Rehabilitation Center for the Visually Impaired

Material Information

Rehabilitation Center for the Visually Impaired an architectural program
Bain, Ann
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
119 pages, [11] plates : illustrations, plans (some color) ; 22 x 28 cm


Subjects / Keywords:
Rehabilitation centers -- Designs and plans -- Colorado -- Denver ( lcsh )
Blind -- Rehabilitation -- Colorado -- Denver ( lcsh )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )


Includes bibliographical references (page 118).
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for a Master's degree in Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
Ann Bain.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
08815377 ( OCLC )
LD1190.A72 1982 .B34 ( lcc )

Full Text
ARCHIVES 1 LD 1190 A72 1982
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The History 2-4
The Law 5
The Center 6-15
The Region 17-23
The Weather 24-35
The Site 37-43
The Code 45-57
The Program 59-111
The Wheelchair 111
Parking 113
An Example 115
The Vocabulary 116-117
References 1 18
The Timing 119
Special Thanks 121

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The lot of the blind person has never been particularly easy. The congenitally blind individual has the advantage of learning adaptive behavior from the very start and the disadvantage of having never seen those things he/she hears, touches, smells, and tastes. The advantitiously blind individual has the advantage of previous visual knowledge, yet often the disadvantage of sudden loss and the necessity of hasty adaptation (Loss of sight may also be gradual, as is often the case as a result of disease.)
However, the situation of the blind person of today is quite an improvement over that of the blind person in the history books. Lycurgus of Sparta and Solon of Athens had blind infants destroyed. Plato and Aristotle approved of this practice. In Rome baskets were sold at the market place so that malformed/deformed children could be drowned in the Tiber. In other regions the blind were left to fend for themselves in remote areas. From earliest times, the blind individual was not given the chance to live, much less given a productive role in society.
Certain religions addressed the blind invidual's situation. These religions proferred life and the hope for happiness to the blind. Buddha spoke of "being a light and a healer to those who live in blindness." In the Jewish faith the following quotes are found: "The Lord opens the eyes of the blind." "The blind man is as one dead." And Jesus, of the Christian religion was preoccupied with healing the blind.
Blinding has historically been a tool for punishment, often considered a fate worse than death. The Old Testament, used by both the Jewish and

Christian faiths contains many such accounts.
One example is that of Sodom, in which the wicked were blinded for their sins. In Babylon and Nineveh eyes were put out with hot irons for punishment. An English judge (Brockton) had the perpetrator's eyes put out for "deflowering" a virgin.
Blindness as punishment may also be self-inflicted as is the case with Oedipus. He blinded himself for his congress with his mother.
Much association has been made between sight and sex. Freud equated eyes and sight with the errogenous zones. The word for maiden is the same as the word for pupil in several languages: pupilla Latin, nina Spanish, kopn Greek.
The Egyptian god Ptah brought forth other gods from his eyes, thereby using them as sexual organs. Athena blinded Tiresias (punishment again) because he saw her naked. Scotophilia is the love of looking, for sexual gratification. Exhibitionism is the love of being seen, for sexual gratification. In our language there exists the voyeur and the peeping Tom for which there are no commensurate terms or concepts in the other senses.
Sight is the sense to which we defer above the other senses. Our mental conceptions are thoroughly imbued with visual terms, i.e. "imagination." There is no corollary word in terms of the other senses. Visual dominance is illustrated in the following phrases and words: see the point, take a look, I see, I'll believe it when I see it, insight, love at first sight. Sighted individuals tend to trust their vision before they trust their other senses.

Because humanity leans so heavily for information from the sense of sight, it historically was believed that congenitally blind children had no "imagination" and therefore were unable to learn.
From this harsh stance, the history of the blind has had three major phases: that of the mendicant or beggar, the segregation or asylum period, and that of rehabilitation and integration.
While the mendicant phase was predominant in the 18th century, it actually has permeated history.
In India today, children may be blinded by their parents so that they may better serve as mendicants .
The 18th century was nicknamed the "century of beggars" although they had prevailed in acute numbers since the 15th century. The secular asylum for the blind originated as a means to counter the number of beggars. (In China ghettos for the blind existed in which they banded together to beg.) The sighted wanted to keep the sightless off of the streets. The asylum was a means to hiding the blind, not curing nor helping.
Religious asylums prevailed before the Reformation broke the power of the church. L'Hopital des Quinze-Vingts was the most famous and long lived. It was founded by King Louis IX in 1254. Within its walls the blind married, had children, etc. It operated as a brotherhood, and served as a model for other brotherhoods which sprang up in Italy, Spain, and other parts of Europe.
The late 18th and early 19th centuries mark the beginning of a type of release for the visually impaired. These years mark the beginning of freedom through education. Following breakthroughs by educators/scientists/interested people such as Haiig (3784), Kiein (1804) and Howe (1832), schools for the blind began to dot the map.
Many types of raised, relief, or embossed lettering systems were invented, and not until after the death of Louis Braille was his system widely acclaimed or used. His system began as musical rotation and evolved into an alphabet based on a six dot format.
Today, schools, rehabilitation centers, employment, and a place in society exist for the visually impaired. (It should be noted that historically status for the blind was nonexistent, or extraordinarily difficult to attain-largely due to the attitudes of the sighted. Exceptions include the Buddhist priests and masseurs of Japan and the readers of tea leaves, or fortune tellers of China. In other individual cases status was achieved through seemingly miraculous powers; Homer's gift of poetry, Demodocus' gift of song, for example.)

Schools segregationist in nature exist for instruction of the blind. Due to recent legislation, blind children may also choose to run the course of their educations alongside their sighted peers.
As an aid towards integration with society, rehabilitation centers (such as this one) exist. Here the visually impaired are taught orientation and mobility techniques, home living skills, are trained for employment in a sighted environment, etc.
Today the blind and visually impaired occupy virtually every rung on the ladder. Stil.1, however, the sighted world unthinkingly creates harriers. Among these barriers is included the barrier produced by buildings. Legislation (.following page) has been produced as a means of curbing these barriers much more can be done.
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Legislation to Make Buildings and Facilities Accessible to and Usable by the Physically Handicapped.
1. Definition of "Physically Handicapped".
The terra "physically handicapped", as used in accessibility legislation includes persons in the following categories:
a) Non-ambulatory disabilities those which confine the individual to a wheelchair.
b) Semi-ambulatory disabilities those which allow the individual to walk with difficulty, perhaps with the aid of braces or crutches. This may include amputees, arthritics, victims of stroke and partial paralysis, cardiac and pulmonary patients, and the grossly overweight .
c) Disabilities of incoordination.
d) Sight disabilities blindness or impaired visual ability to perceive signals or dangerous situations.
e) Hearing disabilities deafness or impaired ability to hear warning signals or communicate.
f) General disabilities due to aging.
g) Temporary disabilities due to broken limbs, sprains, illness, pregnancy, etc.
2 Federal Legislation.
Public Law 93-112 of 1973: sets up an Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board having substantial powers and responsibilities in investigation and enforcing compliance with
Public Law 90-480, (Architectural Barriers Act of 1968) amended by Public Law 91-205 of 1970, the basis of which is
American National Standards Institute Standard Ai17.1-1961 (R1971) entitled "American Standard Specifications for Making Buildings and Facilities Accessible to, and Usable by the Physically Handicapped."
Public Law 93-51.6 (Affirmative Action Obligations of Contractors and Sub-Contractors for Handicapped workers) Section 741.5 (c)l. Physical Access to the Placement Office and Job Site.
3. Colorado Legislation
Title 9 Article 5 Colorado Revised Statutes 1975.
Concerning Public Building Construction Requirements, and Extending Such Requirements to Certain Privately Funded Public Buildings.
4. Special Needs
Areas of concern which are at present not covered by building standard legislation -residential housing and recreational facilities .

The Rehabilitation Center for the Visually Impaired presently is located at 100 East 7th Avenue, approximately one block southeast of Denver General Hospital. The Rehabilitation Center originally was established in 1938 as the Workshop for the Blind, and was operated as a "sheltered workshop," manufacturing brooms in the same building which it now occupies. As a sheltered workshop, its mission was limited to providing employment for blind or legally blind persons who were additionally handicapped, or too old for competitive industrial or commercial employment.
The Workshop administrators realized, however, that they could best serve their clients if they developed programs which would be more effective in developing fully the potential of each employee for competitive employment. In 1969/1970, a limited number of the work stations in the broom factory were established as training facilities, rather than serving only as employment stations.
In 1971, evaluation and training programs were established with staff from the Colorado Department of Rehabilitation. As this staff increased from 1 to 6, programs in orientational and mobility training were added.
Unhappy with poor working conditions, low salaries, limited employment opportunities, and uninteresting work tasks, several of the blind employees conducted a walk-out in 1976. This walkout focused attention on the facility and stimulated the interest of individual State Legislators. With this Legislative support, the Workshop was reorganized in 1976 as the Rehabilitation Center for the Visually Impaired. The emphasis of the program, however, continued to be in providing evaluation
and training for vocational rehabilitation clients whose goals were to enter employment in regular industry and commerce. Long-term employment, however, remains a secondary program, available to those who are unable to work outside of the Center.
In 1977, the Rehabilitation Center for the Visually Impaired served 220 clients, and is continuing to develop and implement programs which will further its overall objectives.
It became apparent that in order to further its overall objectives, more adequate facilities were needed.
In January, 1978, Alex Frank Orkow & Associates submitted a completed Program Plan for the Rehabilitation Center for the Visually Impaired. This Program Plan was based upon requirements as determined by consulting with personnel from the Rehabilitation Center; and evaluations of the existing facility.
THE CENTER history
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In December, 1979, Alex Frank Orkow & Associates evaluated the property at West Evans and South Vallejo, and determined that it would be suitable for occupancy by the Rehabilitation Center. The 26,000 sq.ft, within these two buildings was sufficient to accommodate the projected spatial requirements; and the projected renovation costs of $500,000 were likely to be acceptable to State legislative and administrative bodies. The Rehabilitation Center decided to move into this property, and leased it.
On September 8, 1980, Alex Frank Orkow & Associates was retained as Architect for the project. The first work necessary was to update the Program Plan, originally prepared in January, 1978, and modified in August, 1978.
The Program revisions of August, 1978, describe a building which was intended to house only manufacturing activities, and those areas directly associated with them. By the time the building at West Evans was evaluated, the primacy of these manufacturing activities (although still significant) was reduced; and other, more general evaluation/rehabilitation programs described in the original Program Plan of January, 1978, were re-introduced.
The modified Program Plan prepared by Orkow and Associates and submitted in February, 1981, reflects the cumulative philosophic and program modifications within the administration of the Rehabilitation Center and the Colorado Department of Social Services Division of Rehabilitation since the original Program Plan was prepared in January, 1978. The most significant of these are as follows: (The square footages indicated are from the original program.)
1) Complete deletion of mop and broom manufacturing activities (9,545 sq.ft.)
2) Greater emphasis on Evaluation/Counseling programs to place clients into work programs with greater potential for significant development than mop and broom manufacturing can offer. Also, greater emphasis on programs geared towards personal development, such as daily living and communication skills.
3) Deletion of the following programs (Total: 10,140 sq.ft.)
a. Movement Therapy 1,200 sq.ft.
b. Photographic Processing Laboratory -2,335 sq.ft.
c. Tennis Racket Stringing Area 600 sq.ft.
d. Special Organizations Room 675 sq.ft.
e. Vending Facility Program 2,555 sq.ft.
f. Home Industries 2,775 sq.ft.
4) Reduction of Shipping/Storage Areas from 13,250 sq.ft, to 3,545 sq.ft. Most of this area originally was necessary because of the larger storage requirements of the mop and broom manufacturing activities.
5) Reduction of HVAC spaces, Toilets, Corridors, General Building Support Areas, etc. from 16,070 sq.ft, to less than 4,000 sq.ft.
The programmed area of the facility thus was reduced by 41,460 sq.ft, from the 62,870 originally programmed in January, 1978.
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After building design was begun, the Rehabilitation Center decided that offices for the Vending Facility Program (now called the Business Enterprises Program) should be added to the facilities; and that Home Industries (although reduced in square footage, and integrated with the Sub-Contract Area) should be added. It was further decided by the Rehabilitation Center that the Snackbar, which had been conceived of as an evaluation facility (as well as providing food for the Center's clients and staff) should be expanded into a comprehensive training facility administered by the Business Enterprises Program. As such, it would supplant an existing training facility now at the Colorado School for the Deaf and Blind, in Colorado Springs.
All of these programmatic changes were initiated by the Rehabilitation Center and the Division of Rehabilitation in their continuing efforts to provide responsive, meaningful programs for their clients. Rather than run the risk of clients manufacturing mops and brooms with little prospect of ever gaining truly meaningful employment, it was determined that such a program should be administered somewhere other than at this rehabilitation center.
Given the refined program which Alex Orkow & Associates sensitively defined, construction was begun in late October, 1981 using the existing building shells at West Evans and South Vallejo.
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Over the past five years, the emphasis of the Rehabilitation Center's programs has shifted from providing only sheltered employment to providing comprehensive vocational rehabilitation services. The objectives of the Rehabilitation Center for the Visually Impaired in providing these services are as follows:
o To enable blind and visually handicapped people to develop the self-sufficiency to pursue specific training for employment.
o To enable blind and visually handicapped people to choose a vocation and obtain the appropriate training for it.
o To enable blind and visually handicapped people to obtain and be successful in competitive employment.
The Center continues to provide long-term vocational adjustment for severely handicapped people who cannot enter the labor market. However, this employment is integrated into the total range of rehabilitation programs offered by the Center.
In order to achieve its rehabilitation objectives, the Rehabilitation Center for the Visually Impaired provides individualized gradient steps of vocational progression towards competitive employment. Skill training and orientation and mobility training complement each individual's vocational training, and are also provided for individuals not requiring the Center's other services.
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The overall relationships of the different phases of the total program offered by the Rehabilitation Center for the Visually Impaired are described by the accompanying diagram. This diagram shows that within the Rehabilitation Center there are two general areas: The Skills Center and the Production Area. Linking the two is a Vocational Adjustment Program. An individual will progress through the Skills Center, the Vocational Adjustment Program, and the different areas of the Production Area in an indefinite period of time, depending on his productive ability and development of acceptable work habits.
prog ram s & organ ization

The services provided by the Rehabilitation Center for the Visually Impaired are designed to help the individual client achieve his greatest level possible in employment training, with normal, competitive employment being the ultimate objective. In order to achieve this objective, the clients of the Center often must learn (or relearn) skills which sighted persons often take for granted. These may include personal care and grooming skills; homemaking skills; orientation and mobility skills; and, of course, specific skills for different types of employment.
Not all the clients of the Rehabilitation Center for the Visually Impaired need the same types or amounts of counseling and training to overcome their additional physical or emotional disabilities which compound the difficulties presented by blindness. Others may have been referred by other social service agencies, and require only specific types of training, while yet others may require no training at all, but only vocational counseling.
The Rehabilitation Center for the Visually Impaired lias evolved, within the framework of its objectives, a comprehensive, flexible program of evaluation, counseling and training. This program is designed to respond effectively to the specific requirements of different individuals with varying degrees of disabilities.
Its structure allows an individual to enter Lhe program at any level which evaluation and counseling determines is appropriate, and at which it is certain the individual will meet with success. Individual counseling, evaluation and achievement in training determines the amount of time any person spends in any phase of the total
program. Within this structure, a person can skip phases or even repeat phases, depending on his achievement and confidence.
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THE CENTER programs organization
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Within the Skills Center the client learns non-vocational skills necessary to have the self-sufficiency to pursue specific training for employment. These might include such skills as mobility (use of the long, white cane), cooking, cleaning, personal grooming, communication (braille and typing), and use of low-vision aids. These living skills are taught in the Home Arts/Communication and Orientation and Mobility programs. The specialists who direct these two programs receive client referrals from the State Services for the Visually Impaired, as well as work with people who already are clients of the Rehabilitation Center. Some individuals may require only training received in these two programs.
The actual vocational sequence of the Rehabilitation Center also begins in the Skills Center. The Work Sample Area of the Skills Center provides individual and group services in counseling, guidance, and Vocational Evaluation. It is here that clients produce their first pieces of different types of work. These work samples and the counseling and guidance sessions all help the Center to evaluate work skills and habits, and communicate abilities.
Individuals who have difficulties in work skills and work habits are moved into the Vocational Adjustment Program. This program concentrates on improving specific attitudes and work habits. It also provides a chance for evaluation of more sophisticated work samples leading to more skilled jobs such as receptionist training or janitorial training. The Vocational Adjustment Program thus serves as a transition from the Skills Center into the Vocational Production Area.
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After preliminary success in the Vocational Adjustment Program, an individual will be evaluated, trained and counseled for placement in the Sub-Contract Program of the Vocational Production Area. This extended phase of the Vocational Evaluation and Vocational Adjustment programs provides opportunities for clients to harden newly-acquired skills and gain important confidence in their abilities. They work on subcontracts from private industry, and are paid on a piece-work basis for a period which should not be longer than six months. Emphasis is placed on attitude, dependability, promptness, and speed and quality of production.
1. Evaluation and Training for Intensive Skills
The last vocational rehabilitation program which is totally within the Vocational Production Area is Evaluation and Training for Intensive Skills. This is a program in which a person is evaluated on his ability to perform a specific skilled job, and guided realistically towards those types of jobs in which they will be most successful. A person is then given a training position for a specific skilled job. The difference between this program and earlier evaluation phases is that the individual has been found to have the ability to learn a given skilled job, and only requires more time in training.
The final step in the vocational rehabilitation sequence is to assist the individual into meaningful, competitive employment.
Within the coming year, transitional programs, similar to on-the-job-training will be developed within industry itself to provide further vocational training and personal adjustment for individuals moving from the sheltered environment of the Rehabilitation Center to the more productive expectations of private enterprise. All clients will be provided with vocational and personal follow-up services as required, including possible repetition of any of the programs offered by the Rehabilitation Center.
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2. Special Vocational Rehabilitation Programs
The program sequence just described is designed for those individuals capable of entering private employment. However, there are persons who require even more intensive work adjustment programs and services, as well as those, whose production is so limited as to require long-term adjustment.
The Rehabilitation Center is in the process of developing an Intensive Work Adjustment Program, which will be further vocational evaluation and vocational adjustment, using sub-contract, piece-work employment as a rehabilitation vehicle. Individuals in this program will be those who require intensive, long-term counseling and training to overcome their minimal productive capabilities.
Also in the process of being developed is a work Activity Program, for those severely disabled persons who cannot achieve reasonable production minimums, and who require additional personal and social adjustment services. Thus, any blind person who completes training and who wishes to work would be able to do so. This program would be primarily for the severely disabled or aged.
Related to the Work Activity Program is the Home-Bound Program. This, again, provides employment on a sub-contract basis for the severely diabled and aged. These people, however, are unable to work outside of their homes. This program is in the process of being expanded.
The Regular Program is designed for persons who are productive in almost all respects and have the basic ability to work, but for social or other reasons are not able to enter competitive employment. These are the people who are employees of the Rehabilitation Center for the Visually Impaired, and work in different sub-contract areas of Vocational Production Area. The program consists of subcontract work from private enterprise, such as sorting parts for the Coors Porcelain Company; stringing tennis rackets; and work for the Federal Government General Services Administration, Work also includes manufacturing brooms, mops, home industry items (pot holders, aprons), and engraving name plates and badges.
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Roadway, railroad and air travel are the primary modes of transportation used in the region of the Rehabilitation project. While roadways serve most areas, railroad travel is concentrated on lines passing through Denver and airplane travel facilities are interspersed throughout the region
Railroads in the region are concentrated around Denver. These include the Union Pacific and Burlington-Northern Railroad lines. Although there is variation in routes, most of the lines pass through Denver.
Airport facilities located within the region include Stapleton International Airport in Denver and a variety of noncommercial private facilities in Adams, Arapahoe, Weld and Denver counties.
The site for the Rehabilitation Center is served by the Crosstown //21 bus which travels between Wadsworth and Colorado Boulevards.
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During the history of Denver, only one earthquake of damaging proportions has been reported near Denver. In the mid-1960's, however, several mild earthquakes occurred. These earthquakes centered around the Rocky Mountain Arsenal Well, where millions of gallons of contaminated water were injected into the highly faulted pre-Cambrian bedrock. In the future, it is unlikely that major earthquakes will occur in the Denver area. It will probably not be necessary to incorporate earthquake lateral force considerations into design features for the Rehabilitation Center.
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The Metropolitan Denver region is located along the western periphery of the high plains of Colorado, which slope gently upward for almost 300 km (186 miles) from the eastern border of the state to the base of the foothills of the Rocky Mountains. The relief can be characterized as rolling prairie, with some hills and ridges intersected by nearly flat floodplains along watercourses. Much of the land currently under cultivation, mostly to the east and northeast of Denver, is nearly flat and level. Most of the land in Adams and Arapahoe counties has a slope equal to or less than 9 percent.
Elevation in the eastern plains sector of Colorado ranges from 1,020 m (3,350 ft.) at the lowest point in the state (where the Arkansas River crosses the border) to about 1,600 m (5,280 ft.) around the Denver area. West of Denver, the plains give way abruptly to the foothills, with elevations of 2,100 m to 2,750 m (6,890 ft. to 9,025 ft.).
Many rivers and creeks flow out of the mountains and foothills, mostly in a south-to-north direction through the Denver region, in the Platte Drainage watershed. The South Platte River and Cherry Creek flow through the heart of Denver.
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The Metropolitan Denver area is water-deficient. It is through large-scale transmountain diversions that the demands of the area are balanced with imported supplies. Intricate and longstanding water rights and allocations dictate ownership and use of the existing and developed supplies. Municipalities, irrigated farms, industries, recreation projects, fisheries and stream aesthetic requirements impose cumulative and sometimes conflicting demands upon quality and quantity of water in the area.
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Surface Water
Even though the area is interlaced with many of the tributaries of the South Platte River, most of the creeks in the easLern part of the area are dry during most parts of the year. Some streambeds are wet only on rare occasions: once every several years. Streams draining the western parts of the Metropolitan Denver area flow during most of the year and include St. Vrain Creek, Boulder Creek, Coal Creek,
Big Dry Creek, Clear Creek, Sand Creek, Cherry Creek, Bear Creek, Plum Creek and many smaller creeks. Many diversion structures across streams on the western slopes of the Continental Divide have been constructed to transfer water through the mountains to the eastern slopes and to discharge the water in the above-mentioned streams. These water diversions, reservoirs built on the creeks themselves, groundwater withdrawals, irrigation diversions and their return flows have drastically changed natural flow patterns in these streams.
During the period 1966 through 1970, annual stream flow into the Metropolitan Denver area totaled 450 million cubic meters (185,600 cfsd), 95 percent of which was diverted from the streams. Fully 38 percent of the streamflow into the Denver Area in that period was wastewater treatment plant effluents from upstream areas, and over half of the water leaving the metropolitan area was generated within the area.
not if The lakes in and around the metropolitan area are of special significance. Most of the lakes were used for irrigation before the area became heavily urbanized. Most are now used for recreation and as centers of real estate development. There are some 50 lakes with surface areas greater than 25 acres, with a total combined area of 9,108 acres and a total shoreline of 15 miles. The three largest lakes are:
Lake Surface Area (acres)
There are another 113 lakes of 5 to 25 acre surface area, with a total area of 1,300 acrc3 and a shoreline of 68 miles.
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Characteristic Criterion Denver County Adams County Census tract 084a
Total population Numbers of people 514,678 185,789 2,233
Mobility/stability Lived in same house, 1965-1970 44.0: 46.62 50.62
Commuting patterns WorP. in county of residence 32.72 69.42
Education Higli school graduates. 25+ yrs old 61.51 62.72 58.02
College graduates, 25-i- yrs old 15.52 8.62 5.22
Family size Children born/women married, 35-44 yrs old 3.0 3.0 2.7
Income Median family Income $ 9,654 $10,409 5 6,374
Age Median age 28.6 22.8 28.2
Farm population Number of farm-related Jobs: farmers, mgrs, foremen, workmen 1,020 1,613 277
Farm and related jobs/100,000 population 198 868 1189
Approximately the eastern two-thirds of Adans County.
Source: 1970 Census of Population and Housing (Reference 64); 1970 Census of Population (Reference 65).
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2- GRASSLANDS Of THE FLAINS-Biu* grsms. sand dropseed,thrse-
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3- GRASSLANDS OF THE fLAINS-San raad, bluest**, sand drop-
stad and sand sage on sandhills.
4- GRASSLANDS OF THE FOOTHILLS-Whestgress, needlegrsss, sand
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5- WOODLANDS OF THE LOWER MOUNTAINS-With stands of pondar-
oss pin# (and often Gaobel Oak) with Douglas-fir, blot spruce, vhitt fir and occasional aspln mixed with feacuc, ouhly, bluegraaa, shrubs and fotbs. b-WOODLANDS AND GRASSLANDS OF StDALflNE ARTAS-Wlth stands of spruce and fir ot lodgapnl* pine, or aspen.
Thurber's fescue grassland parks intermingle with timbered aress.
7-GRASSLANDS AND MEADOWS OF ALPINE REGIONS ABOVE TIMBERLINE With aedgss. grass, willow, birch and forbs.

Local Climatological Data 'c Annual Summary With Comparative Data r* -
1978 \ w y
Narrative Climatological Summary
Denver enjoys the aild, sunny, ssal-arld clluce thee prevalla over Much of che central Rocky Mountain region, without the extreaely cold mornings of the high elavetlona and restricted Mountain valleys during the cold part of the year, or the hot afternoons of auaeter at lower altitudes. Extreaely wans or cold weachsr la usually of short duration.
Air aaasea froa at least four different sources Influence Denver's weather: arctic air froa Canada and Alaska; wara aoiac air froa che Culf of Mexico; wara dry air from Mexico and che southwest; and Pacific air Modified by its paasage over coastal ranges and other Mountains to the west.
The good cllasts results largely froa Denver's location at the foot of the east alope of the Rocky Nouncalna In the belt of the prevailing weacerliea. During oust tuner afternoons cuaulifora clouds so shade che City that ceaperacures of 10* or ovar are reached on an average of only thirty-two days of che year, and In only one year in five does the aercury very briefly reach cha 100* aark.
In che cold seaaon che high altitude and the location of cha Mountains to che west coabiue to aodarata leaperaturas. Invasions of cold air froa the north, intensified by the high altitude, can be abrupt and severe. On che ocher hand, aany of che cold air nasaea that spread southward out of Canada ovar cha plains never reach Denver's altitude and move off over che lower plains to the east. Surges of cold air froa the west are usually noderared In their descent down the east face of che Mountains, and Chinooks resulting froa sene of chess westerly flows often raise cha taaperacura tar above chac normally to be expected ac this latitude In the cold seaaon. These conditions result In a reaper lug of winter cold to an average temperature above chat of ocher cities situated ac che saae latitude.
In aprlng when outbreaks uf polar air ara waning, they era often aat by aolat currants froa cha Gulf of Mexico. The Juxtaposition of these two currants produces cha rainy season In Denver, which reaches lea peak In May.
Situated a long distance froa any moisture scurce, and ^operated from cha Pacific source by several high aountain bartiara, Denver enjoys a low ralatlve humidity, low average preclplcatlon, and considerable sunshine.
Spring la cha waccaac, cloudiest, and windiest season. Much of che 17 percenc of the annuel total precipitation chat occurs In spring fails aa snow during the colder, earlier period of chac seaaon. Stormy perloda ara often Interspersed by screeches of alld sunny waachar chac raaove previous snow cover.
Suuser precipitation (about 12 percent of che ainual cocai), particularly In July and August, usually falls mainly froa scattered local thundershoweri during che afternoon and evuning. Mornings ara usually clear aud sunny. Clouds ofcan fora during early afternoon and cue off cha sunshine at what would otherwise be che hottest part of che day. Many afternoons hsvs a cooling shower.
Aucuan Is (he aosc pleasant season. Local luanr thunderstorms ars mostly ovar and invasions of cold air and savers weschar ara infrequent, so chac chars is lass cloudiness and a greater percent of possible sunshine than at any ocher tins of the year. Periods of unplsssanc waachar ars ganarally brlaf. Precipitation aaour.ts to about 20 percent of the annual total.
Ulncar has least precipitation accuaulation, only about 11 parcanc of cha annual tocel, and alaoac all of it snow. Precipitation frequency, however,* la higher chan In aucuian. Thera la also aura cloudiness and cha rsliCivt humidity averages higher then la the autumn. Uaachcr can be quite severe, but as a general rule che severity doesn't lsc long.

Meteorological Data For The Current Year
Station DiNvEA, CHL^IUDO STAPlETCN InTC*N4TIONAL AP Standard tima used HCiUNTAin Latitude: Ve '3' N Long.tuoe: 104* 32' U Elevalion (wound) *281 feel Year i7*
I 2*0*2 _____ _____________ ________ ___________________________________________________ _____________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________
Month Temperature F Degree dayi 6m 65 *F Macipitition in incfiw Relative hunudity, pet Mind II I Is i C fi Number of deyt Avr- -gestation pressure mb
Avar age* Extranet Water equivalent Snow, lev pellets 1 05 1 11 (Luv*i i 17 liriw 1 23 ReauifaiU 1 Si Fastest mile Sunriae tt sunset is H V t E i j £ 1 f 1 E X 3* Temperature "F
Maximum Minimum
s I if { I X I I I ? 1 i S I > in s 1 ¥- i j 1 1 I a u X E I! i I s a i o I! ! o (b) l\ '< ii Etev. 3332 faat m s.l
4*N 3?.5 14. 25.? 55 6 0 1 1206 0 0.27 0.13 15-16 3.5 2.3 23-24 69 33 34 66 04 1.0 5.9 29 NW 25 tv 6.9 t 9 16 6 3 0 2 0 V 31 i
FF8 *2.2 20. 31.4 66 23 7 17 936 0 0.27 0.13 11-1? 6.2 3.1 15-16 76 34 54 73 04 1.8 7.2 38 NE 20 73 6.6 4 11 13 6 2 0 8 0 7 2 8 0 833.4
hAK 57.0 29.6 43.2 77 31 3 4 665 0 1.07 0.67 ?2-23 6.61 4.5 2-3 60 39 33 53 34 0,6 a.i 27 W 16 84 6.4 9 ? 14 8 4 2 1 0 l 15 2 8 34.4
APH fc3.t 36.9 50.3 62 7 27 10 435 0 1.82 C.Dfc V 4.6 4.2 9 64 38 33 31 2 1.7 10.3 41 M 17 78 6.* 5 1 4 11 6 1 3 2 0 0 t 0 831 .7
MAY 07.1 41.7 5,. 4 67 15 23 7 335 12 3.46^ 1.12 30-1 13.3 8.9 5-6 69 43 4C 61 1 7 1.7 9.1 54 SF 16 45 6 1 9 8 14 12 3 5 1 0 0 2 0 833.4
JUN Hu. 4. 53.1 oo.y 9 24 41 1 §7 132 l.P 0.43 4-5 0.0 0.0 65 39 34 54 16 2.0 7.8 38 N 7 67 3.7 10 9 11 7 0 7 0 11 0 0 0 8*7.5
JUl VO.* 39.0 7a. 7 96 25 56 23 0 308 0.54 0.21 29 O.o O.C 62 30 26 43 14 1.4 b.3 34 NW 16 73 4.3 12 14 5 5 0 11 1 22 0 0 0 838.1
AtIG Hi.? 33.7 69.6 9* 17 44 15 20 171 0.26 0.11 2-3 O.o 0.0 63 31 30 52 16 1.3 a.2 42 N 1 73 4.7 10 14 7 7 0 6 0 12 0 0 0 639.e
SFP 1 .2 4 6.7 65.0 94 6 32 21 96 103 o.ol 0.07 19-20 T T 20 31 25 20 40 17 2.4 6.1 10 S 7 83 2.5 21 7 2 2 0 1 0 7 0 1 0 8J7.1
on 66.2 37.9 53.1 fit 1 2b 23 366 2 1.45 1.24 21-2? 2.7 1.7 22 54 31 26 *9 16 6.9 7.2 26 NE 4 74 4.0 19 5 7 9 2 0 0 0 0 8 0 839.5
N^V 4V.6 2#.7 37.6 7? a 6 27 611 0 G.50 0.35 23-26 6.9 4.8 23-26 66 45 46 63 04 O.i 7.2 2b Nw i* 96 6.0 1 1 6 13 3 2 0 4 0 5 24 0 535.8
DFC #6.9 12.3 26.6 57 4 -10 1243 0 0.82 0.38 5-6 1*.2 7.3 3-6 65 50 56 62 1*- 0.9 6.4 35 NE 9 72 5.3 10 10 11 7 4 0 1 0 9 31 4 632.4
TEAS 63.3 36.1 49.7 V8 25 -10 8 6202 748 11.70 1.24 21-22 62.2 8.9 3-6 64 40 38 36 14 0.6 a. l 34 SC 16 72 3.4 126 115 124 74 21 35 20 52 31 146 7 35.6
Means, And Extremes
I Temfiviatunr, *F Normal Degree days Bate 6b F Precipitation m indies Relative humidity pet Wind ! f £ i t 0 1 { i n > c ii Mean number of days Average
Normal Extremes WsU equivalent Snow. Ice pellets 8 X 03 1 1 11 oca i 17 tim. 1 23 I 1 I? Si II I attest mile Sunrise to sunset i? Is n li | t- £ £ i l to Tempera Max ures *F Min pressure mb.
i! A & 1 i i 1! i I! S > 1 ? J ] If k c i t i li 1 >- H 1 > II i 1 i >- 1? i > II i Q t > 1 3 ii s (b) ti li b fee it ?! t! ft*.
(> 44 44 44 44 44 44 44 11 16 16 1* *0 13 29 19 24 10 44 44 44 44 44 44 18 16 ! 1* 18 4
j 43. > 16.2 2 V. 9 72 1996 25 1963 10** 0 0.*1 1.44 1946 1452 not 23.7 1946 12.4 1*6? ti 45 4 6 63 9.1 S 13 h i*74 72 1.9 10 12 6 2 0 1 0 30 4 34,1
f 46.2 19.4 3 2.4 7c 196 3 JC 1936 902 0 C.67 1.66 I960 G.01 1970 i.oi 1913 18.1 1960 9.3 14J3 66 43 *2 6* 9.3 s 49 u% 1433 71 3.4 1 11 6 1 0 It **. >
N 50.1 n . 37.0 e* 1Y71 11 194} 6te 0 1.21 2.19 1944 0.11 14*5 1.46 l V J9 29.2 1461 16,3 1452 67 41 40 69 10.0 s 13 N* ii! 70 4.1 1 10 13 1 1 C 25 331,0
A 61.0 33.9 47.3 85 a>e -2 1973 523 0 1.41 4.P 1942 0,0 1463 3.29 1967 28.J 1433 17.3 14J? 68 38 33 54 10.4 s 16 Hi, 1460 67 4.1 T 10 13 9 1 1 0 * 12 412.9
M 70.3 43.6 17.0 96 il 22 3934 253 0 2.64 7.11 195 ' 0,06 1974 3.59 197J 13.6 145C 10.7 1*50 >0 96 36 60 9.6 s 14 If 1476 65 4,1 4 12 13 10 6 l a 0 1 0 U..0
J 80.i 51.9 66 0 1C4 1 4 36 30 1931 o no l.*l 4.64 196' 0.10 19,0 1.16 1970 0.3 1931 0.3 1491 71 31 36 60 9.1 s 67 * 1*34 71 1,1 9 ;I 1 9 10 6 614,1
J 7.4 3 8.6 73.0 i 04 1939 *.3 1972 0 248 1.76 6.41 |96v l 9*4 2.48 1465 0.0 0.0 70 36 95 37 6.9 s 6* 6* *445 7 i 4.4 9 14 6 9 0 11 19 0 0 0 639.0
A as.* 57.4 71.6 K1 1 938 41 1964 0 lot 1.24 4.47 Il95i i960 3.41 c.o 0.0 *5 li 33 3 6.2 s 48 N 1478 78 4,* 10 14 7 1 0 l 10 0 0 0 131,6
S 77,7 47.6 62.1 47 1 96P 20 1971 lto 94 1.13 4.67 196s 7 1944 2.4* 1 V16 11.3 1436 It.4 l* 89 38 33 60 1.2 I 47 NM 1433 7 J 4.1 11 10 7 6 1 l 1 0 1 0 36.7
0 66. 37.2 92.0 *e 1*41 2 1469 406 3 1.13 4,17 - 464 1962 1.71 1*47 11.2 1965 12.4 IS65 64 31 ii 38 1.2 s 43 Hb 1438 ti * A t* 1 3 1 1 l 0 * 0 136.1
N 51.2 23.4 39.4 79 i 94 ( - 1930 761 0 0.7t 2.97 946 0.01 19*9 i.i* 1*73 34. i l44fc 15.9 14*6 41 44 44 64 1.7 s 46 t 146? t5 9,*! 11 10 9 t l 0 2 25 131.4
6 46.2 18.9 32.C 74 *939 hi* 1972 1004 0 0.43 l.*4 1973 o.oi 19?7 1.1* 1473 30.1 1473 u.i 1473 43 44 e 64 9.0 t 61 Nl 1*33 6* n 10 10 5 2 0 1 0 ft 30 3 193.9
V* 64,0 36.2 §0.1 104 Sv}9 h30 ^916 6016 683 19.91 7.31 t4S' T S44 1.93 in 34.1 1946 19.4 l*}a *7 40 *V 6 9.0 6 id IN 1469 70;9.9! 116 111 111 96 1* 41 10 33 21 l 133*6
sn miliary
ntilrinlr in, inlO'pmfiC

Temperature and Humidity
The temperature chart, above indicates that it is too cold for human comfort during much of the year. From approximately mid-June to early July and mid-August to late September the temperature falls within the comfort zone. There is a wide diurnal swing. The design of the Rehabilitation Center must be responsive to the fact that the climate, based on temperature alone, is unsatisfactory for human comfort during most of the year.
Average Temperature
Vmi [ Jan | Fab Mar | Apr [ June [July Aug Sept I Oct Nov | Dec {Annual
*0.6 21. iM * 9 C 60.2 o7. 76,i 71.4 66. >91 *1.1 3*.q 91.)
1**0 11.* I>.< *1.1 *7.4 94,4 *7.1 71.1 70.4 **.1 56.6 19.1 11.1 40.)
l*i If.* 1*,1 4*,1 *6.1 *7,1 **.1 72, i 71.1 M.q *7,* *9.4 )> 90.4
1**2 27.' 21. 1*. 1 90,1 9*, * 6*. 71, t 71.1 *1.* 91.f *> * 16.4 *7.1
1*4) 11.1 l*.1 4*.7 94. 92.1 6 7.1 71.< 7*. 1 7.1 91. *0.1 1*.1 91.7
1 * 10.1 12,4 1 *. *i *2.1 . < *7.1 71.! 72.1 61.r 94,1 *0, in.' *7.7
1**9 11.1 91.) *1 .* *1.0 9*.1 61.4 72.4 71.1 97.7 91.7 *1.1 10.4 **
1**6 11.9 19.1 *.* 99, 91.4 f.i 7*.4 71.1 6).* *. 11.1 17.1 91.2
1**7 lo.1 2 a * !#>. 1 **.9 19. t 62.( 72.1 72.1 66.1 51. < 1*.C 11.1 *.*
24. * J6,* )1 .* 51.6 34.7 66.6 72.6 72. 66.1 9l,i 36. 27.* *7.2
1**9 1*. 1 10,# !.* **.; 97.r 6I.C 72.* 71.4 61.i *7.! *>.C 12.1 *7.6
1*90 2 4 !.* l.l *7.7 9).( 66.6 *9.1 #.* *0.! 97.1 17.1 16.1 90.*
1*91 2*.1 11.1 1*. *9,9 97.1 *0.V 71.5 70.7 61 .! *9.2 19.1 27. ( *9.)
1*92 J*.s 19, e l.l *9.1 9*. * 72.( 71. 1 72.1 69,0 51.1 12. 3 12.a 90.9
1*9 J 1*. 12,7 *9,6 *2. 91.4 e*.7 7*, < 71.2 6b. r 3*.4 *1.1 1.4 91.9
1*9* 1*. 1 *1.7 1*. 9*. 97.1 **.i 76.1 72.1 6 1 52.9 ** ! 1*.1 39.9
1*49 27.2 27,1 1*.* 90.1 97.C **.t 79,1 79.L 69.7 9*.n 16.2 15.* 90.2
1*96 1*.C 27,7 *0.1 *. *0.1 7 4. *| *7.7 61,9 51.7 17. / 13.5 91.9
1*97 21. < *0,7 l*.l *1 .* 51. *1.1 71.! 72.6 61.* 51.4 16.7 17.2 90.2
1*9* 12. * 17,* 12.#] *6.6 *1.1 69. I 70.6 71.9 6*.* JI.7 *0. e 39.a 91.*
i9* *n. c 10,2 17,6 *9.6 J*.l 70. 72.6 71. r 61.1 *9.1 17. t 16.1 90.0
1**0 27.* 2*.* 9* 1 90.1 97. *9.1 71.1 71.6 69.q 92.0 17,1 2*.4 *7.7
l**l 11.7 19, r 2M *6,0 99. 6*. 71.1 72. 36.1 50.0 14.1 27.1 *9.7
l**2 1*.' 2*.7 J 6 90. i 17.6. 69.9 72. 72.1 62.4 31.* *1 1 *1.4 *7.7
1**1 1*. 1 17.1 17.*, 90,0 60,1 6*. 7*. * *9.71 61.9 37.7 *1.1 29.7 90,9
1*6* 10. t< 27,* 14.0 *6.6 94.* 69.( 71.9 70.4, 62. 12. *o.c 11.1 *7.7
1**9 19.r 27,* i*,n 91. 97.1 61.1 72.7 70.2 99.7 99.1 *1.1 35. *4.6
1*6* 2 4 6| 2.* *.J *6.6 9.7 *4.6, 7*.* 70.1 69.0 92,2 *1.9 U.7 90.9
1**7 l*.r 19,1 *2.7 *9,1 12.6 60.< 69.1 *9.1 61.I 12.* *0.5 26.1 *7,*
i* 27.1 1*,2 *.< 91.; 67.1 71.7 *9.1 60,7 51.7 1 *, 7 a*.*
1**9 li.h j>.< 12.2 92.1 97.1 61.9 7*.7 7 * 66.9 17.0 IV. 1 32.* *7.9
1*70 10.61 I*.*! 29.9 *9,7 94.1 4.2 72.0 7*.* 99.9 *9.7 17.1 39.1 *7.9
1*71 11.11 10.61 10,9 *7.9 9*.2 oV.U 70.6 72.1 97.4 *7,* 37. i 1*1 *.*
1*72 10. 1*. **. A *9,1 57.r *d 70.2 71.C 62.1 92.1 12,7 2*. *7,7
1*7 J 27.1 19.* 1*.* *>.l |9.t *7. i 71.r 71.! 97.7 5*. 4 >7.1 11-* *7.6
1*7* 21.1 19.2 **.2 *7.7 *l.e 69.* 7*.7 *7.5 57.4 92.* *4, r 11.2! 90.9
1*79 ll.l| 10.* 17.1 **.1 9*.l **.l 72.7 70.1 97.4 91.2 16.9 17.! *1.4
1*7* >1 IV, 1 27.1 *9.1 96.1 6*. 79.1 70.2 61. *9,* ih 99.1 91.0
1*77 27.1 19.' 1*.* SI, *0.1 71.7 7*. 1 70.1 6*,* 97,1 *0. ] 15. 91.1
1*79 2*.( 11. **.1 9o.; |4.4 66.7 7*. 1 *.# 65.C 51.1 17. I 2* * *4.7
HUN 10. 92,1 1".7 *7.1 9*. 1 6*.1 72.7 71.9 62.1 91.* 17.6 92.1 9o.2
Mi* *2.1 *9,1 91.6 60.1 6.1 0.6 6.1 9.i- 76.1 *9,1 32.2 *4.1 61.*
Mila lT.] 20. 2*.l 14,1 4>. 92 .i 5, M *4.4 17,6i 26.9, iM 17.0
temperature & humidity

The design should let the sun shine in to add heat to the building.
Flatten the diurnal swing through heavier building materials such as brick or concrete to eliminate the too hot and too cold daily conditions.
Use overhangs calculated to shade the high siimmer sun, but admit the low winter sun.
Proj ection
window opening (height) 2.5 (for 40 latitude)
Use insulated window coverings: shutters, drapes, or insulation can be added when temperatures are too cold for comfort.
Use continuous insulation close to the exterior surface of the building.
Heat loss may be cut by landscaping via insulation such as heavy evergreen shrubs next to foundation walls.
Add heat to the building through passive techniques such as direct gain, trombe walls, and/or greenhouses.
The humidity is too low for comfort in Denver. Based on temperature and humidity, only late June and early July are comfortable. The relative dryness can be an asset when it's too hot for comfort in that the air can absorb more water vapor.
To provide evaporative cooling, locate pools of water in the building or in the path of incoming winds. The evaporation will cause temperatures to drop and will add needed humidity.
Raise humidity levels with lots of vegetation both indoors and out.
Use evaporative cooling for mechanical cooling.
nrrjninaaar^jQntJlQQiMaacoai ii

Winter westerlies, in their descent through the Rockies, make the temperature warmer than average for Denver. These Chinook winds periodically blow from the mountains with great turbulence.
This phenomenon results from high-elevation westerly winds being warmed in their rapid descent through a shallow layer of cool air covering the plains. Sudden rises in temperature accompanying these gusty winds exert a moderating influence on winter temperatures.
Wind can steal heat from the building in the winter through infiltration and convection.
Wind can provide some cooling relief through ventilation when it's too hot for comfort.
Plant heavy evergreens on the north and west sides. Also berm on the north and west sides.
Use vestibule entry spaces as air locks.
Place secondary use functions such as storage against the cold north and west walls.
Provide cross ventilation for summer comfort by locating inlets and outlets in each room.
Induce ventilation through thermal chimneys when there are no breezes to induce air movement.
nrinrifininmrwiotirinnnninijirKiinfitxjrvitnf^xMnriiiif Hiinriiijfiidriini iirioitinntJmniTiafinfariiikiiTj(ii^'ji^nnnnnii ir^riionnnnninriinriinQinor>otiit linlUt lakioBaoniue

The Primary Wind
From the south every month of the year
The Secondary Wind From north-northwest in winter From north-east in spring and summer From north in fall
Strongest Win d
From northwest every month of year
North and northwest wind = arctic air from Canada and Alaska
South and southeast wind = warm, moist air from Gulf of Mexico
South and southwest wind = warm, dry air from Mexico
West wind = Pacific air modified by passage over Rocky Mountains.
Denver is located in the belt of the prevailing westerlies.
L £ 0 E N 0 SYMBOL
1.8 *i 4 mn< ( 4 17
nr nr ir rinr.tra*xTinnioarH3i(ininaionir)ninnic^^ inniajluiAQHMiTriiWilncyjttMyira^ mmoi
moral FWOlOmM JIJl JUlUL!lUL!LU.!lLlLJl! J! JlUC

Sunrise to Sunset
jq 400
IOO------------ -------------------------
S F M > M T 3 A 60MO
Sunrise to Sunset Hourly Total Normal to Sun Angle Solar Radiation
A considerable amount of radiation is available during the winter months.
The sun can cause overheating in comfortable periods and serious overheating in hot periods, thereby increasing cooling loads.
Plant deciduous tress to the south of the building to block summer radiation.
Use calculated shading devices to keep the sun out when it's too hot.
Use light colored roofs and walls to reflect sunshine.
Radiation peaks when the sun is at its highest altitude in summer.
O Juuo ------------ ---- -------------------------------
fn ,,>aa
3 r mam3 34 soup
Daily Direct (Perpendicular to the Sun) Solar Radiation

ItUfJt ID! iliit

Degree Days
Note; long heating season
Heating Degree Days
Saaftbii] July Aug |bpt | Oct |no Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun* Total
i*§*o 14 4 1 00 147 724 96 iol * * 41 72 271 29 5*4*
l*9*-*0 0 t> ll §16 615 676 11*1 115* 27 4*4 245 * 616ft
l9ft0-* 7 1) 90 *94 759 1167 1026 2 04 40 29* * 9 *064
1Al-62 14 ft IU 4 56 4ft2 1150 1411 *7* 4*4 *1 7 175 71 60I
19a2-*1 0 19 IX i>r .701 661 1417 7a* 44 1 15* >0 S 2
l9|S-64 4 7 24 724 460 1129 ion 1062 9*2 9*9 270 71 *0*4
1*04-6* 0 14 lit 7§ 741 961 *21 1044 110 411 24* ** *06ft
19.5-6. 6 7 2*6 102 445 *74 1122 10|7 4*1 *04 104 2 9900
l9o*~*7 0 9 61 9 6V 1014 954 12 479 49* HI 1>* 9464
l 9. 7 £, H 4 16 10# 164 729 1166 ! 0*6 95 751 *99 *6) ft* 419.)
1 9f -.V 10 3S 145 194 7 l H4 923 *21 1011 7 204 144 40*7
19.9-70 2 0 56 01 72-9 995 1061 7|4 964 6*2 200 7* 6*00
1970-71 0 n 1*6 564 770 977 1016 996 17 10* 629 2> *164
1*71-72 24 n It* 474 771 1019 l0*6 *12 Oil 4 6 24* 4 361*
1*72-71 42 15 lo? 147 *60 1714 1162 20 771 646 2*0 5. 4909
1971.74 0 106 121 756 1029 1277 *11 71 07 1*7 *7 J7?
1974-75 0 9 19V 161 01 1041 1024 *57 2 *21 1*2 69 *0*
1975-76 0 4 195 161 140 641 1006 740 59 46* 254 *4 5**7
1476-77 0 7 142 504 754 407 1109 74* 771 414 1*7 0 too
1977.76 2 14 3b 15" 717 720 1206 *|6 643 4*9 *19 7 57*9
1476-74 o 20 96 1*6 11 1245
Cooling Degree Days
Vm r
degree days
titaotsmwr* itsac

Percentage of Possible Sunshine Average 72%
There is a large amount of sun available throughout the year.
126 Days
115 Days
124 Days
Precipitation is relatively light (average annual depth: 31 cm (12 in.), with a large proportion
of the rain falling during the growing season from April to September. Much of this summer precipitation occurs as a result of thunderstorm activity.
Days of Cloud Cover
Most of the Cloudiness occurs in late spring.
In summer, cloud cover occurs in the afternoons, thereby keeping the heat down.
Snowfall is generally not heavy, with most snow occurring between November and April.
WEATHER sunshine snowfall precipitation clouds
nm inii K)minar< Muuti! fcii iuC

Yaar Jan Mar | Apr M.y Juno July Aug Sopt 1 Ocl Nov Dac |Annu,l
1*9 O.I2 1.1* 1.0* 1.0* 1.25 l.o* 0.17 0.19 O.P 0.97 0.09 0.41 9.*5
1**0 1.01 0. *1 2.2* IP* l.P 1.2* 0.29 6.05 0.29 0.7* 0.46 19.50
l*l 1.11 0.4* 1.4> 2.4* 2.71 2P 1 2 9 1.** 2.* 2. **j 0.92 OP* 24.01
1*42 0.** O.Vl OP* *.11 l.P l.o* 1.02 0.71 OPI 2.9* 0.29 0. i* 19.99
1*9* 0.1* o.p 0. * 1.0* 2.9* 1.22 0.77 1.2* 0.07 0.27 OPI 0.41 *.l<
HM 1.0* 0.2* 4.1* l.! 1.7 0.92 IP* OP* T 0.09 0P2 OPT UP*
l*9 0.1ft OP* 0.1* 4.11 2.12 2.02 2.19 2.15 1.17 o.i* OPft 0.09 19.1*
1*46 0.** 0.47 OP! 2.0* 1.95 0.12 1.60 1.2* l.ll 0.99 2.97 0.0* 1.2*
l4l on 0.17 l.o* l.lo *.tl 2.7* 1.52 1.27 OPI *.*1 0.7) 19.06
!** i.** 0.** 1.71 2PI IP* 1.9* OPft 0. 1 OP* O.U 0.65 OP* 12.62
l*** 1.17 o.o* 4.4* IP* 2.21 * 2 1 1.25 OPI 0.29 1.2*1 0.01 OPI 19.71
Ulo 0. *7 0.4ft 0.11 Ml 2.10 1.12 0.1* 0.21 IP O.U 1.00 OP* !.
l*ll 0 0. M 1P1 2.01 1.7* 2.27 0.12 * *7 0.91 2.1* 1.17 0.69 19.41
l2 o.ot OP* 4.11 2.75 1.0* 0.12 1.06 l.*l 0.54 O.l* l.ll OP* 11.41
US) 0P9 1.4* 1.1* 1.2* 2 P* 1.** IP* 1.2* 0.40 O.U 1 Ov) 1.01 1*. 2 2
1*1* 0.2* 0.0* OP* OP* O.ftO O.U 1.99 0.11 0.71 0.06 0.57 OPI 1P1
PIS 0.21 O.U 1.1* OP* a.*i 1.14 2.99 2 1 2.12 OP* 0P O.P 16.01
P>6 0.2* 0.77 OP* 0.7* 2.2* OP* *.17 1.** 0.01 0.27 1.25 0.62 11.72
PT 0.27 0.71 l.o* *.l 7.XI 1.0* 1.29 4.0* 0. *2 4.92 OPV 0.06 2 1 PI
PS 0.7* l .oo IP* 1.71 4.4* l 7 l.lft l.U 1P O.U 0.7* 0.64 19.90
PI* 1.2* 1.21 4P ll 2.2* OP* 0.1) 0.25 1.92 2.** o.*o O.p 16.94
pto 0.77 IP* OP* 2P* 2.2 1 0.6 2 l.ll o.o* 0.1 2P9 0 9 l.>0 19.91
1*41 0.07 OP* 4.51 1.0* *. 12 1.11 1.90 1.21 *.61 O.U 0.99 0.40 19.01
1**2 1.21 1.U9 O.Si 1.10 OP* 1.52 0.1* OP* 0.19 0.05 OP* O.U 9p|
1**1 0.7| 0.41 l.*l 0.05 0 * 2.5 0.55 2.52 1.21 O.U OPI OPl 12.21
0.2* 1.0* 1.4* 1-2* 2P 0.12 0.72 0.21 0. 1 0.11 0.98 o.*o 10.1*
1**5 1.00 1.47 1.20 l.o* l.U *.l* 6 1 1.0* 2P9 0.*1 OP* OPI 21.97
1**4 0.20 1.4* 0.2* 1 P* 0.2* l.*l 1.0* 2.0*1 l.l* 0.9* 0.42 O.U 10.91
P*7 o.a* o.l* 0.1* 2.95 *.77 4.6* 2.25 0.62 0.6o l.U l 01 IP* 22P1
1*6* 0. 51 0.7* 0. 5 2.2 0.71 0.10 1.1* 2.5* 0.5V 0.15 0.71 OPl 12.11
in* 0.17 OP* 1.1ft IP* 6.12 2.9 1 PI O.l* 1P7 9.17 0P2 OP! 21.52
l*lo 0. 10 0.01 1.2* 0.6* 2.12 1.67 OP* 2.91 0.** l.l* OP* 11.71
P7t 0.29 0.7* OP* IP* 1*2* 0.2* 1.20 0.99 2.95 OP* O.U 0.29 10.96
1*11 0.2* OP* OPft 2.5* 0**9 2.9* 0.65 2.11 2.07 0, 2 1.99 0. 20 16.67
PM l.ll 0.1 * IP* 2.1* 5.0* 0.20 2.*7 1.2* 2.85 0, *7 0.9) 2.* 22P6
PI* 1.01 0P2 IP* 2.2* o.o* 2.01 2.2* 0.1* 0.99 1.68 1.06 0P9 U.OI
1**5 0.21 0.4* l.P 1.1* z.|0 2.U 2.7* 2.00 0.2* o. Jo 1.9* o.*i 19.51
1*7* 0. If OP* IP* l.ll li* OP* 2.21 1.10 1.99 0.9* 0.22 0. 19 11.*1
P7 O.U 0.27 1.2* 2.H 0.1* 1.02 2.98 1.00 0.10 0, 6 0 P 9 0,0) 10.I*
p7 0.27 0.41 1.07 1PI IP* 1.17 OP* 0.2* 0.07 1.99 o.lo 0.92 11.70
Ml *N 0. 7 OP* l.lft 2.01 2.1* IP* 1.70 IP* 1.12 1.00 0.6* OPl 14*90
Saaion[july[~Aug]Sept[OcI~[now [pacfjan ] FtftTTMar[ Apr] May|juna|Totol
19)9-*0 0.0
1*40-41 0.0
19*1-42 0.0
19* 2-* 9 0.0
190-4* 0.0
1944-65 0.0
1*45-46 0.0
61*46-47 0.0
1947-46 0.0
1949-49 0.0
19*9-10 0.0
1*90-51 0.0
1*51-52 o.o
1*92-59 0.0
1*51-5* 0.0
1*54-55 0.0
19)5-56 o.o
1956-57 0.0
1*57-5* 0.0
l5*-19 0.0
1*59-60 O.U
19*0-61 0.0
19*1-62 0.0
19*2-62 0.0
19a1-6* 0.0
19*4-65 0.0
19*1-66 0.0
19*6-67 o.o
1967-66 o.o
1*69-69 0.0
1949-10 0.0
1*10-71 0.0
1*11-71 0.0
1*12-11 0.0
1971-1* 0.0
1*14-75 0.0
1915-16 0.0
1916-T1 0.0
1*77-7* O.o
1*19-79 0.0
Mi AN 0.0
0.0 O.U 7 ,* OP *.9 U.l 6.1 11. 7 T 0.0 0,0 44.1
0.0 O.U 0.0 7.0 *.ft 9.0 l.* to 2 9 9 0,0 0,0 49.4
O.ft T T l.i 9.1 9.0 UP 7 6 1 s 1,7 0.0 49,1
0.0 OP 9,6 6.1 6.5 5.0 IP 1 9 4 1 0.0 99,9
0.0 O.U l.ft 2.2 9.0 12.1 IP 19 1 21 6 7.7 0.0 l.l
0.0 O.U O.ft IP 9.9 12.1 6.2 1 0 12 0 7 0,0 IIP
0.0 T >.9 1.9 op 10.4 P 1 2 0,9 0.0 29.7
0.0 OP p >9.1 0.7 7.1 14.1 12 0 4 7 1.1 t IIP
0.0 0.0 9.1 6.4 *.* 2).7 7.1 12 0 1 9 T 0.0 14,4
0.0 O.U 0,4 6.7 4P 20.9 0.4 U 2 U 7 T 0.0 40.1
0.0 O.U 7,9 0.0 6.0 9.1 .* 9 4 9 0 IIP o.o IIP
0.0 O.U O.ft 11 9 9.9 19.7 10.9 17 6 11 9 0.0 o.l 74.9
0.0 *.4 7.1 UP 11.2 0.9 in.4 II 2 11 2 1 0.0 94.1
0.0 O.U IP 14.5 9.1 7.4 i * 11 9 11 u IP 0,0 46.2
0.0 O.U O.l 7.2 UP 2.1 op 6 1 1 6 IP 0,0 41,1
0.0 O.U 0.* 1.9 P l.l 19.2 19 1 4 9 0.0 0.0 19,0
0.0 O.U *.l 7.9 1.9 4.1 10.9 19 0 1 7 T 0.0 4T.9
0.0 c.u
0.0 T .* 2.0 O.l 9.9 IIP U 4 u 1 0.0 0.0 11.1
0.0 T 2 * 9.7 7.7 17.4 17.9 I* 9 17 6 T u.o 19.1
0.0 l 4 P U.a 9.1 9.1 lo.T UP 9 0 9 1 T o.o c.a
0.0 JP *.i 11.6 IP 17.1 UP 6 9 to 0 0.0 OP TIP
o.o 0.7 O.ft .o 1.2 9.1 1. 1 19 0 0 1 0.0 0.0 16.1
0.0 O.U l.i 2.5 9.9 2.9 12. t 19 4 11 1 1.0 0.0 IT. 1
0.0 O.U T 6.0 4.6 11.4 17.1 U 9 0 T 0.0 IIP
0.0 5P O.ft 9.5 9.6 IP 1*P 4 6 4 2.9 0,0 44,9
o.ft T p 1.0
o.o O.U 1.1 9.4 19.1 9.0 1.1 9 2 11 l t 0,0 IIP
0.0 O.U 0.4 l.l 6.9 2.9 *P 11 2 0.0 0.0 IIP
0.0 O.U 41.2 9.1 l.l 0.9 0.1 10 1 4 7 9 0,0 IP
0.0 *p .* *.4 0.9 IP 11.* 6 4 0 t 0,0 96.7
0.0 11.2 9.1 IP IP 10.* . 1 7 1 IT 2 0.0 0,0 14.4
0.0 O.U 9.1 19.4 9.9 12.1 .o 13 1 24 9 1,0 0.0 94.9
0.0 0,0 2.9 9. i 40.8 a.t 10. 12 1 H 1 0,0 f *1.1
0.0 IP l.ft 11.9 2.1 IP 4.0 u 1 10 9 9.1 0,0 >1.7
o.o 0,0 2.7 19.2 1.2 1.2 6.4 11 7 1 2 0.0 0,0 94.7
0.0 0.0 7.9 4.5 5.1 IP l.l 9 6 4 7 0,0 0,0 94,4
0.0 O.U 9.9 4 1 0.1 IP 4.2 9 6 4 6 19.1 0,0 46.1
0.0 1 2.1 6.9 U.l
0.0 1.1 9.9 7.7 6.4 7.9 7.7 12. 6 9 .4 IP I 19,0
precipitation snowfall

The site for the Rehabilitation Center for the Visually Impaired is in Denver, Colorado, which has a latitude of 3945N, a longitude of 10452'W, and an elevation of 5280 feet above sea level.
seibue apnjuie

The site and building shells which Alex Orkow is using for the actual project. ~Â¥
For purposes of the Thesis Project, the same site will be used assuming, however, that the building shells are nonexistent.
The site is located on the northwest corner of Evans and Vallejo.

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winter wind
W. Evans Ave. Unattractive gas stations and auto-related retail.
For more information regarding wind, refer to "weather and wind".
The view to the south is highly unattractive.
The view to the east contains both attractive and unattractive elements.
The southernmost building to the east is vacant and run down.
Directly across the street to the south is a pleasant low income housing project.
f 1 I
SCALE; 1" 400'-0"
wind & buildings
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Noise pollution is Intense from Solar exposure,
the traffic on W. Evans Ave.
Smells from the packing plants to the north occasionally waft southward.
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0.1. 1 Hi SCALE: 1" 400'-0"
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r^*> 00 23' <
o ': Hf. Evaus Aver;
Vallejo line 2" M.W. at 23 feet Served by overhead at 13 hu.
from the property line.
Evaus line 4" M.W. at 87' from the property line.
The pressure of the two lines is the same, but the volume is greater in the 4" line.
Size of the boiler and anticipated load at peak time will determine which line is used.
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W. Evans Ave.
Three transformers are available to serve the lot.
Telephone service is from the north of the lot.
PU nging-jnina
400--0" transformers phone
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W. Evans Ave.
12 sanitary sewer serves the Access to the lot is via Vallejo and
lot from the east. Evans.
Curb cuts are 23,-0".
An alley serves the rear of the existing lot.
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THE SITE ^ale: i-#- sewer & access

A call to the Denver Zoning Department determined that the property into which the Rehabilitation Center is moving is zoned B-4. The Zoning Ordinance specifically allows the following activities in B-4 zone districts: fabrication of brooms and brushes; fabrication of clothing; offices; stores and shops; schools of any types; eating places; assembly without fabrication of fabricated parts. All of the activities of the Rehabilitation Center fall into one of these categories.
The parking for the facility falls into Class II. One parking space is required for each 600 square feet of floor area. Approximately 45 parking spaces are required. No set backs are required. Two to one (zoned lot area to gross floor area) coverage is required, off street loading is required, as the proposed square footage exceeds 25,000 square feet. The loading space shall be a minimum of 10 feet wide, 26 feet long and 14 feet high.
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The 1979 edition of the Uniform Building Code was used as the basis for this code analysis.
Occupancy Classification
All programs of the Rehabilitation Center may be classified as either Group A, Division 3 Occupancy, Group B, Division 2 Occupancies, or Group H, Division 3 Occupancies.
Group A, Division 3 Occupancies include: "Any building or portion of a building having an assembly room with an occupant load of less than 300 without a stage...(table No. 5-A).
Group B, Division 2 Occupancies include: "Wholesale and retail stores, office buildings, drinking and dining establishments having an occupant load of less than 50, factories and workshops using materials not highly flammable or combustible.... Buildings or portions of buildings having rooms used for educational purposes, beyond the 12th grade, with less than 50 occupants in any room."
Group H, Division 3 Occupancies include: "Woodworking establ ishments... shops, factories or warehouses where loose, combustible fibers or dust are manufactured, processed, generated or stored." (Table No. 5-A).
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ALLOWABLE AREA (type II, One Hour)
Given in square feet
A3 B2 H3
13.500 18,000 11,200
The area specified in section 505 (given above) may be tripled in oner-story buildings and doubled in buildings of more than one story is the building is provided with an automatic sprinkler system throughout.
A3 B2 H3
13.500 18,000 11,200
x3 x3 __ x3
40.500 sq.ft. 54,000 sq.ft. 33,600 sq.ft.
Allowed maximum height in feet for each construction type is 65. The number of stories permitted for each occupancy and construction type is 2.
Fire Resistance of Exterior Walls:
2 hours less than 5 feet 1 hour else-r where
1 hour less than 20 feet
4 hours less than 5 feet 2 hours less than 10 feet 1 hour less than 20 feet
Openings in Exterior Walls:
A3 B2 113
Not permitted less than 5 ft. Protected less than 10 ft.
Not permitted less than 5ft. Protected less than 10 ft.
Not permitted less than 20ft. Protected less than 20 ft.
Types of Construction: Fire Resistive Requirements:
Exterior Bearing Walls: 1 hour
Interior Bearing Walls; 1 hour
Exterior Non Bearing Walls: 1 hour
Structural Frame: 1 hour
Partitions Permanent: 1 hour (fire retardant wood may be used in the assembly, provided fire-resistance requirements are maintained.)
Roofs: 1 hour
Exterior Doors and Windows: (Sec 1903 b is
referenced back to Sec 504 and Table 5A found above, under "Location on Property")
area height, wails
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Occupant Loads
The occupant load for building was deter-
mined by dividing the number of square feet In a given area by the square feet per occupant, given In Table No. 33-A of the Uniform Building Code.
Section 3301(d) of the UBC allows that "accessory uses which ordinarily are used only by persons who occupy the main areas of an occupancy shall be provided with exits as though they were completely occupied, but their occupant load need not be included in computing the total number of occupants for the building." Such occupant loads will be shown in the following tables as being enclosed in parenthesis, i.c. (37).
(Refer to the Program section of this booklet for additional information as to functional and qualitative aspects of rooms)
Administrative Area Total Occupants: 5 (27)
2 exits required when occupant load exceeds 30
programmed square feet
square footage per occupant
Secretaries 290 s.f. 0 100 3
D1rector 168 s.f. 0 100 2
Conference 282 s.f. 0 15 (19)
Mail 96 s.f. 0 100 ( 1)
Reproduction 112 s.f. 0 100 ( 1)
Files 112 s.f. 0 100 ( 1)
Model Apartment (instructional area)
Total Occupants: 17 (18)__________
2 exits required when occupant load exceeds 50
programmed square footage
Living Room Bedroom Kitchen A Kitchen B Toilet
267 s.f.
200 s.f.
213 s.f.
189 s.f.
61 s.f._____0
930 s.f. (3
100 = ( 1) 50 = 17 (18)
THE CODE occupancy
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Total Occupants: 40 (92)
2 exits re quired when occupant load exceeds ' 10
programmed square feet
square footage per occupant
Office 66 s.f. Office 120 s.f. 0 100 2
Kitchen 433 s.f. 0 100 3
Storage 91 s.f. 0 100 = i ( 1)
Receiving 42 s.f. 0 100 = i ( 1)
Serving 240 s.f. @ 15 = i (16)
Snackbar 1,024 s.f. 0 15 = i (68)34
2,016 s.f.
Note: For exiting requirements from the dining
area of the Snackbar, use the total occupant load of 68, However, use only % of this load, or 34 for the occupant load within the building,since half of the users of the snackbar are expected to come from elsewhere within the Rehabilitation Center, and half from outside the Center.
Client Lounge
Total Occupants: 0 (33)
2 exits required when occupant load exceeds 50
programmed square feet
square footage per occupant
Client Lounge 409 s.f. 0 15 (27)
Men's Lockers 127 s.f. 0 50 ( 3)
Women's Lockers 127 s.f. 0 50 ( 3)
663 s.f.
Learning Resource Center Total Occupants; 26 (26)
2 exits required when occupant load exceeds 50
programmed square footage
Typing 456
Resource Center 411
Braille 254
Electronic Aids 182
0 50 = 26
Office Area
Total Occupants: 18 (27)
2 exits required when occupant load exceeds 30
programmed square feet
square footage per occupant
Office 90 s.f. 0 100 = 1
Office 87 s.f. 0 100 = 1
Office 87 s.f. 0 100 = 1
Office 90 s.f. 0 100 = 1
0 & M Lab. 82 s.f. 0 100 = 1
Office 88 s.f. 0 100 = 1
Office 90 s.f. 0 100 = 1
Office 90 s.f. 0 100 = 1
Office 99 s.f. 0 100 = 1
Office 99 s.f. 0 100 = 1
Office 132 s.f. 0 100 = 2
Office 165 s.f. (3 100 = 2
Interns 245 s.f. 0 100 = 3
Staff Lounge 136 s.f. 0 15 = ( 9)
1,580 s.f.

Business Enterprise Program Total Occupants: 10 (24)
2 exits required when occupant load exceeds 30 programmed square feet
square footage per occu pant
Secretary 333 s.f. 0 100 4
BEP Manager 130 s.f. 0 100 = 2
Accountants 200 s.f. 0 100 = 22
Office 149 s.f. Conference 145 s.f. @ 15 = (10)
Storage 1,021 s.f. a 300 = ( 4)
1,978 s.f.
Vocational Evaluation and Testing Total Occupants: 26 (27) __
2 exits required when occupant load exceeds 50
programmed square footage square feet per occupant
Evaluation/' Testing 1,155 s.f. 0 50 23
Off ice 20f. s.f. 0 100 2
Testing 96 s.f. 0 100 1
Storage 72 s.f. 0 100 ( 1)
1,457 s.f.
Wood Shop
Total Occupants: 35 (36)
programmed square feet
square footage per occupant
Wood Shop 1,603 s.f. 0 50 32
Tool Crib 90 s.f. 0 100 ( 1)
Spray Room 156 s.f. 0 50 3
1,849 s.f.
Subcontract Area
Total Occupants: 79 (85)
2 exits required when area exceeds 200 sq.ft.
programmed square footage square feet per occupant
Subcontract Area 3,823 s.f. 0 50 76
Storage 1,829 s.f. 0 300 ( 6)
Office 232 s.f. 0 100 3
5,884 s.f.
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THE CODE occupancy

Miscellaneous Areas Total Occupants;_________
2 exits required when occupant load exceeds 50 in any of the following:
programmed square feet
square footage per occu pant
Meeting A 336 s. f. 0 15 _ 23
Meeting B 224 s. f. 0 15 = 15
Accountants 112 s, f. 0 100 = 3
Reception 153 s.f. § 100 = 2
Waiting 163 s, f. 0 15 = (ID
Entrance 139 s.f. 0 15 (10)
Instruction 180 s.f. 0 20 ( 9)
Testing 63 s.f. 0 50 2
Testing 63 s.f. 0 50 = 2
Testing 63 s.f. 0 50 s= 2
Testing Conference/ 63 s.f. 0 50 = 2
Testing 235 S t f t 0 15 (16)
Office 105 s.f. 0 100 = 1
Office 123 s.f. 0 100 = 2
Office 105 s.f. 0 100 1
Office 105 s.f. 0 100 = 1
Office 176 s.f. 0 100 = 2
First Aid 120 s.f. 0 100 ( 2)
Lockers 121 s.f. 0 50 = ( 3)
Lockers 121 s.f. 0 50 = ( 3)
Note: Toilet rooms and corridors have not been included as areas which contribute to a building's occupant load.
Occupancy Requirement: (soi)
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Buildings of Mixed Occupancy
The code allows that "when a building houses more than one occupancy, each portion of Lhe building shall conform to the requirements of the occupancy housed therein. The area of the building shall be such that the sum of the ratios of the actual area divided by the allowable area for each separate occupancy shall not exceed one.
A3 B2 H3
Actual Area 11,978 6,155 + 7,557
Allowable Area 40,500 54,000 33,600
.29 + .11 + .22 =
.62 1.0
TVius, the square footages assigned are satisfactory
THE CODE occupancy
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Group A Occupancies:
Buildings housing Group A Occupancies shall front directly upon or have access to a public street not less than 20 feet in width. The access to the public street shall be a minimum 20-foot wide right-of-way, unobstructed and maintained only as access to the public street. The main entrance to the building shall be located on the public street or on the access way.
Group B Occupancies:
All portions of Group B Occupancies customarily used by human beings shall be provided with natural light by means of exterior glazed openings with an area equal to one-tenth of the total floor area, and natural ventilation by means of exterior openings with an area not less than one-twentieth of the total floor area, or shall be provided with artificial light and a mechanically operated ventilating system. All water closet rooms shall be provided with an exterior window at least 3 square feet in area, fully openable; or a vertical duct, or a mechanically operated exhaust system connected to the light switch, which provides a complete air change every 15 minutes.
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H-3 Occupancies:
The area of H3 Occupancy is projected as follows
Wood Shop 1603 square fee
Office 206
Tool Crib 96
Contract Area 3890
Storage 1762
7557 square feet
Special requirements for H-3 Occupancies not Already Covered in General:
in any which...hazardous materials are stored or used, no energy consuming equipment shall be used unless such equipment has been listed specifically for the hazardous atmosphere which may develop. (This refers to actual manufacturing equipment, HVAC systems, electrical lighting fixtures, switches and receptacles, and other systems.)
Equipment or machinery which generates or emits combustible or explosive dust or fibers shall be provided with an adequate dust-collecting and exhaust system. Every dust-producing process shall be provided with a dust collection system adequate in capacity to prevent hazardous concentrations of dust within the room.
Wall and ceiling surfaces shall be smooth.
Ledges shall be beveled at 60 degrees to the horizontal to prevent the accumulation of dust.

Doors and Swing: Exit doors shall swing in the direction of exit travel when serving any hazardous area or when serving any occupant load of 50 or more.
Door Hardware: Exit doors shall be openable from the inside without the use of a key or any special knowledge or effort.
Door Width and Height: 3'-0" x 6'-8" (clear width of the exitway must not be less than 32".)
Openings; Door opening must be protected by a smoke and draft control assembly having a rating of not less than 20 minutes.
Provide Handicapped Access
Corridor Width: Must be a minimum of 44" wide and must be 7 feet high.
Construction: Corridors must be of one-hour
fire-resistive construction and ceilings must be of one-hour fire-resistive floor or roof system since occupant load is over 30.

Required Exits: 2
The total width of exits in feet shall not be less than 6.08 feet. (304f50=6.08) This width will he divided approximately equally among the separate exits.
Arrangement: If only two exits are required they
shall be placed a distance apart equal to not less than one^-half of the length of the maximum overall dimension of the building or area to be served measured in a straight line between exits.
Distance to Exits: The maximum distance of travel, from any point to an exterior exit door... in a building equipped with an automatic sprinker system throughout shall not exceed 200 feet.
Through Adjoining Areas: Exits from a room may open into an adjoining or intervening room or area, provided such adjoining room is accessory to the area served and provides a direct means of egress to an exit, (Exits are not to pass through kitchens, storerooms, restrooms, closets or spaces used for similar purposes.)
Handicapped Provisions; Main Exits must be accessible by the physically handicapped and shall be usable by individuals in wheelchairs.
Access and Dead Ends: Exits must be arranged in such a way that it is possible to go in either direction from any point in a corridor to a separate exit, except for dead ends not exceeding 20 feet in length.
Exits: 1 hour fire-resistive
Signs: Every required exit doorway (and where
otherwise required) shall have an exit sign.
Illumination: Two lamps greater than 15 watts each, with separate circuits, are required.
Fire Extinguishing System: Automatic sprinkler system is required by area.
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Minimum Width; 44"
Slope; 1;12 maximum
Landings: Top landings and intermediate landings
shall have a dimension measured in the direction of ramp run of not less than 5 feet. Landings at the bottom of ramps shall have a dimension in the direction of the ramp run of not less than 6 feet. Doors in any position shall not reduce the minimum dimension of the landing to less than 42 inches and shall not reduce the required width by more than 3% inches when fully open.
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Tentative Relationships
THE PROGRAM functional areas
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The administrative/clerical areas, while used predominantly by the sighted, will be frequented by the non-sighted staff members. Therefore, the materials and finishes and ambient environment should be geared for both the sighted and the visually impaired. Floors should be carpeted (no shag rugs). Walls should be textured, but non-abrasive. Natural lighting is preferable in the Director's Office, the Secretarial Pooi, the Conference Room, and the Staff Lounge.
Thea# areas provide Administrative and Clerical Support services .Tor all programs of the .Rehabilitation Center, and most particularly for those connected with Evaluation and Adjustment.
Offices should not he too accessible to clients and to the general public. Visitors should have to obtain clearance from the Administrative reception deek to gain access into the Administrative Areas.
The Administrative Areas should be close to the main building entrance.
The Administrative Areas should be as far from the production areas of the Rehabilitation Canter as rensonabls to ensure relative quiet and freedom from dirt and noise.
The Administrative Areas should be closo to, yet not neoessarlly integrated with, the Evaluation and Adjustment Office areas.
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administrative/CLERICAL AREAS
Director 168 sq. ft.
Secretaries 290 sq. ft.
Conference 282 sq. ft.
Mall 94 sq. ft.
Reproduction 112 sq. ft.
Files 112 sq. ft.
Staff Lounge 136 sq. ft.
Staff Toilets 8^ sq. ft.
Total: I,2?8 sq. ft.

Provide one WC and one sink each
Quaign the ataff lounga in such a way that it doas not bacoma tha axclusiva prcrvlaca of a snail group of staff nanoars. Ihls could ba accoxplishad by raquiring accaas to tha toilat rooms to pass through tha Staff Lounga.
Ho food sarvica aquipmant, sinks, coffaa bars, ate. ara to ba provided within tha Staff Lounga. Staff will ba ancouraged to go to tha Snackbar for such servicas.
Tha staff Lounga should ba larga snougn to acconodata 10-12 parsons, with confortaola seating and taola and chairs.
Locate tha Staff Lounga and Toilat 'nous to ba w>daratal7 inaccsssibla by tha diants, but axtranaly convaniant to the staff.
The Staff Lounge should ba an attractive area.
USERS: All members of the staff; the sighted
and the visually impaired.
USER ACTIVITIES: Casual discourse, relaxation. DESIGN OBJECTIVES:

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USERS: The director of the
administrative area of the personal adjustment functions within the building.
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. Should be large enough to accouodata desk, caair, files, etc. for Program Manager.
Should also <30 largo anough for cc.-vfsrenca table seating 5 parsons.
USERS: Three secretaires.
Area to provide secrwtarial/clerical services Tor all staff In the Sahabilitatlon Center, but especially for tho personnel in tha Administrative Area.
Provide space for 3 personnel, with provision for expansion to d. Cne of these persons, in addition to secretarial duties, uill act as a receptionist for the Administrative Area.
Sacra tarial/darical personnel should be separated from each other by partial height partitions. The purpose of these Is not to isolate the personnel from each other, but to minimize tha affect of casual distractions.
Outside windows are felt to be extremely desirable by the present secrstariai/clericai staff.
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USERS: Staff members, other relevant personnel
and/or visitors.
USER ACTIVITIES: Xeroxing, stamping, sorting, filing.
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This facility should bo designed for 12-15 parsons. Larger gatherings cease to be "conferences11 and could bo held sore appropriately in the Multi-Purpose/ Meeting Room
Ibis Conference Hoc a should be usable by all staff; thus, it should be lamed lately accessible from all staff offices, and especially the Administrative Axes.
Consider whether or not this Conference Hoc* actually snould be vithln the Administrative Area.

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File Room/Supply Room
This area provides storage apace for ail .RavubilUation Cantar offica supplies, as wall aa file storage, including form and supply storage for tha Accounting saction.
This rooa oust ba lockable.
This rooa should hare visual control by tha receptionist for tha Administrative Area, and should ba immediately accaaaibla free tha Sacratarial/darical Offica.
Reproduction Room
This area la to provide space for tha photocopy machine and a nineograph machine.
There also should ba a work table for collating, etc.; and perhaps space for supply storage directly connected with the reproduction equipment.
Ihis area should hare visual control by the receptionist for the Administrative Area, and should ba immediately accessible from tha Secretarial/Clerical Office.
Mail Plck-Oo Area
Ihis area provides mall/massage boxes for all Rehabilitation Canter staff. It should be adjacent to. but not necessarily within the decretarial/derlcal Offica
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The client areas will obviously be areas serving those with lack of visual acuity. As such, the other sensory dimensions of these spaces need to be emphasized. Wall textures need to be tactilely pleasant and non-abrasive. Different surfacing/ papering in the different rooms is suggested for delineation/identification purposes. (The client is encouraged to develop tactile memory; room identification in this manner may serve as a vehicle for learning.) Floor surfaces should be non-slip. If carpeting is used in these areas, it should not be shag. As a number of the clients may still be able to differentiate between light and dark, natural lighting is suggested.
Entrance 139 sq. ft
Waiting I63 sq. ft
Reception 153 aq. ft
Client Lounge 409 sq. ft
Men'a Lockers 127 Sq. ft
Women'a Lockers 127 sq. ft
Total: 1,116 sq. ft
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USERS: Clients, staff, visitors, Representatives
from the State, others. The sighted and visually impaired.
DESIGN OBJECTIVES: Should be accessible to the wheelchair bound. Door hardware should be easily grasped and turned or opened. Entrance should be readily visible to the receptionist.
DESIGN OBJECTIVES: The building should be designed In such a way that upon entering one must pass the receptionist's desk in order to have access to the rest of the facility.
Allow 2 ft./till) mm uf .pace at .file of an inward- iiiwniim door.
This area is the first upon entering the Rehabilitation Center. It snould b clearly Identified from the outside as the sain building entrance; and will jerre as the sain entrance point for all visitors to the Canter.
This ares will serve as a greeting point
for the Center; as the location of the
Central telephone switchboard; and ae a
station for training clients in switchboard/
receptionist/typist skills/interpersonal relating skills
Should provide space for 1 Reception! at/Instructor
and two Client Trainees.
Working area will require space for >*ountain ceil "Horiaon,,Telephone/Puhlic iddresa/Musis system; typewriter; transcribing unit; braille information file; brailler; place for taking massages; staff sassage slot board. Should have locking drawers for material storage; tranacricing unit; etc. Should hove pressure p lata at floor in front of reception desk that auditorily signals when someone arrives.
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Waiting Area
USERS: New (and ijld) clients, visitors, others.
(Maximum number of users: 11.)
USER ACTIVITIES: Sitting, conversing.
Shall be closely associated with the receptionist for the Administrative Area.
If at all possible, this Waiting Area should be integrated with the Waiting Area for the entire rehabilitation Center.
Should be comfortable and out of the way of sain traffic patterns. However, should be closely integrated with deception Area, and possibly sight be integrated with the Waiting Area for the Administrative Area.
After-Hours Waiting Area
A space should be provided which will allov clients to wait for pick-up vehicles after the Rehabilitation Center is closed. This area should be enclosed and protected from the weather. Access into this area from within the Rehabilitation Center should be free. Hut once within the area, the door leading back into the Rehabilitation Center should be self-locking.
Within the After-Hours Waiting Area should be comfortable, outdoor-type benches and a pay telephone. The telephone should be of the type which allows calls to be received by the operator in event of emergency, without requiring the use of coins.
The area should be well-lighted, and easily visible for protaction of occupants. Immediately in front of the area should be a drive-up space for veniclea, with wheelchair accessible curb cuts.
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USERS: Clients.
To be used for storing coats and personal affects of clients voile they are at the Rehabilitation Canter. l/2 full length lockers, for coat hanging, should be provided, if it is not possible to provide full length lackers.
Provide separate lacker rooms for sen and women.
It is not desirable to provide locker rooms wfaica serve as anterooms to toilet rooms, since toilet rooms are to be accessible to others in addition to clients. Ihare is no reason to encourage visitors to the Rehabilitation Cantor to pass through areas requiring some amount of security.
locker Rooms, hovevsr, should be convenient to Tbilst Rooms.
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USiERS: Clients.
Elis area Is intended to be one of the nicest, most attractive areas within the Rehabilitation Center.
Provide space for confortablo lounge seating, chairs, recreational tables, and piped in music. If adequate space is available, provide space for 15 clients.
The Client Lounge should be close to the Client Toilet Rooms and the Client Locker Rooms.

The Home Management program of the Rehabilitation Center provide* training necessary for dally living activities. This may lncluda Instruction Ini cooking and dishwashing; housedeening and houae-kaaplng; labeling and marking clothas and packagaa; personal grooming; laundering; ate.
Courses of Instruction are tailored to suit the needs of individuals and may differ subetantially for tie congenitally blind and the adventitious blind.
Clients usually are In the Home Management program for 1 to 6 months.
The Model Apartment may often be used when the remainder of the Rehabilitation Canter Is dosed. Therefore, it should be accessible from the outside; and should be ado to be locked off from the main portion of the Rehabilitation Canter.
Should be dose to other areas of the Personal Evaluation and Adjustment program spaesa and offices; but should be relatively isolated from anything noisy.
Electrical power for kitchen and housekeeping appliances. Vent to outside for dothes dryer.
Vent to outside in hoods over ranges.
Natural gas for 1 kitchen range.
dot water heater for kitchen and bathroom areas.
Model Apartment
Provide a Model Apartment suite, as such like an actual apartment as possible, considering the instructional objectives of the facility.
Offices for Home Management Rehabilitation Instructors are to be looated close to, but not within, the Modd Apartment (See Rehabilitation Instructors Offices, personal Evaluation and Adjustment). It is entirely possible that personnel from outside the Rehabilitation Center may use the model apartment (often at night) and security for Home Management Rehabilitation Instructors' papers and personal effects Is deslrade.
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EUctrical Outlets t:leclrical outlets shall be mounted no lower than 20" [1*0.0 crn| above floor level.
Handle* and Switch** Protruding desk and dresser diawer handles shall be installed. Switches for electrical fixtuies and equipment 'hull be of a toggle or push-button type or equipped with pull chains of a minimum length of 15" |38 cinj.
Living Room Kitchen A Kitchen B Bedroom Toilet Closets
26? sq. ft.
213 sq. ft.
199 sq. ft.
200 sq. ft.
6l sq. ft.
30 sq. ft.
960 sq. ft.
Windows, Heating, and Air Conditioning
Windows sholl close arid open easily, using hard ware latches, crunks, or slides which are within the accessibility range limits of 20" |50.B cmj to 48" 1121.9 ern] above floor level. Heating and air-conditioning controls and thermostats shall be mounted within the same height range.
Pow*r Curtain Trover** Rods Power traverse rods should be installed in looms occupied by the physicully handicapped. Ail controls should be placed within an accessibility height rouge of 20" 150.8 tinj to 48 [121.9 cm).
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USERS: The visually impaired wheelchair bound
and their instructors.
USER ACTIVITIES: Domestic skills will be taught here.
MATERIALS/FINISHES: Floor surfaces should be
non-slip with frictional resistance (not shag carpeting, nor smooth smooth glazed concrete) and easily cleanable. Wall surfaces should be easily cleanable.
AMBIENT ENVIRONMENT: Natural lighting is preferred. No task lighting is necessary as the instructor is also likely to be visually impaired.
Cabinet lleight/Knob Height:
Minimum l'-6" high to avoid behding and stretching Base Cabinet Clearance:
Width of counter clearance must at least account for turning diameter of the standard wheelchair, which is 5'-6".
Toe Clearance:
6" in depth by 8 3/4" in height.
Range Controls:
Should be placed up front to ensure ease of reach and easy identification. A burn hazard exists when knobs are placed behind the ranges or on the side.
Oven should be at top level. Door should be bottom or side hinged. Pull out board allows for easier transfer of heavy items from oven to counter.
Counter cabinet arrangment:
Acceptable counter height 2'-9". Under counter cabinets should be eliminated. Over counter cabinets should be overhead which generally calls for cabinets shelves at or below 4'-6".
Kitchen Sink Height:
Prime consideration is minimum knee clearance which calls for a clear height of to
Kitchen Sink Height:
Prime consideration is minimum knee clearance which calls for a clear height of 2 8%'', to bottom of sink.
Accidental injury may be avoided by insulating pipes and providing protective coverings.
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USERS: Visually impaired instructors and
students. Other sighted individuals may include staff personnel.
USER ACTIVITIES: This room will be used for instruction. The visually impaired will learn/ relearn ways to operate efficiently and effectively in a kitchen using methods devised (by and for the blind) over a time.
MATERIALS/FINISHES: Floor surfaces should be
non-slip with frictional resistance. Floor, wall, and counter top surfaces should be easily cleanable.
AMBIENT ENVIRONMENT: Natural lighting is preferred. No task lighting is necessary.

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Kitchen areas - (500 sq. ft.) 2 separate
yet adjacent areas, one with gas range and one with electric range. Sach Icitchan area to have a refrigerator, microwave oven (in a cabinet rather than on a counter top); garbage disposal; counter space; range hood, etc. Sinks to be double compartment w/ disposal in between; stainless steel. Mo-wax vinyl floors. Both kitchen areas may share pantry for storage of raall appliances, mops, brooms, etc., sewing materials, ironing materials, etc. Both kitchen arses to share dining area, with seating for 8.
sach kitchan to be large enough to accomodate (as a maximum) d students and 1 Instructor.
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USERS: The visually impaired and visually
Impaired wheelchair users, and other sighted individuals.
USER ACTIVITIES: This room will be used for obvious reasons, plus it will serve as a training ground for living skills (i.e. cleaning, maintenance, grooming techniques, etc.) MATERIALS/FINISHES: Surfaces should be easily
cleanable. Floor should be non-slip.
(A tub and/or shower may be used.)
Outswinging bathroom door with flush threshold. Diagonal grab bar mounted forward of wc on side wall. All grab bars lh" o.d. by 2'-0" long and 1%" clear of wall.
Lavatory with lever type faucets and front edge capable of withstanding 250 lb. load.
Recessed medicine cabinet with unbreakable

Bathtub with vertical grab bar near faucets to facilitate vertical entry and another running diagonally across the center of the back wall to aid in rising and in showering. If shower is provided, a second soap dish might be mounted at 4'-6s' to obviate some stooping.
Door Operation and Width:
Acceptable width 2'-8". Door opening outward avoids blocked doorway in case of fall.
Sink Height and Mirror:
Sink height must provide minimum 2'-2" clearance for knees in order to also insure comfortable level for use of sink. The mirrors should be 3-i above the sink height of 31" to 33" using a 6" deep sink. Insulate pipe and provide covering on fittings under the sink.
Clearance between Water Closet and Sink:
Space between WC and sink must be at least 3'-6" to account for wheelchair clearance.
Bathtub Grab Bars:
A vertical should be provided on the access side of the tub. Bathtub rail edge should be wide. Provide a horizontal grab bar on wall side. Tub bottom should be non-slip.
Water Closet Grab Bars (see also wheelchair operations):
Diagonal bars on both sides of stalls may be adequate only for ambulant residents. Best solution is both vertical and horizontal bars on both sides of stall.
Shower Seat Height:
Should be same as wheelchair seat height. Acceptable height 1 '-7y. Optimally, the shower seat should fold and the entrance be large enough to accept a wheelchair. Curbs in the showers should be %" maximum.

USERS: The visually impaired clients and their
USER ACTIVITIES: The bedroom will be used as an instruction area for such tasks as bed making, dusting, dressing, etc.
MATERIALS/FINISHES: Floor should be carpeted
(no shag rugs). Walls should be non-abrasive. AMBIENT ENVIRONMENT: Natural lighting, smooth surfaces, garden smells (if garden is included in design).
Sadroom - If possihla, this room
should b* abla to accoaodata tw> twin bods for training purposas; and so that it can doubia as an informal infirmary for thoaa oil ant a noadirg to rast<
If it is usad for this dual purposa, it may ba dasirahla for this rooa to bo aecassibla from outslda tho Homo Management araa as wall as through tha living rooa or kitchen.
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Beds should be placed to allow wheelchair clients to make their own beds or constructed to provide for easy mobility of bed. An acceptable width between wall and bed is 3'-6".
Drawers should allow for: Operation with one hand for ease in sliding them open (nylon rollers)
floor level.
Clot*!* Where one closet is provided for euch occupant, the clothes bor should provide two different heights. Three-quartets of the lotul length should be at 52" |132 cm) und the remaining quarter at 62" 1157.5 cm]. To achieve this, the lower bar, three quarters of the total length, con be suspended from the higher bur. Wall hooks shall be installed within a height range of 40" [101.6 cin| to 56" [142.2 crn|. Shelves of various height inteivals shall Pa installed on the side closed wall The top shelf shall not exceed 45" [114.3 cm) in height. Shelves above the clothes bars shall be piovided for long term storage. (See Tig. 2.)


USERS: The clients and instructors of the center.
The room may be used for informal meetings.
USER ACTIVITIES: As this room is part of the home management area, it will be used for instructional activities as well as those activities common to a living room. Visually impaired students will be taught such things as the most efficient way to unplug a lamp, how to better rearrange furniture, how to vacuum, etc.
MATERIALS/FINISUES: Floor should be carpeted (no shag rugs). Walls should be textured (nonabrasive) .
AMBIENT ENVIRONMENT: Natural lighting is preferred. Traffic noises should be at a minimum. Room should avail itself to garden smells (if garden is provided).
ANSI STANDARDS (furniture selection and arrangement, windows):
Table ought to provide sufficient: minimum knee clearance 2'-2", comfortable width. Tables should allow passage by wheelchair behind people seated at table. An acceptable width is 5'-3". Chairs ought to approximate the height of 19"
An acceptable height is 19" (wheelchair seat) .
Lamps and electric appliances are more easily operated if push-button, but provide the turn-type as well for instructional purposes.
Space must be provided to allow approach to windows; an acceptable width is 3'-0".
For a sighted non-ambulant person to enjoy street activity, the window sill height preferred is 2'-4", although up to 2'-9" is acceptable depending on the floor level. The window heights should approximate those found in the world of the sighted.
A sliding window is preferable because of:
The minimum effort to open it.
It causes no intricate hand movement;
It causes no strenuous reaching; and Using the ridge to close it cannot pinch the hands.

The individual rooms in the Learning Resource Center will be treated similarly. Wall textures need to be tactilely pleasant and non-abrasive.
The Learning Resource Canter incorporates those facilities originally included in tha Communications Area of tha Home Arts/Communicetions Program; the client access Resource Room; and library-tyre materials now scattered throughout tha Rehabilitation Canter.
Tha Laarning Rasaurca Canter is envisioned as a multi-functional area, encompassing expanded facilities for Communications, Client Resources, and a library.
At tha heart of tha Laarning Resource Canter is a specialized library type of facility. Tha materials In it will be primarily intended to further instructional objectives of the Rehabilitation Center; recreational reading materials will be obtained from the Library for the Blind, vnich is not a part of the Rehabilitation Center.
Within tha Learning Resource Center will be facilities for Communications teaching. This may include instruction in the use of equipment suoh as tape recorders, typewriters, low-vision aids; instruction in braille; and instruction in how to write names, Reap phone numbers. Keep checking accounts, and writs checks.
Clasoly connected with the Library and Communications teaching facilities will be facilities the clients may use for practicing what they have learned.
Resource Canter ^11 sq. ft
Braille 25^ sq. ft
Closet 12 sq. ft
Electronic Aids 182 sq. ft
Closet 12 sq. ft
Typing 456 sq. ft
Total; 1,327 sq. ft
The Learning Resource Canter should be immediately accessible from the Jkiainistrativa Area and from all offices for counselors and Instructors working In the Personal Evaluation and iijustaent programs.
The Learning Resource Center should be only marginally lasa accessible to the general clientele of the Rehabllitation Center and the staff working in tha Vocational Evaluation and Adjustment programs.
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Although It may ba considered a "library," this iree should t designed aa raqulrad to accomodate tha special reading and resource materials used 07 the blind and visually Impaired, It will not house tha large amount of aatarlala which require rows of stacks. But it should provide comfortable lounge-typo seating, and sufficient study tables and carrels for several clients to spread out braille kooxs, use braillers, and use low vision aids.
The library may also be considered a quiet, private reading lounge (aa opposed to tha sore social Client Lounge) where staff and clients may go in their free time.
Braille and Communication Instruction Boom
Should Include work table able to seat 6 persons.
Provide built-in, locking cabinets for storage of braille books, blank braille sheets, braille printing equipment, paper, etc.
Note: Verify standard sices for braille sheets.
Electronic lids Room
In this room will be electronic equipment of varying degrees of sophistication. Each pleas of equipment should be located within Its cwn carrel, and each carrel should be large enough to seat 2 persons, working side by side.
Provide 8 carrels, each of which should be provided with a lockable cover, to protect the equipment.
This room should be directly accessible from the Library, so that clients could use these aids during free time when possible.
The Electronics Aid Boom should be monitored by a Communications Instructor, but it should probably have a window on a 'nailway close to areas where there will be traffic, so that passing staff members can also see if there are any problems developing in its use.
Tvuing Boom
This room should be able to accomodate 6 persons at separata typing stations. Each station should ce large enough to seat 2 persons, and should provide electrical connections for typewriter, dictaphone, casette transcribing unit, ate.
Within the room should be lockable space for storage of paper, casette tapes, earphones, etc., as well as shelves for typing manuals and other books.
The room should be designed to serve a dual function: teaching area as well as practice area.
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Til* Rehabilitation Canter for th* Visually Impaired la organized into two complumentary, and often overlapping, groups of programs; l) Personal Evaluation and Adjustment; and 2) Vocational Evaluation and Adjustment. Th* Evaluation and Adjustment Unit is th* administrative focus for professional services connected with both of Uies* groups of programs.
Intake screening and counseling determines the specific Personal and/or Vocational Evaluation and Adjustment services a client needs to meet his personal or employment development ocjecttvosj and tee placement of the client within the range of programs offered by the Rehabilitation Cantar.
Cnee clients are enrolled in the Rehabilitation Center, their progress is monitored continually by personnel from the Evaluation and Adjustment unit to be certain the programs in which they are enrolled do, in fact, further their rehabilitation.
Personal Evaluation and Adjustment training provides clients with those skills which are necessary to cope with the practicalities of daily living, as opposed to specific skills and attitudes necessary to obtain and keep employment. These living skills include capabilities such as; couaunication and reading; oriantation and nobility; home management; etc.
Supervising Counselor 165 sq. ft.
Rehabilitation Instructors 345 sq. ft.
Rehabilitation Counselor 132 sq. ft.
Orientation/Mobility lab 82 sq. ft.
Closet 30 sq. ft.
Instructors 180 so, ft.
Deaf/blind Counselor 88 sq. ft.
Future Staff 198 sq. ft.
Interns1 Office 245 sq. ft.
Accounting Office 242 sq. ft.
Instruetion/Trainlng 180 sq. ft.
Multi-Purpose/Meeting 560 sq. ft.
Counsellng/Testing 252 sq. ft.
Total: 2.699 sq. ft.
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Staff Offlcea
Offices for 2 future staff emembers
Provide Individual office* for the following, The staff generally feel* very strongly that private office* are essential, due to the confidential nature of many of their discussions and counseling sessions. Virtually every staff member also expressed a wish for an office with an outside window.
Evaluation and Adjustment Supervisor Office
Rehabilitation Teachers Offices 1 each Mist be close to Model Apartment and to Learning Resource Center.
Ihese offices should not be integrated with either the Model Apartment or the Learning Resource Center.
May use increased numbers of volunteers in the future. If space allows, provide for these volunteers.
Rehabilitation Counselor Office
*>rk3 with clients in helping to obtain competitive employment. Provides and arranges for specific services to help clients become employable.
Coordinates services from resources outside the Rehabilitation Center far short-term clients.
Griontatlon and Mobility Specialist Offices Offices for 2 Instructors (200 sq. ft.)
Laboratory (120 jq. ft.)
Used to set up reduced-scale mock-ups of street intersections, etc. to assist in concept development Storage closet (30 sq. ft.)
Lockable; could be within Laboratory: for storage of canes and other equipment.
Deaf/Hllnd Counselor Offics
The Qaaf/KLlrri Counselor concentrates efforts on rehabilitation counseling; cocaaunication teaching; and program planning.
Intern Office Space
A relatively large office with individual, partially enclosed work stations for 1 student/ interns.
Seen of these stations to have its own telephone connection.
Accounting Office*
Soacs for b accountants. Thar* might not necessarily be b private offices, but, at a minimum, each accountant should have a partially-enclosed, private area, with space for a desk and files.
Ths area should have access to the lockable Fils Room/Storage Room and the Reproduction Room within the Administrative Area.
Somewhere within the Accounting Office area should be a lockable floor safe, built into the floor. Perhaps this safe would be in a location accessible to the Accounting Offices.
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."lit l-Purposc/Meetlng Room
Counseling/Testing Rooms
Pacillties to serve multi-purpose functions for tha antira RehabilitationCenter, including:
1) community meetings; 2) insarvica training and client "staffing" sassions; 3) cliant recreation and parties; k) cliant dinners;
5) volunteer activities.
Hoorn should ba ilvisabla by by sound-proof, folding partitions.
Hooa should ba accessible fron outsida whan tha remainder of tha Rehabilitation Center is closed, rhis will mean providing access to toilet rooms during these periods.
Provide a sink and work counter within the area. The room should not be carpeted.
A number of staff members lndeDendently expressed the need for small, soundproof rooms for personal counseling and cliant testing. In most instances, these were to be in addition to private offices, for clients say be left alone within them. Since these spaces would not be continually used by any staff members, the idea developed for a number of such spaces, each of which would sarva counseling/testing functions for the entire Rehabilitation Canter.
Provide 4 Counseling/Testing Rooms.
2 to be completely soundproof; 2 remaining to ba as soundproof as raasonabla.
Each will most oftan accomodate 1 Or 2 persons.
Hut there may be Instances whon spouses, caildren. or parents may also be present. Make each large enough to accomodate 4 persons.
At least 2 of the rooms must be large enough to accomodate persons in wheelchairs.
Provide windows with drapes or blinds to orovide visual access from tha corridor.
Each room to be extremely well-lighted, with the lights on rheostats.
These facilities are to be generally accessible to all staff members and clients, but especially to those in the Personal Evaluation and Adjustment programs. Similar facilities will be provided in those areas sore conveniently reached by staff and clients in Vocational Evaluation and Adjustment areas.
Classroom/ Training Room
to accomodate up to 5 clients and 1 teacher
l'o be usad by all programs, but especially tha Snackbar, Intake, and othsr Training activities.
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Fha Rehabilitation Center for the Visually Impaired la organised Into two complementary, and oftan overlapping, groups of programs: l) Vocational Evaluation and Adjustment; and 2) Personal Evaluation and Adjustment. Tha Evaluation and Adjustment Unit is tba administrative focus for profasslonal services cormactad with both of thase groups of programs.
Intaka screening and counseling determines tha specific Vocational and/or Personal Evaluation and Adjustment services a client needs to meet his employment or personal development objectives; and the placement of the client within the range of programs offered by the Rehabilitation Center.
Vocational Evaluation and Adjustment training provides clients with those skills and attitudes necessary to obtain and keep employment, as opposed to those skills necessary to cope with the practicalities of daily living.
Virtually every staff member expressed a wish for an office with a window to the outside:
CAaaLiCiit3ajjtHOurjHQfyiL^i:,Lacioiaaty THE PROGRAM
Coordinating Supervisor Placement/Contracting Officer
Job Readiness Counselor Job-Seeking Training Counselor
Orientation and Mobility Instructor
123 sq. ft
176 sq. ft
105 sq. ft
105 sq. ft
105 sq. ft
6i4 sq. ft
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The Business Enterprise Program is a vehicle for the Visually Impaired to train for employment in fields such as food service. It functions as an entity unto itself within the greater expanse of the building. (Proximity to the Snackbar Area is recommended in that it may be used as a training ground.) The arrangement of the Business Enterprise Spaces is typical of that of office space.
This area may be frequented by both the sighted and the visually impaired. Wall textures need to be tactilely pleasant and non-abrasive. Different surfacing/papering in the different rooms is suggested for delineation/identifica-tion purposes. (The client is encouraged to develop tactile memory; room identification in this manner may serve as a vehicle for learning.) Floor surfaces should be non-slip. If carpeting is used in these areas, it should not be shag.
As a number of the clients may still be able to differentiate between light and dark, natural lighting is suggested.
The storage space need not have the quality of finish as the other spaces; the floor should be easily cleanable and non-siip.
Balk Storaga
To 'a* used for balk storaga of materials In tha 3uo-Con tract area.
333 sq. ft. 130 sq. ft. 200 sq. ft. 1^9 sq. ft. 145 sq. ft. 1,021 sq. ft.
Total: 1.978 sq. ft.

Vocational Evaluation and Vocational Adjustment are two separata programs. However, their objectives and methods are so well integrated that they share many of the same facilities.
fbe objective of the Vocational Evaluation Frogram is to identify skills which a client may have and which he may be able to use in a working situation.
The objective of the Vocational Adjustment Program is to take a client with identified skills, and place him in a situation similar to that wnlch he would encounter on a Job. These skills are then developed until the client can work approximately 75^ as effectively as an individual in competitive employment, ifter he reaches this point, the client enters the 3ch-Contract Area of the Rehabilitation Center for sore intensive evaluation and training.
Testing and training is dona with any number of nearly 70 work samples, specifically designed to evaluate and develop different types of coordination, skills and habita.
The combined objective of the Vocational Evaluation and Adjustment Programs is to develop the desire and willingness to work in clients; and to train them to be capable of satisfying such a desire.
Tbs Evaluators/Instructors for this area will also be those persons in charge of the Wood-Working Shop. Therefore, the Evaluator/lnstructor offices should be immediately adjacent to both areas. It would be extremely advisable to have windows from the offices looking into both areas.
The Conference Hoorn/Classroom should be moderately accessible to all other personnel within the Rehabilitation Center.
However, it should have primary access with the Evaluation/
Testing Hoorn.
perhaps integrated with the Conference Hoorn/Classroom should be the 2 Counseling/Testing Rooms.
Evaluation/Testing 1,155 sq. ft
Evaluators' Office 206 sq. ft,
Conference/Testing 235 aq. ft,
Testing 96 sq. ft
Storage 72 sq. ft,
Total: 1.76** sq. ft
Provide electrical power supply as appropriate to the Evaluation/Training Room; and the Conference Room/Classroom.
Provide plumbing facilities in the Svaluation/Training Room; a sink nay be used for tasting purposes.

USERS: The center's clients and staff.
USER ACTIVITIES: Using table games, etc. the clients' acuity in the other senses
will be tested.
. space > middle
Svaluatlon/Testing Soon The present facility baa 7 carrels tor h permanent and 3 changeaole work samples. With more than 70 work samples presently available, and sort always being developed, a minimum of h additional work sample stations should be provided. Therefore, provide the fallowing;
Minimum 11 carrels for work saoples. Some of these should be permanent; others should have capacity for electrical connections.
Provide space for tables and chairs, with sufficient area for wheelchair mobility.
Provide space for 2 long tables, with provisions for setting up assembly line work.
Cne table should be at stand-up height; the other should be at seating height.
provide storage shelving or cabinets for 100 work samoles. Shelves to be aporoximately 2h x 2h" x 12" high.
USERS: The evaluator- and the evaluated.
USER ACTIVITIES: Testing for vocational skills and abilities.
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USERS! The evaluator, primarily, as well as the evaluated.
USER ACTIVITIES: Typical office (with special provisions i.e. Braille typewriter in ,the event the evaluator is visually impaired.
DESIGN OBJECTIVES: Typical office layout.
USERS: The evaluator and the evaluated.
USER ACTIVITIES: Small conferring sessions.
Confaranca Room/Classroom 'lb b# uaad for tha following:
Instruction In Job readiness and Job seeking skills.
Vocational group sasslons for 10-12 parsons.
Noto: Provid* aquipwant for audio-visual aids.

USERS: Visually impaired clients. Instructors.
Representatives from private enterprise upon occasion.
USER ACTIVITIES: The subcontract area is a vehicle for training clients for out-of-the-center employment. They perform tasks and are paid on a piece-work basis for no longer than six months.
MATERIALS/FINJSHES: Floor should be non-slip,
friction resistant, and easily cleanable. Walls should be easily cleanable.
AMBIENT ENVIRONMENT: Acoustically absorbent.
DETAILS: (See Code for ventilation and dust
considerations.) A grid power track is suggested for the use of both 208 (or 110) and 220 power.
Drop cords are suggested so that compressed air can be dropped from ceiling.
The Subcontract Area of the Rehabilitation Canter la intendad to provide actual work experience for clients who have received preliaim-lnary evaluation and training: and who require a more structured work environment for further evaluation and training in Job skills.
Should be close to first aid station.
Subcontract Area Storage/Shipping Office
3,823 sq. ft. 1,829 sq. ft. 232 sq. ft.
Should be close to bulk storage area and to dock area.
Total: 5.084 sq. ft.
Contracts are always changing. One large room. which could be subdivided temporarily into smaller areas, would bo desirable.

Production Jtooa for 20-30 parsons
Subcontracts available change continuously, therefore, one large room, which could be subdivided tanporarily, would be suitable.
Often there are conflicts between workers. Individual work tables or stations should be considered. Consider the feasibility of providing booth-type work stations.
Tables should be adjustable in height.
Chairs should be adjustable in height.
Provide space for drop boxes at each station. All equipaent should be aoveahle, rather than fixed to the floor.
Provide space for a tino clock, to be away from the more public areas of the Production Boon.
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USER: The overseer for the subcontract area.
USER ACTIVITIES: Typical office. MATERIALS/FINISHES: Floor should be non-slip, friction resistant. Walls should be textured and non-abrasive.
DESIGN OBJECTIVES: Typical office layout.
Office Space for 3 parsons
Should ba anclosad for isolation from noisa in work araa.
Prorrida glass windows for o'osarratlon of work in prograss.
3 parsons could share sasta offlca araa.
USES: This room will most likely be filled with
boxes on pallettes.
MATERIALS/FINISHES: Rough finishing on ceilings,
floors and walls. Finishes not critical.
Shloulng/Recelvlng/Dock tree
Provide space for two trucks to load/unload 1 Sock-high loading berth 1 Van-high loading berth
Overhead door at entry into Shipping/Receiving Araa to accomodate small fort lift.
Provide self-closing, self-locking man door adjacent to overhead door, with electric call button for deliveries.
Storage facilities
Must be a lockable room.
Must be accessible to shlpping/recelving/dock area.
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The woodworking shop will be used by clients of the center and their instructors.
The floors in each of the areas should be easily cleanable, non-slip, and friction-resistant.
The walls should be non-abrasive.
As this is a work area, finishes are not critical; maintaining non-hazardous finishes is critical.
USER ACTIVITIES: This room will be used to familiarize clients with the equipment. It is non-production oriented. Testing and evaluating will take place here.
Ikia area will be under the direct supervision of one of tha Vocational Evaluation and Adjustment evaluators. It will servo a dual function! l) to provide evaluation and training in equipment familiarity and safety (as opposed to training in Job-type production skills): and 2) to provide facilities for the evaluators to fabricate new evaluation and training aids.
Clients will be in the shop only when individually accompanied by an evaluator.
spatial Relationships
Should be close to Vocational Evaluation and Adjustment Area. However, because of the noise, the Woodworking Shop should be acoustically Isolated from that and all other areas.
The persons responsible for the Woodworking shop will also bo the svaluatoi'3 in charge of the Vocational Evaluation and Adjustment Area, Therefore, their offices should be immediately adjacent to both areas. H would be extremely advisable to have windows from the offices looking into both areas.
The woodworking area should have proximity to the first aid atatlon.
Provide el-ctricai power sufficient to operate all power equipment.

Wood Shop Tool Crib Spray Room
156 aq. ft.
Total: 1,855 sq. ft.
Power Equipment/'^podworklng Area
Provide racks for wood storage.
Provide 2 workbenches.
Provide adequate facilities for power tools.

USES : This room serves as a storage area. It should be provided with peg boards and cabinets/drawers for safe storage.
I V,
Tbol Crib (with lockable door)
Including hand-held tools.
Lighting levels should be high.
Sawdust collection must be provided, at each individual piece of equipment; at the floor; and to remove the sawdust from the general ataosphere.
Compressed air lines should be run into this area.
The area must have a sprinkler system.
The painting spray room must hare a suitable hood and exhaust system.
Provide a utility sink with hot and cold water.
Provide a hand sink.
Provide a safety shower (if required) and an eyewash fountain.

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USES: Materials will be finished in this
area. It is itself a roughly finished space used for spraying.
Painting Spray Room
Must hre hood for fun* ramval.
Provlda flr*~proof cabinet for paint storags.

Dining Area
Access to the dining area of the Snackbar should be from client areas within the building; and, to the public, from directly outside the Snackbar, without having to pass through the Rehabilltat ion Canter itself.
Toilet access to the public toilet rooms of the Rehabilitation Canter should be aasy.
the instructor for the Snackbar area should have relatively easy access to the testing and training rooms within the Rehabilitation Center.
Outdoor Sating Area Storage/Recelvlng Area Janitor Closet Offices
One for Snackbar Operator One for Pood Service Trainer
Should be attractive Should have booth and table seating Pood Preparation Area
Should be large enough for 1 instructor and h trainees to work comfortably.
Food Serving Area
Should be large enough to allow instructor to stand by while students train.
Must be carefully studied to accomodate all special equipment for a snackbar, including electrical; exhaust hoods; aaks-up air; plumbing; grease traps; etc.
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The Snackbar is intended to serve a multiplicity of functions. Ihese includa:
Proriding food sarrica facilities for coffee breaks, lunches, and snacks for the staff and clients of tho Rehabilitation Center.
Proride Training Facilities for the Rehabilitation Canter. These training facilities 'would be used to help derelop appropriate work habits, rather than teaching specific skills for a food service career.
Proride food sarrica training facilities for the Business Enterprises Program. These facilities woold be used to teach 3kills necessary for a career in food sarrica. The Business Enterprises Program is a State Agency not directly a part of the Rehabilitation Canter for the Visually Impaired.
The Snackbar may also be used to provide food service facilities to the neighborhood surrounding the Rehabilitation Center. This function, however, would continue only as long as it does not impair the primary objectives of the Rehabilitation Canter in haring a Snackbar.
Dicing Area
1,024 sq. ft
240 sq. ft
433 sq. ft
91 sq. ft
42 sq. ft
120 sq. ft
66 sq. ft,
10 sq. ft
2,026 sq. ft

USERS: Clients, Staff, Visitors, Trainees.
The design should incorporate space for a minimum of 34.
DESIGN CRITERIA: Round tables are more conducive to sociability.
NUMBER OF UNITS: 2 USERS: Kitchen managers
w f>'a
D 2S
H 20%

USERS: The cook, trainees, other personnel DESIGN CRITERIA:

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Id. Soil orvico buffol with grill and fry unit la. Salad d.oatinyt, tpic, cutUry rk*rvs If. Catldor 2. Dlihwaihar 2n. Dull lorn
3/4. Sandwich unit, ioki, lc cuam, coif**, b*v*rag**, urviu uvailubl* at an outdoor cuf#
So. Cold propagation tabi# "*
6/7. Dofroktiny, warming up apparatu front, aarvicabl* on two lidot (convection ovkni, hauling opplianc** foi tho Nacka lyiltm or Rkyltiiarmic ovant)
II. Cold atoroy* and ttoroyo (vurim in ai* according to tyktam of aarviony nnd rhythm of dIivry)
I la. Kafriyarutor front, urvltaabia on two aid**
1 lb. Oalivary, amply gooda, intariimdlary ktoragt, paraonnoi cloakroom
12 Kiotktalai on th* iniida ond io cuktomart on tho liraal t 1. fntrunco from itraal
13 fnitunca from building (dapartwanl atora, efflca building, ate.)
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Client Toilet Rooma/publlc Toilet Rooms
Size as required by Code, and proride sufficient numbers of fixtures to satisfy occupant lead.
connected with program spaces.
The following areas are intended to provide support facilities to all areas of the Rehabilitation Center for the Visually Impaired; and facilities for Rehabilitation Center clients which nay not be directly
Will be used by all persons in the Rehabilitation Center, including clients, visitors and staff.
First Aid Station
Verify specific requirements with ASHA Standards
Provide space for two cots separated by curtain.
Provide lookable medicine cabinet/first aid supply cabinet.
The Toilet Rooms should be accessible from all
parts of -n*. bo,|Jh,v *u- "---Ihey
oust also be access
Rehabilitation Center which might be open during evening hours, without allowing access to closed portions of the Rehabilitation Canter. Note: The Model Apartment has its own toilet facilities, ard need not be accessible to these toilets.
Provide work counter with sink.
The Toilet Rooms should be extremely close to the Client Lounge, and to the Client Locker Rooms.
Provide hand sink,
Provide bright lighting.
No showers will be provided in these toilet rooms; showers will be provided within similar toilet rooms ic n\ the Rehabilitation Canter.
Provide space for refrigerator.
Area should be isolated from dust and noisa from other areas of the building.
Janitor Closet
Provide a floor service sink; space for hanging wet mops; floor space for storage of large cleaning equipment; shelf/cabinet, space for cleaning materials, toilet paper, etc.; hand lavatory; HVAC.
Slactrfcal Sanipoent Room
Size as required to accomodate electrical equipment required for the building power system, including panelboards; switch gear; telephone panels; etc.
Could possibly be located within the Sulk Storage Room
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USERS: The visually impaired, the sighted,
everyone at the center.
MATERIALS/FINISHES: Use an exaggerated texture
on surfaces (ensuring that textures do not cause abrasion) which is broken when entering a flanking space. For additional ease of circulation handrails are suggested. If handrails are used, a grip width of IV is recommended. It should be 1%" from the wall. Recommended handrail height is 2'8" (the handrail clearances for use by a person in a wheelchair are: maximum 3'-2", minimum 2'-10". If steps are necessary, handrails should be at both sides of the steps.
The steps should be set back one foot from the corridor, and the handrail should have a one foot extension.
AMBIENT ENVIRONMENT: Natural lighting, if possible.
DESIGN OBJECTIVES: Circulation should be clear. The arrangement of the corridors should allow for easy room identification for the visually impaired (use a numbering system, if necessary) .
ill circulation within the building suat bn interior; it la not permissible to raqulre parsons to go outside, except to go from building to building. 2n then, access between the buildings should be somewnat sheltered.

Wheelchair dimensions:
(ANSI Standard)
Height 3'-0"
Seat height l'-7JS
Arm height 2' -5"
Width 25"
Seat depth N.G.
Length 42"
Overall height 33-53-
The typical dimensions for a small chair through a three-point turn are 4'-10" and 5'-5".
The turning circle of a standard chair is 5'-2". The width of area needed to complete a 90 turn in a wheelchair is from 4'-7" to 5'-6".
Anthropometries for the wheelchair hound:
Vertical reach Oblique vertical reach Forward vertical reach Eye level Knee height Toe projection Elbow height Head height
5 7 1/2 5'-2 3/4" 4'-7 1/2"
4'-0 1/4" l'-ll 1/2" 7 1/4"
2'-3 1/4"
4'-4 1/2"
4 '-9 3/4" 4'-3"
3'-9 1/4" l'-ll 1/4" 5 3/4" 2-3 1/4"
4'-1 1/2"

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"C harles Moore carries ihe whole culture of architecture in his head," Mildred F. Schrnertz observed in an article on these two houses. "Fhs art lies in his power over the art of the past, his ability to bring forth out of memory timeless forms to convey unchanging human feelings.
"The little Swan house suggests a humble rural farm building of no particular time or place, while the model for the larger house was an antebellum mansion. Designed in collaboration with Mark Simon, the Swan house
was the first small house Moore had designed for several years. It was done for no ordinary client. Simone Swan is an artist, and a friend and patron of artists, who is the mother of two grown children. Charles Moore became her architect after the death ol her first choice, louis Kahn, who had not yet begun to design her house when he died. Before his death, he had encouraged her in her wish to buy and tear down an old farm building to obtain a stork-pile of hand hewn joists, flooring and beams; and these, as arranged by Moore, are Kahn's
legacy to the house. When she met Chjiln Moore at a dinner party, Simone Swan didn't know that he was a Post-Modernist Movement Radical Eclectic, but she intuitively felt that lie was the right architect for her. He began, like a psychoanalyst, to help her discover and iv press her own inner fantasies and dreams as well as her everyday needs. She had sought a subtle variety of experiences in her house to be. In her worrls, she wanted bathing while looking at the trees, sitting in the winter sun protected from the winds, a secret tower

terrace After an earlier design which
met all these specifications, but seemed "too rosy, rather worldly, a bit suburban classy,'" Ihe design for this house evolved.
The large house designed lor a family of four on a beautiful rural site has very special requirements. The husband, who is blind, wished the new house to speak to his remaining senses, especially those of smell and touch, not only to give him pleasure but to orient him within the spaces of the house, "bo the house has many textures, smells and breezes that tell
him where he is. The air moving through the house is .1 signal to him he knows from whir h direr lion it is coming by the scents it carries, whether front the lawn or a particular grove of trees, from the garden or one or the other of Ihe two indoor conservatories which form the main foyer and the hall. The hall is paved tile which by its resonance tells the c lient he is not in the living room or in the dining room, which have their rugs centered on hardwood floors. The sound of trickling water in a fountain located in thelungle garden is
another orienting element, as is the texture ol the stone walls, which are the boundaries ol living room, dining room and study. Snaking through this mam hall, becoming a banister at the stair and ending in the second lloor hall is a heautilul wooden guide rail. More subtly, the client c an tell where he is by means of what he calls amhicnl sound, which c ommunicates to him the size and dimensions of Ihe loom ho is in. For this reason among others, he wished Ihe rooms of his house to Ik* discrete and contained lathei than flowing into one another."
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ARC The pattern that the cane tip makes when touch technique is being used.
AUDITION The process of relating to or experiencing through hearing.
CLEARING The process of confirming the safety of an area either with a sweep of the cane tip on the ground or with a sweep of the hand on the surface.
CLUE Any sound, odor, temperature, tactile or visual stimulus that affects the senses and can readily be converted in determining one's position or a line of direction.
CONCEPT An idea or general notion about something.
- mental mapping of percepts.
CUE Any sound, odor, temperature, tactile or visual stimulus affecting the senses which will elicit an immediate or automatic response.
DIRECTION A series of points in one's environ-ment according to a generalized rule along which one may move or be aimed to move along
DIRECTION TAKING The act of getting a line
course from an object or sound to facilitate traveling in a straight line towards an objective.
clues and cues which may be found in an area or situation.
- The selective association of existing pertinent information.
FAMILIARIZATION The process of learning the placement, arrangement, and relationship within an area.
FOCAL POINT The origin of the numbering system (indoor or outdoor).
>- Primary landmark the student uses for orientation or re-orientation.
GRIDWORK The patterning of streets.
- A system of definite, imaginary or projected lines which is used to section off an area for the purpose of patterning,
KINESTHETIC SENSE Knowledge of the movement and position of the body.
- Sensory experience derived from human movement,
LANDMARK Any familiar object, sound, odor,
temperature or tactual clue that is easily recognized and that has a known location in the environment.
LTNE OF DIRECTION The course along which a person is aimed to move,
MASKING SOUND A blocking or distorting sound.
NUMRERTNG SYSTEMS The way and patterning of
streets and addresses within a city or area.
OBJECT PERCEPTION The ability to perceive the location of objects by sound.
OLFACTORY Relating to or experiencing through the sense of smell.
orientation mobi lily
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ORIENTATION The process of utilizing the remaining senses in establishing one's position and relationship to all other significant objects in one's environment.
- Collection and organization of information concerning the environment and one's relationship to it.
PARTIALLY SIGHTED Having a visual acuity of 20/70 or less in the better eye after best possible correction, and being able to use residual vision as the principal channel of learning.
- A person who is at least able to count fingers.
POINT OF REFERENCE A determined fixed point within an environment which is used in relation or connection with other points within the same environment.
RECOVERY The process of reorienting oneself to the desired position.
- The process of regaining proper orientation in the environment.
RUN The term used to denote a course or route mapped out and followed to a given point or objective.
SEARCH PATTERN A systematic approach to locating or determining the position of an object or landmark.
SELF-FAMILIARIZATION The ability to acquaint oneself with a new environment in a systematic fashion.
SHORELINE The border or edge of a sidewalk or grassline.
SOUND LOCALIZATION To determine the exact bearing or line of direction of the source of a sound,
SQUARING OFF The act of aligning and positioning one's body in relation to an object for the purpose of getting a line of direction, usually perpendicular to the object, and establishing a definite position in the environment,
TACTUAL Related to or experienced through the sense of touch.
TRAILING The act of using the fingers to follow a surface for any or all of the following reasons:
- To determine one's position in space.
- To locate a specific objective.
- To get a parallel line of travel.
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HoQint ill id|nd

The Adjustment of the Blind. Hector Chevigny and Sydell Braverman. Yale University Press,
New Haven, 1950.
Orientation and Mobility Techniques. Everett Hill and Purvis Ponder. American Foundation for the Blind, New York, 1976.
Personal Management for Blind Persons. American Foundation for the Blind, New York, 1974.
Rehabilitation Counseling of the Blind. Thomas A. Routh. Charles C. Thomas, Publisher, Springfield, Illinois, 1970.
Toward Independence. Anne Yeadon. American Foundation for the Blind, New York, 1974.
Architectural Graphic Standards. Ramsey and Sleeper. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1970.
Mechanical and Electrical Equipment for Buildings. McGuinness, Stein, Reynolds. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1980.
Time Saver Standards. DeChiara and Callendar. McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1973.
Special thanks Lo Alex Orkow whose sensitive research has been a great aid.

Preliminary Timetable;
THESIS; Spring, 1982 Schematic Design (4 weeks)
Integration Guidelines, Site, Program, Research, and Efficiency Systems.
Selection of Structural and Mechanical Systems, Energy, Efficiency Techniques, and Illumination Systems/Techniques.
Design Development (6 weeks)
Modification of Design towards Solution.
Sizing of Mechanical and Structural Members.
Prepare Presentation (4 weeks)
Go to Sisters Wedding (April 23-26)