existing Evans School building. Thirty-six residences and project support spaces are to be accommodated in the existing school. Additional new construction will be divided between ten retail shops at grade and twenty-four residential units. The project total in gross square feet is 97,300 with total assigned square footage of leasable space figuring 66,000. Taking into account support spaces, (not including circulation and mechanical), a building efficiency ratio of approximately 75/25, assigned: unassigned, is projected. Additionally, on-site parking for 110 cars is planned, as well as 5,000 s.f. of open space.